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Introduction to Proverbs

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Title

The book is named after its principal contributor, Solomon. Its Hebrew title is מִ֭שְׁלֵי שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה the Proverbs of Solomon. The Greek retained the title Παροιμίαι Σαλωμῶντος (Paroimiai Solomontos). The Latin dropped the name of Solomon to call it the Book of Proverbs (Liber Proverbiorum). In the rabbinical writings it was called sepher hokhmah, the Book of Wisdom.

Authors

The book begins with a statement that attributes the book to Solomon, son of David and king of Israel (971-31 B.C.). His name is repeated again in 10:1 and 25:1, indicating that those sections also involved his authorship. Other authors are also mentioned. There are the thirty sayings of the wise (22:17-24:22) and the further sayings of the wise (24:23-34). In addition, we are told that the men of Hezekiah, apparently scribes, were responsible for copying the section from 25:1-29:27. Augur, son of Jakeh, was responsible for 30:1-33, while King Lemuel wrote 31:1-9. The author of the epilogue (31:10-31) is unknown, unless it too originated in the teachings of King Lemuel's mother.

Date

The proverbs written by Solomon date to his reign (971-31 B.C.). The role of Hezekiah's men (25:1) indicates that important sections were compiled from that king's period (715-686 B.C.). Perhaps it was during this same period that the sayings of the wise (22:17-24:22; 24:23-34) were added. The same could also be said for chapters 30 and 31, though evidence of a conclusive nature is lacking. It is known that during the spiritual revival led by Hezekiah there was a great interest in the writings of David and Asaph (2 Chron. 29:30).

Wisdom Literature

The traditional Jewish division of the Old Testament included the Law, the Prophets and the Writings. The wisdom books (Job, Proverbs and Ecclesiastes) were associated with Psalms in the third section, the Writings, which were a reflection of the wisdom of wise men or sages, who were an important force in Israelite society (Jer. 18:18). These men were called on to give advice to kings and instruct the young.

The poetic structure of much of the wisdom literature is unique and needs to be explained. The rhyme and meter associated with western poetry does not seem to be prominent in the Hebrew wisdom literature. While that issue is debated by scholars, there is general agreement that parallelism is the dominant force.

Usually there are two poetic lines in a verse, but occasionally three or more may be used. The relationship of the second line to the first can usually be assigned to one of four categories:

        1. Comparative (synonymous) parallelism, in which the second line repeats the idea of the first line in different words. This can be total (Show me your ways, O LORD/Teach me your paths.) or partial, where part of the first line is understood in the second (1:9). Comparative parallelisms (along with continuous, connected poems) are used consistently in Proverbs 1-9. This same form is used in the conclusion of the book (31:1-31)

        2. Contrasting (antithetic) parallelism, in which the second line is the opposite of the first line (10:7). Most of chapters 10-15 and 28-29 fit this category

        3. Climactic (complementary) parallelism repeats the thought of the first line and completes it (See Ps. 92:10)

        4. Completion (formal or synthetic) parallelism has no parallelism of thought but continues the thought of the first line. This can be in the form of a result (3:6; 16:3) or a further description (6:12; 15:3). Included in this category are the better . . . than (12:9, etc.) and how much worse or how much more verses (11:31; 15:11, etc.). Most of 16:1-22:16 have either completion or comparative parallelism. Nearly all of 22:17-24:22 uses completion parallelism (except 24:16). The same is true of 30:1-33, where all but three of the sayings are of the completion type. A specific kind of completion parallelism is emblematic parallelism, where one line illumines the other by a simile or a metaphor (See 10:26; 25:12,23.)

Buzzell concludes with a helpful idea when he says,

    Usually, though not always, the second line in a two-line parallelism does more than merely repeat the words or thought of the first line. The second line may expand the first, or complete it, define it, emphasize it, be more significant than it, enlarge on it, be the opposite of it, an alternative to it, or a counterpart of it. 1

This pattern in which the second line is underscored is what James L. Kugel calls “A, and what’s more, B” (The Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and Its History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981, pp. 7-27, esp. p. 13).

Purpose and Theme

The purposes of the book are given in its prologue (1:1-7). Simply stated in the two lines of poetry in 1:2, they are:

        1. To teach the moral foundation of successful living (for attaining wisdom and discipline)

      This is developed in verses 3-5. The word חָכְמָ֣ה wisdom is best defined as the skill of living in conformity with the principles of God's Word. This practical aspect is typical of the book with its emphasis on מִ֭שְׁלֵי (proverbs). These short, pithy observations on life are generalizations and thus not intended to be taken as divine promises or without exception. (See 3:9-10). They do not have the universality of the ten commandments, nor the theological precision of the Apostle Paul’s writings. In research for my dissertation I found an article that captured this concept very well. It was “Barking Dogs Never Bite—Except Now and Then.”

      The word מוּסָר (discipline) is correction which results in education. This kind of education is illustrated by עָרְמָ֑ה prudence (v. 4), which is training so as not to be taken in by the world. This is shown, for example, by the lengthy discourses on the ways of the prostitute (chaps. 5 and 7). This attitude demands a teachable spirit (1:5), which is necessary for successful living. From this perspective Proverbs contains “general principles of right living.”

2. To give understanding and mental perception (1:2b, 6)

      This understanding (בִּינָה bî∙nā(h)) is a gift from God, but it does not come automatically. The possession of it requires a persistent diligence. It is more than IQ; it connotes character . . . (Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, s.v. בִּין, by Louis Goldberg, #239c). Thus, Proverbs is designed to teach a young person how to think God's thoughts, to see life through God's eyes and thereby to grow into that place where someday he will be among the wise

The motto of the book is stated in 1:7: The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and discipline. One is neither educated nor prepared to live wisely until he begins with a proper relationship to God. “Fear,” of course, does not refer to a cringing terror but rather is a healthy, awestruck awareness that God is eternal, uncreated absolute holiness, justice and mercy, etc., and we are after all only sinful, finite creatures in need of the grace of God. Unless this attitude is caught, there is no real basis for education. In fact, failing to grasp this concept makes us no more than a fool (see the word study below in the topic arrangement), who despises wisdom and discipline. In our society even many highly “educated” people have not learned the first thing about true education and wisdom from God’s perspective. They are, according to Proverbs, fools, who have left God out of their lives. Such a life is neither beautiful nor skillful. In the end it will be demonstrated that in reality such a life is really grotesque and ugly. It may not be clearly seen on a day to day basis; but, in the long term, it will be demonstrated that God's viewpoint was right all along (chap. 9).

Structure

Following the prologue (1:1-7) Solomon has written a lengthy introduction to the book (1:8-9:18). This divides into about ten exhortations to embrace wisdom, the superior way. (For a grouping into four main subjects see the NIV Study Bible, p. 945). A key feature of these discourses is the personification of wisdom and folly as women who call out to young men to follow their respective ways.

The main body of the book is devoted to the proverbs themselves (10:1-22:16; 25:1-29:27), and in this paper they are arranged thematically. This is designed as a study/preaching aid and not in any way an attempt to improve on the divine arrangement.

The book of Proverbs also includes the thirty sayings of the wise (22:17-24:22) and some additional sayings (24:23-34). These are longer than the typical two line sayings characteristic of the main body.

The last two chapters serve as an appendix to the book. The words of Agur are noted for their inclusion of the numerical proverbs (30:1-33). The words of King Lemuel (31:1-9) conclude the book, except for the epilogue. This epilogue is an impressive acrostic poem honoring the wife of noble character, which, as Wolf points out, is surprising in a book addressed to young men. She, however, epitomizes many of the qualities and values identified with wisdom throughout the book. This epilogue may have a further twofold purpose: (1) This section counsels young men on what to look for in a wife, and (2) it may, in a subtle way, be a return to the theme of chapters 1-9 to remind the young man once again to marry Lady Wisdom (NIV Study Bible, p. 945).

OUTLINE AND THEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF PROVERBS

(Outline of chapters 1-9 adapted2)

1A. Introduction

1:1-9:18

1B. Prologue: Author, purpose and theme

1:1-7

1C. Author: The Proverbs of Solomon, son of David, king of Israel

1:1

2C. Purpose:

 

1D. To teach the moral foundation of successful living:

1:2a,3-5

1E. To acquire disciplined success

1:3

2E. To give training to the young

1:4

3E. To help the wise grow

1:5

2D. To give understanding and mental perception

1:2b,6

1E. For understanding words of insight

1:2b

2E. For understanding proverbs and parables, the sayings and riddles of the wise.

1:6

3C. Theme: The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and discipline.

1:7

2B. Ten exhortations to embrace wisdom

1:8-9:18

1C. Warning against enticement

1:8-19

1D. Exhortation to listen

1:8-10

2D. Description of the criminal mind

1:11-14

3D. Admonition to avoid the criminal

1:15

4D. Reasons to avoid the criminal

1:16-19

1E. Their sinning easily

 

2E. Their shedding of blood

 

3E. Their being more stupid than birds

 

2C. Warning against rejecting wisdom

1:20-33

1D. The invitation of wisdom

1:20-23

1E. The cry of wisdom

1:20-21

2E. The appeal to fools

1:22

3E. The blessing of response

1:23

2D. The consequences of rejecting wisdom

1:24-32

1E. The appeal rejected

1:24-25

2E. The consequences of calamity

1:26-27

3E. The unavailability of wisdom

1:28-30

4E. The fruit of folly

1:31-32

3D. The blessings of listening to wisdom

1:33

3C. The moral benefits of wisdom

2:1-22

1D. The conditions of obtaining wisdom

2:1-4

1E. Listening to parents

2:1-2

2E. Seeking it diligently

2:3-4

2D. The consequences of obtaining wisdom

2:5-22

1E. Finding the knowledge of God

2:5-8

2E. Discerning the right ethical conduct

2:9-22

1F. The promise

2:9-11

2F. The purpose

2:12-22

              1G. Protection from evil men

2:12-15

              2G. Protection from the evil woman

2:16-19

              3G. Walking in the ways of good men

2:20-22

4C. The successful life given by wisdom

3:1-35

1D. Introduction: Two benefits of wisdom

3:1-4

1E. Long and prosperous life

 

2E. Favor with God and man

 

2D. Exhortation to a right relationship with the Lord

3:5-12

1E. Trusting Him

3:5-6

2E. Fearing Him

3:7-8

3E. Honoring Him

3:9-10

4E. Not despising His discipline

3:11-12

3D. Exhortation to preserve wisdom

3:13-26

1E. The blessing of wisdom

3:13-18

1F. Surpasses materialism

3:13-15

2F. Offers a long, prosperous life

3:16

3F. Brings pleasant tranquility

3:17

4F. Yields life and happiness

3:18

2E. The creation coming by wisdom

3:19-20

3E. Wisdom leading to life and security

3:21-26

4D. Exhortation to a right relationship with one's neighbor

3:27-35

1E. The needy neighbor

3:27-28

2E. The innocent neighbor

3:29-30

3E. The wicked neighbor

3:31-35

5C. The supreme value of wisdom

4:1-27

1D. Exhortation and motivation to put wisdom first

4:1-9

2D. Admonition to choose the way of righteousness and to avoid the way of wickedness

4:10-19

1E. The way of wisdom

4:10-13

2E. The way of wickedness

4:14-17

3E. Summary of contrast

4:18-19

3D. Admonition to self-discipline

4:20-27

6C. Warning against adultery

5:1-23

1D. Admonition to pay attention

5:1-3

2D. Description of an adulteress

5:3-6

3D. Warning about the price of unchastity

5:7-14

4D. Encouragement to enjoy one's God-given wife

5:15-20

5D. Final judgment given by God

5:21-23

7C. Warnings against three follies and abominations

6:1-19

1D. The three follies

6:1-15

1E. Putting up security for a stranger

6:1-5

2E. Being lazy

6:6-11

3E. Being a scoundrel or villain

6:12-15

2D. The seven abominations (arising out of 6:12-15)

6:16-19

8C. The folly of being seduced by an adulteress

6:20-7:27

1D. The foolishness of adultery

6:20-35

2D. The warning against the adulteress

7:1-27

1E. Introductory exhortation

7:1-5

2E. Observation of a seduction

7:6-23

1F. The setting

7:6-9

2F. Her behavior

7:10-12

3F. Her solicitation

7:13-20

4F. The cost of acceptance

7:21-23

3E. The moral from the father

7:24-27

9C. The story of wisdom

8:1-36

1D. The appeal of wisdom

8:1-5

2D. The moral excellence of wisdom

8:6-11

3D. The rewards of wisdom

8:12-21

4D. The priority of wisdom (Christ?)

8:22-31

5D. Epilogue

8:32-36

10C. The invitation of wisdom and folly

9:1-18

1D. The invitation of wisdom

9:1-6

2D. The summary of wisdom`s benefit

9:7-12

1E. Encouragement to accept wisdom's invitation

9:7-9

2E. Wisdom in a nutshell

9:10-12

1F. The origin of wisdom

9:10

2F. The longevity of wisdom

9:11

3F. The responsibility of wisdom

9:12

3D. The invitation of folly

9:13-18

1A. Introduction

1:1-9:18

1B. Prologue: Author, purpose and theme

1:1-7

1C. Author: The Proverbs of Solomon, son of David, king of Israel

1:1

2C. Purpose:

 

1D. To teach the moral foundation of successful living:

1:2a,3-5

1E. To acquire disciplined success

1:3

2E. To give training to the young

1:4

3E. To help the wise grow

1:5

2D. To give understanding and mental perception

1:2b,6

1E. For understanding words of insight

1:2b

2E. For understanding proverbs and parables, the sayings and riddles of the wise.

1:6

3C. Theme: The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and discipline.

1:7

2B. Ten exhortations to embrace wisdom

1:8-9:18

1C. Warning against enticement

1:8-19

1D. Exhortation to listen

1:8-10

2D. Description of the criminal mind

1:11-14

3D. Admonition to avoid the criminal

1:15

4D. Reasons to avoid the criminal

1:16-19

1E. Their sinning easily

 

2E. Their shedding of blood

 

3E. Their being more stupid than birds

 

2C. Warning against rejecting wisdom

1:20-33

1D. The invitation of wisdom

1:20-23

1E. The cry of wisdom

1:20-21

2E. The appeal to fools

1:22

3E. The blessing of response

1:23

2D. The consequences of rejecting wisdom

1:24-32

1E. The appeal rejected

1:24-25

2E. The consequences of calamity

1:26-27

3E. The unavailability of wisdom

1:28-30

4E. The fruit of folly

1:31-32

3D. The blessings of listening to wisdom

1:33

3C. The moral benefits of wisdom

2:1-22

1D. The conditions of obtaining wisdom

2:1-4

1E. Listening to parents

2:1-2

2E. Seeking it diligently

2:3-4

2D. The consequences of obtaining wisdom

2:5-22

1E. Finding the knowledge of God

2:5-8

2E. Discerning the right ethical conduct

2:9-22

1F. The promise

2:9-11

2F. The purpose

2:12-22

              1G. Protection from evil men

2:12-15

              2G. Protection from the evil woman

2:16-19

              3G. Walking in the ways of good men

2:20-22

4C. The successful life given by wisdom

3:1-35

1D. Introduction: Two benefits of wisdom

3:1-4

1E. Long and prosperous life

 

2E. Favor with God and man

 

2D. Exhortation to a right relationship with the Lord

3:5-12

1E. Trusting Him

3:5-6

2E. Fearing Him

3:7-8

3E. Honoring Him

3:9-10

4E. Not despising His discipline

3:11-12

3D. Exhortation to preserve wisdom

3:13-26

1E. The blessing of wisdom

3:13-18

1F. Surpasses materialism

3:13-15

2F. Offers a long, prosperous life

3:16

3F. Brings pleasant tranquility

3:17

4F. Yields life and happiness

3:18

2E. The creation coming by wisdom

3:19-20

3E. Wisdom leading to life and security

3:21-26

4D. Exhortation to a right relationship with one's neighbor

3:27-35

1E. The needy neighbor

3:27-28

2E. The innocent neighbor

3:29-30

3E. The wicked neighbor

3:31-35

5C. The supreme value of wisdom

4:1-27

1D. Exhortation and motivation to put wisdom first

4:1-9

2D. Admonition to choose the way of righteousness and to avoid the way of wickedness

4:10-19

1E. The way of wisdom

4:10-13

2E. The way of wickedness

4:14-17

3E. Summary of contrast

4:18-19

3D. Admonition to self-discipline

4:20-27

6C. Warning against adultery

5:1-23

1D. Admonition to pay attention

5:1-3

2D. Description of an adulteress

5:3-6

3D. Warning about the price of unchastity

5:7-14

4D. Encouragement to enjoy one's God-given wife

5:15-20

5D. Final judgment given by God

5:21-23

7C. Warnings against three follies and abominations

6:1-19

1D. The three follies

6:1-15

1E. Putting up security for a stranger

6:1-5

2E. Being lazy

6:6-11

3E. Being a scoundrel or villain

6:12-15

2D. The seven abominations (arising out of 6:12-15)

6:16-19

8C. The folly of being seduced by an adulteress

6:20-7:27

1D. The foolishness of adultery

6:20-35

2D. The warning against the adulteress

7:1-27

1E. Introductory exhortation

7:1-5

2E. Observation of a seduction

7:6-23

1F. The setting

7:6-9

2F. Her behavior

7:10-12

3F. Her solicitation

7:13-20

4F. The cost of acceptance

7:21-23

3E. The moral from the father

7:24-27

9C. The story of wisdom

8:1-36

1D. The appeal of wisdom

8:1-5

2D. The moral excellence of wisdom

8:6-11

3D. The rewards of wisdom

8:12-21

4D. The priority of wisdom (Christ?)

8:22-31

5D. Epilogue

8:32-36

10C. The invitation of wisdom and folly

9:1-18

1D. The invitation of wisdom

9:1-6

2D. The summary of wisdom`s benefit

9:7-12

1E. Encouragement to accept wisdom's invitation

9:7-9

2E. Wisdom in a nutshell

9:10-12

1F. The origin of wisdom

9:10

2F. The longevity of wisdom

9:11

3F. The responsibility of wisdom

9:12

3D. The invitation of folly

9:13-18

2A. Topical arrangement of proverbs by Solomon and proverbs copied by Hezekiah's men (quoted from the NET BIBLE3)

10:1-22:6

and 25:1-29:27

ADULTERY

    22:14 The mouth of an adulteress is like a deep pit;

        the one against whom the Lord is angry will fall into it.

    29:3 The man who loves wisdom brings joy to his father,

        but whoever associates with prostitutes wastes his wealth.

        See also: 2:16-19; 5:1-23; 6:20-7:27; 23:26-28; 30:20

ADVICE/COUNSEL

    11:14 When there is no guidance a nation falls,

        but there is success in the abundance of counselors.

    12:5 The plans of the righteous are just;

        the counsels of the wicked are deceitful.

    12:15 The way of a fool is right in his own opinion,

        but the one who listens to advice is wise.

    13:10 With pride comes only contention,

        but wisdom is with the well-advised.

    15:12 The scorner does not love one who corrects him;

        he will not go to the wise.

    15:22 Plans fail when there is no counsel,

        but with abundant advisers they are established.

    19:20 Listen to advice and receive discipline,

        that you may become wise by the end of your life.

    20:18 Plans are established by counsel,

        so make war with guidance.

    27:9 Ointment and incense make the heart rejoice,

        likewise the sweetness of one’s friend from sincere counsel.

ALCOHOL

    20:1 Wine is a mocker and strong drink is a brawler;

        whoever goes astray by them is not wise.

    21:17 The one who loves pleasure will be a poor person;

        whoever loves wine and anointing oil will not be rich.

        See also: 23:19-21; 23:29-35; 31:4-7

ANGER/PATIENCE

    11:23 What the righteous desire leads only to good,

        but what the wicked hope for leads to wrath.

    12:16 A fool’s annoyance is known at once,

        but the prudent overlooks an insult.

    14:16 A wise person is cautious and turns from evil,

        but a fool throws off restraint and is overconfident.

    14:17 A person who has a quick temper does foolish things,

        and a person with crafty schemes is hated.

    14:29 The one who is slow to anger has great understanding,

        but the one who has a quick temper exalts folly.

    14:35 The king shows favor to a wise servant,

        but his wrath falls on one who acts shamefully.

    15:1 A gentle response turns away anger,

        but a harsh word stirs up wrath.

    15:18 A quick-tempered person stirs up dissension,

        but one who is slow to anger calms a quarrel.

    16:14 A king’s wrath is like a messenger of death,

        but a wise person appeases it.

    16:32 Better to be slow to anger than to be a mighty warrior,

        and one who controls his temper is better than one who captures a city.

    17:27 The truly wise person restrains his words,

        and the one who stays calm is discerning.

    18:23 A poor person makes supplications,

        but a rich man answers harshly.

    19:3 A person’s folly subverts his way,

        and his heart rages against the Lord.

    19:11 A person’s wisdom makes him slow to anger,

        and it is his glory to overlook an offense.

    19:12 A king’s wrath is like the roar of a lion,

        but his favor is like dew on the grass.

    19:19 A person with great anger bears the penalty,

        but if you deliver him from it once, you will have to do it again.

    20:2 The king’s terrifying anger is like the roar of a lion;

        whoever provokes him sins against himself.

    21:14 A gift given in secret subdues anger,

        and a bribe given secretly subdues strong wrath.

    21:19 It is better to live in a desert land

        than with a quarrelsome and easily-provoked woman.

    22:8 The one who sows iniquity will reap trouble,

        and the rod of his fury will end.

    22:24 Do not make friends with an angry person,

        and do not associate with a wrathful person,

    22:25 lest you learn his ways

        and entangle yourself in a snare.

    25:15 Through patience a ruler can be persuaded,

        and a soft tongue can break a bone.

    25:23 The north wind brings forth rain,

        and a gossiping tongue brings forth an angry look.

    25:28 Like a city that is broken down and without a wall,

        so is a person who cannot control his temper.

    27:3 A stone is heavy and sand is weighty,

        but vexation by a fool is more burdensome than the two of them.

    27:4 Wrath is cruel and anger is overwhelming,

        but who can stand before jealousy?

    29:8 Scornful people inflame a city,

        but those who are wise turn away wrath.

    29:9 If a wise person goes to court with a foolish person,

        there is no peace whether he is angry or laughs.

    29:11 A fool lets fly with all his temper,

        but a wise person keeps it back.

    29:22 An angry person stirs up dissension,

        and a wrathful person is abounding in transgression.

        See also: 6:34; 14:35; 16:14; 17:27; 30:32-33

DILIGENCE/LAZINESS (See also WORK)

    10:4 The one who is lazy becomes poor,

        but the one who works diligently becomes wealthy.

    10:5 The one who gathers crops in the summer is a wise son,

        but the one who sleeps during the harvest

        is a son who brings shame to himself.

    10:26 Like vinegar to the teeth and like smoke to the eyes,

        so is the sluggard to those who send him.

    12:11 The one who works his field will have plenty of food,

        but whoever chases daydreams lacks wisdom.

    12:24 The diligent person will rule,

        but the slothful will become a slave.

    12:27 The lazy person does not roast his prey,

        but personal possessions are precious to the diligent.

    13:4 The appetite of the sluggard craves but gets nothing,

        but the desire of the diligent will be abundantly satisfied.

    14:23 In all hard work there is profit,

        but merely talking about it only brings poverty.

    15:19 The way of the sluggard is like a hedge of thorns,

        but the path of the upright is like a highway.

    18:9 The one who is slack in his work

        is a brother to one who destroys.

    19:15 Laziness brings on a deep sleep,

        and the idle person will go hungry.

    19:24 The sluggard plunges his hand in the dish,

        and he will not even bring it back to his mouth!

    20:4 The sluggard will not plow during the planting season,

        so at harvest time he looks for the crop but has nothing.

    20:13 Do not love sleep, lest you become impoverished;

        open your eyes so that you might be satisfied with food.

    21:5 The plans of the diligent lead only to plenty,

        but everyone who is hasty comes only to poverty.

    21:25 What the sluggard desires will kill him,

        for his hands refuse to work.

    21:26 All day long he craves greedily,

        but the righteous gives and does not hold back.

    22:13 The sluggard says, “There is a lion outside!

        I will be killed in the middle of the streets!“

    *****4

    26:14 Like a door that turns on its hinges,

        so a sluggard turns on his bed.

    26:15 The sluggard plunges his hand in the dish;

        he is too lazy to bring it back to his mouth.

    26:16 The sluggard is wiser in his own estimation

        than seven people who respond with good sense.

    *****

    28:19 The one who works his land will be satisfied with food,

        but whoever chases daydreams will have his fill of poverty.

        See also: 6:6,9; 24:30; 31:27

DISCIPLINE/CORRECTION (See also REBUKE)

    10:13 Wisdom is found in the words of the discerning person,

        but the one who lacks wisdom will be disciplined.

    10:17 The one who heeds instruction is on the way to life,

        but the one who rejects rebuke goes astray.

    12:1 The one who loves discipline loves knowledge,

        but the one who hates reproof is stupid.

    13:18 The one who neglects discipline ends up in poverty and shame,

        but the one who accepts reproof is honored.

    13:24 The one who spares his rod hates his child,

        but the one who loves his child is diligent in disciplining him.

    14:3 In the speech of a fool is a rod for his back,

        but the words of the wise protect them.

    15:5 A fool rejects his father’s discipline,

        but whoever heeds reproof shows good sense.

    15:10 Severe discipline is for the one who abandons the way;

        the one who hates reproof will die.

    15:12 The scorner does not love one who corrects him;

        he will not go to the wise.

    15:32 The one who refuses correction despises himself,

        but whoever hears reproof acquires understanding.

    17:10 A rebuke makes a greater impression on a discerning person

        than a hundred blows on a fool.

    18:6 The lips of a fool enter into strife,

        and his mouth invites a flogging.

    19:18 Discipline your child, for there is hope,

        but do not set your heart on causing his death.

    19:19 A person with great anger bears the penalty,

        but if you deliver him from it once, you will have to do it again.

    19:25 Flog a scorner, and as a result the simpleton will learn prudence;

        correct a discerning person, and as a result he will understand knowledge.

    19:29 Judgments are prepared for scorners,

        and floggings for the backs of fools.

    20:30 Beatings and wounds cleanse away evil,

        and floggings cleanse the innermost being.

    22:15 Folly is bound up in the heart of a child,

        but the rod of discipline will drive it far from him.

    26:3 A whip for the horse and a bridle for the donkey,

        and a rod for the backs of fools!

    29:15 A rod and reproof impart wisdom,

        but a child who is unrestrained brings shame to his mother.

    29:17 Discipline your child, and he will give you rest;

        he will bring you happiness.

    29:19 A servant cannot be corrected by words,

        for although he understands, there is no answer.

        See also:

        Discipline (מוּסָר)--1:2,3,7,8; 3:11; 4:1,13; 5:12,23; 6:23; 7:22; 8:10,33; 9:7; 15:33; 16:22; 19:20,27: 23:12,13,14,23; 24:32; 31:1.

        Correction (תֹּוכַחַת)-1:23,25,30; 3:11,12; 5:12; 6:23; 9:7,8(2X); 15:31; 24:25; 25:12; 27:5; 28:23; 29:1; 30:6.

DISCERNMENT

This Hebrew word בִּין is the same as the word often translated understanding. (See that heading.) The general statements made in defining understanding would apply here. In some passages the word had the nuance of distinguishing between certain choices or options and thus can be translated as some form of the word discern.

    10:13 Wisdom is found in the words of the discerning person,

        but the one who lacks wisdom will be disciplined.

    14:6 The scorner seeks wisdom but finds none,

        but understanding is easy for a discerning person.

    14:33 Wisdom rests in the heart of the discerning;

        it is known even in the heart of fools.

    15:14 The discerning heart seeks knowledge,

        but the mouth of fools feeds on folly.

    16:21 The one who is wise in heart is called discerning,

        and kind speech increases persuasiveness.

    17:10 A rebuke makes a greater impression on a discerning person

        than a hundred blows on a fool.

    17:24 Wisdom is directly in front of the discerning person,

        but the eyes of a fool run to the ends of the earth.

    17:28 Even a fool who remains silent is considered wise,

        and the one who holds his tongue is deemed discerning.

    18:15 The discerning person acquires knowledge,

        and the wise person seeks knowledge.

    19:25 Flog a scorner, and as a result the simpleton will learn prudence;

        correct a discerning person, and as a result he will understand knowledge.

    28:7 The one who keeps the law is a discerning child,

        but a companion of gluttons brings shame to his parents.

    28:11 A rich person is wise in his own eyes,

        but a discerning poor person can evaluate him properly.

        See also: 1:2,5; 8:9

FAITHFULNESS/UNFAITHFULNESS

    11:3 The integrity of the upright guides them,

        but the crookedness of the unfaithful destroys them.

    11:6 The righteousness of the upright will deliver them,

        but the faithless will be captured by their own desires.

    11:13 The one who goes about slandering others reveals secrets,

        but the one who is trustworthy conceals a matter.

    13:2 From the fruit of his speech a person eats good things,

        but the faithless desire the fruit of violence

    13:15 Keen insight wins favor,

        but the conduct of the unfaithful is harsh.

    13:17 An unreliable messenger falls into trouble,

        but a faithful envoy brings healing.

    14:14 The backslider will be paid back from his own ways,

        but a good person will be rewarded for his.

    14:22 Do not those who devise evil go astray?

        But those who plan good exhibit faithful covenant love.

    16:6 Through loyal love and truth iniquity is appeased;

        through fearing the Lord one avoids evil.

    20:6 Many people profess their loyalty,

        but a faithful person - who can find?

    20:28 Loyal love and truth preserve a king,

        and his throne is upheld by loyal love.

    21:18 The wicked become a ransom for the righteous,

        and the faithless are taken in the place of the upright.

    22:12 The eyes of the Lord guard knowledge,

        but he overthrows the words of the faithless person.

    25:13 Like the cold of snow in the time of harvest,

        so is a faithful messenger to those who send him,

        for he refreshes the heart of his masters.

    25:19 Like a bad tooth or a foot out of joint,

        so is confidence in an unfaithful person at the time of trouble.

    27:6 Faithful are the wounds of a friend,

        but the kisses of an enemy are excessive.

    28:20 A faithful person will have an abundance of blessings,

        but the one who hastens to gain riches will not go unpunished.

FAMILY

1B. General family

    11:29 The one who troubles his family will inherit nothing,

        and the fool will be a servant to the wise person.

    15:17 Better a meal of vegetables where there is love

        than a fattened ox where there is hatred.

    17:1 Better is a dry crust of bread where there is quietness

        than a house full of feasting with strife.

    17:6 Grandchildren are like a crown to the elderly,

        and the glory of children is their parents.

    17:17 A friend loves at all times,

        and a relative is born to help in adversity.

    18:19 A relative offended is harder to reach than a strong city,

        and disputes are like the barred gates of a fortified citadel.

    18:24 A person who has friends may be harmed by them,

        but there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother.

    19:7 All the relatives of a poor person hate him;

        how much more do his friends avoid him -

        he pursues them with words, but they do not respond.

    11:29 The one who troubles his family will inherit nothing,

        and the fool will be a servant to the wise person.

2B. Father

    13:22 A benevolent person leaves an inheritance for his grandchildren,

        but the wealth of a sinner is stored up for the righteous.

    13:24 The one who spares his rod hates his child,

        but the one who loves his child is diligent in disciplining him.

    14:26 In the fear of the Lord one has strong confidence,

        and it will be a refuge for his children.

    15:27 The one who is greedy for gain troubles his household,

        but whoever hates bribes will live.

    17:13 As for the one who repays evil for good,

        evil will not leave his house.

    20:7 The righteous person behaves in integrity;

        blessed are his children after him.

    20:29 The glory of young men is their strength,

        and the splendor of old men is gray hair.

    27:8 Like a bird that wanders from its nest,

        so is a person who wanders from his home.

3B. Wife/Woman

    11:16 A generous woman gains honor,

        and ruthless men seize wealth.

    11:22 Like a gold ring in a pig’s snout

        is a beautiful woman who rejects discretion.

    12:4 A noble wife is the crown of her husband,

        but the wife who acts shamefully is like rottenness in his bones.

    14:1 Every wise woman builds her household,

        but a foolish woman tears it down with her own hands.

    18:22 The one who finds a wife finds what is enjoyable,

        and receives a pleasurable gift from the Lord.

    19:13 A foolish child is the ruin of his father,

        and a contentious wife is like a constant dripping.

    19:14 A house and wealth are inherited from parents,

        but a prudent wife is from the Lord.

    21:9 It is better to live on a corner of the housetop

        than in a house in company with a quarrelsome wife.

    21:19 It is better to live in a desert land

        than with a quarrelsome and easily-provoked woman.

    25:24 It is better to live on a corner of the housetop

        than in a house in company with a quarrelsome wife.

    *****

    27:15 A continual dripping on a rainy day

        and a contentious wife are alike.

    27:16 Whoever hides her hides the wind

        or grasps oil with his right hand.

4B. Children

    10:1 A wise child makes a father rejoice,

        but a foolish child is a grief to his mother.

    10:5 The one who gathers crops in the summer is a wise son,

        but the one who sleeps during the harvest is a son who brings shame to himself.

    13:1 A wise son accepts his father’s discipline,

        but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke.

    15:5 A fool rejects his father’s discipline,

        but whoever heeds reproof shows good sense.

    15:20 A wise child brings joy to his father,

        but a foolish person despises his mother.

    17:2 A servant who acts wisely will rule

        over an heir who behaves shamefully,

    17:21 Whoever brings a fool into the world does so to his grief,

        and the father of a fool has no joy.

    17:25 A foolish child is a grief to his father,

        and bitterness to the mother who bore him

    19:13 A foolish child is the ruin of his father,

        and a contentious wife is like a constant dripping.

    19:18 Discipline your child, for there is hope,

        but do not set your heart on causing his death.

    19:26 The one who robs his father and chases away his mother

        is a son who brings shame and disgrace.

    19:27 If you stop listening to instruction, my child,

        you will stray from the words of knowledge.

    20:11 Even a young man is known by his actions,

        whether his activity is pure and whether it is right.

    20:20 The one who curses his father and his mother,

        his lamp will be extinguished in the blackest darkness.

    22:6 Train a child in the way that he should go,

        and when he is old he will not turn from it.

    22:15 Folly is bound up in the heart of a child,

        but the rod of discipline will drive it far from him.

    27:11 Be wise, my son, and make my heart glad,

        so that I may answer anyone who taunts me.

    28:7 The one who keeps the law is a discerning child,

        but a companion of gluttons brings shame to his parents.

    28:24 The one who robs his father and mother and says, “There is no transgression,”

        is a companion to the one who destroys.

    29:3 The man who loves wisdom brings joy to his father,

        but whoever associates with prostitutes wastes his wealth.

    29:15 A rod and reproof impart wisdom,

        but a child who is unrestrained brings shame to his mother.

    29:17 Discipline your child, and he will give you rest;

        he will bring you happiness.

FAVOR

    12:2 A good person obtains favor from the Lord,

        but the Lord condemns a person with wicked schemes.

    13:15 Keen insight wins favor,

        but the conduct of the unfaithful is harsh.

    16:15 In the light of the king’s face there is life,

        and his favor is like the clouds of the spring rain.

    18:22 The one who finds a wife finds what is enjoyable,

        and receives a pleasurable gift from the Lord.

    19:6 Many people entreat the favor of a generous person,

        and everyone is the friend of the person who gives gifts.

    19:12 A king’s wrath is like the roar of a lion,

        but his favor is like dew on the grass.

    28:23 The one who reproves another will in the end find more favor

        than the one who flatters with the tongue.

THE FOOL

1B. Simple/Naïve/simpleton

The simple person פֶּתִי (pě∙ṯî) is open-minded, willing to believe anything (14:15). There is hope for him because he may learn from the discipline of the mocker (19:25). If, however, he refuses to move toward learning wisdom, he will slide aimlessly into temptation (chap. 7). He is no half-wit but his bad example serves as a warning to each of us, who also can follow his path to destruction (27:12), preferring not to accept discipline in the school of wisdom (1:22-32). As the least of those in the “fools” gallery, his example serves to warn everyone.

    14:15 A naive person believes everything,

        but the shrewd person discerns his steps.

    14:18 The naive inherit folly,

        but the shrewd are crowned with knowledge.

    19:25 Flog a scorner, and as a result the simpleton will learn prudence;

        correct a discerning person, and as a result he will understand knowledge.

    21:11 When a scorner is punished, the naive becomes wise;

        when a wise person is instructed, he gains knowledge.

    22:3 A shrewd person sees danger and hides himself,

        but the naive keep right on going and suffer for it.

    27:12 A shrewd person sees danger and hides himself,

        but the naive keep right on going and suffer for it.

        See also: 1:4, 22, 32; 7:7; 8:5; 9:4, 6, 16

2B. The Mocker/Scoffer/Scorner

The mocker/scoffer/scorner (לֵץ lyṣ) (lets) has a hardened disdain of wisdom and has earned a place in the fool's gallery by being both morally incapable of hearing and by delighting in leading others astray. He needs love and patience, for argument does not affect him (9:7), and in the end he who mocks will be mocked by God (3:34). The Net Study Bible has the following note at Prov 14:6: “The “scorner” (לֵץ) is intellectually arrogant; he lacks any serious interest in knowledge or religion. He pursues wisdom in a superficial way so that he can appear wise. The acquisition of wisdom is conditioned by one’s attitude toward it (J. H. Greenstone, Proverbs, 149).”

    13:1 A wise son accepts his father’s discipline,

        but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke.

    14:6 The scorner seeks wisdom but finds none,

        but understanding is easy for a discerning person.

    14:9 Fools mock at reparation,

        but among the upright there is favor.

    15:12 There is a way that seems right to a person,

        but its end is the way that leads to death.

    19:25 Flog a scorner, and as a result the simpleton will learn prudence;

        correct a discerning person, and as a result he will understand knowledge.

    19:28 A crooked witness scorns justice,

        and the mouth of the wicked devours iniquity.

    19:29 Judgments are prepared for scorners,

        and floggings for the backs of fools.

    20:1 Wine is a mocker and strong drink is a brawler;

        whoever goes astray by them is not wise.

    21:11 When a scorner is punished, the naive becomes wise;

        when a wise person is instructed, he gains knowledge.

    21:24 A proud and arrogant person, whose name is “Scoffer,“

        acts with overbearing pride.

    22:10 Drive out the scorner and contention will leave;

        strife and insults will cease.

    29:8 Scornful people inflame a city,

        but those who are wise turn away wrath.

        See also: 1:22; 3:34; 9:7,8, 12; 24:9;

Three Hebrew words are usually translated by the general term fool:

3B. The Insensitive Fool

The insensitive fool (כְּסִיל Kesil) is referred to forty-nine times. He is dull to wisdom and spiritual truth. He likes his folly (26:11) and rejects the fear of the Lord (1:29). Thus, he cannot even imagine himself mistaken (17:10).

    10:1 A wise child makes a father rejoice,

        but a foolish child is a grief to his mother.

    10:18 The one who conceals hatred utters lies,

        and the one who spreads slander is certainly a fool.

    10:23 Carrying out a wicked scheme is enjoyable to a fool,

        and so is wisdom for the one who has discernment.

    12:23 The shrewd person conceals knowledge,

        but foolish people publicize folly.

    13:16 Every shrewd person acts with knowledge,

        but a fool displays his folly.

    13:19 A desire fulfilled is sweet to the soul,

        but fools abhor turning away from evil.

    13:20 The one who associates with the wise grows wise,

        but a companion of fools suffers harm.

    14:7 Leave the presence of a foolish person,

        or you will not understand wise counsel.

    14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

        but the folly of fools is deception.

    14:16 A wise person is cautious and turns from evil,

        but a fool throws off restraint and is overconfident.

    14:24 The crown of the wise is their riches,

        but the folly of fools is folly.

    14:33 Wisdom rests in the heart of the discerning;

        it is known even in the heart of fools.

    15:2 The tongue of the wise treats knowledge correctly,

        but the mouth of the fool spouts out folly.

    15:7 The lips of the wise spread knowledge,

        but not so the heart of fools.

    15:14 The discerning heart seeks knowledge,

        but the mouth of fools feeds on folly.

    15:20 A wise child brings joy to his father,

        but a foolish person despises his mother.

    17:10 A wise child brings joy to his father,

        but a foolish person despises his mother.

    17:12 It is better for a person to meet a mother bear being robbed of her cubs,

        than to encounter a fool in his folly.

    17:16 Of what use is money in the hand of a fool,

        since he has no intention of acquiring wisdom?

    17:21 Whoever brings a fool into the world does so to his grief,

        and the father of a fool has no joy.

    17:24 Wisdom is directly in front of the discerning person,

        but the eyes of a fool run to the ends of the earth.

    17:25 A foolish child is a grief to his father,

        and bitterness to the mother who bore him.

    18:2 A fool takes no pleasure in understanding

        but only in disclosing what is on his mind.

    *****

    18:6 The lips of a fool enter into strife,

        and his mouth invites a flogging.

    18:7 The mouth of a fool is his ruin,

        and his lips are a snare for his life.

    *****

    19:1 Better is a poor person who walks in his integrity

        than one who is perverse in his speech and is a fool.

    19:10 Luxury is not appropriate for a fool;

        how much less for a servant to rule over princes!

    19:13 A foolish child is the ruin of his father,

        and a contentious wife is like a constant dripping.

    19:29 Judgments are prepared for scorners,

        and floggings for the backs of fools.

    21:20 There is desirable treasure and olive oil in the dwelling of the wise,

        but a foolish person devours all he has.

    26:1 Like snow in summer or rain in harvest,

        so honor is not fitting for a fool.

    *****

    26:3 A whip for the horse and a bridle for the donkey,

        and a rod for the backs of fools!

    26:4 Do not answer a fool according to his folly,

        lest you yourself also be like him.

    26:5 Answer a fool according to his folly,

        lest he be wise in his own estimation.

    26:6 Like cutting off the feet or drinking violence,

        so is sending a message by the hand of a fool.

    26:7 Like legs that hang limp from the lame,

        so is a proverb in the mouth of fools.

    26:8 Like tying a stone in a sling,

        so is giving honor to a fool.

    *****

    26:10 Like an archer who wounds at random,

        so is the one who hires a fool or hires any passer-by.

    26:11 Like a dog that returns to its vomit,

        so a fool repeats his folly.

    26:12 Do you see a man wise in his own eyes?

        There is more hope for a fool than for him.

    *****

    28: 26 Do you see a man wise in his own eyes?

        There is more hope for a fool than for him.

    29:11 A fool lets fly with all his temper,

        but a wise person keeps it back.

    29:20 Do you see someone who is hasty in his words?

        There is more hope for a fool than for him.

        See also: 1:22, 32; 3:35; 8:5; 23:9

4B. The Stubborn Fool

The stubborn fool (אֱוִיל evil) is referred to nineteen times (plus twenty-two times as folly and foolish (אִוֶּלֶת evilot). This darker word suggests moral and spiritual stupidity and stubbornness. He gives himself away as soon as he opens his mouth (17:28; 24:7), is quarrelsome (20:3; 12:16) and has no sense of proportion. Of special prominence is his moral insolence (1:7; 10:8; 12:15; 14:9; 15:5). Unless his folly is removed early (22:15), he has little hope of being changed (27:22).

    10:8 The wise person accepts instructions,

        but the one who speaks foolishness will come to ruin.

    10:10 The one who winks his eye causes trouble,

        and the one who speaks foolishness will come to ruin.

    10:14 Those who are wise store up knowledge,

        but foolish speech leads to imminent destruction.

    10:21 The teaching of the righteous feeds many,

        but fools die for lack of wisdom.

    11:29 The one who troubles his family will inherit nothing,

        and the fool will be a servant to the wise person.

    *****

    12:15 The way of a fool is right in his own opinion,

        but the one who listens to advice is wise.

    12:16 A fool’s annoyance is known at once,

        but the prudent overlooks an insult.

    *****

    12:23 The shrewd person conceals knowledge,

        but foolish people publicize folly.

    13:16 Every shrewd person acts with knowledge,

        but a fool displays his folly.

    14:1 Every wise woman builds her household,

        but a foolish woman tears it down with her own hands.

    14:3 In the speech of a fool is a rod for his back,

        but the words of the wise protect them.

    14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

        but the folly of fools is deception.

    14:9 Fools mock at reparation,

        but among the upright there is favor.

    14:17 A person who has a quick temper does foolish things,

        and a person with crafty schemes is hated.

    14:18 The naive inherit folly,

        but the shrewd are crowned with knowledge.

    14:24 The crown of the wise is their riches,

        but the folly of fools is folly.

    14:29 The one who is slow to anger has great understanding,

        but the one who has a quick temper exalts folly.

    15:2 The tongue of the wise treats knowledge correctly,

        but the mouth of the fool spouts out folly.

    15:5 A fool rejects his father’s discipline,

        but whoever heeds reproof shows good sense.

    15:14 The discerning heart seeks knowledge,

        but the mouth of fools feeds on folly.

    15:21 Folly is a joy to one who lacks sense,

        but one who has understanding follows an upright course.

    16:22 Insight is like a life-giving fountain to the one who possesses it,

        but folly leads to the discipline of fools.

    17:12 It is better for a person to meet a mother bear being robbed of her cubs,

        than to encounter a fool in his folly.

    17:28 Even a fool who remains silent is considered wise,

        and the one who holds his tongue is deemed discerning.

    19:3 A person’s folly subverts his way,

        and his heart rages against the Lord.

    *****

    20:3 It is an honor for a person to cease from strife,

        but every fool quarrels.

    26:4 Do not answer a fool according to his folly,

        lest you yourself also be like him.

    26:5 Answer a fool according to his folly,

        lest he be wise in his own estimation.

    *****

    26:11 Like a dog that returns to its vomit,

        so a fool repeats his folly.

    27:3 A stone is heavy and sand is weighty,

        but vexation by a fool is more burdensome than the two of them.

    27:22 If you should pound the fool in the mortar among the grain with the pestle,

        his foolishness would not depart from him.

    29:9 If a wise person goes to court with a foolish person,

        there is no peace whether he is angry or laughs.

        See also: 1:7; 7:22; 24:7,8;

5B. The Boorish Fool

The boorish fool (נָבָל Nabal) is spoken of only three times in Proverbs (17:7; 30:22,32). Like the other fools his mind is closed to God (Ps. 14:1) and to reason (1 Sam. 25:2-7). In the 1 Sam passage David nearly murdered a man by that name. The nabal, boorish fool, is crude, rude and arrogant. As the worst kind of fool he is despised by all.

    17:7 Excessive speech is not becoming for a fool;

        how much less are lies for a ruler!

FRIENDSHIP/NEIGHBOR

    10:12 Hatred stirs up dissension,

        but love covers all transgressions.

    11:9 With his speech the godless person destroys his neighbor,

        but by knowledge the righteous will be delivered.

    11:12 The one who denounces his neighbor lacks wisdom,

        but the one who has discernment keeps silent.

    12:26 The righteous person is cautious in his friendship,

        but the way of the wicked leads them astray.

    13:20 The one who associates with the wise grows wise,

        but a companion of fools suffers harm.

    14:20 A poor person is disliked even by his neighbors,

        but those who love the rich are many.

    14:21 The one who despises his neighbor sins,

        but whoever is kind to the needy is blessed.

    15:17 Better a meal of vegetables where there is love

        than a fattened ox where there is hatred.

    16:7 When a person’s ways are pleasing to the Lord,

        he even reconciles his enemies to himself.

    16:28 A perverse person spreads dissension,

        and a gossip separates the closest friends.

    16:29 A violent person entices his neighbor,

        and leads him down a path that is terrible.

    17:9 The one who forgives an offense seeks love,

        but whoever repeats a matter separates close friends.

    17:17 A friend loves at all times,

        and a relative is born to help in adversity.

    17:18 The one who lacks wisdom strikes hands in pledge,

        and puts up financial security for his neighbor.

    18:1 One who has isolated himself seeks his own desires;

        he rejects all sound judgment.

    18:24 A person who has friends may be harmed by them,

        but there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother.

    19:4 Wealth adds many friends,

        but a poor person is separated from his friend.

    19:6 Many people entreat the favor of a generous person,

        and everyone is the friend of the person who gives gifts.

    19:7 All the relatives of a poor person hate him; how much more do his friends

        avoid him-

        he pursues them with words, but they do not respond.

    21:10 The appetite of the wicked desires evil;

        his neighbor is shown no favor in his eyes.

    22:11 The one who loves a pure heart

        and whose speech is gracious - the king will be his friend.

    25:8 Do not go out hastily to litigation, or what will you do afterward

        when your neighbor puts you to shame?

    25:9 When you argue a case with your neighbor,

        do not reveal the secret of another person,

    25:10 lest the one who hears it put you to shame

        and your infamy will never go away.

    25:16 When you find honey, eat only what is sufficient for you,

        lest you become stuffed with it and vomit it up.

    25:17 Don’t set foot too frequently in your neighbor’s house,

        lest he become weary of you and hate you.

    25:18 Like a club or a sword or a sharp arrow,

        so is the one who testifies against his neighbor as a false witness.

    25:20 Like one who takes off a garment on a cold day,

        or like vinegar poured on soda,

    25:25 Like cold water to a weary person,

        so is good news from a distant land.

    *****

    26:18 Like a madman who shoots

        firebrands and deadly arrows,

    26:19 so is a person who deceives his neighbor,

        and says, “Was I not only joking?“

    *****

    27:6 The one whose appetite is satisfied loathes honey,

        but to the hungry mouth every bitter thing is sweet.

    27:9 Ointment and incense make the heart rejoice,

        likewise the sweetness of one’s friend from sincere counsel.

    27:10 Do not forsake your friend and your father’s friend,

        and do not enter your brother’s house in the day of your disaster;

        a neighbor nearby is better than a brother far away.

    27:14 If someone blesses his neighbor with a loud voice early in the morning,

        it will be counted as a curse to him.

    29:3 The man who loves wisdom brings joy to his father,

        but whoever associates with prostitutes wastes his wealth.

    29:5 The one who flatters his neighbor

        spreads a net for his steps.

GOVERNMENT/RULERS

    11:10 When the righteous do well, the city rejoices;

        when the wicked perish, there is joy.

    11:11 A city is exalted by the blessing provided from the upright,

        but it is destroyed by the counsel of the wicked.

    11:14 When there is no guidance a nation falls,

        but there is success in the abundance of counselors.

    12:24 The diligent person will rule,

        but the slothful will become a slave.

    14:28 A king’s glory is the abundance of people,

        but the lack of subjects is the ruin of a ruler.

    14:34 Righteousness exalts a nation,

        but sin is a disgrace to any people.

    14:35 The king shows favor to a wise servant,

        but his wrath falls on one who acts shamefully.

    16:10 The divine verdict is in the words of the king,

        his pronouncements must not act treacherously against justice.

    *****

    16:12 Doing wickedness is an abomination to kings,

        because a throne is established in righteousness.

    16:13 The delight of kings is righteous counsel,

        and they love the one who speaks uprightly.

    16:14 A king’s wrath is like a messenger of death,

        but a wise person appeases it.

    16:15 In the light of the king’s face there is life,

        and his favor is like the clouds of the spring rain.

    *****

    17:2 A servant who acts wisely will rule over an heir who behaves shamefully,

        and will share the inheritance along with the relatives.

    17:7 Excessive speech is not becoming for a fool;

        how much less are lies for a ruler!

    17:11 An evil person seeks only rebellion,

        and so a cruel messenger will be sent against him.

    17:15 The one who acquits the guilty and the one who condemns the innocent -

        both of them are an abomination to the Lord.

    17:26 It is terrible to punish a righteous person,

        and to flog honorable men is wrong.

    19:6 Many people entreat the favor of a generous person,

        and everyone is the friend of the person who gives gifts.

    19:10 Luxury is not appropriate for a fool;

        how much less for a servant to rule over princes!

    19:12 A king’s wrath is like the roar of a lion,

        but his favor is like dew on the grass.

    20:2 The king’s terrifying anger is like the roar of a lion;

        whoever provokes him sins against himself.

    20:8 A king sitting on the throne to judge

        separates out all evil with his eyes.

    20:18 Plans are established by counsel,

        so make war with guidance.

    20:26 A wise king separates out the wicked;

        he turns the threshing wheel over them.

    20:28 Loyal love and truth preserve a king,

        and his throne is upheld by loyal love.

    21:1 The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord like channels of water;

        he turns it wherever he wants.

    21:31 A horse is prepared for the day of battle,

        but the victory is from the Lord.

    22:11 The one who loves a pure heart

        and whose speech is gracious - the king will be his friend.

    *****

    25:2 It is the glory of God to conceal a matter,

        and it is the glory of a king to search out a matter.

    25:3 As the heaven is high and the earth is deep

        so the hearts of kings are unsearchable.

    25:4 Remove the dross from the silver,

        and material for the silversmith will emerge;

    25:5 remove the wicked from before the king,

        and his throne will be established in righteousness.

    25:6 Do not honor yourself before the king,

        and do not stand in the place of great men;

    25:7 for it is better for him to say to you, “Come up here,“

        than to put you lower before a prince,

        whom your eyes have seen.

    25:8 Do not go out hastily to litigation,

        or what will you do afterward

        when your neighbor puts you to shame?

    *****

    25:15 Through patience a ruler can be persuaded,

        and a soft tongue can break a bone.

    27:23 Pay careful attention to the condition of your flocks,

        give careful attention to your herds,

    27:24 for riches do not last forever,

        nor does a crown last from generation to generation.

    28:2 When a country is rebellious it has many princes,

        but by someone who is discerning and knowledgeable order is maintained.

    28:3 A poor person who oppresses the weak

        is like a driving rain without food.

    28:4 Those who forsake the law praise the wicked,

        but those who keep the law contend with them.

    28:7 The one who keeps the law is a discerning child,

        but a companion of gluttons brings shame to his parents.

    28:12 When the righteous rejoice, great is the glory,

        but when the wicked rise to power, people are sought out.

    28:15 Like a roaring lion or a roving bear,

        so is a wicked ruler over a poor people.

    28:16 The prince who is a great oppressor lacks wisdom,

        but the one who hates unjust gain will prolong his days.

    28:28 When the wicked gain control, people hide themselves,

        but when they perish, the righteous increase.

    29:4 A king brings stability to a land by justice,

        but one who exacts tribute tears it down.

    29:9 If a wise person goes to court with a foolish person,

        there is no peace whether he is angry or laughs.

    29:12 If a ruler listens to lies,

        all his ministers will be wicked.

    29:14 If a king judges the poor in truth,

        his throne will be established forever.

    29:18 When there is no prophetic vision the people cast off restraint,

        but the one who keeps the law, blessed is he!

    29:26 Many people seek the face of a ruler,

        but it is from the Lord that one receives justice.

HEART OF MAN/INNER BEING

    11:20 The Lord abhors those who are perverse in heart,

        but those who are blameless in their ways are his delight.

    12:20 Deceit is in the heart of those who plot evil,

        but those who promote peace have joy.

    12:23 The shrewd person conceals knowledge,

        but foolish people publicize folly.

    12:25 Anxiety in a person’s heart weighs him down,

        but an encouraging word brings him joy.

    13:3 Anxiety in a person’s heart weighs him down,

        but an encouraging word brings him joy.

    13:12 Hope deferred makes the heart sick,

        but a longing fulfilled is like a tree of life.

    13:19 A desire fulfilled is sweet to the soul,

        but fools abhor turning away from evil.

    14:10 The heart knows its own bitterness,

        and with its joy no one else can share.

    14:13 Even in laughter the heart may ache,

        and the end of joy may be grief.

    14:30 A tranquil spirit revives the body,

        but envy is rottenness to the bones.

    14:33 Wisdom rests in the heart of the discerning;

        it is known even in the heart of fools.

    15:4 Speech that heals is like a life-giving tree,

        but a perverse tongue breaks the spirit.

    15:11 Death and Destruction are before the Lord -

        how much more the hearts of humans!

    15:13 A joyful heart makes the face cheerful,

        but by a painful heart the spirit is broken.

    15:14 The discerning heart seeks knowledge,

        but the mouth of fools feeds on folly.

    15:15 All the days of the afflicted are bad,

        but one with a cheerful heart has a continual feast.

    15:28 The heart of the righteous considers how to answer,

        but the mouth of the wicked pours out evil things.

    15:30 A bright look brings joy to the heart,

        and good news gives health to the body.

    16:1 The intentions of the heart belong to a man,

        but the answer of the tongue comes from the Lord.

    16:2 All a person’s ways seem right in his own opinion,

        but the Lord evaluates the motives.

    16:17 The highway of the upright is to turn away from evil;

        the one who guards his way safeguards his life.

    16:19 It is better to be lowly in spirit with the afflicted

        than to share the spoils with the proud.

    16:21 The one who is wise in heart is called discerning,

        and kind speech increases persuasiveness.

    *****

    16:23 A wise person’s heart makes his speech wise

        and it adds persuasiveness to his words.

    16:24 Pleasant words are like a honeycomb,

        sweet to the soul and healing to the bones.

    *****

    17:3 The crucible is for refining silver and the furnace is for gold,

        likewise the Lord tests hearts.

    17:20 The one who has a perverse heart does not find good,

        and the one who is deceitful in speech falls into trouble.

    17:22 A cheerful heart brings good healing,

        but a crushed spirit dries up the bones.

    *****

    18:7 The mouth of a fool is his ruin,

        and his lips are a snare for his life.

    18:8 The words of a gossip are like choice morsels;

        they go down into the person’s innermost being

    *****.

    18:12 Before destruction the heart of a person is proud,

        but humility comes before honor.

    18:14 A person’s spirit sustains him through sickness -

        but who can bear a crushed spirit?

    18:15 The discerning person acquires knowledge,

        and the wise person seeks knowledge.

    19:3 A person’s folly subverts his way,

        and his heart rages against the Lord.

    19:8 The one who acquires wisdom loves himself;

        the one who preserves understanding will prosper.

    19:16 The one who obeys commandments guards his life;

        the one who despises his ways will die.

    19:21 There are many plans in a person’s mind,

        but it is the counsel of the Lord which will stand.

    19:23 Fearing the Lord leads to life,

        and one who does so will live satisfied; he will not be afflicted by calamity.

    20:5 Counsel in a person’s heart is like deep water,

        but an understanding person draws it out.

    20:9 Who can say, “I have kept my heart clean;

        I am pure from my sin“?

    20:27 The human spirit is like the lamp of the Lord,

        searching all his innermost parts.

    20:30 Beatings and wounds cleanse away evil,

        and floggings cleanse the innermost being.

    21:1 The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord like channels of water;

        he turns it wherever he wants.

    21:2 All of a person’s ways seem right in his own opinion,

        but the Lord evaluates the motives.

    21:4 Haughty eyes and a proud heart -

        the agricultural product of the wicked is sin.

    22:5 Thorns and snares are in the path of the perverse,

        but the one who guards himself keeps far from them.

    22:11 The one who loves a pure heart

        and whose speech is gracious - the king will be his friend.

    22:15 Folly is bound up in the heart of a child,

        but the rod of discipline will drive it far from him.

    25:20 Like one who takes off a garment on a cold day,

        or like vinegar poured on soda,

        so is one who sings songs to a heavy heart.

    *****

    26:22 The words of a gossip are like delicious morsels;

        they go down into a person’s innermost being.

    26:23 Like a coating of glaze over earthenware

        are fervent lips with an evil heart.

    26:24 The one who hates others disguises it with his lips,

        but he stores up deceit within him.

    26:25 When he speaks graciously, do not believe him,

        for there are seven abominations within him.

    26:26 Though his hatred may be concealed by deceit,

        his evil will be uncovered in the assembly.

    *****

    27:9 Ointment and incense make the heart rejoice,

        likewise the sweetness of one’s friend from sincere counsel.

    27:11 Be wise, my son, and make my heart glad,

        so that I may answer anyone who taunts me.

    27:19 As in water the face is reflected as a face,

        so a person’s heart reflects the person.

    28:14 Blessed is the one who is always cautious,

        but whoever hardens his heart will fall into evil.

    29:23 A person’s pride will bring him low,

        but one who has a lowly spirit will gain honor.

HONESTY/DISHONESTY

    10:2 Treasures gained by wickedness do not profit,

        but righteousness delivers from mortal danger.

    10:9 The one who conducts himself in integrity will live securely,

        but the one who behaves perversely will be found out.

    10:18 The one who conceals hatred utters lies,

        and the one who spreads slander is certainly a fool.

    11:1 The Lord abhors dishonest scales,

        but an accurate weight is his delight.

    11:18 The wicked person earns deceitful wages,

        but the one who sows righteousness reaps a genuine reward.

    12:5 The plans of the righteous are just;

        the counsels of the wicked are deceitful.

    12:17 The faithful witness tells what is right,

        but a false witness speaks deceit.

    12:19 The one who tells the truth will endure forever,

        but the one who lies will last only for a moment.

    12:20 Deceit is in the heart of those who plot evil,

        but those who promote peace have joy.

    12:22 The Lord abhors a person who lies,

        but those who deal truthfully are his delight.

    13:5 The righteous person hates anything false,

        but the wicked person acts in shameful disgrace.

    13:6 Righteousness guards the one who lives with integrity,

        but wickedness overthrows the sinner.

    13:11 Wealth gained quickly will dwindle away,

        but the one who gathers it little by little will become rich.

    14:5 A truthful witness does not lie,

        but a false witness breathes out lies.

    14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

        but the folly of fools is deception.

    14:25 A truthful witness rescues lives,

        but the one who breathes lies brings deception.

    15:2 The tongue of the wise treats knowledge correctly,

        but the mouth of the fool spouts out folly.

    16:11 Honest scales and balances are from the Lord;

        all the weights in the bag are his handiwork.

    16:13 The delight of kings is righteous counsel,

        and they love the one who speaks uprightly.

    17:4 One who acts wickedly pays attention to evil counsel;

        a liar listens to a malicious tongue.

    17:7 Excessive speech is not becoming for a fool;

        how much less are lies for a ruler!

    17:20 The one who has a perverse heart does not find good,

        and the one who is deceitful in speech falls into trouble.

    19:5 A false witness will not go unpunished,

        and the one who spouts out lies will not escape punishment.

    19:9 A false witness will not go unpunished,

        and the one who spouts out lies will perish.

    19:22 What is desirable for a person is to show loyal love,

        and a poor person is better than a liar.

    19:28 A crooked witness scorns justice,

        and the mouth of the wicked devours iniquity.

    20:10 Diverse weights and diverse measures -

        the Lord abhors both of them.

    20:17 Bread gained by deceit tastes sweet to a person,

        but afterward his mouth will be filled with gravel.

    20:23 The Lord abhors differing weights,

        and dishonest scales are wicked.

    21:6 Making a fortune by a lying tongue is like a vapor driven back and forth;

        they seek death.

    21:28 A lying witness will perish,

        but the one who reports accurately speaks forever.

    25:14 Like cloudy skies and wind that produce no rain,

        so is the one who boasts of a gift not given.

    25:18 Like a club or a sword or a sharp arrow,

        so is the one who testifies against his neighbor as a false witness.

    26:18 Like a madman who shoots

        firebrands and deadly arrows,

    26:19 so is a person who deceives his neighbor,

        and says, “Was I not only joking?”

    26:23 Like a coating of glaze over earthenware

        are fervent lips with an evil heart.

    26:24 The one who hates others disguises it with his lips,

        but he stores up deceit within him.

    26:25 When he speaks graciously, do not believe him,

        for there are seven abominations within him.

    26:26 Though his hatred may be concealed by deceit,

        his evil will be uncovered in the assembly.

    26:28 A lying tongue hates those crushed by it,

        and a flattering mouth works ruin.

    28:13 The one who covers his transgressions will not prosper,

        but whoever confesses them and forsakes them will find mercy.

    28:16 The prince who is a great oppressor lacks wisdom,

        but the one who hates unjust gain will prolong his days.

    29:12 If a ruler listens to lies,

        all his ministers will be wicked.

        See also: 6:19

HONOR

    11:16 A generous woman gains honor,

        and ruthless men seize wealth.

    13:18 The one who neglects discipline ends up in poverty and shame,

        but the one who accepts reproof is honored.

    14:31 The one who oppresses the poor insults his Creator,

        but whoever shows favor to the needy honors him.

    15:33 The fear of the Lord provides wise instruction,

        and before honor comes humility.

    18:12 Before destruction the heart of a person is proud,

        but humility comes before honor.

    20:3 It is an honor for a person to cease from strife,

        but every fool quarrels.

    21:21 The one who pursues righteousness and love

        finds life, bounty, and honor.

    22:4 The reward for humility and fearing the Lord

        is riches and honor and life.

    25:27 It is not good to eat too much honey,

        nor is it honorable for people to seek their own glory.

    26:1 Like snow in summer or rain in harvest,

        so honor is not fitting for a fool..

    26:8 Like tying a stone in a sling,

        so is giving honor to a fool.

    27:18 The one who tends a fig tree will eat its fruit,

        and whoever takes care of his master will be honored.

    29:23 A person’s pride will bring him low,

        but one who has a lowly spirit will gain honor.

INSTRUCTION

    13:1 A wise son accepts his father’s discipline,

        but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke.

    *****

    13:13 The one who despises instruction will pay the penalty,

        but whoever esteems instruction will be rewarded.

    13:14 Instruction from the wise is like a life-giving fountain,

        to turn a person from deadly snares.

    *****

    16:20 The one who deals wisely in a matter will find success,

        and blessed is the one who trusts in the Lord.

    16:21 The one who is wise in heart is called discerning,

        and kind speech increases persuasiveness.

    16:23 A wise person’s heart makes his speech wise

        and it adds persuasiveness to his words.

    19:16 The one who obeys commandments guards his life;

        the one who despises his ways will die.

    19:20 Listen to advice and receive discipline,

        that you may become wise by the end of your life.

    19:27 If you stop listening to instruction, my child,

        you will stray from the words of knowledge.

    21:11 When a scorner is punished, the naive becomes wise;

        when a wise person is instructed, he gains knowledge.

INTEGRITY

    10:9 The one who conducts himself in integrity will live securely,

        but the one who behaves perversely will be found out.

    11:3 The integrity of the upright guides them,

        but the crookedness of the unfaithful destroys them.

    13:6 Righteousness guards the one who lives with integrity,

        but wickedness overthrows the sinner.

    17:26 It is terrible to punish a righteous person,

        and to flog honorable men is wrong.

    29:10 Bloodthirsty people hate someone with integrity;

        as for the upright, they seek his life.

JOY

Joy denotes not only the emotional gladness of disposition but also involves the entire personality (15:30). Outside of Proverbs it is frequently associated with the heart (Ps.19:8). Many occasions and objects bring joy; such as a wise son (10:1), an apt reply (25:23) and a cheerful look (15:30).

    10:1 A wise child makes a father rejoice,

        but a foolish child is a grief to his mother.

    10:28 The hope of the righteous is joy,

        but the expectation of the wicked will remain unfulfilled.

    11:10 When the righteous do well, the city rejoices;

        when the wicked perish, there is joy.

    12:20 Deceit is in the heart of those who plot evil,

        but those who promote peace have joy.

    14:10 The heart knows its own bitterness,

        and with its joy no one else can share.

    14:13 Even in laughter the heart may ache,

        and the end of joy may be grief.

    15:20 A wise child brings joy to his father,

        but a foolish person despises his mother.

    15:23 A person has joy in giving an appropriate answer,

        and a word at the right time - how good it is!

    15:30 A bright look brings joy to the heart,

        and good news gives health to the body.

    17:21 Whoever brings a fool into the world does so to his grief,

        and the father of a fool has no joy.

    21:15 Doing justice brings joy to the righteous

        and terror to those who do evil.

    27:9 Ointment and incense make the heart rejoice,

        likewise the sweetness of one’s friend from sincere counsel.

    27:11 Be wise, my son, and make my heart glad,

        so that I may answer anyone who taunts me.

    29:2 When the righteous become numerous, the people rejoice;

        when the wicked rule, the people groan.

    29:3 The man who loves wisdom brings joy to his father,

        but whoever associates with prostitutes wastes his wealth.

    29:6 In the transgression of an evil person there is a snare,

        but a righteous person can sing and rejoice.

    29:17 Discipline your child, and he will give you rest;

        he will bring you happiness.

        See also: 2:14; 5:18; 12:25; 15:21; 23:15,16,24,25; 24:17-18.

JUDGMENT, LACK OF

This particular phrase comes from the Hebrew חֲסַר־לֵב (ḥā∙sēr lēḇ), literally meaning lacks heart. The word heart לֵב (lēḇ):is used some six hundred times in the Old Testament with a wide variety of meanings. It is the most frequently used word for man's immaterial aspects. Here the idea relates to perception and awareness. It is very close to the words discernment (See under that title.) and understanding (See under that title.) It is in contrast with the phrase wise in heart (10:8; 11:29; 16:23). The Net Bible translates the word as a metonomy of association for “wisdom” (DBD s. v. 3) and once for a person lacking “sense” (15:21).

    10:13 Wisdom is found in the words of the discerning person,

        but the one who lacks wisdom will be disciplined.

    10:21 The teaching of the righteous feeds many,

        but fools die for lack of wisdom.

    11:12 The one who denounces his neighbor lacks wisdom,

        but the one who has discernment keeps silent.

    12:11 The one who works his field will have plenty of food,

        but whoever chases daydreams lacks wisdom.

    15:21 Folly is a joy to one who lacks sense,

        but one who has understanding follows an upright course.

    17:18 The one who lacks wisdom strikes hands in pledge,

        and puts up financial security for his neighbor.

    28:16 The prince who is a great oppressor lacks wisdom,

        but the one who hates unjust gain will prolong his days.

        See also: 6:32; 7:7; 9:4; 24:30

JUSTICE/INJUSTICE

    12:5 The plans of the righteous are just;

        the counsels of the wicked are deceitful.

    13:23 There is abundant food in the field of the poor,

        but it is swept away by injustice.

    16:8 Better to have a little with righteousness

        than to have abundant income without justice.

    16:10 The divine verdict is in the words of the king,

        his pronouncements must not act treacherously against justice.

    16:11 Honest scales and balances are from the Lord;

        all the weights in the bag are his handiwork.

    16:33 The dice are thrown into the lap,

        but their every decision is from the Lord.

    17:15 The one who acquits the guilty and the one who condemns the innocent -

        both of them are an abomination to the Lord.

    17:23 A wicked person receives a bribe secretly

        to pervert the ways of justice.

    17:26 It is terrible to punish a righteous person,

        and to flog honorable men is wrong.

    18:5 It is terrible to show partiality to the wicked,

        by depriving a righteous man of justice.

    18:17 The first to state his case seems right,

        until his opponent begins to cross-examine him.

    19:28 A crooked witness scorns justice,

        and the mouth of the wicked devours iniquity.

    20:8 A king sitting on the throne to judge

        separates out all evil with his eyes.

    21:3 To do righteousness and justice

        is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice.

    21:7 The violence done by the wicked will drag them away

        because they refuse to do what is right.

    21:15 Doing justice brings joy to the righteous

        and terror to those who do evil.

    28:5 Evil people do not understand justice,

        but those who seek the Lord understand it all.

    28:17 The one who is tormented by the murder of another will flee to the pit;

        let no one support him.

    29:4 A king brings stability to a land by justice,

        but one who exacts tribute tears it down.

    29:7 The righteous person cares for the legal rights of the poor;

        the wicked does not understand such knowledge.

    29:9 If a wise person goes to court with a foolish person,

        there is no peace whether he is angry or laughs.

    29:14 If a king judges the poor in truth,

        his throne will be established forever.

    29:24 Whoever shares with a thief is his own enemy;

        he hears the oath to testify, but does not talk.

    29:26 Many people seek the face of a ruler,

        but it is from the Lord that one receives justice.

        See also: 1:3; 2:8,9; 8:20; 24:23-25

KINDNESS

    11:17 A kind person benefits himself,

        but a cruel person brings himself trouble.

    12:10 A righteous person cares for the life of his animal,

        but even the most compassionate acts of the wicked are cruel.

    12:25 Anxiety in a person’s heart weighs him down,

        but an encouraging word brings him joy.

    14:21 The one who despises his neighbor sins,

        but whoever is kind to the needy is blessed.

    14:31 The one who oppresses the poor insults his Creator,

        but whoever shows favor to the needy honors him.

    19:17 The one who is gracious to the poor lends to the Lord,

        and the Lord will repay him for his good deed.

    28:8 The one who increases his wealth by increasing interest

        gathers it for someone who is gracious to the needy.

KNOWLEDGE

    10:14 Those who are wise store up knowledge,

        but foolish speech leads to imminent destruction.

    11:9 With his speech the godless person destroys his neighbor,

        but by knowledge the righteous will be delivered.

    12:1 The one who loves discipline loves knowledge,

        but the one who hates reproof is stupid.

    12:23 The shrewd person conceals knowledge,

        but foolish people publicize folly.

    13:16 Every shrewd person acts with knowledge,

        but a fool displays his folly.

    14:7 Leave sthe presence of a foolish person,

        or you will not understand wise counsel.

    14:18 The naive inherit folly,

        but the shrewd are crowned with knowledge.

    15:2 The tongue of the wise treats knowledge correctly,

        but the mouth of the fool spouts out folly..

    15:7 The lips of the wise spread knowledge,

        but not so the heart of fools.

    15:14 The discerning heart seeks knowledge,

        but the mouth of fools feeds on folly.

    17:27 The truly wise person restrains his words,

        and the one who stays calm is discerning.

    18:15 The discerning person acquires knowledge,

        and the wise person seeks knowledge.

    19:2 The discerning person acquires knowledge,

        and the wise person seeks knowledge.

    19:25 Flog a scorner, and as a result the simpleton will learn prudence;

        correct a discerning person, and as a result he will understand knowledge.

    19:27 If you stop listening to instruction, my child,

        you will stray from the words of knowledge.

    20:15 There is gold, and an abundance of rubies,

        but words of knowledge are like a precious jewel.

    21:11 When a scorner is punished, the naive becomes wise;

        when a wise person is instructed, he gains knowledge.

    22:12 The Righteous One considers the house of the wicked;

        he overthrows the wicked to their ruin.

    28:2 When a country is rebellious it has many princes,

        but by someone who is discerning and knowledgeable order is maintained.

The LORD/Yahweh

1B. Sovereignty of Yahweh

    15:3 The eyes of the Lord are in every place,

        keeping watch on those who are evil and those who are good.

    15:11 Death and Destruction are before the Lord -

        how much more the hearts of humans!

    20:12 The ear that hears and the eye that sees -

        the Lord has made them both.

    22:2 All of a person’s ways seem right in his own opinion,

        but the Lord evaluates the motives..

    29:13 The poor person and the oppressor have this in common:

        the Lord gives light to the eyes of them both.

2B. Character of Yahweh

    11:1 The Lord abhors dishonest scales,

        but an accurate weight is his delight.

    11:20 The Lord abhors those who are perverse in heart,

        but those who are blameless in their ways are his delight.

    12:2 A good person obtains favor from the Lord,

        but the Lord condemns a person with wicked schemes.

    12:22 The Lord abhors a person who lies,

        but those who deal truthfully are his delight.

    15:8 The Lord abhors the sacrifices of the wicked,

        but the prayer of the upright pleases him.

    15:9 The Lord abhors the way of the wicked,

        but he loves those who pursue righteousness.

    15:26 The Lord abhors the plans of the wicked,

        but pleasant words are pure.

    16:5 The Lord abhors every arrogant person;

        rest assured that they will not go unpunished.

    16:11 Honest scales and balances are from the Lord;

        all the weights in the bag are his handiwork.

    17:15 The one who acquits the guilty and the one who condemns the innocent -

        both of them are an abomination to the Lord.

    20:10 Diverse weights and diverse measures -

        the Lord abhors both of them.

    20:23 The Lord abhors differing weights,

        and dishonest scales are wicked.

3B. Divine intervention of Yahweh

    10:3 The Lord satisfies the appetite of the righteous,

        but he thwarts the craving of the wicked.

    10:22 The blessing from the Lord makes a person rich,

        and he adds no sorrow to it..

    15:25 The Lord tears down the house of the proud,

        but he maintains the boundaries of the widow.

    15:29 The Lord is far from the wicked,

        but he hears the prayer of the righteous.

    16:1 The intentions of the heart belong to a man,

        but the answer of the tongue comes from the Lord.

    16:2 All a person’s ways seem right in his own opinion,

        but the Lord evaluates the motives.

    16:4 The Lord works everything for its own ends -

        even the wicked for the day of disaster.

    16:7 When a person’s ways are pleasing to the Lord,

        he even reconciles his enemies to himself.

    16:9 A person plans his course,

        but the Lord directs his steps.

    16:33 The dice are thrown into the lap,

        but their every decision is from the Lord.

    17:3 The crucible is for refining silver and the furnace is for gold,

        likewise the Lord tests hearts.

    18:22 The one who finds a wife finds what is enjoyable,

        and receives a pleasurable gift from the Lord.

    19:14 A house and wealth are inherited from parents,

        but a prudent wife is from the Lord.

    19:17 The one who is gracious to the poor lends to the Lord,

        and the Lord will repay him for his good deed.

    19:21 There are many plans in a person’s mind,

        but it is the counsel of the Lord which will stand.

    20:22 Do not say, “I will pay back evil!“

        Wait for the Lord, so that he may vindicate you.

    20:24 The steps of a person are ordained by the Lord -

        so how can anyone understand his own way?

    20:27 The steps of a person are ordained by the Lord -

        so how can anyone understand his own way?

    21:1 The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord like channels of water;

        he turns it wherever he wants.

    21:2 All of a person’s ways seem right in his own opinion,

        but the Lord evaluates the motives.

    21:12 The Righteous One considers the house of the wicked;

        he overthrows the wicked to their ruin.

    21:30 There is no wisdom and there is no understanding,

        and there is no counsel against the Lord.

    21:31 A horse is prepared for the day of battle,

        but the victory is from the Lord.

    22:12 The eyes of the Lord guard knowledge,

        but he overthrows the words of the faithless person..

    25:21 If your enemy is hungry, give him food to eat,

        and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink,

    25:22 for you will heap coals of fire on his head,

        and the Lord will reward you.

4B. Fear of Yahweh

    10:27 Fearing the Lord prolongs life,

        but the life span of the wicked will be shortened.

    14:2 The one who walks in his uprightness fears the Lord,

        but the one who is perverted in his ways despises him.

    *****

    14:26 In the fear of the Lord one has strong confidence,

        and it will be a refuge for his children.

    14:27 The fear of the Lord is like a life-giving fountain,

        to turn people from deadly snares.

    *****

    15:16 Better is little with the fear of the Lord

        than great wealth and turmoil with it.

    15:33 The fear of the Lord provides wise instruction,

        and before honor comes humility.

    16:6 Through loyal love and truth iniquity is appeased;

        through fearing the Lord one avoids evil.

    19:23 Fearing the Lord leads to life,

        and one who does so will live satisfied; he will not be afflicted by calamity.

    22:4 The reward for humility and fearing the Lord

        is riches and honor and life.

        See also: 1:7, 1:28-29ff; 2:1-5; 3:7; 8:13; 9:10; 23:17; 24:21; 31:30

5B. Trust in Yahweh

    16:3 Commit your works to the Lord,

        and your plans will be established.

    16:20 The one who deals wisely in a matter will find success,

        and blessed is the one who trusts in the Lord.

    18:10 The name of the Lord is like a strong tower;

        the righteous person runs to it and is set safely on high.

    28:25 The greedy person stirs up dissension,

        but the one who trusts in the Lord will prosper.

    29:25 The fear of people becomes a snare,

        but whoever trusts in the Lord will be set on high.

6B. Miscellaneous about Yahweh

    10:29 The way of the Lord is like a stronghold for the upright,

        but it is destruction to evildoers..

    11:4 Wealth does not profit in the day of wrath,

        but righteousness delivers from mortal danger.

    14:31 The one who oppresses the poor insults his Creator,

        but whoever shows favor to the needy honors him.

    19:3 A person’s folly subverts his way,

        and his heart rages against the Lord.

    22:14 The mouth of an adulteress is like a deep pit;

        the one against whom the Lord is angry will fall into it.

    28:5 Evil people do not understand justice,

        but those who seek the Lord understand it all.

LOVE/HATE

    10:12 Hatred stirs up dissension,

        but love covers all transgressions.

    10:18 The one who conceals hatred utters lies,

        and the one who spreads slander is certainly a fool.

    13:24 The one who spares his rod hates his child,

        but the one who loves his child is diligent in disciplining him.

    14:22 Do not those who devise evil go astray?

        But those who plan good exhibit faithful covenant love.

    15:17 Better a meal of vegetables where there is love

        than a fattened ox where there is hatred.

    16:6 Through loyal love and truth iniquity is appeased;

        through fearing the Lord one avoids evil.

    17:9 The one who forgives an offense seeks love,

        but whoever repeats a matter separates close friends.

    17:17 A friend loves at all times,

        and a relative is born to help in adversity.

    19:8 The one who acquires wisdom loves himself;

        the one who preserves understanding will prosper.

    19:22 What is desirable for a person is to show loyal love,

        and a poor person is better than a liar.

    20:6 Many people profess their loyalty,

        but a faithful person - who can find?

    20:28 Loyal love and truth preserve a king,

        and his throne is upheld by loyal love.

    21:21 The one who pursues righteousness and love

        finds life, bounty, and honor.

    27:5 Better is open rebuke

        than hidden love.

        See also: 3:3; 5:19; 8:17,21; 12:1; 17:19; 21:17; 22:11; 29:3; 31:26

MISCELLANEOUS

    11:17 A kind person benefits himself,

        but a cruel person brings himself trouble.

    14:4 Where there are no oxen, the feeding trough is clean,

        but an abundant harvest is produced by strong oxen.

    14:12 There is a way that seems right to a person,

        but its end is the way that leads to death.

    16:25 There is a way that seems right to a person,

        but its end is the way that leads to death.

    25:25 Like cold water to a weary person,

        so is good news from a distant land.

    26:27 The one who digs a pit will fall into it;

        the one who rolls a stone - it will come back on him.

    27:1 Do not boast about tomorrow;

        for you do not know what a day may bring forth.

    27:7 The one whose appetite is satisfied loathes honey,

        but to the hungry mouth every bitter thing is sweet.

    27:20 As Death and Destruction are never satisfied,

        so the eyes of a person are never satisfied.

    27:21 As the crucible is for silver and the furnace is for gold,

        so a person is proved by the praise he receives.

    28:21 To show partiality is terrible,

        for a person will transgress over the smallest piece of bread.

    29:21 If someone pampers his servant from youth,

        he will be a weakling in the end.

MONEY

1B. Bribery

    15:27 The one who is greedy for gain troubles his household,

        but whoever hates bribes will live.

    17:8 A bribe works like a charm for the one who offers it;

        in whatever he does he succeeds.

    17:23 A wicked person receives a bribe secretly

        to pervert the ways of justice.

    19:6 Many people entreat the favor of a generous person,

        and everyone is the friend of the person who gives gifts.

    21:14 A gift given in secret subdues anger,

        and a bribe given secretly subdues strong wrath.

    29:4 A king brings stability to a land by justice,

        but one who exacts tribute tears it down.

        See also: 6:35

2B. Security

    11:15 The one who puts up security for a stranger will surely have trouble,

        but whoever avoids shaking hands will be secure.

    17:18 The one who lacks wisdom strikes hands in pledge,

        and puts up financial security for his neighbor.

    20:16 Take a man’s garment when he has given security for a stranger,

        and when he gives surety for strangers, hold him in pledge.

    22:26 Do not be one who strikes hands in pledge

        or who puts up security for debts.

    22:27 If you do not have enough to pay,

        your bed will be taken right out from under you!.

    27:13 Take a man’s garment when he has given security for a stranger,

        and when he gives surety for a stranger, hold him in pledge.

        See also: 6:1

3B. Greed

    10:2 Treasures gained by wickedness do not profit,

        but righteousness delivers from mortal danger.

    11:26 People will curse the one who withholds grain,

        but they will praise the one who sells it.

    15:27 The one who is greedy for gain troubles his household,

        but whoever hates bribes will live.

    22:16 The one who oppresses the poor to increase his own gain

        and the one who gives to the rich - both end up only in poverty.

    28:8 The one who increases his wealth by increasing interest

        gathers it for someone who is gracious to the needy.

    28:22 The stingy person hastens after riches

        and does not know that poverty will overtake him.

    28:25 The greedy person stirs up dissension,

        but the one who trusts in the Lord will prosper.

    29:4 A king brings stability to a land by justice,

        but one who exacts tribute tears it down.

4B. Generosity

    *****

    11:24 One person is generous and yet grows more wealthy,

        but another withholds more than he should and comes to poverty.

    11:25 A generous person will be enriched,

        and the one who provides water for others will himself be satisfied.

    *****

    18:16 A person’s gift makes room for him,

        and leads him before important people.

    19:6 Many people entreat the favor of a generous person,

        and everyone is the friend of the person who gives gifts.

    *****

    21:25 What the sluggard desires will kill him,

        for his hands refuse to work.

    21:26 All day long he craves greedily,

        but the righteous gives and does not hold back.

    *****

    22:9 A generous person will be blessed,

        for he gives some of his food to the poor.

    28:27 The one who gives to the poor will not lack,

        but whoever shuts his eyes to them will receive many curses.

5A. Miscellaneous

    10:16 The reward which the righteous receive is life;

        the recompense which the wicked receive is judgment.

    11:16 A generous woman gains honor,

        and ruthless men seize wealth.

    11:18 The wicked person earns deceitful wages,

        but the one who sows righteousness reaps a genuine reward.

    13:11 Wealth gained quickly will dwindle away,

        but the one who gathers it little by little will become rich.

    13:22 A benevolent person leaves an inheritance for his grandchildren,

        but the wealth of a sinner is stored up for the righteous.

    15:6 In the house of the righteous is abundant wealth,

        but the income of the wicked brings trouble.

    16:16 How much better it is to acquire wisdom than gold;

        to acquire understanding is more desirable than silver.

    17:16 Of what use is money in the hand of a fool,

        since he has no intention of acquiring wisdom?

    19:14 A house and wealth are inherited from parents,

        but a prudent wife is from the Lord.

    20:14 “It’s worthless! It’s worthless!“ says the buyer,

        but when he goes on his way, he boasts.

    20:21 An inheritance gained easily in the beginning

        will not be blessed in the end.

    22:7 The rich rule over the poor,

        and the borrower is servant to the lender.

    *****

    27:23 Pay careful attention to the condition of your flocks,

        give careful attention to your herds,

    27:24 for riches do not last forever,

        nor does a crown last from generation to generation.

    27:25 When the hay is removed and new grass appears,

        and the grass from the hills is gathered in,

    17:26 the lambs will be for your clothing,

        and the goats will be for the price of a field.

    27:27 And there will be enough goat’s milk for your food,

        for the food of your household,

        and for the sustenance of your servant girls.

    ******

    28:16 The prince who is a great oppressor lacks wisdom,

        but the one who hates unjust gain will prolong his days.

    29:3 The man who loves wisdom brings joy to his father,

        but whoever associates with prostitutes wastes his wealth.

PEACE

    12:20 Deceit is in the heart of those who plot evil,

        but those who promote peace have joy.

    14:30 A tranquil spirit revives the body,

        but envy is rottenness to the bones.

    16:7 When a person’s ways are pleasing to the Lord,

        he even reconciles his enemies to himself.

    17:1 Better is a dry crust of bread where there is quietness

        than a house full of feasting with strife.

    29:9 If a wise person goes to court with a foolish person,

        there is no peace whether he is angry or laughs.

    29:17 Discipline your child, and he will give you rest;

        he will bring you happiness.

PRIDE/HUMILITY

    11:2 When pride comes, then comes disgrace,

        but with humility comes wisdom.

    12: 9 Better is a person of humble standing who nevertheless has a servant,

        than one who pretends to be somebody important yet has no food.

    13:10 With pride comes only contention,

        but wisdom is with the well-advised.

    15:25 The Lord tears down the house of the proud,

        but he maintains the boundaries of the widow.

    15:33 The fear of the Lord provides wise instruction,

        and before honor comes humility.

    16:5 The Lord abhors every arrogant person;

        rest assured that they will not go unpunished.

    16: 18 Pride goes before destruction,

        and a haughty spirit before a fall.

    16:19 It is better to be lowly in spirit with the afflicted

        than to share the spoils with the proud.

    17:7 Excessive speech is not becoming for a fool;

        how much less are lies for a ruler!

    18:12 Before destruction the heart of a person is proud,

        but humility comes before honor.

    21:4 Haughty eyes and a proud heart -

        the agricultural product of the wicked is sin.

    21:24 A proud and arrogant person, whose name is “Scoffer,“

        acts with overbearing pride.

    22:4 The reward for humility and fearing the Lord

        is riches and honor and life.

    25:6 Do not honor yourself before the king,

        and do not stand in the place of great men;

    25:7 Do not honor yourself before the king,

        and do not stand in the place of great men;

    25:14 Like cloudy skies and wind that produce no rain,

        so is the one who boasts of a gift not given.

    26:5 Answer a fool according to his folly,

        lest he be wise in his own estimation.

    26:12 Do you see a man wise in his own eyes?

        There is more hope for a fool than for him.

    26:16 The sluggard is wiser in his own estimation

        than seven people who respond with good sense.

    27:2 Let another praise you, and not your own mouth;

        someone else, and not your own lips.

    28:11 A rich person is wise in his own eyes,

        but a discerning poor person can evaluate him properly.

    29:23 A person’s pride will bring him low,

        but one who has a lowly spirit will gain honor.

PRUDENT

    12:16 A fool’s annoyance is known at once,

        but the prudent overlooks an insult.

    12:23 The shrewd person conceals knowledge,

        but foolish people publicize folly.

    13:16 Every shrewd person acts with knowledge,

        but a fool displays his folly.

    14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

        but the folly of fools is deception.

    14:15 A naive person believes everything,

        but the shrewd person discerns his steps.

    14:18 The naive inherit folly,

        but the shrewd are crowned with knowledge.

    15:5 A fool rejects his father’s discipline,

        but whoever heeds reproof shows good sense.

    19:14 A house and wealth are inherited from parents,

        but a prudent wife is from the Lord.

    19:25 Flog a scorner, and as a result the simpleton will learn prudence;

        correct a discerning person, and as a result he will understand knowledge.

    22:3 A shrewd person sees danger and hides himself,

        but the naive keep right on going and suffer for it.

    27:12 A shrewd person sees danger and hides himself,

        but the naive keep right on going and suffer for it.

        See also: 1:4; 8:5,12

QUARRELS

    10:12 Hatred stirs up dissension,

        but love covers all transgressions.

    13:10 With pride comes only contention,

        but wisdom is with the well-advised.

    15:18 A quick-tempered person stirs up dissension,

        but one who is slow to anger calms a quarrel.

    16:28 A perverse person spreads dissension,

        and a gossip separates the closest friends.

    17:1 Better is a dry crust of bread where there is quietness

        than a house full of feasting with strife.

    17:14 Starting a quarrel is like letting out water;

        stop it before strife breaks out!

    17:19 The one who loves a quarrel loves transgression;

        whoever builds his gate high seeks destruction.

    18:6 The lips of a fool enter into strife,

        and his mouth invites a flogging.

    18:18 A toss of a coin ends disputes,

        and settles the issue between strong opponents.

    18:19 A relative offended is harder to reach than a strong city,

        and disputes are like the barred gates of a fortified citadel.

    19:13 A foolish child is the ruin of his father,

        and a contentious wife is like a constant dripping.

    20:3 It is an honor for a person to cease from strife,

        but every fool quarrels.

    21:9 It is better to live on a corner of the housetop

        than in a house in company with a quarrelsome wife.

    21:19 It is better to live in a desert land

        than with a quarrelsome and easily-provoked woman.

    22:10 Drive out the scorner and contention will leave;

        strife and insults will cease.

    25:24 It is better to live on a corner of the housetop

        than in a house in company with a quarrelsome wife.

    26:17 Like one who grabs a wild dog by the ears,

        so is the person passing by who becomes furious over a quarrel not his own.

    26:20 Where there is no wood, a fire goes out,

        and where there is no gossip, contention ceases.

    26:21 Like charcoal is to burning coals, and wood to fire,

        so is a contentious person to kindle strife.

    27:15 A continual dripping on a rainy day

        and a contentious wife are alike.

    27:16 Whoever hides her hides the wind

        or grasps oil with his right hand.

    28:25 The greedy person stirs up dissension,

        but the one who trusts in the Lord will prosper.

    29:22 An angry person stirs up dissension,

        and a wrathful person is abounding in transgression.

        See also: 6:14; 30:33

REBUKE (See also DISCIPLINE/CORRECTION)

    13:1 A wise son accepts his father’s discipline,

        but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke.

    15: 3 The eyes of the Lord are in every place,

        keeping watch on those who are evil and those who are good.

    17:1 Better is a dry crust of bread where there is quietness

        than a house full of feasting with strife.

    19:2 It is dangerous to have zeal without knowledge,

        and the one who acts hastily makes poor choices.

    25:12 Like an earring of gold and an ornament of fine gold,

        so is a wise reprover to the ear of the one who listens.

    27:5 Better is open rebuke

        than hidden love.

    28:23 The one who reproves another will in the end find more favor

        than the one who flatters with the tongue.

    29:1 The one who stiffens his neck after numerous rebukes

        will suddenly be destroyed without remedy.

        See also 1:23, 25-30; 3:11-12; 5:12; 6:23; 9:7-8; 10:17; 12:1; 13:18; 15:5, 10-12, 32; 29:15-25; 30:6

REVENGE

    17:13 As for the one who repays evil for good,

        evil will not leave his house.

    20:22 Do not say, “I will pay back evil!“

        Wait for the Lord, so that he may vindicate you.

    25:21 If your enemy is hungry, give him food to eat,

        and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink,

    25: 22 for you will heap coals of fire on his head,

        and the Lord will reward you.

RICH/POOR (See also MONEY)

    10:4 The one who is lazy becomes poor,

        but the one who works diligently becomes wealthy.

    10:15 The wealth of a rich person is like a fortified city,

        but the poor are brought to ruin by their poverty.

    10:22 The blessing from the Lord makes a person rich,

        and he adds no sorrow to it.

    11:4 Wealth does not profit in the day of wrath,

        but righteousness delivers from mortal danger.

    11:16 A generous woman gains honor,

        and ruthless men seize wealth.

    11:24 One person is generous and yet grows more wealthy,

        but another withholds more than he should and comes to poverty.

    11:28 The one who trusts in his riches will fall,

        but the righteous will flourish like a green leaf.

    13:7 There is one who pretends to be rich and yet has nothing;

        another pretends to be poor and yet possesses great wealth.

    13:8 The ransom of a person’s life is his wealth,

        but the poor person hears no threat.

    13:18 The one who neglects discipline ends up in poverty and shame,

        but the one who accepts reproof is honored.

    13:21 Calamity pursues sinners,

        but prosperity rewards the righteous.

    13:22 A benevolent person leaves an inheritance for his grandchildren,

        but the wealth of a sinner is stored up for the righteous.

    13:23 There is abundant food in the field of the poor,

        but it is swept away by injustice.

    13:25 The righteous has enough food to satisfy his appetite,

        but the belly of the wicked lacks foo

    14:21 The one who despises his neighbor sins,

        but whoever is kind to the needy is blessed.

    14:23 In all hard work there is profit,

        but merely talking about it only brings poverty.

    14:24 The crown of the wise is their riches,

        but the folly of fools is folly.

    14:31 The one who oppresses the poor insults his Creator,

        but whoever shows favor to the needy honors him.

    15:6 In the house of the righteous is abundant wealth,

        but the income of the wicked brings trouble.

    *****

    15:16 Better is little with the fear of the Lord

        than great wealth and turmoil with it.

    15:17 Better a meal of vegetables where there is love

        than a fattened ox where there is hatred.

    *****

    16:8 Better to have a little with righteousness

        than to have abundant income without justice.

    16:19 It is better to be lowly in spirit with the afflicted

        than to share the spoils with the proud.

    16:20 The one who deals wisely in a matter will find success,

        and blessed is the one who trusts in the Lord.

    17:1 Better is a dry crust of bread where there is quietness

        than a house full of feasting with strife.

    17:5 The one who mocks the poor insults his Creator;

        whoever rejoices over disaster will not go unpunished.

    17:20 The one who has a perverse heart does not find good,

        and the one who is deceitful in speech falls into trouble.

    18:11 The wealth of a rich person is like a strong city,

        and it is like a high wall in his imagination.

    18:23 A poor person makes supplications,

        but a rich man answers harshly.

    19:1 A poor person makes supplications,

        but a rich man answers harshly.

    19:4 Wealth adds many friends,

        but a poor person is separated from his friend.

    19:7 All the relatives of a poor person hate him;

        how much more do his friends avoid him -

        he pursues them with words, but they do not respond.

    19:8 The one who acquires wisdom loves himself;

        the one who preserves understanding will prosper.

    19:14 A house and wealth are inherited from parents,

        but a prudent wife is from the Lord.

    19:15 Laziness brings on a deep sleep,

        and the idle person will go hungry.

    19:17 The one who is gracious to the poor lends to the Lord,

        and the Lord will repay him for his good deed.

    19:22 What is desirable for a person is to show loyal love,

        and a poor person is better than a liar.

    20:13 Do not love sleep, lest you become impoverished;

        open your eyes so that you might be satisfied with food.

    21:5 The plans of the diligent lead only to plenty,

        but everyone who is hasty comes only to poverty.

    21: 6 Making a fortune by a lying tongue is like a vapor driven back and forth;

        they seek death.

    21: 13 The one who shuts his ears to the cry of the poor,

        he too will cry out and will not be answered.

    21:17 The one who loves pleasure will be a poor person;

        whoever loves wine and anointing oil will not be rich.

    21:20 There is desirable treasure and olive oil in the dwelling of the wise,

        but a foolish person devours all he has.

    21:21 The one who pursues righteousness and love

        finds life, bounty, and honor.

    22:1 A good name is to be chosen rather than great wealth,

        good favor more than silver or gold.

    22:2 The rich and the poor meet together;

        the Lord is the creator of them both.

    22:4 The reward for humility and fearing the Lord

        is riches and honor and life.

    22:7 The rich rule over the poor,

        and the borrower is servant to the lender.

    22:9 A generous person will be blessed,

        for he gives some of his food to the poor.

    22:16 The one who oppresses the poor to increase his own gain

        and the one who gives to the rich - both end up only in poverty.

    28:3 A poor person who oppresses the weak

        is like a driving rain without food.

    28:6 A poor person who walks in his integrity is better

        than one who is perverse in his ways even though he is rich.

    28:8 The one who increases his wealth by increasing interest

        gathers it for someone who is gracious to the needy.

    28:11 A rich person is wise in his own eyes,

        but a discerning poor person can evaluate him properly.

    28:19 The one who works his land will be satisfied with food,

        but whoever chases daydreams will have his fill of poverty.

    28:20 A faithful person will have an abundance of blessings,

        but the one who hastens to gain riches will not go unpunished.

    28:22 The stingy person hastens after riches

        and does not know that poverty will overtake him.

    28:27 The one who gives to the poor will not lack,

        but whoever shuts his eyes to them will receive many curses.

    29:7 The righteous person cares for the legal rights of the poor;

        the wicked does not understand such knowledge.

    29:13 The poor person and the oppressor have this in common:

        the Lord gives light to the eyes of them both.

    29:14 If a king judges the poor in truth,

        his throne will be established forever.

RIGHTEOUS/WICKED

    10:2 Treasures gained by wickedness do not profit,

        but righteousness delivers from mortal danger.

    10:3 The Lord satisfies the appetite of the righteous,

        but he thwarts the craving of the wicked.

    10:6 Blessings are on the head of the righteous,

        but the speech of the wicked conceals violence.

    10:7 The memory of the righteous is a blessing,

        but the reputation of the wicked will rot.

    10:9 The one who conducts himself in integrity will live securely,

        but the one who behaves perversely will be found out.

    10:11 The teaching of the righteous is a fountain of life,

        but the speech of the wicked conceals violence.

    10:16 The reward which the righteous receive is life;

        the recompense which the wicked receive is judgment.

    10: 20 What the righteous say is like the best silver,

        but what the wicked think is of little value.

    10:21 The teaching of the righteous feeds many,

        but fools die for lack of wisdom.

    10:23 Carrying out a wicked scheme is enjoyable to a fool,

        and so is wisdom for the one who has discernment.

    10:24 What the wicked fears will come on him;

        what the righteous desire will be granted.

    10:25 When the storm passes through, the wicked are swept away,

        but the righteous are an everlasting foundation.

    10:27 Fearing the Lord prolongs life,

        but the life span of the wicked will be shortened.

    10:28 The hope of the righteous is joy,

        but the expectation of the wicked will remain unfulfilled.

    10:29 The way of the Lord is like a stronghold for the upright,

        but it is destruction to evildoers.

    10:30 The righteous will never be moved,

        but the wicked will not inhabit the land.

    10:31 The speech of the righteous bears the fruit of wisdom,

        but the one who speaks perversion will be destroyed.

    10:32 The lips of the righteous know what is pleasing,

        but the speech of the wicked is perverse.

    *****

    11:3 The integrity of the upright guides them,

        but the crookedness of the unfaithful destroys them.

    11:4 Wealth does not profit in the day of wrath,

        but righteousness delivers from mortal danger.

    11:5 The righteousness of the blameless will make straight their way,

        but the wicked person will fall by his own wickedness.

    11:6 The righteousness of the upright will deliver them,

        but the faithless will be captured by their own desires.

    11:7 The righteousness of the upright will deliver them,

        but the faithless will be captured by their own desires.

    11:8 The righteous person is delivered out of trouble,

        and the wicked turns up in his stead.

    11: 9 With his speech the godless person destroys his neighbor,

        but by knowledge the righteous will be delivered.

    11:10 When the righteous do well, the city rejoices;

        when the wicked perish, there is joy.

    11:11 A city is exalted by the blessing provided from the upright,

        but it is destroyed by the counsel of the wicked.

    *****

    11:16 A generous woman gains honor,

        and ruthless men seize wealth.

    11:17 A kind person benefits himself,

        but a cruel person brings himself trouble.

    11:18 The wicked person earns deceitful wages,

        but the one who sows righteousness reaps a genuine reward.

    11:19 True righteousness leads to life,

        but the one who pursues evil pursues it to his own death.

    11:20 The Lord abhors those who are perverse in heart,

        but those who are blameless in their ways are his delight.

    11:21 Be assured that the evil person will certainly be punished,

        but the descendants of the righteous will not suffer unjust judgment.

    11:23 What the righteous desire leads only to good,

        but what the wicked hope for leads to wrath.

    11:27 The one who diligently seeks good seeks favor,

        but the one who searches for evil - it will come to him.

    11:28 The one who trusts in his riches will fall,

        but the righteous will flourish like a green leaf.

    11:30 The fruit of the righteous is like a tree producing life,

        and the one who wins souls is wise.

    11:31 If the righteous are recompensed on earth,

        how much more the wicked sinner!

    12:2 A good person obtains favor from the Lord,

        but the Lord condemns a person with wicked schemes.

    12:3 No one can be established through wickedness,

        but a righteous root cannot be moved.

    12:5 The plans of the righteous are just;

        the counsels of the wicked are deceitful.

    12:6 The words of the wicked lie in wait to shed innocent blood,

        but the words of the upright will deliver them.

    12:7 The wicked are overthrown and perish,

        but the righteous household will stand.

    12: 8 A person is praised in accordance with his wisdom,

        but the one who has a twisted mind is despised.

    12:10 A righteous person cares for the life of his animal,

        but even the most compassionate acts of the wicked are cruel.

    12:12 The wicked person desires a stronghold,

        but the righteous root endures.

    12:13 The evil person is ensnared by the transgression of his speech,

        but the righteous person escapes out of trouble.

    12:20 Deceit is in the heart of those who plot evil,

        but those who promote peace have joy.

    12:21 The righteous do not encounter any harm,

        but the wicked are filled with calamity.

    12:26 The righteous person is cautious in his friendship,

        but the way of the wicked leads them astray.

    12:28 In the path of righteousness there is life,

        but another path leads to death.

    *****

    13:5 The righteous person hates anything false,

        but the wicked person acts in shameful disgrace.

    13:6 Righteousness guards the one who lives with integrity,

        but wickedness overthrows the sinner.

    *****

    13:9 The light of the righteous shines brightly,

        but the lamp of the wicked goes out.

    13:17 An unreliable messenger falls into trouble,

        but a faithful envoy brings healing.

    13:19 A desire fulfilled is sweet to the soul,

        but fools abhor turning away from evil.

    13:21 Calamity pursues sinners,

        but prosperity rewards the righteous.

    13:22 A benevolent person leaves an inheritance for his grandchildren,

        but the wealth of a sinner is stored up for the righteous.

    13:25 The righteous has enough food to satisfy his appetite,

        but the belly of the wicked lacks food.

    14:2 The one who walks in his uprightness fears the Lord,

        but the one who is perverted in his ways despises him.

    14:9 Fools mock at reparation,

        but among the upright there is favor.

    14:11 The household of the wicked will be destroyed,

        but the tent of the upright will flourish.

    14:14 The backslider will be paid back from his own ways,

        but a good person will be rewarded for his.

    14:17 A person who has a quick temper does foolish things,

        and a person with crafty schemes is hated.

    14:19 Those who are evil will bow before those who are good,

        and the wicked will bow at the gates of the righteous.

    14:22 Do not those who devise evil go astray?

        But those who plan good exhibit faithful covenant love.

    14:32 The wicked will be thrown down in his trouble,

        but the righteous have refuge even in the threat of death.

    14:34 Righteousness exalts a nation,

        but sin is a disgrace to any people.

    15:3 The eyes of the Lord are in every place,

        keeping watch on those who are evil and those who are good.

    15:6 In the house of the righteous is abundant wealth,

        but the income of the wicked brings trouble.

    15:8 The Lord abhors the sacrifices of the wicked,

        but the prayer of the upright pleases him.

    15:9 The Lord abhors the way of the wicked,

        but he loves those who pursue righteousness.

    15:19 The way of the sluggard is like a hedge of thorns,

        but the path of the upright is like a highway.

    15:26 The Lord abhors the plans of the wicked,

        but pleasant words are pure.

    15:28 The heart of the righteous considers how to answer,

        but the mouth of the wicked pours out evil things.

    15:29 The Lord is far from the wicked,

        but he hears the prayer of the righteous.

    16:4 The Lord works everything for its own ends -

        even the wicked for the day of disaster.

    16:7 When a person’s ways are pleasing to the Lord,

        he even reconciles his enemies to himself.

    16:8 Better to have a little with righteousness

        than to have abundant income without justice.

    16:12 Doing wickedness is an abomination to kings,

        because a throne is established in righteousness.

    16:17 The highway of the upright is to turn away from evil;

        the one who guards his way safeguards his life.

    16:27 A wicked scoundrel digs up evil,

        and his slander is like a scorching fire.

    16:28 A perverse person spreads dissension,

        and a gossip separates the closest friends.

    16:29 A violent person entices his neighbor,

        and leads him down a path that is terrible.

    16:30 The one who winks his eyes devises perverse things,

        and one who compresses his lips brings about evil.

    16:31 Gray hair is like a crown of glory;

        it is attained in the path of righteousness.

    17:4 One who acts wickedly pays attention to evil counsel;

        a liar listens to a malicious tongue.

    17:5 The one who mocks the poor insults his Creator;

        whoever rejoices over disaster will not go unpunished.

    17:11 An evil person seeks only rebellion,

        and so a cruel messenger will be sent against him.

    17:13 As for the one who repays evil for good,

        evil will not leave his house.

    17:20 The one who has a perverse heart does not find good,

        and the one who is deceitful in speech falls into trouble.

    17:23 A wicked person receives a bribe secretly

        to pervert the ways of justice.

    18:3 When a wicked person arrives, contempt shows up with him,

        and with shame comes a reproach.

    18:5 It is terrible to show partiality to the wicked,

        by depriving a righteous man of justice.

    18:10 The name of the Lord is like a strong tower;

        the righteous person runs to it and is set safely on high.

    19:1 Better is a poor person who walks in his integrity

        than one who is perverse in his speech and is a fool.

    19:15 Laziness brings on a deep sleep,

        and the idle person will go hungry.

    19:16 The one who obeys commandments guards his life;

        the one who despises his ways will die.

    19:28 A crooked witness scorns justice,

        and the mouth of the wicked devours iniquity.

    20:7 The righteous person behaves in integrity;

        blessed are his children after him.

    20:11 Even a young man is known by his actions,

        whether his activity is pure and whether it is right.

    20:26 A wise king separates out the wicked;

        he turns the threshing wheel over them.

    20:30 Beatings and wounds cleanse away evil,

        and floggings cleanse the innermost being

    21:3 To do righteousness and justice

        is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice.

    21:4 Haughty eyes and a proud heart -

        the agricultural product of the wicked is sin.

    21:7 The violence done by the wicked will drag them away

        because they refuse to do what is right.

    21:10 The appetite of the wicked desires evil;

        his neighbor is shown no favor in his eyes.

    21:12 The Righteous One considers the house of the wicked;

        he overthrows the wicked to their ruin.

    21:15 Doing justice brings joy to the righteous

        and terror to those who do evil.

    21:18 The wicked become a ransom for the righteous,

        and the faithless are taken in the place of the upright.

    21:21 The one who pursues righteousness and love

        finds life, bounty, and honor.

    21:25 What the sluggard desires will kill him,

        for his hands refuse to work.

    21:26 All day long he craves greedily,

        but the righteous gives and does not hold back.

    21:27 The wicked person’s sacrifice is an abomination;

        how much more when he brings it with evil intent!

    21:28 A lying witness will perish,

        but the one who reports accurately speaks forever.

    22:1 A good name is to be chosen rather than great wealth,

        good favor more than silver or gold.

    22:5 Thorns and snares are in the path of the perverse,

        but the one who guards himself keeps far from them.

    22:8 Thorns and snares are in the path of the perverse,

        but the one who guards himself keeps far from them.

    25:4 Remove the dross from the silver,

        and material for the silversmith will emerge;

    25: 5 remove the wicked from before the king,

        and his throne will be established in righteousness.

    25:26 Like a muddied spring and a polluted well,

        so is a righteous person who gives way before the wicked.

    26:23 Like a coating of glaze over earthenware

        are fervent lips with an evil heart.

    26:24 The one who hates others disguises it with his lips,

        but he stores up deceit within him.

    26: 25 When he speaks graciously, do not believe him,

        for there are seven abominations within him.

    26:26 Though his hatred may be concealed by deceit,

        his evil will be uncovered in the assembly.

    28:1 The wicked person flees when there is no one pursuing,

        but the righteous person is as confident as a lion.

    28:4 Those who forsake the law praise the wicked,

        but those who keep the law contend with them.

    28:5 Evil people do not understand justice,

        but those who seek the Lord understand it all.

    28:6 A poor person who walks in his integrity is better

        than one who is perverse in his ways even though he is rich.

    28:9 The one who turns away his ear from hearing the law,

        even his prayer is an abomination.

    28:10 The one who leads the upright astray in an evil way

        will himself fall into his own pit,

        but the blameless will inherit what is good.

    28:12 When the righteous rejoice, great is the glory,

        but when the wicked rise to power, people are sought out.

    28:15 Like a roaring lion or a roving bear,

        so is a wicked ruler over a poor people.

    28:18 The one who walks blamelessly will be delivered,

        but whoever is perverse in his ways will fall at once.

    28:28 When the wicked gain control, people hide themselves,

        but when they perish, the righteous increase.

    29:2 When the righteous become numerous, the people rejoice;

        when the wicked rule, the people groan.

    29:6 In the transgression of an evil person there is a snare,

        but a righteous person can sing and rejoice.

    29:7 The righteous person cares for the legal rights of the poor;

        the wicked does not understand such knowledge.

    29:10 Bloodthirsty people hate someone with integrity;

        as for the upright, they seek his life.

    29:12 If a ruler listens to lies,

        all his ministers will be wicked.

    29: 16 When the wicked increase, transgression increases,

        but the righteous will see their downfall.

    29:24 Whoever shares with a thief is his own enemy;

        he hears the oath to testify, but does not talk.

    29:27 An unjust person is an abomination to the righteous,

        and the one who lives an upright life is an abomination to the wicked.

SPEECH

1B. Cursing Speech

    20:20 The one who curses his father and his mother,

        his lamp will be extinguished in the blackest darkness.

    26:2 Like a fluttering bird or like a flying swallow,

        so a curse without cause does not come to rest.

    27:14 . If someone blesses his neighbor with a loud voice early in the morning,

        it will be counted as a curse to him.

    28:27 The one who gives to the poor will not lack,

        but whoever shuts his eyes to them will receive many curses.

2B. Flattering Speech

    26:28 A lying tongue hates those crushed by it,

        and a flattering mouth works ruin.

    28:23 The one who reproves another will in the end find more favor

        than the one who flatters with the tongue.

    29:5 The one who flatters his neighbor

        spreads a net for his steps.

3B. Gossiping Speech

    10:18 The one who conceals hatred utters lies,

        and the one who spreads slander is certainly a fool.

    11:13 The one who goes about slandering others reveals secrets,

        but the one who is trustworthy conceals a matter.

    16:28 A perverse person spreads dissension,

        and a gossip separates the closest friends.

    17:9 The one who forgives an offense seeks love,

        but whoever repeats a matter separates close friends.

    18:8 The words of a gossip are like choice morsels;

        they go down into the person’s innermost being.

    20:19 The one who goes about gossiping reveals secrets;

        therefore do not associate with someone who is always opening his mouth.

    26:20 Where there is no wood, a fire goes out,

        and where there is no gossip, contention ceases.

    26:22 The words of a gossip are like delicious morsels;

        they go down into a person’s innermost being.

4B. Lying Speech

    10:18 The one who conceals hatred utters lies,

        and the one who spreads slander is certainly a fool.

    12:17 The faithful witness tells what is right,

        but a false witness speaks deceit.

    12:19 The one who tells the truth will endure forever,

        but the one who lies will last only for a moment.

    12:22 The Lord abhors a person who lies,

        but those who deal truthfully are his delight.

    15:4 Speech that heals is like a life-giving tree,

        but a perverse tongue breaks the spirit.

    16:13 The delight of kings is righteous counsel,

        and they love the one who speaks uprightly.

    17:7 Excessive speech is not becoming for a fool;

        how much less are lies for a ruler!

    17:20 The one who has a perverse heart does not find good,

        and the one who is deceitful in speech falls into trouble.

    21:6 Making a fortune by a lying tongue is like a vapor driven back and forth;

        they seek death.

    26:28 A lying tongue hates those crushed by it,

        and a flattering mouth works ruin.

5B. General Speech

    10:6 Blessings are on the head of the righteous,

        but the speech of the wicked conceals violence.

    10:11 The teaching of the righteous is a fountain of life,

        but the speech of the wicked conceals violence.

    10:13 Wisdom is found in the words of the discerning person,

        but the one who lacks wisdom will be disciplined.

    10:14 Those who are wise store up knowledge,

        but foolish speech leads to imminent destruction.

    10:18 The one who conceals hatred utters lies,

        and the one who spreads slander is certainly a fool.

    10:19 When words abound, transgression is inevitable,

        but the one who restrains his words is wise.

    10:20 What the righteous say is like the best silver,

        but what the wicked think is of little value.

    10:21 The teaching of the righteous feeds many,

        but fools die for lack of wisdom.

    10:31 The speech of the righteous bears the fruit of wisdom,

        but the one who speaks perversion will be destroyed.

    10:32 The lips of the righteous know what is pleasing,

        but the speech of the wicked is perverse.

    11:9 With his speech the godless person destroys his neighbor,

        but by knowledge the righteous will be delivered.

    11:11 A city is exalted by the blessing provided from the upright,

        but it is destroyed by the counsel of the wicked.

    11:12 The one who denounces his neighbor lacks wisdom,

        but the one who has discernment keeps silent.

    12:6 The words of the wicked lie in wait to shed innocent blood,

        but the words of the upright will deliver them.

    12:13 The evil person is ensnared by the transgression of his speech,

        but the righteous person escapes out of trouble.

    12:14 A person will be satisfied with good from the fruit of his words,

        and the work of his hands will be rendered to him.

    12:18 Speaking recklessly is like the thrusts of a sword,

        but the words of the wise bring healing.

    12:25 Anxiety in a person’s heart weighs him down,

        but an encouraging word brings him joy.

    13:2 From the fruit of his speech a person eats good things,

        but the faithless desire the fruit of violence.

    13:3 The one who guards his words guards his life,

        but whoever is talkative will come to ruin.

    14:3 In the speech of a fool is a rod for his back,

        but the words of the wise protect them.

    14:7 Leave the presence of a foolish person,

        or you will not understand wise counsel.

    15:1 A gentle response turns away anger,

        but a harsh word stirs up wrath.

    15:2 The tongue of the wise treats knowledge correctly,

        but the mouth of the fool spouts out folly.

    15:4 Speech that heals is like a life-giving tree,

        but a perverse tongue breaks the spirit.

    15:7 The lips of the wise spread knowledge,

        but not so the heart of fools.

    15:14 The discerning heart seeks knowledge,

        but the mouth of fools feeds on folly.

    15:23 A person has joy in giving an appropriate answer,

        and a word at the right time - how good it is!

    15:28 The heart of the righteous considers how to answer,

        but the mouth of the wicked pours out evil things.

    16:1 The intentions of the heart belong to a man,

        but the answer of the tongue comes from the Lord.

    16:10 The divine verdict is in the words of the king,

        his pronouncements must not act treacherously against justice.

    16:13 The delight of kings is righteous counsel,

        and they love the one who speaks uprightly.

    16:21 The one who is wise in heart is called discerning,

        and kind speech increases persuasiveness.

    16:23 A wise person’s heart makes his speech wise

        and it adds persuasiveness to his words.

    16:24 Pleasant words are like a honeycomb,

        sweet to the soul and healing to the bones.

    16:27 A wicked scoundrel digs up evil,

        and his slander is like a scorching fire.

    17:4 One who acts wickedly pays attention to evil counsel;

        a liar listens to a malicious tongue.

    17:7 Excessive speech is not becoming for a fool;

        how much less are lies for a ruler!

    17:27 The truly wise person restrains his words,

        and the one who stays calm is discerning.

    17:28 Even a fool who remains silent is considered wise,

        and the one who holds his tongue is deemed discerning.

    18:2 A fool takes no pleasure in understanding

        but only in disclosing what is on his mind.

    18:4 The words of a person’s mouth are like deep waters,

        and the fountain of wisdom is like a flowing brook.

    18:6 The lips of a fool enter into strife,

        and his mouth invites a flogging.

    18:7 The mouth of a fool is his ruin,

        and his lips are a snare for his life.

    18:13 The one who gives an answer before he listens -

        that is his folly and his shame.

    18:20 From the fruit of a person’s mouth his stomach is satisfied,

        with the product of his lips is he satisfied.

    18:21 Death and life are in the power of the tongue,

        and those who love its use will eat its fruit.

    19:1 Better is a poor person who walks in his integrity

        than one who is perverse in his speech and is a fool.

    19:28 A crooked witness scorns justice,

        and the mouth of the wicked devours iniquity.

    20:15 There is gold, and an abundance of rubies,

        but words of knowledge are like a precious jewel.

    20:19 The one who goes about gossiping reveals secrets;

        therefore do not associate with someone who is always opening his mouth.

    20:25 It is a snare for a person to rashly cry, “Holy!“

        and only afterward to consider what he has vowed.

    21:23 The one who guards his mouth and his tongue

        keeps his life from troubles.

    22:11 The one who loves a pure heart

        and whose speech is gracious - the king will be his friend.

    22:14 The mouth of an adulteress is like a deep pit;

        the one against whom the Lord is angry will fall into it.

    25:11 Like apples of gold in settings of silver,

        so is a word skillfully spoken.

    25:15 Through patience a ruler can be persuaded,

        and a soft tongue can break a bone.

    25:23 The north wind brings forth rain,

        and a gossiping tongue brings forth an angry look.

    26:23 Like a coating of glaze over earthenware

        are fervent lips with an evil heart.

    26:24 The one who hates others disguises it with his lips,

        but he stores up deceit within him.

    26:25 When he speaks graciously, do not believe him,

        for there are seven abominations within him.

    26:26 Though his hatred may be concealed by deceit,

        his evil will be uncovered in the assembly.

    27:2 Let another praise you, and not your own mouth;

        someone else, and not your own lips.

    29:20 Do you see someone who is hasty in his words?

        There is more hope for a fool than for him.

UNDERSTANDING

Understanding is a character trait arising from intimacy with God that enables one to discern true insight into the essence of a matter (or life, etc.) as seen from God’s perspective.

    10:23 Carrying out a wicked scheme is enjoyable to a fool,

        and so is wisdom for the one who has discernment.

    11:12 The one who denounces his neighbor lacks wisdom,

        but the one who has discernment keeps silent.

    13:15 Keen insight wins favor,

        but the conduct of the unfaithful is harsh.

    14:6 The scorner seeks wisdom but finds none,

        but understanding is easy for a discerning person.

    14:29 The one who is slow to anger has great understanding,

        but the one who has a quick temper exalts folly.

    15:21 Folly is a joy to one who lacks sense,

        but one who has understanding follows an upright course.

    15:32 The one who refuses correction despises himself,

        but whoever hears reproof acquires understanding.

    16:16 How much better it is to acquire wisdom than gold;

        to acquire understanding is more desirable than silver.

    16:22 Insight is like a life-giving fountain to the one who possesses it,

        but folly leads to the discipline of fools.

    17:27 The truly wise person restrains his words,

        and the one who stays calm is discerning.

    18:2 A fool takes no pleasure in understanding

        but only in disclosing what is on his mind..

    19: 8 The one who acquires wisdom loves himself;

        the one who preserves understanding will prosper.

    20:5 Counsel in a person’s heart is like deep water,

        but an understanding person draws it out.

    20:24 The steps of a person are ordained by the Lord -

        so how can anyone understand his own way?

    21:16 The one who wanders from the way of wisdom

        will end up in the company of the departed.

    28: 2 When a country is rebellious it has many princes,

        but by someone who is discerning and knowledgeable order is maintained.

    28:5 Evil people do not understand justice,

        but those who seek the Lord understand it all.

    29:19 A servant cannot be corrected by words,

        for although he understands, there is no answer.

VIOLENCE

    10:6 Blessings are on the head of the righteous,

        but the speech of the wicked conceals violence.

    10:11 The teaching of the righteous is a fountain of life,

        but the speech of the wicked conceals violence.

    13:2 From the fruit of his speech a person eats good things,

        but the faithless desire the fruit of violence.

    16:29 A violent person entices his neighbor,

        and leads him down a path that is terrible.

    21:7 The violence done by the wicked will drag them away

        because they refuse to do what is right.

WISDOM/WISE

    10:5 The one who gathers crops in the summer is a wise son,

        but the one who sleeps during the harvest

        is a son who brings shame to himself.

    10:8 The wise person accepts instructions,

        but the one who speaks foolishness will come to ruin.

    10:11 The teaching of the righteous is a fountain of life,

        but the speech of the wicked conceals violence.

    10:13 Wisdom is found in the words of the discerning person,

        but the one who lacks wisdom will be disciplined.

    10:14 Those who are wise store up knowledge,

        but foolish speech leads to imminent destruction.

    10:23 Carrying out a wicked scheme is enjoyable to a fool,

        and so is wisdom for the one who has discernment.

    10:31 The speech of the righteous bears the fruit of wisdom,

        but the one who speaks perversion will be destroyed.

    11:2 When pride comes, then comes disgrace,

        but with humility comes wisdom.

    11:29 The one who troubles his family will inherit nothing,

        and the fool will be a servant to the wise person.

    12:8 A person is praised in accordance with his wisdom,

        but the one who has a twisted mind is despised.

    12:15 The way of a fool is right in his own opinion,

        but the one who listens to advice is wise.

    12:18 Speaking recklessly is like the thrusts of a sword,

        but the words of the wise bring healing.

    13:1 A wise son accepts his father’s discipline,

        but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke.

    13:10 With pride comes only contention,

        but wisdom is with the well-advised.

    13:14 Instruction from the wise is like a life-giving fountain,

        to turn a person from deadly snares.

    13:20 The one who associates with the wise grows wise,

        but a companion of fools suffers harm.

    14:1 Every wise woman builds her household,

        but a foolish woman tears it down with her own hands.

    14:3 In the speech of a fool is a rod for his back,

        but the words of the wise protect them.

    14:6 The scorner seeks wisdom but finds none,

        but understanding is easy for a discerning person.

    14:8 The wisdom of the shrewd person is to discern his way,

        but the folly of fools is deception.

    14:16 A wise person is cautious and turns from evil,

        but a fool throws off restraint and is overconfident.

    14:24 The crown of the wise is their riches,

        but the folly of fools is folly.

    14:33 Wisdom rests in the heart of the discerning;

        it is known even in the heart of fools.

    14:35 The king shows favor to a wise servant,

        but his wrath falls on one who acts shamefully.

    15:2 The tongue of the wise treats knowledge correctly,

        but the mouth of the fool spouts out folly.

    15:7 The lips of the wise spread knowledge,

        but not so the heart of fools.

    15:12 The scorner does not love one who corrects him;

        he will not go to the wise.

    15:14 The discerning heart seeks knowledge,

        but the mouth of fools feeds on folly.

    15:20 A wise child brings joy to his father,

        but a foolish person despises his mother.

    15:24 The path of life is upward for the wise person,

        to keep him from going downward to Sheol.

    15:31 The person who hears the reproof that leads to life

        is at home among the wise.

    15:33 The fear of the Lord provides wise instruction,

        and before honor comes humility.

    16:14 A king’s wrath is like a messenger of death,

        but a wise person appeases it.

    16:16 How much better it is to acquire wisdom than gold;

        to acquire understanding is more desirable than silver.

    16:21 The one who is wise in heart is called discerning,

        and kind speech increases persuasiveness.

    16:23 A wise person’s heart makes his speech wise

        and it adds persuasiveness to his words.

    17:2 A servant who acts wisely will rule over an heir who behaves shamefully,

        and will share the inheritance along with the relatives.

    17:16 Of what use is money in the hand of a fool,

        since he has no intention of acquiring wisdom?

    17:24 Wisdom is directly in front of the discerning person,

        but the eyes of a fool run to the ends of the earth.

    17:28 Even a fool who remains silent is considered wise,

        and the one who holds his tongue is deemed discerning.

    18:4 The words of a person’s mouth are like deep waters,

        and the fountain of wisdom is like a flowing brook.

    18:15 The discerning person acquires knowledge,

        and the wise person seeks knowledge.

    19:8 The one who acquires wisdom loves himself;

        the one who preserves understanding will prosper.

    19:11 A person’s wisdom makes him slow to anger,

        and it is his glory to overlook an offense.

    19:20 Listen to advice and receive discipline,

        that you may become wise by the end of your life.

    20:1 Wine is a mocker and strong drink is a brawler;

        whoever goes astray by them is not wise.

    20:26 A wise king separates out the wicked;

        he turns the threshing wheel over them.

    21:11 When a scorner is punished, the naive becomes wise;

        when a wise person is instructed, he gains knowledge.

    21:20 There is desirable treasure and olive oil in the dwelling of the wise,

        but a foolish person devours all he has.

    21:22 The wise person can scale the city of the mighty

        and bring down the stronghold in which they trust.

    21:30 There is no wisdom and there is no understanding,

        and there is no counsel against the Lord.

    25:12 Like an earring of gold and an ornament of fine gold,

        so is a wise reprover to the ear of the one who listens.

    27:11 Be wise, my son, and make my heart glad,

        so that I may answer anyone who taunts me.

    28:26 The one who trusts in his own heart is a fool,

        but the one who walks in wisdom will escape.

    29:3 The man who loves wisdom brings joy to his father,

        but whoever associates with prostitutes wastes his wealth.

    29:8 Scornful people inflame a city,

        but those who are wise turn away wrath.

    29:9 If a wise person goes to court with a foolish person,

        there is no peace whether he is angry or laughs.

    29:11 A fool lets fly with all his temper,

        but a wise person keeps it back.

    29:15 A rod and reproof impart wisdom,

        but a child who is unrestrained brings shame to his mother.

WORK (See also Diligence/Laziness)

    10:5 The one who gathers crops in the summer is a wise son,

        but the one who sleeps during the harvest is a son who brings shame to himself.

    12:11 The one who works his field will have plenty of food,

        but whoever chases daydreams lacks wisdom.

    12:14 The one who works his field will have plenty of food,

        but whoever chases daydreams lacks wisdom.

    14:23 In all hard work there is profit,

        but merely talking about it only brings poverty.

    16:26 A laborer’s appetite works on his behalf,

        for his hunger urges him to work.

    18:9 The one who is slack in his work

        is a brother to one who destroys.

    27:18 The one who tends a fig tree will eat its fruit,

        and whoever takes care of his master will be honore

    *****

    27:23 Pay careful attention to the condition of your flocks,

        give careful attention to your herds,

    27: 24 for riches do not last forever,

        nor does a crown last from generation to generation.

    27: 25 When the hay is removed and new grass appears,

        and the grass from the hills is gathered in,

    27: 26 the lambs will be for your clothing,

        and the goats will be for the price of a field.

    27:27 And there will be enough goat’s milk for your food,

        for the food of your household,

        and for the sustenance of your servant girls.

    *****

    28:19 The one who works his land will be satisfied with food,

        but whoever chases daydreams will have his fill of poverty.

3A. 3A. Thirty sayings of the wise

22:22:17-24:22

        22:17 Incline your ear and listen to the words of the wise,

            and apply your heart to my instruction.

        22:18 For it is pleasing if you keep these sayings within you,

            and they are ready on your lips.

        22:19 So that your confidence may be in the Lord,

            I am making them known to you today - even you.

        22:20 Have I not written thirty sayings for you,

            sayings of counsel and knowledge,

        22:21 to show you true and reliable words,

            so that you may give accurate answers to those who sent you?

        1B. 22:22 Do not exploit a poor person because he is poor

              and do not crush the needy in court,

        22:23 for the Lord will plead their case

              and will rob those who are robbing them.

        2B. 22:24 Do not make friends with an angry person,

              and do not associate with a wrathful person,

        22:25 lest you learn his ways

              and entangle yourself in a snare.

        3B. 22:26 Do not be one who strikes hands in pledge

              or who puts up security for debts.

        22:27 If you do not have enough to pay,

              your bed will be taken right out from under you!

        4B. 22:28 Do not move an ancient boundary stone

              which was put in place by your ancestors.

        5B. 22:29 Do you see a person skilled in his work?

              He will take his position before kings;

              he will not take his position before obscure people.

        6B. 23:1 When you sit down to eat with a ruler,

              consider carefully what is before you,

        23:2 and put a knife to your throat

              if you possess a large appetite.

        23:3 Do not crave that ruler’s delicacies,

              for that food is deceptive.

        7B. 23:4 Do not wear yourself out to become rich;

              be wise enough to restrain yourself.

        23:5 When you gaze upon riches, they are gone,

              for they surely make wings for themselves,

              and fly off into the sky like an eagle!

        8B. 23:6 Do not eat the food of a stingy person,

              do not crave his delicacies;

        23:7 for he is like someone calculating the cost in his mind.

              “Eat and drink,“ he says to you,

              but his heart is not with you;

        23: 8 you will vomit up the little bit you have eaten,

              and will have wasted your pleasant words.

        9B. 23:9 Do not speak in the ears of a fool,

              for he will despise the wisdom of your words.

        10B. 23:10 Do not move an ancient boundary stone,

              or take over the fields of the fatherless,

        23:11 for their Protector is strong;

              he will plead their case against you.

        11B. 23:12 Apply your heart to instruction

              and your ears to the words of knowledge.

        12B. 23:13 Do not withhold discipline from a child;

              even if you strike him with the rod, he will not die.

        23:14 If you strike him with the rod,

              you will deliver him from death.

        13B. 23:15 My child, if your heart is wise,

              then my heart also will be glad;

        23:16 my soul will rejoice

              when your lips speak what is right.

        14B. 23:17 Do not let your heart envy sinners,

              but rather be zealous in fearing the Lord all the time.

        23:18 For surely there is a future,

              and your hope will not be cut off.

        15B. 23:19 Listen, my child, and be wise,

              and guide your heart on the right way.

        23:20 Do not spend time among drunkards,

              among those who eat too much meat,

        23:21 because drunkards and gluttons become impoverished,

              and drowsiness clothes them with rags.

        16B. 23:22 Listen to your father, who gave you life,

              and do not despise your mother when she is old.

        23:23 Acquire truth and do not sell it -

              wisdom, and discipline, and understanding.

        23:24 The father of a righteous person will rejoice greatly;

              whoever fathers a wise child will have joy in him.

        23:25 May your father and your mother have joy;

              may she who bore you rejoice.

        17B. 23:26 Give me your heart, my son,

              and let your eyes observe my ways;

        23:27 for a prostitute is like a deep pit;

              a harlot is like a narrow well.

        23: 28 Indeed, she lies in wait like a robber,

              and increases the unfaithful among men.

        18B. 23:29 Who has woe? Who has sorrow?

              Who has contentions? Who has complaints?

              Who has wounds without cause? Who has dullness of the eyes?

        23:30 Those who linger over wine,

              those who go looking for mixed wine.

        23:31 Do not look on the wine when it is red,

              when it sparkles in the cup,

              when it goes down smoothly.

        23:32 Afterward it bites like a snake,

              and stings like a viper.

        23:33 Your eyes will see strange things,

              and your mind will speak perverse things.

        23:34 And you will be like one who lies down in the midst of the sea,

              and like one who lies down on the top of the rigging.

        23:35 You will say, “They have struck me, but I am not harmed!

              They beat me, but I did not know it!

              When will I awake? I will look for another drink.“

        19B. 24:1 Do not envy evil people,

              do not desire to be with them;

        24:2 for their hearts contemplate violence,

              and their lips speak harm.

        20B. 24:3 By wisdom a house is built,

              and through understanding it is established;

        24:4 by knowledge its rooms are filled

              with all kinds of precious and pleasing treasures.

        21B. 24:5 A wise warrior is strong,

              and a man of knowledge makes his strength stronger;

        24:6 for with guidance you wage your war,

              and with numerous advisers there is victory.

        22B. 24:7 Wisdom is unattainable for a fool;

              in court he does not open his mouth.

        23B. 24:8 The one who plans to do evil

              will be called a scheming person.

        24: 9 A foolish scheme is sin,

              and the scorner is an abomination to people.

        24B. 24:10 If you faint in the day of trouble,

              your strength is small!

        25B. 24:11 Deliver those being taken away to death,

              and hold back those slipping to the slaughter.

        24:12 If you say, “But we did not know about this,“

              does not the one who evaluates hearts consider?

              Does not the one who guards your life know?

              Will he not repay each person according to his deeds?

        26B. 24:13 Eat honey, my child, for it is good,

              and honey from the honeycomb is sweet to your taste.

        24:14 Likewise, know that wisdom is sweet to your soul;

              if you find it, you will have a future,

              and your hope will not be cut off.

    .

        27B. 24:15 Do not lie in wait like the wicked against the place where the

        righteous live;

              do not assault his home.

        24:16 Although a righteous person may fall seven times, he gets up again,

              but the wicked will be brought down by calamity.

        28B. 24:17 Do not rejoice when your enemy falls,

              and when he stumbles do not let your heart rejoice,

        24:18 lest the Lord see it, and be displeased,

              and turn his wrath a way from him.

        29B. 24:19 Do not fret because of evil people

              or be envious of wicked people,

        24:20 for the evil person has no future,

              and the lamp of the wicked will be extinguished.

        30B. 24:21 Fear the Lord, my child, as well as the king,

              and do not associate with rebels,

        24:22 for suddenly their destruction will overtake them,

              and who knows the ruinous judgment both the Lord and the king

              can bring?

4A. Further saying of the wise

24:23-34

        24:23 These sayings also are from the wise:

            To show partiality in judgment is terrible:

        24:24 The one who says to the guilty, “You are innocent,“

            peoples will curse him, and nations will denounce him.

        24:25 But there will be delight for those who convict the guilty,

            and a pleasing blessing will come on them.

        24:26 Like a kiss on the lips

            is the one who gives an honest answer.

        24:27 Establish your work outside and get your fields ready;

            afterward build your house.

        24:28 Do not be a witness against your neighbor without cause,

            and do not deceive with your words.

        24:29 Do not say, “I will do to him just as he has done to me;

            I will pay him back according to what he has done.“

        24:30 I passed by the field of a sluggard,

            by the vineyard of one who lacks wisdom.

        24:31 I saw that thorns had grown up all over it,

            the ground was covered with weeds,

            and its stone wall was broken down.

        24:32 When I saw this, I gave careful consideration to it;

            I received instruction from what I saw:

        24:33 “A little sleep, a little slumber,

            a little folding of the hands to relax,

        24:34 and your poverty will come like a bandit,

            and your need like an armed robber.

    5A. The sayings of Agur

    30:1-33

    1B. Introduction

    30:1

    2B. Knowledge about God

    30:2-9

    1C. Man in contrast to God

    30:2-4

    2C. The Word of God

    30:5-6

    3C. Priorities in prayer

    30:7-9

    3B. Observations about life

    30:10-33

    1C. Man's sinfulness

    30:10-14

    2C. Things never satisfied

    30:15-16

    3C. The importance of obedience

    30:17

    4C. Four amazing ways

    30:18-19

    5C. The way of an adulteress

    30:20

    6C. Four big problems

    30:21-23

    7C. Four small wise creatures

    30:24-28

    8C. Four things with stately bearing

    30:29-31

    9C. The danger of pride and evil

    30:32-33

    6A. The sayings of King Lemuel

    31:1-9

    1B. Advice concerning women

    31:1-3

    2B. Advice on moderation

    31:4-7

    3B. Advice on the helpless

    31:8-9

    7A. Epilogue: The Acrostic Poem on the Noble Wife

    31:10-33

        This acrostic poem corresponds to the prologue. The woman of noble character epitomizes wisdom which is often personified as a woman in the introduction (1:8-9:18). The following outline is taken from “The Meaning and Function of Proverbs 31:10-31 in the Book of Proverbs” (Tom R. Hawkins, Ph.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1995). The ideal woman’s contribution and character is summarized from the perspective of her entire lifetime. The outline is based on the exposition contained in the dissertation.

1B. The Worth and Work of the Noble Wife

31:10-18

1C. Her Worth to Her Husband

31:10-12

2C. Her Work in Selecting Raw Materials

31:13

3C. Her Work in Providing Food

31:14-15

4C. Her Work in Producing a Profitable Business

31:16-18

2B. The Noble Wife’s Hands

31:19-20

1C. Producing Thread

31:19

2C. Extending to the Poor

31:20

3B. The Accomplishments and Praise of the Noble Wife

31:21-29

1C. The Noble Wife’s Provision for Her Family

31:21-25

1D. Luxurious Clothing for Her Family

31:21

2D. Coverings for Her Bed and Fine Clothing for Herself

31:22

3D. A Respected Position of Leadership for Her Husband

31:23

4D. Financial Security Giving Assurance for the Future

31:24-25

2C. The Noble Wife’s Praiseworthy Character Qualities

31:26-27

1D. Her Wise Words and Gentle/Reliable Instruction

31:26

2D. Her Diligent Supervision of the Household

31:27

3C. The Noble Wife Praised by Her Family

31:28-29

1D. Her Children

31:28

2D. Her Husband

31:29

4B. The Poet’s Coda of Praise

31:30-31

1C. Praise of the Noble Wife’s Character Based on the “Fear of Yahweh”

31:30

2C. Praise of the Noble Wife’s Works at the City Gate

31:31


1 Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (1:903). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

2 From Bruce K. Waltke, Ph.D., Dallas Seminary Class notes on Wisdom Literature, circa 1968)

3 Biblical Studies Press. (2006; 2006). The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press. The freee online Bible is available from www.bible.org.

4 Verses groupings separated by ***** indicate that adjacent verses are on a common theme.

Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines