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Chapter Four: Lexical/Syntactical Analysis of 1 Timothy 2:15

Introduction

The length of this chapter in comparison to the remainder of the thesis provides some indication of the level of lexical and syntactical difficulty which exists surrounding the interpretation of 1 Tim 2:15. The following five sections analyze the elements of the verse individually: the meaning of swqhvsetai, the force of diav, the sense of teknogoniva", the conditional clause, and the issue of subjects. Within each section, conclusions are tentative with the recognition that no one element can be fully understood in isolation from the others. A final section summarizes and correlates significant observations and conclusions from each section.

The Meaning of Swqhvsetai in 1 Tim 2:15

Central to grasping the entire phrase found in 1 Tim 2:15 is the meaning of swqhvsetai, which appears first in the sentence. Even in our modern English-speaking church, the verb "to save," though commonly spoken and full of meaning, remains difficult to define for many Christians! Since the beginning of the church, this verb has described the Christian experience with God through Christ, yet its own definition is quite elusive and often misunderstood. This section begins a journey into the difficult appearance of sw/vzw in 1 Tim 2:15. The first sub-section comprises the bulk of the discussion and presents the results of a word study involving the usage of sw/vzw in the entire New Testament, focusing finally on the works of Paul and the Pastorals. The second sub-section draws out significant conclusions from the previous sections concerning the meaning of sw/vzw in the verse at hand.

Sw/vzw in the New Testament

The following sections examine the usage of sw/vzw in three major sections of the New Testament: the Gospels and Acts, the General Epistles and Revelation, and the writings of Paul. Such an overview will provide insight into the range of meaning and usage of this verb as employed by the writers of Scripture and understood by the first readers of Scripture.

Sw/vzw in the Gospels and Acts

Two basic categories of meaning are found in the Gospels and the book of Acts for sw/vzw. Not surprisingly, these two groups of meaning involve spiritual deliverance and physical rescue. The range of meaning and usage within each category are outlined below.

1. To save or deliver from eternal damnation and punishment

a. active verbs with a divine subject, describes the action of God or Christ in ultimately saving sinners (Matt 1:21, 18:11; Luke 19:10; John 12:47)

b. active verbs with a non-divine subject, describes the action of people or things which mediate God's salvation (Matt 16:25; Mark 8:35, 8:35; Luke 7:50, 9:24, 9:24; Acts 2:40131)

c. passive verbs, describes the spiritual salvation from eternal punishment received by the subject most often with no agent explicitly named (Matt 10:22, 19:25, 24:13, 24:22; Mark 10:26, 13:13, 13:20, 16:16; Luke 8:12, 13:23, 18:26; John 5:34, 10:9; Acts 2:21, 2:47, 15:1, 16:30, 16:31), but sometimes the agent is named (John 3:17, 10:9; Acts 4:12, 11:14, 15:11)

2. To rescue or deliver from some physical danger

a. healing from sickness or disease (Matt 9:21, 9:22, 9:22; Mark 5:23, 5:28, 5:34, 6:56, 10:52; Luke 8:36, 8:48, 17:19, 18:42; John 11:12; Acts 4:9, 14:9)

b. rescue from physical death of the body (Matt 8:25, 14:30, 27:40, 27:42, 27:42, 27:29; Mark 3:4, 15:30, 15:31, 15:31; Luke 6:9, 8:50, 23:35, 23:37, 23:39; Acts 27:20, 27:31)

c. rescue or deliverance from a dangerous situation (John 12:27)

In the Gospels and Acts, sw/vzw enjoys a wide range of usage, each of which is distinguished by contextual clues. The notion of spiritual salvation has special depth of meaning in these books. Salvation is the action of God and his son, Jesus, as they are the subjects of the active form of the word and the agents expressed with the passive forms. This spiritual salvation is connected with faith (Luke 7:50), forgiveness of sins (Matt 1:21), entering the kingdom (Matt 19:25), belief (Acts 16:31) and is applied to those who are "lost" (Matt 18:11, Luke 19:10). Salvation is pictured as an accomplished fact for those who believe (Acts 2:21), but there are sometimes hints of a future redemption in the use of swv/zw, especially when the future passive form is used.132 The majority of occurrences of the future passive form, however, simply point to a time in the future from the speaker's perspective and present salvation as the outcome of another event. For example, Matt 1:21 speaks of the unborn Jesus as the one who will save his people from their sins, and Acts 16:31 pleads for readers to believe and they will be saved.133 In these instances the future form is used simply to indicate an action that will occur subsequent to the time of the speaker or another event.

The phrase "your faith has saved (healed) you" is common to the "physical healing" use of sw/vzw.134 In Luke 7:50, this same phrase is used to refer to the spiritual salvation that accompanies forgiveness of sins. It seems that the choice of this verb (sw/vzw) in reference to the physical healings performed by Jesus and his disciples may hint at the connection between the two ideas: Christ's physical healing power and the saving power of faith to go beyond the healing experienced in physical life.135

Sw/vzw in the General Epistles and Revelation

The categories of meaning which appear in the Gospels and Acts each appear in the General Epistles (in lesser number of course), yet with one small exception: the passive form of sw/vzw does not occur with the agent specifically named. The verb does not occur at all in 2 Pet, the epistles of John, or the book of Revelation. The following outline reveals the categories and usage for the remaining epistles.

1. To save or deliver from eternal damnation and punishment

a. active verbs with a divine subject, describes the action of God or Christ in ultimately saving sinners (Heb 7:25; Jas 4:12)

b. active verbs with a non-divine subject, describes the action of people or things which mediate God's salvation (Jas 1:21, 2:14, 5:20; 1 Pet 3:21; Jude 23)

c. passive verbs, describes the spiritual salvation from eternal punishment received by the subject with no agent explicitly named (1 Pet 4:18), none appear in which the agent is named

2. To rescue or deliver from some physical danger

a. healing from sickness or disease (Jas 5:15)

b. rescue from physical death of the body (Heb 5:7)

c. rescue or deliverance from a dangerous situation (Jude 5)

The most popular use for sw/vzw in these general epistles is the idea of spiritual salvation, and more specifically, the active form of the verb with a subject other than God or Christ. It is within this category that some of the most difficult passages concerning salvation are found. For instance, baptism and other Christians serve as the subjects who act to save others from eternal punishment in 1 Pet 3:21, Jas 5:20, and Jude 23, and James questions whether faith without works is salvific in 2:14. It seems that in most of these epistles the focus is on future salvation and the coming glory of the end times. In 1 Peter, the content of salvation is the coming glory of the end-time redemption.136 James and Jude both have references to the last judgment and the deliverance God will provide at that time.137 Additionally, the book of Hebrews centers on the future coming salvation, while typically viewing this salvation as already present in some form.138 This preoccupation with the future salvation and redemption awaiting Christians helps to explain the prominent role which the present obedience and actions of believers enjoy in these passages concerning salvation.

Sw/vzw in Paul's Writings

Paul's use of sw/vzw reflects his own personal style, purpose, and mission in writing his epistles and thus gives special insight into the possible range of meaning for the occurrence in 1 Tim 2:15. This section is further divided into two subsections, the first of which discusses Paul's use of sw/vzw outside the Pastorals and the second of which examines the uses within the Pastoral Epistles.

Sw/vzw Outside the Pastoral Epistles

Romans and 1 Corinthians contain the bulk of the occurrences of sw/vzw in these epistles, while 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, 1 Thessalonians, and 2 Thessalonians each use the verb less than three times.139 Sw/vzw does not appear at all in Philippians, Colossians, or Philemon. The distinctive characteristic of Paul's use of sw/vzw in these epistles is the absence of any occurrence involving the idea of physical rescue or deliverance.

1. To save or deliver from eternal damnation and punishment

a. active verbs with a divine subject, describes the action of God or Christ in ultimately saving sinners (1 Cor 1:21)

b. active verbs with a non-divine subject, describes the action of people or things which mediate God's salvation (Rom 11:14; 1 Cor 7:16, 7:16, 9:22)

c. passive verbs, describes the spiritual salvation from eternal punishment received by the subject most often with no agent explicitly named (Rom 8:24, 9:27, 10:9, 10:13, 11:26; 1 Cor 1:18, 3:15, 5:5, 10:33; 2 Cor 2:15; 1 Thess 2:16; 2 Thess 2:10), but sometimes the agent is named (Rom 5:9, 5:10; 1 Cor 15:2; Eph 2:5, 2:8)

As was stated above, the most remarkable observation concerning Paul's use of sw/vzw in these epistles is the absence of any reference toward physical rescue or deliverance, whether from sickness, death, or danger. Paul appears to have limited his use of the word quite intentionally to the relationship between God and man, choosing to use a form of rjuvomai when referring to physical deliverance.140 The major concern of Paul's life and ministry was the spiritual salvation of the souls of mankind and this is reflected in his use of sw/vzw.

A second observation surfaces from this portion of the word study: Paul's use of sw/vzw in these epistles expresses the comprehensive nature of salvation. Paul is conscious of and expresses an inner relationship between the present and future realities of salvation.141 Paul often utilizes sw/vzw as a future, eschatological term.142 This final salvation is the goal which believers press toward and is concerned with deliverance from God's wrath on the day of judgment and with the conformation of believers to the image of Christ.143 This idea is most clearly seen in Rom 5:9-10 where the accomplished facts of justification and reconciliation are compared to the future salvation of believers from the wrath of God by the life of his Son.144 Paul's use of sw/vzw, however, also presents salvation as a present reality connected to the reception of the gospel.145 Romans 8:24 uses the aorist form of sw/vzw to reveal salvation as an accomplished fact. The context of this statement is the pains and groaning believers experience as they await their full adoption and the full redemption of their bodies, both of which are connected with final salvation. It is in the hope of this final redemption that believers were saved (aorist use of sw/vzw). Ephesians 2:5-10 provides an example of the comprehensive nature of sw/vzw in the epistles of Paul. The verb appears twice as a perfect participle in this passage in identical phrases, "by grace you have been saved." The picture here is of a salvation that is a fact accomplished by the work of God, yet final redemption is also connected. The future aspect of salvation is not only found in the perfect tense which signifies ongoing results or consequences, but in the references to being seated in the heavenly places with Christ and the expression of Christ's rich kindness and grace in the ages to come. In these epistles, sw/vzw is a comprehensive term for the saving action of God. Depending on context, its focus may be on the future redemption from wrath and to Christlikeness as distinguished from the accomplished facts of reconciliation, justification, and forgiveness; it may center its meaning on these accomplished facts, or it may include both aspects.

A third and final observation concerning Paul's use of sw/vzw in these epistles involves the use of the future tense. Certain uses of the future tense involve the idea of future or final salvation including Rom 5:9, 5:10, and 1 Cor 3:15. Most uses of the future tense, however, simply denote the saving action will occur in a time subsequent to the time of the speaker or another event.146 Two verses, Rom 5:10 and 1 Cor 3:15, deserve special attention because of the construction they share with 1 Tim 2:15 (future, passive, indicative verb with a diav plus genitive prepositional phrase). First Corinthians 3:15 is referring to a man or woman whose works have been found to be of poor quality and are burned in the fire. The last part of the verse affirms that this man or woman will be saved but this salvation comes through fire. Rom 5:10 compares the accomplished reconciliation believers received from God as his enemies through the death of his son with the salvation/redemption believers will receive from God by the life of his son. Both of these verses use the verb to refer to the ultimate and final salvation believers will experience in the future day of redemption.

Sw/vzw in the Pastoral Epistles

Sw/vzw appears seven times in the Pastoral Epistles and it is possible that again, Paul uses it each time to refer to spiritual salvation; in the Pastorals, however, its use is somewhat more clouded. Two instances, including of course 1 Tim 2:15, but also 1 Tim 4:16 could refer to some type of physical deliverance or rescue. The following outline of usages recognizes this dilemma by placing these two references tentatively in both categories. The only category that can be firmly omitted from consideration within the Pastorals is a reference to physical healing from sickness or disease.

1. To save or deliver from eternal damnation and punishment

a. active verbs with a divine subject, describes the action of God or Christ in ultimately saving sinners (1 Tim 1:15; 2 Tim 1:9, 4:18;147 Tit 3:5)

b. active verbs with a non-divine subject, describes the action of people or things which mediate God's salvation (possibly 1 Tim 4:16)

c. passive verbs, describes the spiritual salvation from eternal punishment received by the subject with no agent explicitly named, (1 Tim 2:4 and possibly 1 Tim 2:15), none appear in which the agent is named

2. To rescue or deliver from some physical danger

a. rescue from physical death of the body (possibly 1 Tim 2:15)

b. rescue or deliverance from a dangerous situation (possibly 1 Tim 2:15 and 4:16)

The above analysis of the uses of sw/vzw serves to illuminate once again the difficulty in determining the exact meaning in 1 Tim 2:15. Five of the seven appearances of the verb obviously refer to some aspect of spiritual salvation, but is the verb used with the same comprehensive nature found in the other of Paul's epistles? An examination of each usage seems to provide a tentative "yes" answer to this question. The Pastorals contain four statements concerning salvation which present the action as a fact that has been accomplished by the Godhead, all of which utilize the aorist tense of the verb. First Tim 1:15 declares the purpose of Christ's coming as the salvation of sinners, and in 2:4, God is described as desiring all men to be saved and come to a knowledge of him. In 2 Tim 1:9, it is God who saved us by his own purpose and grace which "was granted us in Christ Jesus from all eternity." Tit 3:5 declares that God saved us because of his mercy and by the regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit. The idea of future and final salvation/redemption is also found in the Pastorals in 2 Tim 4:18. Paul first states that God will rescue him from every evil and uses rjuvomai to express this idea. In the second part of this sentence, he uses the future, active form of sw/vzw to describe God's action in saving him for his heavenly kingdom. We may be assured that at this point in Paul's life he has come to saving faith in Christ, thus his justification is accomplished and is not in view here. The contrast here between the physical deliverance from earthly evils and the reference to the heavenly kingdom seems to imply a connection with the idea of final salvation and redemption for sw/vzw. If so, then Paul's use of sw/vzw in the Pastorals does exhibit the comprehensive nature consistent with his other epistles, as well as his tendency to use rjuvomai to refer to physical deliverance.148

What then of the use of sw/vzw in 1 Tim 2:15 and 4:16? The discussion of the usage in 2:15 will await, for the most part, the final conclusions of this entire section which follow below. In 1 Tim 4:16, Paul commands Timothy: "Be conscientious about how you live and what you teach. Persevere in this, because by doing so you will save both yourself and those who listen to you."149 Here the future, active, indicative form of the verb is used and it could possibly refer to deliverance from false teachers. If this is the case, however, is the deliverance not a spiritual one? The book never mentions any physical danger or threat from the false teachers, only spiritual danger. It seems more likely that this use of sw/vzw is one in which Timothy is a mediating agent for the redemption of his flock. His own godliness and faithfulness in teaching will mediate God's full and final redemption of the people.

Paul's use of sw/vzw in the Pastoral Epistles matches the comprehensive understanding of salvation expressed in his other epistles by this verb. Salvation is God's desire, is related to the knowledge of the truth (1 Tim 2:4), and is the task of Jesus (1 Tim 1:5).150 It is a present experience based on the mercy of God (2 Tim 1:9, 3:14; Tit 3:5) yet also a coming experience (1 Tim 4:16; 2 Tim 2:10, 4:18). As with his other epistles, however, Paul's use of sw/vzw in the Pastorals seems to intentionally exclude the idea of physical salvation from sickness, death, or the threat of it.

Conclusions Regarding the Meaning of Swqhvsetai in 1 Tim 2:15

In the books of the New Testament, sw/vzw is not merely a synonym for justification. In the Gospels, Acts, and General Epistles it is used significantly to describe physical healing or deliverance. When a spiritual connotation is the focus, the comprehensive nature of the word requires a close look at the context and the usage of the author to discover the focus and range of meaning. Throughout the New Testament the Godhead is pictured as the ultimate actor for this verb, yet many times faithful people or other things are viewed as mediating salvation.

An overview of Paul's use of sw/vzw suggests that he has limited its range of meaning to the spiritual realm of deliverance from eternal punishment and that within this realm the word is rather comprehensive, referring to many aspects of salvation. Sw/vzw is used to describe the accomplished fact of justification as well as the yet future aspect of final glorification. This same focus is apparent in the Pastoral Epistles, with only two possible references to physical deliverance, one being 1 Tim 2:15 (and as was discussed above 1 Tim 4:16 is more likely a spiritual reference). Therefore, the evidence seems to favor a spiritual connotation for the meaning of swqhvsetai in 1 Tim 2:15. If this is so, the idea of future glorification must be the focus, lest a condition beyond grace be added to the requirements of justification and other teachings of Scripture be blatantly contradicted.

A fuller discussion of the context follows in chapter five, yet some examination is helpful at this point. The first epistle to Timothy as well as the other two Pastoral Epistles emphasize the conduct and behavior of believers and 1 Tim 2: 9-15 is particularly interested in the conduct of women. Undergirding these teachings concerning conduct is the challenge to remain faithful to the true teachings of the church in the face of heresy. Thus, a focus on the final glorification of believing women in 1 Tim 2:15 and how this anticipated final glorification relates to their everyday conduct and life is certainly appropriate.

In all fairness, however, we must not leave this topic without asking if it is impossible to have a reference to physical deliverance in 1 Tim 2:15; the answer must be no. Though the above sections seem to affirm that it is improbable, the possibility cannot be dismissed lightly. However, to support a physical deliverance reading in 1 Tim 2:15, an explanation must accompany which provides significant reasons and support for adopting this sense so odd for Paul's writings. Thus at this point, we may tentatively conclude that the best understanding of swqhvsetai in 1 Tim 2:15 is with spiritual connotations referring to the ultimate glorification of believers.

The Force of Diav in 1 Tim 2:15

Prepositions appear over 10,000 times in the New Testament text and a proper understanding of their use and function is essential to exegesis.151 Prepositions basically serve as extended adverbs, but in governing a noun, show the connection between the verb and various objects.152 Greek prepositions, then, must not be translated and interpreted in isolation but with the verb factored in considerably. In 1 Tim 2:15, the preposition diav connects the verb "save" to the genitive noun "childbirth" and as chapters two and three illustrated, this connection has been interpreted several different ways. The first sub-section below provides a quick review of six uses of diav with a genitive noun: spatial, temporal, modal, instrumental, causal, and idiomatical. The second section examines constructions in the New Testament involving a form of sw/vzw modified by a diav preposition with a genitive noun (John 3:17, 1 Pet 3:21, Rom 5:9, 1 Cor 3:15, Eph 2:8, and Tit 3:5). The third section draws out significant observations from the previous two sections to aid in illuminating the usage of diav in the construction in 1 Tim 2:15.

The Force of Diav + Genitive: A Review

As stated above, no preposition may be translated and interpreted in isolation, for they are by nature inseparably connected to a verb in context. However, we must begin with a basic understanding of the range of usage and sense of a preposition in the literature at hand in order to analyze a particular instance of that preposition. Thus the following sections outline six New Testament uses for the preposition diav. The fundamental idea of diav is one of separation, with the notion of interval and of moving between two things, idea, or concepts.153 The preposition has a generic sense of "through" and originally signified passing through and out from something.154 These basic ideas appear in the usages outlined below.

Spatial

The spatial force of diav is the literal and local use of the preposition signifying extension through an area or object.155 It may indicate movement through and out of or simply through an area without comment on moving out.156 The spatial force of diav occurs often with verbs of going and verbs of motion.157

Temporal

When used temporally, diav is a marker of extension in time and appears with three connotations.158 It may signify a whole duration of time uninterrupted from beginning to end ("throughout"), a part of a period of time in which something occurs ("during, at, within"), or distance in time ("after").159

Modal

This category of usage includes both the ideas of manner and attendant circumstance.160 When diav expresses the manner of the verb, it simply describes the way in which the action takes place and answers the question "How?"161 Manner can be an accompanying action, attitude, or emotion,162 and the basic translation includes "through, in, or with."163 This usage especially occurs with saying verbs.164

The attendant circumstance usage expresses the circumstances or the environment that accompany or prevail along with the action or state described by the verb ("with, among").165 This category of usage extends to circumstances which possibly hinder rather than help an action and includes the glosses "even with" and "in spite of" (a concessional idea).166

Instrumental

Diav followed by a genitive noun is often used as a marker of instrumentality whereby an action is accomplished or effected, with appropriate glosses being "by, via, through."167 It marks the medium through which an action passes before its completion and may describe the efficient, mediate agent or the principal cause.168 Therefore, this usage may focus attention on the agency or on the originator whether that be human or divine activity.169 The preposition may also be followed by either a genitive of cause and translated "by means of" or by a genitive of person which is more appropriately translated "through the mediation of."170

Rare Uses

Two uses of diav are less common in the New Testament. These include the causal idea and an idiomatic urgent position.

Like the instrumental use, the causal use of diav may express the intermediate or instrumental causality or the principal cause of the action.171 When expressing the intermediate cause it may be translated "on account of" or "on the basis of" and when speaking of the author of the action, it may be translated "from" or "for the sake of."172

Finally, diav is sometimes used idiomatically with the genitive in wording urgent requests and in these cases is translated "by."173

Diav + Genitive with Sw/vzw in the New Testament

Because prepositions must be interpreted in relation to the verb they modify and clarify, it will be helpful to our understanding of the force of diav in 1 Tim 2:15 to discover its usage when found connected to sw/vzw throughout the New Testament. A form of sw/vzw modified by a diav plus genitive prepositional phrase occurs seven times in the New Testament, five times in Paul's epistles and twice elsewhere. Six occurrences are examined below in order to glean insight into the seventh, 1 Tim 2:15.

John 3:17

In John 3:17, the construction is found within a i{na clause describing the purpose for which God sent his Son into the world: that the world be saved through him (i{na swqh/' oJ kovsmo" di' aujtou'). The salvation described here is spiritual salvation rather than physical deliverance and the verb is the aorist, passive, subjunctive form. The entire prepositional phrase is an example of intermediate agency expressed by diav plus genitive.174 Thus, this use of the preposition can be classified as a marker of instrumentality or means. It is also important to note that diav is followed by a genitive of person and thus describes a personal agent.

1 Peter 3:21

The next example of this construction appears in what is widely considered the most difficult passage of 1 Peter and quite possibly the entire New Testament.175 Our discussion here will not cover all the issues, but will focus only on the relationship between the verb and the prepositional phrase.176 As with the previous construction, spiritual salvation is the focus of the verb. Sw/vzw (present, active, indicative form) is the main verb of the sentence in 1 Pet 3:21 and is separated from its diav prepositional phrase by a parenthetical statement, both of which are important clarifying elements. The central thrust of the sentence is "baptism saves you" (sw/vzei bavptisma) while the parenthetical statement describes what this does and does not mean.177 The diav prepositional phrase identifies Christ's resurrection as the true source of salvation, without which baptism would be an empty form.178 Baptism saves, not by any virtue in itself, but by the effects of and because of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.179 The usage of the preposition in 1 Pet 3:21 may best be categorized as a combination of cause and instrumentality. The resurrection of Christ is certainly the means by which baptism saves, but the passage also seems to focus on the resurrection as the principal source of this salvation.

Romans 5:9

The remaining four examples are found in the epistles of Paul. The phrase in Rom 5:9, "we will be saved through him" (swqhsovmeqa di' aujtou'), is similar to that found in John 3:17. In the Romans passage, the verb is a future, passive, indicative form and refers to spiritual salvation from the wrath of God. The phrase describes the salvation which results from having been declared righteous by the blood of Christ. As with John 3:17, the preposition is functioning as a marker of instrumentality describing Jesus as the personal agent of salvation.180

1 Corinthians 3:15

1 Cor 3:15 contains another difficult statement involving the construction at hand. Speaking of someone whose unworthy works are burned up, Paul says "He himself will be saved, but only as through fire" (aujtoV" deV swqhvsetai, ou{tw" deV wJ" diaV purov"). The main verb in 1 Cor 3:15 is identical to the form found in 1 Tim 2:15 (future, passive, indicative) and refers here to eternal salvation.181 The diav phrase however is not directly connected to the main verb, but rather is found in the phrase "but only as through fire," a quasi-proverbial phrase used as a metaphor indicating a narrow escape from peril.182 This phrase is comparable to the modern "saved by the skin of one's teeth" and refers to being rescued at the last moment.183 Thus within the metaphorical phrase, the salvation referred to is more physical and the preposition is functioning locally or spatially.184 Paul's purpose in 1 Cor 3:15 is to communicate that the person who persists in the course of worldly wisdom is in grave danger and will only be plucked out of this danger in the nick of time just as one who is rescued from a fire at the last minute.185 Unsatisfactory works done as a Christian do not bring damnation, but neither does punishment for them cancel out eternal salvation.186 Works do not bring salvation but believers remain responsible before God for their works.187

Ephesians 2:8

Ephesians 2:8 contains the much memorized (and rightly so!) statement: "For by grace you are saved through faith" (Th/' gaVr cavritiv ejste sesw/smevnoi diaV pivstew"). The verb form here is a perfect, passive, participle and the focus is again on spiritual salvation. The preposition is functioning as a marker of instrumentality and describes faith as the means, along with grace, to this transcendent salvation.

Titus 3:15

Titus 3:15 contains the only other example of the construction in the Pastoral Epistles and the only example with two objects for the preposition: "He saved us through the washing of the new birth and the renewing of the Holy Spirit" (e[swmen hJma'" diaV loutrou' paliggenesiva" kaiV ajnakainwvsew" pneuvmato" aJgivou). This salvation is further qualified as one that is not by works of righteousness but based on God's mercy. This form of sw/vzw is an aorist, active, indicative verb and it again refers to spiritual salvation. The diav prepositional phrase clarifies this saving action by supplying the means or instruments of the salvation and the preposition itself thus functions as a marker of instrumentality.

Conclusions Regarding the Force of Diav in 1 Tim 2:15

The majority of appearances of diav + genitive with a form of sw/vzw in the New Testament involve the spiritual sense of the verb and an instrumental use for the preposition. In 1 Corinthians, when the sense of the implied verb within the proverbial statement is a physical deliverance, the preposition is used as a spatial or temporal marker. Thus, if the idea of spiritual salvation is adopted in 1 Tim 2:15 there is ample support for understanding the preposition instrumentally (i.e. she will be spiritually saved by means of childbirth). However, the idea of attendant circumstances or even concession cannot be excluded as possibilities for they are legitimate usages for the preposition. If physical deliverance is preferred for swqhvsetai, the spatial or temporal force seems best, considering the use in 1 Corinthians (i.e. physically rescued through the experience of childbirth).

The Sense of Teknogoniva" in 1 Tim 2:15

Finding information on the meaning of teknogoniva is, to say the least, challenging! It occurs only once in the New Testament and appearances of this noun are scarce in other ancient extant Greek writings. Entries in wordbooks and lexicons are quite bare or even nonexistent. The concept expressed by this noun, however, seems to have been in the forefront of Paul's mind when writing 1 Timothy, for two related verbs, also hapax legomena, appear in this letter. The following sections review the use of teknogoniva outside the New Testament, examine similar words within the New Testament, and conclude by summarizing significant insights into the sense of teknogoniva" in 1 Tim 2:15.

Uses Outside the New Testament

Only one extant use of teknogoniva preserved in ancient writings is readily available for study. It is from the Classical period and found in a scientific work penned by Aristotle. The subject of Aristotle's book seven in History of Animals is the physical development of humans.188 In a paragraph concerning puberty and sexual development, he uses the noun teknogoniva: "After thrice seven years the women have reached a favourable state for childbearing, while the men continue to improve." (metaV deV taV triV" eJptaV e[th aiJ meVn gunai'ke" proV" taV" teknogoniva" h[dh eujkaivrw" e[cousin, oiJ d' a[ndre" e[ti e[cousin ejpivdosin.)189 The meaning of teknogoniva here is the physical event of childbirth, for it seems Aristotle is referring to the age at which women are capable of conceiving, carrying, and delivering a child.

Similar Words within the New Testament

The most commonly used word in the New Testament related to teknogoniva is the noun tevknon. This word may describe the physical child of human parents, descendants from a common ancestor, one who is dear to another or has the characteristics of another, the inhabitants of a city, or a class of people with specific characteristics.190 Each of these meanings for tevknon can be found in Paul's epistles. In the Pastoral Epistles, it is used five times to describe Timothy and Titus as Paul's spiritual children (1 Tim 1:2, 1:18; 2 Tim 1:2, 2:1; Tit 1:4) and three times to describe the physical children of human elders and deacons (1 Tim 3:4, 3:12, 5:4; Tit 1:6).191

Three words in 1 Timothy may give some insight into the sense and meaning of one another: teknogoniva" in 1 Tim 2:15, ejteknotrovfhsen in 5:10, and teknogonei'n in 5:14. All three are used only here in the New Testament and all are found in contexts regarding the behavior and conduct of believing women. The first in 2:15 is a noun, the object of the preposition diav, and is defined as the physical act of bearing/birthing children.192 The second in 5:10 is an aorist, active, indicative verb from teknotrofevw, defined as bringing up or rearing children and involving their physical and spiritual care.193 This verb is found in the description of a widow who qualifies to be enrolled for help from the church. Her good works should have included bringing up children, showing hospitality, serving the saints, and helping the afflicted. The third word in 5:14 is a present, active, infinitive form of teknogonevw defined as the physical act of bearing or begetting children.194 This concept is found in a list of instructions for younger widows. Paul has observed a pattern of idleness, gossip, and disruption from this group of women and wants them instead to marry, bear children, run their household, and thus give Satan no occasion to lead them astray.

Teknotrofevw by definition involves the care, guidance, and teaching of children which are the basic components of motherhood. The widows seeking help from the church could list this as an evidence for a lifetime of good works. Teknogonevw and teknogoniva however, seem to have a more technical definition referring to the physical labor and experience involved in the actual birthing of a child. Could the use of these words in 1 Timothy be metonymical and more closely resemble the ideas of teknotrofevw? The context of 5:14 certainly seems to suggest so for the verb. The list in general provides a spectrum of wifely and motherly duties and would seem to include the nurturing and bringing up of children. The years spent in rearing godly children are much more likely to keep these women from straying after Satan than the hours spent in labor. The entire passage (5:9-16) exalts marriage and motherhood as a good work worthy of praise and helpful in keeping young women on the path of godliness. It is most probable then that these two verbs, teknotrofevw and teknogonevw, used in similar contexts, describe the same idea or concept.

The Article

What about the idea that this term refers to the Incarnation? There is no lexical evidence for using this word as a technical term for the birth of Christ. However, the appearance of the article which is not seen in any of the other similar constructions (sw/vzw + diav + genitive) is quite interesting and could possibly have some significance. Wallace states that the article is not necessary to make the object of a preposition definite, but if it has the article, it must be definite (emphasis his).195 He goes on to say that the reason for the article then is usually for other purposes, possibly as a function marker.196 With such a rare word, it is difficult to identify what definiteness might signify or what other purpose the article might have.

In the Pastoral Epistles, the article is used with a diav plus genitive construction three additional times (of a total fourteen appearances of the construction), once in 2 Tim 1:6 and twice in 2 Tim 1:10. In 2 Tim 1:6, the article is used to identify a particular event that is prominent in Timothy's life: his ordination. In 2 Tim 1:10a and b, the article is functioning in a similar way to identify a certain event, the appearing of Jesus, and the specific content of the gospel message that Jesus taught. It seems possible then, that the use of the article in 1 Tim 2:15 could be identifying a particular event such as the Incarnation. It must be noted, however, that in these three other examples the object or event is clearly identified in the noun (and its modifiers where applicable). Why no modifiers with teknogoniva" in 2:15 to avoid any confusion, especially when related words in the Pastorals refer to childbirth and childrearing in general? Therefore, it seems quite a leap to allow the article say so much about the definition of the noun, when it is just as likely generic and/or simply identifying the event of childbirth.197

A second question arises when the 1 Tim 2:15 appearance of the noun (diav th'" teknogoniva") is compared to the appearance in Aristotle (proV" taV" teknogoniva"). Could the article be included to distinguish between the identical genitive singular form and accusative plural form, especially when the force of the preposition used in 1Tim 2:15 is governed by the case?

Conclusions Regarding the Sense of Teknogoniva" in 1 Tim 2:15

The literal definition of teknogoniva is limited to the physical labor of giving birth to a child, but in 1 Tim 2:15 it seems likely that it may have a metonymical force and refer to the care, nurture, and guidance a mother gives her child throughout life. Support for this conclusion comes from the use of similar words in 1 Timothy which point to child rearing as a good work for women. Especially important is the use of teknogonevw in 5:14 which literally means birthing a child, but seems to be used of the entire process of rearing a child.

It must also be noted that the understanding of the preceding verb and preposition will most likely affect the interpretation of a literal or metonymical sense for teknogoniva. If one finds the evidence for a physical deliverance in swqhvsetai and a spatial or temporal force for diav convincing, the literal view fits well in the phrase. However, if the spiritual salvation view is adopted and an instrumental force for diav, the metonymical view completes the phrase. This is evidence of the intimate connection between the elements of the verse and the difficulty in examining them independently (and thus the need for tentative conclusions).

If They Remain: The Conditional Clause in 1 Tim 2:15

The bulk of this thesis focuses on the main clause of the sentence found in 1 Tim 2:15 because it is within that clause that most of the difficulty lies. It must not be forgotten, however, that 1 Tim 2:15 is a conditional sentence of which the protasis is an integral part. This section is committed to analyzing the conditional clause as it relates to the apodosis. The details and specifics within the protasis will not be addressed (i.e. the grammar of the verb and prepositional phrases or any lexical issues), but rather the examination will cover the relationship of the entire clause to the apodosis and how it affects the interpretation of the main clause.

Structurally, 1 Tim 2:15 is a third class conditional sentence since the protasis contains the particle ejavn followed by a subjunctive mood: ejaVn meivnwsin ejn pivstei kaiV ajgavph/ kaiV aJgiasmw/' metaV swfrosuvnh" (if they remain in faith and love and holiness, with modesty). There is however difficulty in assigning one semantic label to this structure.198 The particle and the subjunctive mood both give the condition a sense of contingency and the semantic range of this structure includes a logical connection, a mere hypothetical situation that will probably not be fulfilled, and a more probable future occurrence.199 Thus, many third class conditional sentences, like 1 Tim 2:15, are quite open to interpretation.

The conditional sentence in 1 Tim 2:15 most likely reflects a cause and effect relationship with the more probable future occurrence force of the third class in the forefront.200 If believing women abide in faithfulness and godliness (cause), the effect will be their future salvation through childbirth.

What influence does this conditional clause have for the possible interpretations of the apodosis? An examination of a few of the choices will be helpful. If the apodosis is understood as referring to final glorification and redemption coming to women by means of childbirth or the activities of motherhood, the conditional clause reminds readers that the sanctifying process is not automatic for good mothers. They must fulfill motherly duties in the realm of the spiritual practices required by all Christians. However, if the main clause refers to the spiritual salvation of women through the birth of Christ, the protasis seems to add extra works as conditions to salvation. If the apodosis refers to physical deliverance through the process of childbirth, the conditional clause connects spiritual qualities and practices to this physical deliverance. Though not impossible it seems odd to connect a physical deliverance through the period of childbirth to such abiding and integral characteristics of the Christian walk. Accordingly, the lofty and generally spiritual characteristics described within the conditional clause seem to suggest a spiritual significance for the apodosis.

She and They: The Issue of Subjects

Adding to the difficulty in 1 Tim 2:15 is the shift in subjects from the apodosis to the protasis: swqhvsetai in the main clause is a singular verb and meivnwsin in the conditional clause is plural. The last mentioned antecedent is the generic term 'the woman' (hJ gunhv) in verse 14, which is usually associated with Eve who is explicitly named in verse 13. Thus, various proposals for the singular subject of swqhvsetai include Eve, but also Mary (as the ideal woman), women in general, the representative woman of Ephesus, and the representative Christian woman.201 Explanations for the number shift in the conditional clause include the idea that the conditional clause refers to both husbands and wives,202 to the woman's children,203 or that meivnwsin, like swqhvsetai, refers collectively to the whole sex.

Several problems exist with taking the subject of swqhvsetai to be either Eve or Mary. First, the brief reference to Adam and Eve in verses 13-14 must be understood in the wider context of the entire passage which refers to men and women in general.204 This reference is illustrative and does not constitute the major focus of the passage, and there seems to be a subtle shift in verses 13-15 from Eve to the larger sphere of women. Second, there is no logical progression from Eve to Mary, and recognizing her as the subject seems to over theologize the interpretation of the verse.205

The proposals that meivnwsin refers to either the husband and wife as a unit or the woman's children seem rather remote in the immediate context.206 First, neither the marriage relationship nor the faithfulness of the children is at issue in this passage and a switch to these subjects in the conditional clause would disrupt the flow of the entire paragraph.207 The children or the husbands of the women are not the focus of attention in the immediate context nor is there a direct reference to them. This type of shift seems implausible without some type of marker.208 Finally these interpretations would seem to imply that the behavior of a woman's child or husband would have some effect on her salvation, which simply does not agree with the clear teaching of Scripture regarding salvation through personal faith.

Most commentators and scholars see these two verbs in 1 Tim 2:15 as both referring generically to all women, with the conditional clause qualifying the discussion to refer to Christian women in particular. The singular swqhvsetai applies collectively to the whole sex while referring especially to the representative woman, Eve, mentioned in the previous verse.209 The shift to the plural in the conditional clause makes it clear that the entire sentence refers, not merely to one woman, but to the women addressed in the entire passage.210 Thus the main clause of the sentence cannot be separated from the conditional clause since it must be interpreted in light of the qualifications presented by the ejavn clause.211 The shift from Eve to the women at Ephesus is subtle, with the proper name, Eve, used in verse 13, the generic noun (hJ gunhv) used in verse 14, the singular verb in verse 15a, and the plural verb in verse 15b. The entire paragraph (verses 9-15) concerning women often shifts from the plural to the generic singular, thus explaining the awkwardness of the change in number here.212 The plural use of gunhv in verses 9-10 refers to the larger sphere of women, the singular uses in verses 11-12 and in verse 14 referring to Eve have a generic or representative force, and verse 15 expands from the representative back to the larger sphere of Christian women with which the passage began.213 This shift in number is a characteristic of paraenetic style and occurs throughout the passage, thus there is no reason to interpret it as connoting a change of subject.214

Chapter Summary

If there were ever any doubt, it has now been eliminated: 1 Tim 2:15 is a difficult verse to unravel! Each element of the verse presents a challenge to the exegete, and tentative conclusions seem to be the only ones that can be made. It is no wonder there are so many interpretations among Christians of yesterday and today. The information in the above sections, however, does suggest which options might be more probable, though not necessarily demanded, from the evidence.

The interpretation of swqhvsetai is certainly a significant dividing line on which many of the other elements hinge. Though used of both physical and spiritual salvation in the New Testament, Paul considerably limits his use of the word to spiritual salvation. The only questionable instances occur in 1 Tim 2:15 and 4:16, the latter of which can be shown as quite probably a spiritual reference. The transcendent salvation described by Paul with sw/vzw is, however, quite comprehensive and may refer to justification, glorification, or the entire process of redemption. This evidence gives strong support for, but does not demand, a spiritual connotation in 1 Tim 2:15, while the prepositional phrase and conditional clause point to activities related to sanctification and final redemption rather than justification. A physical referent for swqhvsetai in 1 Tim 2:15 seems unlikely, but the possibility cannot be ruled out pending some explanation or evidence for the uncharacteristic use by Paul.

In five of the six other occurrences of diav following a form of sw/vzw in the New Testament (including 3 instances in Pauline epistles), the verb refers to spiritual salvation and the preposition is functioning as a marker of instrumentality. Thus, there is support for assigning diav an instrumental use in 1 Tim 2:15 but the plausibility of an attendant circumstance or concessional idea cannot be discounted.

Teknogoniva literally refers to the act of childbirth but quite possibly has a metonymical use in 1 Tim 2:15, referring to the entire responsibilities and duties of motherhood. Similar terms in 1 Tim, especially the use of teknogonevw in 5:14, suggest this idea and it is certainly more plausible to see a lifetime of faithful nurturing as sanctifying rather than the relatively short time span of labor. A metonymical use also allows this verse to be applicable to all women, in that even childless women may be involved in raising the children around them in their community. However, a physical understanding of swqhvsetai would lead to the literal connotation for teknogoniva".

The conditional clause adds much to an understanding of the entire verse for it states the primary cause or contingency upon which the main clause is based. The lofty and spiritual nature of the characteristics in the protasis suggests a similar idea in the main clause while the idea of persevering in these characteristics suggests a lifetime commitment is in view. This idea supports both the proposal that final glorification is in focus here and the metonymical understanding of teknogoniva" as a reference to the duties and responsibilities of motherhood in general.

Finally, the shift in number from the apodosis to the protasis, though often a "red herring" to exegetes of this verse, does not demand two different subjects for the elements. There are subtle shifts in subjects throughout the passage, yet the entire message is directed toward the believing women at Ephesus.


131 Acts 2:40 actually uses an aorist, passive, imperative verb. The passive idea is for the people to let themselves be saved or accept salvation, but because the command implies some type of action on the part of the people the verse is included in this section.

132 Matt 10:22, 24:13; Mark 13:13 all use the future passive form to indicate that those who endure to the end will be saved. This idea may also be found in passages which speak of one who loses his life in order to save it (Matt 16:25; Mark 8:35; Luke 9:24).

133 Other examples of the simple future use of the verb are Mark 16:16; John 10:9, 11:14; and Acts 2:21. Also included are some examples from the realm of the physical deliverance usage: Matt 9:21; Mark 5:28; Luke 8:50; and John 11:12

134 See Matt 9:22; Mark 5:34, 10:52; Luke 8:48, 17:19, 8:42; and also Acts 14:9 which says that the crippled man had the faith to be healed.

135 Werner Foerster and Georg Fohrer, "sw/vzw, swthriva, swthvr, swthvrio"," in Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 7, ed. Gerhard Friedrich, trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 990.

136 Ibid., 995.

137 Ibid., 996-7.

138 Ibid., 996.

139 The verb occurs 8 times in Romans and 9 times in 1 Corinthians.

140 Foerster and Fohrer, "sw/vzw," 992. JRuvomai appears in Rom 7:24, 11:26, 15:31; 2 Cor 1:10 (three times); Col 1:13; 1 Thess 1:10; and 2 Thess 3:2 and may connote deliverance from the "body of death," the deliverance of Jews, deliverance from unbelievers, from a deadly peril, from the dominion of darkness, from the wrath to come, and from wicked men.

141 J. Schneider and C. Brown, "Salvation, Savior," in The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, vol. 3, ed. Colin Brown (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978), 214.

142 Foerster and Fohrer, "sw/vzw," 992.

143 Schneider and Brown, "Salvation, Savior," 214.

144 Other passages which fit this context are 1 Cor 1:18, 3:15, 5:5; 2 Cor 2:15.

145 Foerster and Fohrer, "sw/vzw," 994.

146 See Rom 9:27, 10:9, 10:13, 11:26; 1 Cor 7:16, and 7:16.

147 This usage is somewhat debated as some see it as a reference to physical safety and deliverance. The reference to the heavenly kingdom in connection with the verb, however, seems to point to a distinct spiritual usage.

148 JRuvomai is used in 2 Tim 3:11 to refer to the Lord's work in delivering Paul from persecutions, in 2 Tim 4:17 connoting Paul's deliverance from the lion's mouth, and in 2 Tim 4:18 of deliverance from evil.

149 1 Tim 4:16 NET (New English Translation).

150 Schneider and Brown, "Salvation, Savior," 214-15.

151 Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1996), 357.

152 Ibid., 356.

153 Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed., rev. and ed. Frederick William Danker (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 223, hereafter BDAG; and A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1934), 580.

154 M. J. Harris, "Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament," in The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, vol. 3, ed. Colin Brown (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978), 1181.

155 C. F. D. Moule, An Idiom book of New Testament Greek, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: University Press, 1939), 55.

156 Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar, revised by Gordon M. Messing (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1956), 374.

157 BDAG, 223.

158 Ibid., 223-4.

159 Albrecht Oepke, "diav," in Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 2, ed. Gerhard Kittel, trans. and ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964), 65.

160 Ibid., 66.

161 Nigel Turner, Syntax, vol. 3, A Grammar of New Testament Greek, ed. James Hope Moulton (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1963), 267, understands diav as indicating manner in 1 Tim 2:15.

162 Wallace, Greek Grammar, 161.

163 Oepke, "diav," 66.

164 BDAG, 224.

165 Harris, "Prepositions and Theology," 1183. BDAG understands attendant circumstance as the most likely force in 1 Tim 2:15 (p 225).

166 Harris, "Prepositions and Theology," 1183; Oepke, "diav," 66; and Maximilian Zerwick, Biblical Greek Illustrated by Examples, translated by Joseph Smith, 4th ed. (Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1963), 37-8. See Romans 2:27.

167 BDAG, 224. Moule, Idiom Book, 55-7, and Oepke, "diav," 66-7, both understand the use of diav in 1 Tim 2:15 as instrumental.

168 Harris, "Prepositions and Theology," 1182.

169 BDAG, 225.

170 Oepke, "diav," 66-7.

171 Zerwick, Biblical Greek, 37; and BDAG, 225.

172 Oepke, "diav," 67.

173 F. Blass and A. Debrunner, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, trans. and rev. Robert Funk (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1961), 119; Turner, Syntax, 3:267; and BDAG, 225.

174 Wallace, Greek Grammar, 434.

175 Paul J. Achtemeier, 1 Peter, Hermeneia—A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible, ed. Eldon Jay Epp (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996), 240.

176 A similar construction appears in 1 Pet 3:20 with a synonym of sw/vzw: "Eight persons were saved through water" (ojktwV yucaiV dieswvqhsan di' u{dato"). This construction seems to refer to the physical deliverance of Noah's family through the flood as noted by I. Howard Marshall, 1 Peter, The IVP New Testament Commentary Series, ed. Grant R. Osborne (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1991), 129, and thus the preposition would be functioning spatially or temporally.

177 Achtemeier, 1 Peter, 267.

178 D. Edmond Hiebert, 1 Peter (Chicago: Moody Press, 1984), 250.

179 Ernest Best, 1 Peter, New Century Bible Commentary, ed. Ronald E. Clements and Matthew Black (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), 148; and Marshall, 1 Peter, 131.

180 Wallace, Greek Grammar, 434.

181 Archibald Robertson and Alfred Plummer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the First Epistle of St Paul to the Corinthians, The International Critical Commentary, ed. Samuel Rolles Driver, Alfred Plummer, and Charles Augustus Briggs (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1914), 65.

182 Ibid.

183 Anthony C. Thiselton, The First Epistle to the Corinthians, The New International Greek Testament Commentary, ed. I. Howard Marshall and Donald A. Hagner (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2000), 315.

184 Robertson and Plummer, First Corinthians, 65.

185 Gordon D. Fee, The First Epistle to the Corinthians, The New International Commentary on the New Testament, ed. F. F. Bruce (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1987), 144.

186 Hans Conzelmann, 1 Corinthians, trans. James W. Leitch, Hermeneia—A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible, ed. George W. MacRae (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975), 77.

187 Ibid.

188 Aristotle, History of Animals, Books VII-X, trans. and ed. D. M. Balme, The Loeb Classical Library, ed. G. P. Goold (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), 415. The first sentence of book seven is translated "With regard to man's development, both initially within the female and subsequently until old age, the attributes due to his proper nature are as follows."

189 Ibid., 424-5.

190 BDAG, 994-5.

191 The related noun teknivon describing a little child is popular in John's writings, but is not found in Paul.

192 BDAG, 994; and James Hope Moulton and George Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament Illustrated from the Papyri and other Non-literary Sources (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1930), 628.

193 BDAG, 995; and Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, 629.

194 BDAG, 994; and Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, 628.

195 Wallace, Greek Grammar, 247.

196 Ibid.

197 Following the flow chart in Wallace, Greek Grammar, 231 leads to these areas.

198 Wallace, Greek Grammar, 696.

199 Ibid.

200 See Wallace, Greek Grammar, 682-4 for description of cause/effect conditional semantics.

201 Stanley E. Porter, "What Does it Mean to be 'Saved by Childbirth' (1 Timothy 2.15)?" Journal for the Study of the New Testament 49 (1993): 91.

202 Newport J. D. White, The First and Second Epistles to Timothy and the Epistle to Titus, Expositor's Greek New Testament (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1910), 110.

203 J. L. Houlden, The Pastoral Epistles: I and II Timothy, Titus, TPI New Testament Commentaries, ed. Howard Clark Kee and Dennis Nineham (London: SCM Press, 1989), 72-3.

204 Porter, "What Does it Mean," 92.

205 Ibid.

206 C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, The New Clarendon Bible, ed. H. F. D. Sparks (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1963), 56.

207 William D. Mounce, Pastoral Epistles, Word Biblical Commentary, ed. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, no. 46 (Nashville: T. Nelson, 2000), 147.

208 Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles, The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries, ed. R. V. G. Tasker (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1957), 78.

209 Joh. Ed. Huther, Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Epistles of St. Paul to Timothy and Titus, trans. by David Hunter (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, n.d.), 133.

210 Mounce, Pastoral Epistles, 143.

211 Guthrie, Pastoral Epistles, 79.

212 J. N. D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, Black's New Testament Commentaries, ed. Henry Chadwick (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1963), 69.

213 Porter, "What Does it Mean," 99.

214 Andrew J. Kstenberger, "Ascertaining Women's God-Ordained Roles: An Interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:15," Bulletin for Biblical Research 7 (1997): 117.

Related Topics: Soteriology (Salvation), Spiritual Life, Grammar, Terms & Definitions