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22. Standing Firm in Spiritual Warfare

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Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. Put on the full armor of God so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms. Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. (Ephesians 6:10-13)

How can we stand firm in spiritual warfare?

In this text, Paul talks about the spiritual war every Christian is engaged in. When a person accepts Christ as Savior, he crosses over from the realm of darkness to the realm of light. He enters a spiritual war that includes demons and angels battling over the souls of men.

Sadly, many Christians live without any real awareness of this battle, and are therefore losing it. There are two wrong views of this battle: some see Satan and his demons in every cough, problem at work, or difficulty with their car. He gets far too much credit in many Christian circles. However, in other circles, Christians act as if Satan doesn’t really exist. They know he is there, but they live without any true awareness of his activity in their lives.

We must recognize that Satan is real. He is an enemy of God and an enemy of the church. He tempts, traps, deceives, and kills, and nobody is exempt from his wrath. In light of this, Paul exhorts us to live the Spirit-filled life. In Ephesians 5:18, he calls believers to be filled with the Spirit, and then in the following verses, he looks at the results of the filling, including the Spirit-filled marriage, home, and workplace (v. 19-33, 6:1-9). A believer who is living a life of power—one that affects and changes people—will receive special attention from the evil one. He doesn’t waste his best resources on those far away from God, but the closer a person gets to God and the more faithful he or she is, the more the enemy attacks.

It is not uncommon for me to talk to men and women who experience more problems the closer they get to God. The more they read their Bible, the more involved they get in church or ministry, the more problems they encounter. In fact, I remember one young man sharing the constant problems he experienced when faithfully reading his Bible, and it made him not want to read it at all. This is exactly how our enemy works.

As seen with Satan’s temptation of Adam and Eve in the Garden, he wants people to doubt God and to turn away from following him. There is no greater joy for the enemy than when a believer is angry at God or cursing him. That was his objective when attacking Job—he wanted Job to curse God (Job 1:11), and he wants us to do so as well.

In Ephesians 6, Paul talks about standing firm in spiritual warfare. The phrase “stand firm” (from histēmi), when used in a military sense, had the idea of holding a critical position while under attack.”1 He mentions our need to stand four times (v.11,13-14). Essentially, he says the wobbly Christian—the one not serious about God and trapped in sin—cannot stand in this war. He will be destroyed. Sadly, many fail to stand in this battle. MacArthur’s comments are helpful in considering this reality:

Countless men and women have faithfully taught Sunday school for years, led many people to Jesus Christ, pastored a church, led Bible studies, ministered to the sick, and done every sort of service in the Lord’s name—only to one day give up, turn their backs on His work, and disappear into the world. The circumstances differ, but the underlying reason is always the same: they took God’s armor off and thereby lost the courage, the power, and the desire to stand firm.2

How can we stand in this treacherous war and not miss our calling, be taken captive, or be destroyed? We’ll consider three ways to stand firm in this spiritual war.

Big Question: How can believers stand firm in spiritual warfare according to Ephesians 6:10-13?

Believers Stand Firm by Being Prepared

Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. Put on the full armor of God…(Ephesians 6:10-11)

In order to stand firm, believers must prepare for battle. This is true for any warfare—a soldier cannot be successful without preparation. Governments invest billions of dollars into training their soldiers both mentally and physically, and such commitment should be similar for Christians—no corners should be cut in becoming spiritually prepared. Many lose this battle simply because of failure to prepare.

Paul says to “be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. Put on the full armor of God.”  Essentially, Paul wants believers to understand that this battle cannot be won through human strength, but in God’s strength alone. He talks about God’s power throughout Ephesians. In Ephesians 1:18-21, he prays for the believers to know this power.

I pray also that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened in order that you may know the hope to which he has called you, the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints, and his incomparably great power for us who believe. That power is like the working of his mighty strength, which he exerted in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every title that can be given, not only in the present age but also in the one to come.

This power raised Christ from the dead and put Satan and his demons under his feet (and therefore also under ours according to Ephesians 2:6). We must know that this power is in us. But also in Ephesians 3:16, Paul prays for the believers to be strengthened by it. He says, “I pray that out of his glorious riches he may strengthen you with power through his Spirit in your inner being.” Finally, in Ephesians 5:18, he calls for us to be filled with the Spirit—meaning to be controlled and empowered by him.

A powerless Christianity is a vulnerable Christianity—in danger of being enslaved and destroyed by the enemy. This is what we see in most churches and in most Christians’ lives—a powerless Christianity. We must constantly pray to know the power that is in us, to be strengthened by it, and to be continually filled with it. That is what Paul again calls for in Ephesians 6:10. “Be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power”—the same power that raised Christ from the dead and seated him in heavenly places over the enemy. We must put on the full armor of God so we can take our stand.

Since the verb “strong” is passive present, the verse could also be rendered, ‘‘Strengthen yourselves in the Lord” or (neb) “Find your strength in the Lord.” It is the same construction as in 2 Timothy 2:1 where Paul exhorts Timothy to “take strength from the grace of God which is ours in Christ Jesus” (neb).3

In considering the armor of God, we must realize that throughout Scripture clothing often refers to attitudes and actions (cf. Col 3:12-14, Eph 4:24-25). The armor is God’s clothing, as it essentially represents his character. Isaiah 59:17 says, “He put on righteousness as his breastplate, and the helmet of salvation on his head; he put on the garments of vengeance and wrapped himself in zeal as in a cloak.” Therefore, we prepare for battle by putting on God’s power and God’s character.

Interpretation Question: How can we be strong in the Lord (God’s power) and put on his armor (God’s character)?

1. We must recognize our weakness.

If we don’t recognize our insufficiency for this battle, we won’t put on God’s strength and character. Therefore, to prepare us for a lifetime of battle, God often allows us to go through pain, trials, and failure first to show us our weakness. Paul said this in 2 Corinthians 12:9-10 about God’s response to his request to take away the thorn in the flesh:

But he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” Therefore I will boast all the more gladly about my weaknesses, so that Christ’s power may rest on me. That is why, for Christ’s sake, I delight in weaknesses, in insults, in hardships, in persecutions, in difficulties. For when I am weak, then I am strong.

Often trials are meant to reveal our weakness so we can see our need for more of God’s power and character.

2. We must be dependent.

Again, Ephesians 6:10 can be translated, “Find your strength in the Lord.” We need to depend on God to stand in this battle. Sadly, too many Christians are independent. You can see this in their lack of desire to read the Bible, pray, or fellowship with other believers. Why is this so common? It is because they are too independent. They believe that they can make it on their own. 

However, the very opposite is true. We can do nothing without Christ. We are like sheep without a shepherd. We are like branches apart from the vine. John 15:5 says, “‘I am the vine; you are the branches. If a man remains in me and I in him, he will bear much fruit; apart from me you can do nothing.”

Are you abiding in Christ? Are you drawing near him daily? Or are you independent, and therefore losing this spiritual battle?

3. We must be disciplined.

The present tense of the verb “be strong” means that it is not a once and for all event—be strong—but a constant strengthening through God.4 The implication of this is that we need discipline. If it were a one-time event we could stop working, but it is not. We need to continue to strengthen ourselves in the Lord.

Discipline is not only necessary to be empowered by God, but also to put on his character—his armor. 1 Timothy 4:7 says, “discipline yourself unto godliness” or, as it can also be translated, “exercise yourself unto godliness.” We need to practice spiritual disciplines—prayer, Bible reading, fellowship, serving, solitude, and giving—daily in order to become holy.

The Christian with poor spiritual discipline is like the soldier without discipline—unprepared and therefore vulnerable to attack.

4. We must be thorough.

Paul says to put on the “full” armor of God (Eph 6:11). Partial preparation will not do. If there are any chinks in our armor—which symbolizes our character—that is exactly where the enemy will attack. If we commonly struggle with unforgiveness, lust, anger, or lack of self-control, the enemy will attack in those areas. We must be thorough in this battle. In physical warfare, little compromises can get someone captured or killed, and it is the same in spiritual warfare. We must constantly repent of our sins and seek to get right with God. We must be thorough—putting on the full armor of God.

If we are going to stand in this battle, we must be prepared by knowing our weakness, depending on God, being disciplined, and being thorough.

Application Question: How is God calling you to seek his power and character in your life? What are your spiritual disciplines like? How can you strengthen them?

Believers Stand Firm by Knowing the Enemy

Put on the full armor of God so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms. (Ephesians 6:11-12)

A crucial part of every army is the intelligence branch. Those who work in intel gather information about the enemy so the army can be equipped and prepared. In Ephesians 6:11-12, Paul gives intel about our enemy so we can be equipped to stand firm in this war.

Paul mentions the devil’s schemes (v.11). The word “schemes” in the Greek is methodia, from which we get the English word “method.” It carries the idea of craftiness, cunning, and deception. It was used of a “wild animal who cunningly stalked and then unexpectedly pounced on its prey. Satan’s evil schemes are built around stealth and deception.”5

Paul refers to awareness of the devil’s schemes in 2 Corinthians 2:11: “in order that Satan might not outwit us. For we are not unaware of his schemes.” In order for believers to not be outwitted and to stand firm, they must know their enemy and his schemes.

Interpretation Question: What are some of the devil’s schemes—his methods?

1. The devil uses accusation.

The name “devil” actually means “accuser.” One of the devil’s primary tactics against believers is to accuse and condemn. He accuses God to our ears—slandering his goodness and his faithfulness. Many people struggle with worship because they have accepted the enemy’s accusations of God. As in Satan’s attack on Eve, the enemy tempts us to doubt God’s goodness so we will fall into sin.

But Satan also accuses us. He does this primarily through condemnation. After he successfully tempts us to sin, he then says, “Feel bad—feel really bad!” in order to further pull us away from God. Because of their stumbles, many Christians don’t feel worthy to read the Bible, go to church, or serve. In contrast, the Holy Spirit convicts us of sin so we will draw near to God; he doesn’t condemn us and push us away from God.

Finally, Satan accuses other people. He continually brings up the failures of others and seeks to draw us into anger, discord and unforgiveness. Many Christians have left the church because they listened to the devil’s accusations.

One of his methods is accusation. He accuses God, us, and others.

2. The devil uses deception.

Very similar to accusation is the devil’s tactic of deception. Jesus says the devil is a liar and the father of lies (John 8:44). He lied to Eve about God’s Word and God’s intentions. Since the devil oversees the world system, it is a system built on lies. He lies about what humanity is, what success is, what beauty is, and many other things. Satan lies in order to lead people away from God and his best for their lives.

He wants people to think they are an accident of evolution instead of the purposeful creation of God. He wants people to think that something is wrong with them—they are not pretty enough, smart enough, tall enough, tan enough, light enough, etc. We live in a world full of discouragement and depression because it is based on Satan’s lies.

He also deceives people about the Word of God. The church is full of false teachings and cults because of the lies of the devil. 1 Timothy 4:1 calls these lies “doctrines of demons.” Second Corinthians 11:14-15 says, “And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light. It is not surprising, then, if his servants masquerade as servants of righteousness. Their end will be what their actions deserve.” He and his servants twist God’s Word—creating false teachings or leading people to doubt the accuracy and inerrancy of the Word. He ultimately does this to lead people away from believing in Christ and God all together.

3. The devil uses persecution and fear of persecution.

Though the devil’s favorite tactic is to use deception like a serpent, he often shows up as a lion to incite fear and to destroy. First Peter 5:8 says, “Be self-controlled and alert. Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour.”

In many nations around the world, he works to quiet believers or turn them away from God through fear and persecution. He roars so believers will be quiet about their faith instead of being the bold witnesses they are called to be. Christ describes the end times as a time of persecution, and a time when many will fall away from the faith because of it. In Matthew 24:9-10, he says:

“Then you will be handed over to be persecuted and put to death, and you will be hated by all nations because of me.  At that time many will turn away from the faith and will betray and hate each other,”

4. The devil uses the world.

Since the devil is not omnipresent, he uses the world system to draw believers away from God. It is essentially a system without God—meant to lead and corrupt people. Satan uses this system to deceive and to conform people to his image. First John 5:19 says, “We know that we are children of God, and that the whole world is under the control of the evil one.”

We must be aware that Satan is over the fashion industry, the entertainment industry, education, government, and religion. When he offered Jesus the kingdoms of this world, it was a literal offer (Matt 4:8-9).

When Christians are aware of this reality, they keep themselves from befriending the world (James 4:4), loving the world (1 John 2:15), being spotted or polluted by it (James 1:27), and ultimately being conformed to it (Rom 12:2)—where they look just like the world (1 Cor 3:3).

5. The devil works through our flesh.

Our flesh is the unredeemed part of our bodies—it desires to sin and rebel against God. Though saved, we still carry this part of our nature, which came from Adam. When we give in to the flesh, we open the door for the enemy to work in our lives. Ephesians 4:26-27 talks about how anger gives the devil a foothold. But this is also true of lying, stealing, lust, unforgiveness, corrupt talk, and worldly thoughts. The devil works through our flesh.

We get a good picture of this in the account of Christ rebuking Satan while talking to Peter. Matthew 16:21-23 says:

From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life. Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. “Never, Lord!” he said. “This shall never happen to you!” Jesus turned and said to Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me; you do not have in mind the things of God, but the things of men.”

What gave Satan the door into Peter’s life? It was his secular, worldly thinking. He was mindful of the things of men and not the things of God. Man doesn’t want to sacrifice—he wants prosperity, wealth, and health. Acceptance of death and sacrifice are not part of his old nature. Therefore, many people open doors to the enemy simply because their minds are still secular—their thinking has not been transformed through the Word of God (Rom 12:2).

6. The devil works through an army of demons.

Paul says this in Ephesians 6:12: “For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.”

Scripture teaches that demons are fallen angels. Revelation 12:4 says that at Satan’s fall a third of the angels fell with him.

How many demons are there? We don’t know. But we do know that Satan could spare up to 6,000 of them to focus on one person. In the story of the demoniac in Mark 5:9, the demons said their name was Legion. As a Roman legion consisted of up to 6,000 men,6 the fallen angels appear to be innumerable. Satan has no shortage of allies, and all of them are seeking to destroy the people of God and the plans of God.

Paul doesn’t teach us everything about demons, but there are many things that can be discerned from this passage.

Observation Question: What characteristics of demons can be discerned from Paul’s teaching in Ephesians 6:12?

  • Demons are supernatural.

Paul says we don’t battle against flesh and blood. This means that demons are supernatural, and that our primary opponents are not evil people, but the power that works behind them. Wiersbe’s comments are helpful here:

The important point is that our battle is not against human beings. It is against spiritual powers. We are wasting our time fighting people when we ought to be fighting the devil who seeks to control people and make them oppose the work of God… The advice of the King of Syria to his soldiers can be applied to our spiritual battle: “Fight neither with small nor great, save only with the king” (1 Kings 22:31).7

  • Demons are wicked.

Again, Paul says our struggle is against “the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.” Darkness symbolizes evil in the Bible. That is the demons’ character—there is nothing good in them. They are the spiritual forces of evil. John Stott says this about demons:

If we hope to overcome them, we shall need to bear in mind that they have no moral principles, no code of honour, no higher feelings. They recognize no Geneva Convention to restrict or partially civilize the weapons of their warfare. They are utterly unscrupulous, and ruthless in the pursuit of their malicious designs.8

  • Demons are organized.

The demonic categories that Paul uses are not explained, but they seem to represent “differing degrees of authority, such as presidents, governors, mayors, and aldermen, on the human scale.”9

“Rulers” in the Greek is the word kosmokratoras or, with an anglicized rendering, “cosmocrats.”10 It can be translated literally as “world rulers.” This probably refers to demons that are set over nations or regions. In Daniel, we see powerful demons called “princes” over Persia and Greece (Daniel 10:20). The angel who spoke with Daniel was involved in a battle with two of these demons. In the same way, there are demons that rule like princes and generals over nations and cities—seeking to turn the people and the culture away from God. It is very interesting to consider that when Christ cast the demons out of the demoniac (Mark 5), they begged him not to send them out of the country. It seems that even the minions are territorial—focused on whatever territory or person they are assigned to.

“Authorities, powers of this dark world, and spiritual forces of evil” also seem to reflect varying ranks. MacArthur says this about the “spiritual forces of evil”:

The spiritual forces of wickedness are possibly those demons who are involved in the most wretched and vile immoralities—such as extremely perverse sexual practices, the occult, Satan worship, and the like.11

What else can we discern about our enemy?

7. The devil wants to kill us.

Paul says our “struggle is not against flesh and blood.” The word “struggle” was used of hand to hand combat—especially wrestling. However, wrestling in the ancient world was often a fight to the death.12 This wrestling wasn’t just for sport; it was deadly combat. The devil and his demons don’t want to just tempt us and lead us into sin; they ultimately want to kill and destroy us. Jesus says this about Satan in John 10:10: “The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full.”

When Satan leads people into ungodly language, secular thinking, selfishness, or compromise, though they may seem harmless at the time, he ultimately wants to lead them to their destruction. The devil is nobody to play with—he is a destroyer.

The only reason he has not killed us is that God is the ultimate sovereign. As in the story of Job, God sets boundaries on how far the enemy can go. If Satan cannot kill us, he is content to attack our bodies, our sleep, our joy, our peace, our testimonies, our callings, and our relationships—with the hope of destroying them. Our enemy is a murderer, and our only hope is our Shepherd—Jesus.

8. The devil often attacks in an overwhelming manner.

Paul says for us to put on the full armor of God so that we may stand in the “day of evil,” or the “evil day,” as it’s called in the ESV (Eph 6:13). MacDonald says this about the evil day:

The evil day probably refers to any time when the enemy comes against us like a flood. Satanic opposition seems to occur in waves, advancing and receding. Even after our Lord’s temptation in the wilderness, the devil left Him for a season (Luke 4:13).13

Job experienced the “evil day” when the devil attacked his body, his family, his finances, and his friends for a season. This happens with many believers. Satan desires to make people give up, get angry at God, and turn away from him. A believer that is not being filled with the Spirit, who is not strong in the Lord, will fall prey to our enemy on this day.

Application Questions: What are some other characteristics of our enemy? What is a healthy perspective for Christians to have regarding the devil and spiritual warfare? What is an unhealthy one?

Believers Stand Firm by Fighting

Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. (Ephesians 6:13)

Paul writes of the need to stand firm four times in Ephesians 6; however, it must be remembered that this standing is not a passive, defensive stance. It is, in fact, active and offensive. Ephesians 6:17 and 19 tell us so.

Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God…Pray also for me, that whenever I open my mouth, words may be given me so that I will fearlessly make known the mystery of the gospel,

The sword was not primarily a defensive weapon, but an offensive one. As we share the Word of God with others, we are on the offensive. In fact, Paul prays for grace in sharing the gospel with others (v. 19).

It has been said that the best defense is a great offense. When the enemy is constantly being attacked, it is hard for him to mount an effective offense. Similarly, when Paul was going throughout the Gentile world spreading the gospel, he was fighting against the darkness. He was setting captives of Satan free by leading them to Christ. He was exposing the Roman world to light so that the darkness began to flee, and it must be the same for us.

We also see this in Christ’s words about building his church in Matthew 16:18. He says, “And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it.” The gates of Hades not prevailing is a picture of the church on the offensive. Believers are taking the battering ram of the gospel and breaking down the gates of Hades in communities, cities, and nations. This is a proper picture of God’s battle plan for the church in this war.

Application Question: How can believers fight this spiritual battle?

1. We must know what we are fighting for.

In a war, a soldier fights to protect his home, his family, his country, and his freedom. These things motivate him, and it must be the same for believers. If we don’t know what we’re fighting for, our spiritual lives often become dreary and lifeless.

What do believers fight for?

  • Believers fight for the souls of the lost.

Jesus says this to Paul about his calling as an apostle in Acts 26:17-18:

“I will rescue you from your own people and from the Gentiles. I am sending you to them to open their eyes and turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, so that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me.”

Similarly, Christians must recognize that they are on a rescue mission to save the lost from eternal darkness.

  • Believers fight to please God and be rewarded by him.

Consider these verses:

Watch out that you do not lose what you have worked for, but that you may be rewarded fully. (2 John 1:8)

No, I beat my body and make it my slave so that after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified for the prize. (1 Corinthians 9:27)

John calls Christians to be careful to not lose their reward, but rather to seek a full reward from God. Similarly, Paul was not afraid of losing his salvation, but he feared losing his reward and ultimately his usefulness. We fight to please God and to be rewarded by him. Believers with no desire to please God will not fight—they will remain spiritually lethargic.

  • Believers fight to glorify God with their lives.

First Corinthians 10:31 says, “So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God.” Even our fighting in this war is for the glory of God. When Christ went into the temple and turned over tables, he was consumed with zeal for God’s house (John 2:17), and with the glory of God. Similarly, we fight because we are consumed with the glory of God. A person not consumed with God’s glory—God being exalted throughout the world—will not fight.

How else can believers fight this battle?

2. We must know that the war has already been won, and we must fight with Christ’s authority.

Another important reality that every believer must understand when fighting this battle is that the war is already won. Therefore, we are not fighting to win, but because we’ve won. We see this taught in many texts, including the following:

I pray also that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened in order that you may know the hope to which he has called you, the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints, and his incomparably great power for us who believe. That power is like the working of his mighty strength, which he exerted in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every title that can be given, not only in the present age but also in the one to come. And God placed all things under his feet and appointed him to be head over everything for the church, (Ephesians 1:18-22)

And having disarmed the powers and authorities, he made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them by the cross. (Colossians 2:15)

This is important to understand so that we don’t become discouraged and quit. Christ has already won this battle on the cross. Satan—the serpent—bit his heel, but Jesus crushed the serpent’s head by his own death and resurrection (cf. Gen 3:15). He disarmed the evil powers and authorities, and was raised up in authority over them. Christians must remember this.

This is why when Paul encountered those possessed with demons, he cast them out in the “name of Jesus” (Acts 16:18). He declared Christ’s authority over them. We must walk in this reality as well. Christ is seated in authority over the demonic powers; he disarmed them and has placed us in authority over them as well—because we are in Christ (Eph 2:6).

As Paul did, there may be times where you need to rebuke the devil in “the name of Jesus”—declaring Christ’s authority. You may have to pray in authority over people stuck in spiritual depression (cf. 1 Sam 16:15), habitual sin (cf. Eph 4:26-27), or some type of demonic illness (cf. Lk 13:11). You may need to speak and stand on this reality in your own life, as you feel assaulted by the enemy emotionally, physically, and socially. Yes, the flesh and the world tempt and attack us, but we also must recognize this very real evil force—the devil and his demons—and the authority Christ has given us in his name (cf. Matt 28:18-19).

Application Questions: Why is it important to be on the offensive in spiritual warfare? What is your motivation to fight?


How can believers stand firm in this spiritual war?

  1. Believers Stand Firm by Being Prepared (with God’s Power and Character)
  2. Believers Stand Firm by Knowing the Enemy
  3. Believers Stand Firm by Fighting

Copyright © 2016 Gregory Brown

Unless otherwise noted, the primary Scriptures used are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version ®, Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by the International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked (ESV) are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® (ESV®) Copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked (NASB) are from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.

Scripture quotations marked (NLT) are taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2007 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked KJV or AKJV are from the King James Version or Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible.

All emphases in Scripture quotations and commentators’ quotations have been added.

1 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (pp. 337–338). Chicago: Moody Press.

2 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 344). Chicago: Moody Press.

3 Stott, J. R. W. (1979). God’s new society: the message of Ephesians (pp. 266–267). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

4 Foulkes, F. (1989). Ephesians: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 10, p. 175). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

5 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 338). Chicago: Moody Press.

6 Accessed 10/31/2015 from

7 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 57). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

8 Stott, J. R. W. (1979). God’s new society: the message of Ephesians (p. 264). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

9 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 1952). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

10 Hughes, R. K. (1990). Ephesians: the mystery of the body of Christ (p. 215). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.

11 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 341). Chicago: Moody Press.

12 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 340). Chicago: Moody Press.

13 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 1952). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

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