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21. How to Glorify Christ in the Workplace

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Slaves, obey your earthly masters with respect and fear, and with sincerity of heart, just as you would obey Christ. Obey them not only to win their favor when their eye is on you, but like slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from your heart. Serve wholeheartedly, as if you were serving the Lord, not men, because you know that the Lord will reward everyone for whatever good he does, whether he is slave or free. And masters, treat your slaves in the same way. Do not threaten them, since you know that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no favoritism with him. (Ephesians 6:5-9)

How can we glorify Christ in the workplace? What should a Christian worker look like?

Each person is called to work. Some work as students, some as teachers, some as mothers, some in business, etc. Everybody works for a living. The primary difference is pay. Some don’t get paid at all, some get paid a little, and some get paid a lot. What should the Christian’s work life look like?

Often, people think of work as a bad thing. Some may even think it is a result of the fall (Gen 3:17–18). However, work was given before the fall. It was Adam’s responsibility to till the ground and take care of the Garden of Eden (Gen 2:15). 

In fact, Scripture teaches that we will work in heaven. Luke 19:17 tells us that those who are faithful with their gifts and talents on earth will be rewarded with overseeing cities in the coming kingdom.

Also, in Revelation 21:2, we see the holy city of Jerusalem coming out of heaven to the earth. Just the fact that heaven is called a city implies many characteristics about eternity. A city has commerce, education, and government. Heaven will not be sitting on a cloud doing nothing. It will be worshiping and serving the Lord together in the heavenly city forever. It has always been God’s will for man to work.

Moreover, our God is a worker too! He creates and sustains the world by the power of his Word (Heb 1:2-3). He is not idle! Christ, God the Son, prays for his saints in order to save them to the uttermost (Heb 7:25). We serve a God who neither sleeps nor slumbers (Ps. 121:4). He is always active in his creation.

Work is something we do here on earth and something we will also do in heaven. It is a way that we imitate God and bring honor to him. If work is something we will do throughout eternity, we must ask ourselves, “How can we work in such a way that God is glorified?”

In Ephesians 6:5-9, Paul speaks to slaves, who constituted much of the workforce in the ancient world, and to their masters. He tells them how to work to glorify Christ. We see this in the number of times “Christ,” “Lord,” and “Master” are mentioned in this passage. It is mentioned in every verse. In verse 5, it says, “as you would obey Christ.” In verse 6, “like slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from your heart.” In verse 7, “as if you were serving the Lord.” In verse 8, “the Lord will reward everyone.” In verse 9, “he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven.” As this is connected to Paul’s call to be Spirit-filled in Ephesians 5:18, Paul is saying that a Spirit-filled worker glorifies Christ in the workplace, even as Christ is glorified in a Spirit-filled marriage (Eph 5:22-33) and a Spirit-filled household (Eph 6:1-4).

The Christian’s workplace is supposed to be a place of worship to the Lord—no matter how corrupt and ungodly the environment. Christian employees must remember this. As 1 Corinthians 10:31 says, “So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God.”

In light of this reality, John Stott says:

It is possible for the housewife to cook a meal as if Jesus Christ were going to eat it, or to spring-clean the house as if Jesus Christ were to be the honoured guest. It is possible for teachers to educate children, for doctors to treat patients and nurses to care for them, for solicitors to help clients, shop assistants to serve customers, accountants to audit books and secretaries to type letters as if in each case they were serving Jesus Christ.1

No doubt, this is why some Christian housewives have this motto over their kitchen sink: ‘Divine service held here three times daily.’—it is a form of worship.2

A Word about Slavery

It is important to remember that slavery was universal in the ancient world. There were about sixty million slaves in the Roman Empire, an estimated third or half of the population.3 They constituted the majority of the workforce. This “included not only domestic servants and manual labourers but educated people as well, like doctors, teachers and administrators. Slaves could be inherited or purchased, or acquired in settlement of a bad debt, and prisoners of war commonly became slaves.”4 In addition, “selling oneself into slavery was commonly used as a means of obtaining Roman citizenship and gaining an entrance into society.”5

Although, Scripture does not condemn slavery, it clearly speaks against kidnapping and enslaving people. Exodus 21:16 says, “‘Anyone who kidnaps another and either sells him or still has him when he is caught must be put to death.” In addition, 1 Timothy 1:9-10 addresses how the law condemns “slave traders.”

However, Scripture does condone some beneficial forms of slavery. MacArthur’s comments on this are helpful:

Certain types of nonabusive and beneficial slavery were permitted, or even advocated, in the Old Testament. For example, a thief who could not make restitution could be indentured until repayment was worked out—a plan far superior to the modern prison sentence which provides for no restitution of property or money to the victim or restoration of dignity for the thief. Israelites were allowed to buy slaves from the pagan nations around them (Lev. 25:44), but fellow Israelites could not be bought or sold, although they could voluntarily indenture themselves until the year of jubilee (v. 39–40). During their time of service they were to be treated as hired workers, not as slaves (v. 40–41, 46). Even pagan slaves were not to be abused and were given their freedom if seriously injured by their master (Ex. 21:26–27). A slave who fled from an oppressive master was to be given asylum and protection (Deut. 23:15–16). A fellow Israelite could not be used as a slave for more than six years, at the end of which he was to be given liberal provisions as a form of severance pay (Ex. 21:2; Deut. 15:13–14). Every fiftieth year, the year of jubilee, all slaves were to be freed and returned to their families (Lev. 25:10). A slave who loved his master and preferred to remain with him could voluntarily indenture himself for life by having his ear pierced by his master (Ex. 21:5–6). The kind of slavery controlled by scriptural teaching was a blessing to both employer and employee and was a rewarding and fulfilling relation between them.6

Voluntary slavery was often a way for a person or family to eat and to receive protection. It was not unusual for there to be great love between a master and a slave, as seen with Abraham and his chief servant, Eliezer. Before Abraham had his first child, Eliezer was the heir to his household (Gen 15:3). Unfortunately, the institution of slavery was not always pleasant and was commonly abused, especially in the Greco-Roman culture, where slaves were simply property. To that culture, Paul wrote about Spirit-filled conduct between slaves and masters that glorified Christ.

With all that said, though Scripture doesn’t focus on reforming ungodly systems like slavery, it does focus on reforming the root of these systems—the heart. Where Scripture and the gospel have spread, it has changed the hearts of the greedy, the prideful, and the racist—leading to the abolishment of ungodly systems. It has often led to the abolishment of slavery, of unfair treatment of women, and of the murder of the unborn.

In this text Paul speaks to slaves and masters, calling them to glorify Christ in the workplace. Since slaves constituted much of the ancient workforce, these principles apply directly to employees and employers today. Sadly, our workplaces are often not honoring to God; they are filled with complaining, bitterness, unrest, and even dishonesty, even by believers. However, this was never God’s will. Let’s consider Paul’s exhortations on how to honor and glorify Christ in the workplace.

Big Question: How can employees and employers glorify Christ in the workplace?

To Glorify Christ in the Workplace, Employees Must Obey Their Employers

Slaves, obey your earthly masters with respect and fear, and with sincerity of heart, just as you would obey Christ. Obey them not only to win their favor when their eye is on you, but like slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from your heart. Serve wholeheartedly, as if you were serving the Lord, not men, because you know that the Lord will reward everyone for whatever good he does, whether he is slave or free. (Ephesians 6:5-8)

Though many worked for non-Christian masters who were harsh and abusive, Paul calls for slaves to obey them as they would obey Christ. The word “obey” is “in the present tense in the Greek, indicating uninterrupted obedience.”7 The only time they should disobey is when called to do something sinful (cf. Col 3:22, Acts 4:18, 19).

In verses 5-8, Paul gives principles of how slaves should bring glory to Christ through obedience to their earthly masters. Again, this applies directly to Christian employees.

Observation Question: In what ways should employees obey their employers in order to glorify Christ, according to Ephesians 6:5-8?

1. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with the right perspective.

Interpretation Question: Why does Paul refer to “earthly masters” in Ephesians 6:5, and what are some implications?

When Paul says, “Slaves, obey your ‘earthly’ masters,” he reminds slaves that their work and submission to their masters is temporary. Our current jobs and careers are temporary because we can only work at a certain place or do certain jobs for a limited period of time. More importantly, they are temporary because we were made for eternity. And one day, we will be in heaven with our Heavenly Master.

This is important to remember for many reasons. (1) One person finds himself depressed and unsatisfied because he doesn’t enjoy his career and it is extremely difficult. This worker must remember that his career or job is earthly and temporary. Our final destination and workplace is heaven. We must live with a proper perspective of this.

(2) Another person becomes consumed with his job to the point of idolatry. He focuses on his work to the exclusion of God and often family. Again, this is wrong. Our primary job is to serve and honor God. Those who focus entirely on their earthy job and earthly employers to the exclusion of God will live worldly lives. Again, we must remember that we have a heavenly employer. First Corinthians 3:9 calls us “co-workers” with God. We work for him and with him to build his kingdom on this earth, and we will work for him and with him in heaven. This must be our primary focus wherever God places us.

Christian workers, remember that your job is temporary! You are really serving the Heavenly Master. Don’t let work become your life, which will lead to either discouragement or idolatry—it is only temporary. Live for eternity.

Do you work with the right perspective? Our careers are temporary, but our calling to work for God is eternal.

Application Questions: Why is it important to keep the right perspective in the workplace—that our work is temporary? How have you struggled with this?

2. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with respect and fear.

Interpretation Question: What does Paul mean when he calls slaves to serve their masters with “respect and fear”?

He does not mean a cowering fright, but he does mean to serve with an honor and respect that makes them anxious to please their masters. Obviously, this was hard at times, especially when serving a master that was difficult and ungodly. However, in such cases the slave’s—or for us the employee’s--fear and trembling must be for the higher authority that their master represented.

Romans 13:1-2 says,

Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves.

All authorities are established by God, even evil ones. Spirit-filled Christians must recognize the God-given authority of their employers. We see this with David and Saul. Even though King Saul tried to kill David, David continued to say, “I will not touch God’s anointed” (1 Sam 26:9, paraphrase). Even though Saul was an evil authority, David always honored and respected him in recognition of God’s authority behind Saul’s position.

Paul probably was also addressing the situation of Christian slaves serving Christian masters. No doubt some masters attended churches where their slaves attended and even pastored. As a result, some slaves, in focusing on their spiritual equality with their masters, were beginning to show them less respect. Paul addresses this problem in 1 Timothy 6:1-2:

All who are under the yoke of slavery should consider their masters worthy of full respect, so that God’s name and our teaching may not be slandered. Those who have believing masters are not to show less respect for them because they are brothers. Instead, they are to serve them even better, because those who benefit from their service are believers, and dear to them. These are the things you are to teach and urge on them.

For Christian employees, there is no place for insubordination or disrespect of employers. Although our culture readily accepts complaining and dishonoring leaders, Christians should be struck with fear and trembling. Why? It’s because they recognize God’s authority, even over the ungodly. Like David, they declare, “Who can touch God’s anointed and be guiltless?”

Do you work with fear and trembling to honor God? Is there a reverence to your work?

Application Questions: How can employees honor an unfair or unjust employer/authority? Have you ever encountered this situation? How did you respond?

3. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with sincerity of heart.

Next, Paul calls for believers to serve “with sincerity of heart, just as you would obey Christ” (Eph 6:5). “‘Sincerity’ literally means singleness of heart, the idea being that we ought to obey and serve with an undivided mind—with no ulterior motive or hypocrisy.”8

It means that Spirit-filled employees serve with a heart that pleases God—not one full of pride, bitterness, selfish ambition, or anything that could be disruptive—because they are focused on their Heavenly Master. Like David they cry out, “May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be pleasing to you, O Lord, My rock and my redeemer” (Psalm 19:14, NLT). They want their hearts and their actions to honor God in whatever place God has called them to serve.

Do you work with singleness of heart as unto the Lord?

Application Questions: How can employees keep a sincere heart in the workplace? What are some distractions from this type of heart?

4. To glorify Christ, employees must obey without eye service.

Paul says, “Obey them not only to win their favor when their eye is on you” (Eph 6:6). This can also be translated as, “Not with eyeservice, as menpleasers” (KJV). The Spirit-filled employee doesn’t only work hard when the employer is watching.

The picture Paul paints here is reminiscent of a contemporary gym class. While doing push-ups, the students stay in the up position while the gym teacher is not looking. Many are like that in the workplace. When the boss is around they work diligently, but when he is not, they play video games, crack jokes, and play on social media. Believers should endeavor to deliver sixty minutes of work for every hour of pay.

Do you work without eye service—delivering a day’s work whether your boss is around or not?

Application Questions: In what ways have you seen or experienced workers that render eye service instead of faithful service in the workplace? How have you struggled with this?

5. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with a good attitude.

Paul says, “Serve wholeheartedly, as if you were serving the Lord” (Eph 6:7). This can also be translated as “with good will,” “enthusiastically,” “eagerly,” or “with a good attitude.”

The Spirit-filled believer works eagerly, with a positive attitude instead of a bitter and complaining one. Just as Scripture says God loves a cheerful giver (2 Cor 9:7), God loves a cheerful worker. Colossians 3:23 says, “Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for men.”

Now, you can imagine the normal attitude of slaves in that difficult environment. Why work hard? They often didn’t receive pay or incentives. For most, other than fear of their masters, there really wasn’t a reason to be motivated. However, Christian slaves had many reasons to be motivated, the greatest one being that they were in fact serving God.

Do you work with a good attitude—eager and enthusiastically? Or are you a complainer?

Application Questions: How can employees maintain a good attitude in a bad work situation? Have you ever experienced a work environment where it was hard to maintain joy?

6. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with an expectation of God’s judgment and reward.

Finally, Paul says, “because you know that the Lord will reward everyone for whatever good he does, whether he is slave or free” (Eph 6:8). Christian employees should work with an expectation of God’s judgment. God will reward each one for what he does, and this should be a tremendous motivation for us.

Do you work with a view of God’s judgment and reward?

John MacArthur tells the story of two missionaries returning home to the United States. It is a helpful reminder of the importance of having an expectation of God’s judgment and reward.

The story is told of an elderly missionary couple who were returning home on a ship after many years of sacrificial service in Africa. On the same ship was Theodore Roosevelt, who had just completed a highly successful big game hunt. As the ship docked in New York harbor, thousands of well–wishers and dozens of reporters lined the pier to welcome Roosevelt home. But not a single person was there to welcome the missionaries. As the couple rode to a hotel in a taxi, the man complained to his wife, “It just doesn’t seem right. We give forty years of our lives to Jesus Christ to win souls in Africa, and nobody knows or cares when we return. Yet the president goes over there for a few weeks to kill some animals and the whole world takes notice.” But as they prayed together that night before retiring, the Lord seemed to say to them, “Do you know why you haven’t received your reward yet, My children? It is because you are not home yet.”9

If we forget that he is the one who rewards us, it is easy to become discouraged and apathetic. Although there is certainly a sense in which God rewards us on earth, as promotion and exaltation come from the Lord (cf. Ps 75:6-7), he will especially reward us in heaven (cf. 1 Cor 3:11-15, Luke 19:17).

Desire for reward and fear of God’s discipline would also be a motivation for lazy or evil slaves to repent. They would not want to experience loss of heavenly reward (cf. 1 Cor 3:14-15) and God’s discipline (cf. 1 Cor 11:31-32; Heb 12:6). Fear of God’s judgment should also motivate us to be faithful employees.

Application Questions: In what ways are fear of God’s judgment and anticipation of his reward motivators to faithful service in the workplace? Are they motivators for you?

Because of practicing these truths, Christian slaves were often sold for a higher price than pagan slaves.10 When Spirit-filled, they worked respectfully, with the right attitude, without eye service, and with many other godly traits. They did this because they were serving God and not men. Being a Christian should make us better at whatever God calls us to do, including our jobs.

Application Questions: Which principles about glorifying Christ in the workplace are most challenging to you and why? In what ways has your faith affected your performance in the workplace?

To Glorify Christ in the Workplace, Employers Must Care for Their Employees

And masters, treat your slaves in the same way. Do not threaten them, since you know that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no favoritism with him. (Ephesians 6:9)

Interpretation Question: What does Paul mean by “masters, treat your slaves in the same way”?

Many believe “in the same way” refers primarily to verse 6, where Paul says, “doing the will of God from your heart.”11 Masters must have the same motivation and goal as the Christian slave: to obey, please, and glorify the Lord. Again, this is really an application of being filled with the Spirit and of submitting to one another out of reverence to Christ (Eph 5:18-21).

Paul expands further on how masters should treat their slaves throughout Eph 6:9, and these truths can be applied directly to Christian employers and managers.

Observation Question: In what ways should masters treat their slaves in order to glorify Christ according to Ephesians 6:9, and how does this apply to Christian employers today?

1. To glorify Christ, employers must treat workers the way they want to be treated.

Another interpretation of “masters, treat your slaves in the same way,” is that it essentially refers to the golden rule. “If the employer expects the workers to do their best for him, he must do his best for them. The master must serve the Lord from his heart if he expects his servants to do the same. He must not exploit them.”12 Kent Hughes comments are also helpful:

What Paul is telling those in authority is, treat your slaves/employees the way you want to be treated. If you want respect, show respect. If you want sincerity, be sincere. If you want conscientiousness, you be the same. If you want pleasantness, model pleasantness. “Promote the welfare of your slaves as you expect them to promote yours. Show the same interest in them and in their affairs as you hope they will show in you and your affairs.”13

This is the Golden Rule of managers and employers: Treat employees the way you would want to be treated.

When in leadership, do you treat people the way you want to be treated?

Application Questions: How have you seen the Golden Rule modeled by those in leadership? How do you want to be treated as an employee?

2. To glorify Christ, employers must focus on positive reinforcement rather than threats or punishment.

When Paul says, “Do not threaten them,” he is not saying that masters should never use their authority. They should—their authority is from God. However, it should not be the primary way they lead. A manager who continually says, “Do this or I will fire you,” will destroy employee morale. No doubt, this type of demanding leadership was common to slave masters. Under Roman law slaves were property, and masters had the right to kill them if they so desired. Although this rarely happened since slaves were so expensive, many masters led by abusing their authority.

A Spirit-filled master or employer “uses his authority and power as little as possible and does not throw his weight around or lord it over those under him. He is never abusive or inconsiderate.”14 “In other words, ‘Let your approach be positive, not negative.’ Hence, not, ‘Unless you do this, I will do that to you,’ but rather, ‘Because you are a good and faithful servant, I will give you a generous reward.’”15

This is how Christ deals with us—his servants. He promises that if we are faithful, he will reward us. In the Parable of the Talents, Christ says, “‘Well done, good and faithful servant! You have been faithful with a few things; I will put you in charge of many things. Come and share your master’s happiness!’” (Matt 25:21). Similarly, good employers use positive verbal reinforcement such as, “Thank you” or “Good job.” They do this both privately and publicly when it is warranted. And when they can, they also reward their employees with tangible benefits such as promotions, higher wages, and extra vacation days.

Spirit-filled employers focus on positive reinforcement rather than threats and punishment.

Is your leadership style positive or negative?

Application Questions: What are some positive ways that employers can motivate their employees? What is your experience with these motivational strategies? How have you seen or experienced the opposite, and what were its effects?

3. To glorify Christ, employers must remember the lordship of Christ.

Paul says, “Do not threaten them, since you know that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no favoritism with him” (Eph 6:9). He calls for slave masters to always remember that they are under the authority and lordship of Christ. They are essentially stewards of God’s authority and resources, and one day they will be held accountable for their stewardship. And this accountability will be without partiality—masters and slaves, employers and employees, are equal before God. Leaders must ask themselves every day, “Would God approve?” If the answer is no or they are unsure, they must ask, “How can I do better?”

Application Questions: How can employers and employees keep their focus on the lordship of Christ? How have you applied this when in leadership positions? How are you going to apply it in the future?

4. To glorify Christ, employers must not show favoritism.

As Paul reminds masters that with God there is no favoritism, the implication is that they should not show favoritism either. Earthly masters and employers are just representatives of their Heavenly Master.

Wiersbe says, “One of the fastest ways for a leader to divide his followers and lose their confidence is for the leader to play favorites and show partiality.”16 Giving unfair favor or discipline can often be hazardous to cohesion and unity in the workplace. Christian employers must avoid this. Paul says something similar to Timothy, who later pastored the Ephesian church, “I charge you, in the sight of God and Christ Jesus and the elect angels, to keep these instructions without partiality, and to do nothing out of favoritism” (1 Timothy 5:21). Christian employers must lead without partiality or favoritism.

Application Question: How have you seen or experienced favoritism destroying the workplace?

Christian employers must work and care for their employees as unto the Lord. This is something that God gives his Spirit to enable (Eph 5:18). Employees should see the power and wisdom of God in the leadership of Christian employers, and it should inspire them to follow Christ.

Application Questions: Who was your favorite manager/employer and why? What are some other good managerial principles that Christians should employ in the workplace?

Conclusion

How can believers glorify Christ in the workplace?

  1. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with the right perspective.
  2. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with respect and fear.
  3. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with sincerity of heart.
  4. To glorify Christ, employees must obey without eye service.
  5. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with a good attitude.
  6. To glorify Christ, employees must obey with an expectation of God’s judgment and reward.
  7. To glorify Christ, employers must treat workers the way they want to be treated.
  8. To glorify Christ, employers must focus on positive enforcement rather than negative.
  9. To glorify Christ, employers must remember the lordship of Christ.
  10. To glorify Christ, employers must not show favoritism.

Again, we must be filled with the Spirit to fulfill these commands—meaning our primary focus must be abiding in Christ so these fruits can be born in our lives for his glory.

Copyright © 2016 Gregory Brown

Unless otherwise noted, the primary Scriptures used are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version ®, Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by the International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked (ESV) are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® (ESV®) Copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked (NASB) are from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.

Scripture quotations marked (NLT) are taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2007 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked KJV or AKJV are from the King James Version or Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible.

All emphases in Scripture quotations and commentators’ quotations have been added.


1 Stott, J. R. W. (1979). God’s new society: the message of Ephesians (p. 252). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

2 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 1950). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

3 Accessed 10/24/2015 from https://bible.org/seriespage/lesson-54-working-god-ephesians-65-9 

4 Stott, J. R. W. (1979). God’s new society: the message of Ephesians (p. 250). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

5 Hughes, R. K. (1990). Ephesians: the mystery of the body of Christ (p. 206). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.

6 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 324). Chicago: Moody Press.

7 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 325). Chicago: Moody Press.

8 Hughes, R. K. (1990). Ephesians: the mystery of the body of Christ (p. 208). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.

9 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 328). Chicago: Moody Press.

10 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 1951). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

11 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (pp. 328–329). Chicago: Moody Press.

12 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 55). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

13 Hughes, R. K. (1990). Ephesians: the mystery of the body of Christ (p. 210). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.

14 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 329). Chicago: Moody Press.

15 Hendriksen, W., & Kistemaker, S. J. (1953–2001). Exposition of Ephesians (Vol. 7, p. 265). Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

16 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 56). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

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