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Revelation 19-22:5

Sunday (Revelation 19:1-10)

Commentary

19:1 After these things I heard what sounded like the loud voice of a vast throng in heaven, saying,

“Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God,

19:2 because his judgments are true and just. For he has judged the great prostitute who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and has avenged the blood of his servants poured out by her own hands!”

19:3 Then a second time the crowd shouted, “Hallelujah!” The smoke rises from her forever and ever. 19:4 The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures threw themselves to the ground and worshiped God, who was seated on the throne, saying: “Amen! Hallelujah!”

19:5 Then a voice came from the throne, saying: “Praise our God all you his servants, and all you who fear Him, both the small and the great!”

19:6 Then I heard what sounded like the voice of a vast throng, like the roar of many waters and like loud crashes of thunder. They were shouting: “Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the All-Powerful, reigns!

19:7 “Let us rejoice and exult and give him glory, because the wedding celebration of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready.

19:8 “She was permitted to be dressed in bright, clean, fine linen” (for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints).

19:9a Then the angel said to me, “Write the following: Blessed are those who are invited to the banquet at the wedding celebration of the Lamb!”

19:9b He also said to me, “These are the true words of God.”

19:10 So I threw myself down at his feet to worship him, but he said, “Do not do this! I am only a fellow servant with you and your brothers who hold to the testimony about Jesus. Worship God, for the testimony about Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”

Prayer

Lord, Your servants – even the angels – honor Your sovereign right to worship. May I be faithful in never worshiping anyone or anything other than You, my Lord.

Summary & Commentary

In vss 19:1-2 the text describes the implementation of grace-delayed justice.

The phrase “... forever and ever” in vs 3 is a rhetorical flourish best understood in the context of linear created time. Those who are condemned are bonded to the once-created and then-fallen “heavens and earth”; therefore, when the heavens and earth as we know them are obliterated everything associated is also obliterated.

In vss 19:5-7 prophesy is being fulfilled. The “bride” is the “Church”, faithful believers.

In vss 19:8-9a the “saints” are faithful believers. Jesus used the illustration of a “wedding celebration” previously, it was reported in the gospels.

Only the Lord God may be worshiped, Father, Son, or Holy Spirit. No other, no thing, ever.

Interaction

Consider

The Lord God chooses to work through a partnership with believers.

Discuss

What are some practical ways to know for certain that you are never doing anything that even hints at “worship” of anyone or anything but God?

Reflect

It is comforting to know that following the Great White Throne Judgment that all rebellion-caused imperfection is replaced by “a new heaven and a new earth”.

Share

When have you experienced the removal of a troublesome person and/or philosophy from a fellowship resulting in a more peaceful experience?

Faith in Action

Prayer

Ask the Holy Spirit to reveal to you a place or places in your life where lies and/or temptations have troubled you.

Action

Today I agree to apply the Word of God in order to receive the gift of God's perspective and power and priorities – and to be set more-free.

Be Specific ______________________________________________________

Monday (Revelation 19:11-21)

The Son of God Goes to War

19:11 Then I saw heaven opened and here came a white horse! The one riding it was called “Faithful” and “True” and with justice he judges and goes to war.

19:12 His eyes are like a fiery flame and there are many diadem crowns on his head. He has a name written that no one knows except himself.

19:13 He is dressed in clothing dipped in blood, and he is called the Word of God.

19:14 The armies that are in heaven, dressed in white, clean, fine linen, were following him on white horses.

19:15 From his mouth extends a sharp sword, so that with it he can strike the nations. He will rule them with an iron rod, and he stomps the winepress of the furious wrath of God, the All-Powerful.

19:16 He has a name written on his clothing and on his thigh: “King of kings and Lord of lords.”

19:17 Then I saw one angel standing in the sun, and he shouted in a loud voice to all the birds flying high in the sky: “Come, gather around for the great banquet of God, 19:18 to eat your fill of the flesh of kings, the flesh of generals, the flesh of powerful people, the flesh of horses and those who ride them, and the flesh of all people, both free and slave, and small and great!”

19:19 Then I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to do battle with the one who rode the horse and with his army.

19:20 Now the beast was seized, and along with him the false prophet who had performed the signs on his behalf – signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. Both of them were thrown alive into the lake of fire burning with sulfur.

19:21 The others were killed by the sword that extended from the mouth of the one who rode the horse, and all the birds gorged themselves with their flesh.

Prayer

Lord, You are omniscient and omnipotent, and You administer irresistible and perfect justice to those who have unrepentantly opposed You. May I never doubt, no matter what may come for a moment, that You will one day obliterate all evil, and all that will remain is You and that which You have made-perfect and have called Your own.

Summary & Commentary

Verses 19:11-13 describe Jesus, arriving to administer closure to the finished work of defeating evil which He declared at the Cross.

Vs 19:14 describes believers who have been made pure in Heaven; according to the implications of Rev 17:4 they may be the same selected sub-set of believers as later described in Rev 20:4, but they are not described as armed nor are they described as involved in any combat – the Word of God as a sword represents the entirety of the very brief battle.

Vss 19:15-16 echo Ephesians 6:17. The sword of the Spirit is the right application of the Word of God in spiritual warfare, and in many matters of day to day living. Here it convicts and condemns those who are in unrepentant rebellion.

Vss 19:17-18 employs a common curse or taunt in OT warfare to declare that birds would feast on the flesh of ones enemy (remember Goliath's taunt and David's reply in 1 Samuel 17:44-47).

In vss 19:19-21 the army of rebellion is destroyed. While the beast and the false prophet are powerful – they are easily cast into the “lake of fire” by Jesus. Their master, Satan, will soon be dealt the final blow.

Interaction

Consider

In the Bible a person's name was rarely, if ever, arbitrary but rather defined or described them; therefore, only the Lord God would know the God-sized name of Jesus.

Discuss

What are some practical ways to help people to understand “the sword of the Spirit” and how to use it?

Reflect

It is the Word of God which destroys His enemies.

Share

When have you experienced in your life a practical example of the Word of God destroying the power of lies or of temptations that had previously troubled you?

Faith in Action

Prayer:

Ask the Holy Spirit to reveal to you an opportunity to challenge confusing, false, or incomplete teaching in your family, fellowship, or community.

Action:

Today I will respectfully share the complete Biblical truth where I believe that it has been misrepresented. I will pray and will ask at least another to join me in prayer for courage and wisdom.

Be Specific ______________________________________________________

Tuesday (Revelation 20:1-6)

The Thousand Year Reign

20:1 Then I saw an angel descending from heaven, holding in his hand the key to the abyss and a huge chain.

20:2 He seized the dragon – the ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan – and tied him up for a thousand years.

20:3 The angel then threw him into the abyss and locked and sealed it so that he could not deceive the nations until the one thousand years were finished. (After these things he must be released for a brief period of time.)

20:4 Then I saw thrones and seated on them were those who had been given authority to judge. I also saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of the testimony about Jesus and because of the word of God. These had not worshiped the beast or his image and had refused to receive his mark on their forehead or hand. They came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.

20:5 (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were finished.) This is the first resurrection.

20:6 Blessed and holy is the one who takes part in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for a thousand years.

Prayer

Lord, You are all-powerful and You fight every meaningful battle. May I rest in the certainty that I am never the source of power or truth but rather an imperfect instrument blessed by You as You pour-out truth into a dark and dying fallen-away world.

Summary & Commentary

Chapter 20 lies along the timeline between the Wrath and the Great White Throne Judgment.

The Tribulation was a high-conflict sifting-out period, some accept the Lordship of Christ and others reject Him.

Some believe that believers will avoid via an early rapture but the Biblical text suggests that the tribulation has already begun and will conclude with the rapture immediately prior to the wrath.

The Biblical text describes the wrath as only for those who have unrepentantly rejected the Lord God - no believers remain on earth during that time – during the wrath Jesus returns and, as described in Rev 19, wins the battle with the Word as a sword (while accompanied by angels and some believers both the battle and the victory are His alone).

A significant power-shift has occurred since a single angel is now empowered lock-up Satan.

The dead are “asleep” (a term repeatedly used by the apostle Paul) until they are incrementally raised by the Lord God; all believers have either died or been raptured, and now a sub-set believers are awakened. Many of those who have rejected the Lord God are also dead.

If the 1,000 year reign is taken literally, then even if everyone lived for 100 years it would still represent 10 generations passing while the martyrs of the tribulation rule – starting with a population exclusively representing the tribulation and wrath-surviving unrepentant rebels against the Lordship of Christ – all 1,000 years also occur while Satan has been removed from the equation (the deceiver/false prophet and the beast have previously been throne into the lake of fire).

Interaction

Consider

Jesus fights the final battle alone and does so with the sword of the Word – truth.

Discuss

Do we have a right-view of our role in the battle? Is it ever by our power that we have victory? While He allows us to be present is it not always His truth and His power that fights and wins?

Reflect

Due to the sequence of events there is a shift of power from where Satan – and his most powerful fallen angels - had previously been allowed a somewhat peer relationship with God's archangels (recall an archangel apologizing for being delayed) he is now perfunctorily tossed into prison by a single angel.

Share

When have you felt overwhelmed and experienced the Lord God overcoming for you?

Faith in Action

Prayer:

Ask the Holy Spirit to reveal to you a new and power sense of the importance of learning to submit to His Lordship so as to bear-up under attack for His sake.

Action:

Today I will humbly renew my surrender to the Lord God and I will share this with a fellow believer as peer-discipleship and/or as encouragement.

Be Specific ______________________________________________________

Wednesday (Revelation 20:7-10)

Satan's Final Defeat

20:7 Now when the thousand years are finished, Satan will be released from his prison

20:8 and will go out to deceive the nations at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to bring them together for the battle. They are as numerous as the grains of sand in the sea.

20:9 They went up on the broad plain of the earth and encircled the camp of the saints and the beloved city,

but fire came down from heaven and devoured them completely.

20:10 And the devil who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur,

where the beast and the false prophet are too,

and they will be tormented there day and night forever and ever.

Prayer

Lord, no matter how arrogant the enemy nor how great the numbers of the deceived who follow him You are always far more powerful. May I praise You for Your perfect justice and unchanging truth.

Summary & Commentary

Satan is released for a brief time and His deception of the nations persuades those, who have rejected the Lord God, that despite what they have seen of His great power they still can win.

They “encircled the camp of the saints and the beloved city” but nothing is mentioned of any combat as before that happens the Lord God sends down fire and consumes the massive army of Satan.

The phrase “forever and ever” is used again here. Recall that we previously learned that it refers to a period of time in Creation which exists only until the end of created linear time when everything is obliterated and a perfect and pure new heaven and new earth are created.

Interaction

Consider

Satan gets a final chance to deceive and “the nations” a final chance to choose. The “nations” choose poorly because they have rejected the Lordship of Christ.

Discuss

Why would the Lord God give Satan a final opportunity to tempt “the nations” to attack “the camp of the saints and the beloved city”?

Reflect

This follows the thousand-year reign of those selected by the Lord God and still the deceived were “... as numerous as the grains of sand in the sea”, showing why they deserved to be destroyed, as they were clearly unredeemable.

Share

When have you observed a person who, despite kindness and love, they still rebelled?

Faith in Action

Prayer:

Ask the Holy Spirit to reveal to you a place where you feel out-numbered by those who appear able and willing to overwhelm you.

Action:

Today I will prayerfully rest in the Lord God who lives in me and Who is able to sustain my faith despite the attack of the enemy.

Be Specific ______________________________________________________

Thursday (Revelation 20:11-15)

The Great White Throne

20:11 Then I saw a large white throne

and the one who was seated on it;

the earth and the heaven fled from his presence,

and no place was found for them.

20:12 And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne.

Then books were opened,

and another book was opened – the book of life.

So the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to their deeds.

20:13 The sea gave up the dead that were in it,

and Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them,

and each one was judged according to his deeds.

20:14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire.

This is the second death – the lake of fire.

20:15 If anyone's name was not found written in the book of life, that person was thrown into the lake of fire.

Prayer

Lord, Your deadline is known only to You, and You have patiently and sacrificially provided opportunity for each member of humankind to choose. May I be sure of my salvation and generous in sharing Your gospel so that others may also be sure.

Summary & Commentary

The Lord God opens “books”, those which contained the record of everyone's deeds.

Then “… another book was opened – the book of life.”, which contained the list of those who belonged to Jesus and for Whom His substitutional-death and resurrection was effective.

Vs 20:12 describes “the dead” those found in “the sea” and “... Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them”.

It has been speculated that “the sea” was mentioned as those who died in the water were never ritually buried and their standing was in-doubt by some.

“Death” (personified as in 1 Cor. 15:55) has generally been used in the Bible to refer to the holding or resting place of deceased humankind, a dead-end for every living thing in fallen-Creation, other than humankind.

“Hades” was the holding-place, prison, for fallen angels.

The “lake of fire” (or “sea of fire”) already held the “false prophet”, “the beast”, and the “devil” (Satan, the great dragon) and many others, and now it becomes the depository for all whose names were not found in the “Book of Life”.

This is still a linear created time context. This is Step two in the end of linear time and of fallen-Creation. The final Step is reported in Revelation 21.

Interaction

Consider

The apostle Paul taught that the dead are “asleep”, thus unaware of the passage of time until awakened/resurrected by the Lord in either the first, or this – the second resurrection.

Discuss

How might we do a better job of teaching people about this critical moment in time, before the end of all time, and wherein ones eternity is determined?

Reflect

There is a sudden irreversible decisiveness of the Great White Throne and the intersection of the books of our deeds and the superseding-power of the Book of Life.

Share

When have you observed an example of someone ignoring a looming deadline and missing it because they waited too long to act?

Faith in Action

Prayer:

Ask the Holy Spirit to reveal to you someone for whom He wants you to pray, and probably to share, so that their name may be written in the Lamb's Book of Life.

Action:

Today I will pray and I will respectfully share the Gospel of Jesus Christ with an unsaved person who has asked questions. I agree to share this chapter with them as a motivation that time is short.

Be Specific ______________________________________________________

Friday (Revelation 21:1-8)

A New Heaven and a New Earth

21:1 Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth,

for the first heaven and earth had ceased to exist,

and the sea existed no more.

21:2 And I saw the holy city – the new Jerusalem – descending out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband.

21:3 And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying: “Look! The residence of God is among human beings. He will live among them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them.

21:4 He will wipe away every tear from their eyes,

and death will not exist any more – or mourning, or crying, or pain,

for the former things have ceased to exist.””

21:5 And the one seated on the throne said: “Look! I am making all things new!”

Then he said to me, “Write it down, because these words are reliable and true.”

21:6 He also said to me, “It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the one who is thirsty I will give water free of charge from the spring of the water of life.

21:7 The one who conquers will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be my son.

21:8 But to the cowards, unbelievers, detestable persons, murderers, the sexually immoral, and those who practice magic spells, idol worshipers, and all those who lie,

their place will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur. That is the second death.”

Prayer

Lord, You will restore everything to the way it was first made – but even better – and You will share it with those whom You have redeemed for that purpose. May I live day to day with the joy of knowing, despite the imperfections of this fallen-away world, that one day my home will be perfectly with You.

Summary & Commentary

Everything in Creation (heaven and earth) that had existed has been obliterated “... ceased to exist” and replaced.

Not some things but everything “Look! I am making all things new!” this is because “... the first heaven and earth had ceased to exist”

Note the phrase in the text “... and the sea existed no more” The “lake of fire” may also, according to the NET Greek/Hebrew reference, also be rendered “sea of fire”.

With the resurrection of Jesus death had lost its power, even death no longer even exists, ... the former things have ceased to exist.”

While the truly saved already have the indwelling presence of the Lord God via His Holy Spirit, it would seem that Jesus is declaring something far more profound, as now that everything has been made pure and holy it is literally-possible for the first time since pre-Fall Eden for “The residence of God [to be] among human beings.”

Jesus made a linking-proclamation, tying-together His work on the Cross with the actualized conclusion of all things (as presented to John outside of linear time).

Jesus then shifted to a reflective message and away from showing John the future.

Jesus spoke to John about the last days of these end times – instructing him to record His promises to the faithful, and to reminding them of the consequences of rebellion – and to that purpose He listed again a sampling of the sins committed by unrepentant people.

Jesus concluded His warning against rebellion “... their place will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur. That is the second death.” The “second death” has no escape, no possibility of redemption, only Godless-horror then obliteration.

“The one [a saved person] who conquers [those who allow the Holy Spirit to be their strength and who do not deny the Lord] will inherit these things ...” [the new heaven and earth in the presence of the Lord God] “… and I will be his [those whose names are written in the Lamb's Book of Life] God and he [the surrendered-followers who are the Church] will be my son [beloved, family].”

Jesus wanted us to understand both grace and justice; to have an absolute certainty of both.

Interaction

Consider

There will no longer any purpose to anything not “made new”, therefore it ceases to exist. The Lord God throws out the garbage.

Discuss

What are some examples from the Bible, OT and/or NT where the Lord God has previously “taken out the garbage”, meaning that He obliterated individuals or groups who stood in the way of His promised blessing to His faithful?

Reflect

The Lord keeps warning that the consequences of rebellion are terrifying and terminal.

Share

When have you experienced or observed rebellious choices resulting in an irreversible ending? (Death, divorce, injury, lost employment.)

Faith in Action

Prayer:

Ask the Holy Spirit to reveal to you someone who has been considering-Christ but who has been procrastinating as to a decision, someone whom He wants you to bring this message.

Action:

Today I will humbly and respectfully share this study with someone who may be blessed by the challenge of contrasting eternal endings.

Be Specific ______________________________________________________

Saturday (Revelation 21:9-22:5)

The New Jerusalem Descends

21:9 Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven final plagues came and spoke to me, saying,

Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb!”

21:10 So he took me away in the Spirit to a huge, majestic mountain and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God.

21:11 The city possesses the glory of God;

its brilliance is like a precious jewel, like a stone of crystal-clear jasper. 21:12 It has a massive, high wall with twelve gates, with twelve angels at the gates, and the names of the twelve tribes of the nation of Israel are written on the gates. 21:13 There are three gates on the east side, three gates on the north side, three gates on the south side and three gates on the west side.

21:14 The wall of the city has twelve foundations, and on them are the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.

21:15 The angel who spoke to me had a golden measuring rod with which to measure the city and its foundation stones and wall. 21:16 Now the city is laid out as a square, its length and width the same. He measured the city with the measuring rod at fourteen hundred miles (its length and width and height are equal). 21:17 He also measured its wall, one hundred forty-four cubits according to human measurement, which is also the angel’s. 21:18 The city’s wall is made of jasper and the city is pure gold, like transparent glass. 21:19 The foundations of the city’s wall are decorated with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation is jasper, the second sapphire, the third agate, the fourth emerald, 21:20 the fifth onyx, the sixth carnelian, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh jacinth, and the twelfth amethyst.

21:21 And the twelve gates are twelve pearls – each one of the gates is made from just one pearl! The main street of the city is pure gold, like transparent glass.

21:22 Now I saw no temple in the city, because the Lord God – the All-Powerful – and the Lamb are its temple.

21:23 The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, because the glory of God lights it up, and its lamp is the Lamb.

21:24 The nations will walk by its light and the kings of the earth will bring their grandeur into it.

21:25 Its gates will never be closed during the day (and there will be no night there).

21:26 They will bring the grandeur and the wealth of the nations into it,

21:27 but nothing ritually unclean will ever enter into it,

nor anyone who does what is detestable or practices falsehood,

but only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s book of life.

22:1 Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life – water as clear as crystal – pouring out from the throne of God and of the Lamb, 22:2 flowing down the middle of the city’s main street.

On each side of the river is the tree of life producing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit every month of the year. Its leaves are for the healing of the nations.

22:3a And there will no longer be any curse,

22:3b … and the throne of God and the Lamb will be in the city. His servants will worship him,

22:4 and they will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads.

22:5 Night will be no more, and they will not need the light of a lamp or the light of the sun,

because the Lord God will shine on them, and they will reign forever and ever.

Prayer

Lord, we have rebelled and resisted, but Your love patiently persisted – testing hearts for a surrendered response to truth – rewarding the right-responses with encouragement, nurturing that seed to salvation. May our grateful thanks pour-out across an eternity with You.

Summary & Commentary

The same angel delivers both judgment, one of the bowls of Wrath, and good news.

In vs 21:10 John reminded his readers that he was not being moved about in the flesh, nor in linear time, but was instead being moved about “in the Spirit”.

John returned to the use of “like” to make it clear that he really could not directly-describe what he was seeing using any point of reference in the created and fallen world of his prior life experience.

John continued to attempt to describe the indescribable. He also appears to be describing once-again many things that he had been show and had recorded earlier.

The earthly temple, even at its most ornate, was a mere shadow of heaven. Observe the parallel between “... the Lord God” and “... the Lamb”, once again affirming the divinity of Christ.

None who are capable of sin exist any longer. Never again will there be rebellion or sin. Those whose names are written in “... the Lamb's book of life” have surrendered their free will, though the Lord God preservers their individuality. “... the grandeur and the wealth of the nations” are the believers “The Church”.

While John does not use the modifier “like”, the finer details of his description remains a “best approximation” using images and words with which he was familiar. The word picture is, however, inspiring to read – though our perception, once there, may vary somewhat from his.

The curse of the Fall will have been obliterated with the rest of fallen-Creation because any who are in Heaven will have been made pure and holy. No rebellion, no sin, ever again.

The imperfect will be destroyed, nothing imperfect may be in the presence of perfection, and according to John's report we will be in the Lord God's presence.

The phrase “reign” is interesting here as there are only the faithful in the “New Jerusalem”, so “reign” should be understood not in terms of a power relationship but more-so in terms of living in the “new Creation” of the “New Jerusalem”.

Interaction

Consider

Only the Lord God can create perfection in beings, apart from Himself, so that they may come into His presence.

Discuss

What are some practical ways to use this chapter to help believers, and those considering Christ, to visualize the incredible promise of Heaven?

Reflect

It is an amazing word-picture; the Lord God and the Lamb as “the temple” within Whose presence we are in-worship and in-fellowship, forever.

Share

When have you heard a testimony of the Lord God patiently-persisting in lovingly drawing a resistance person toward His truth and how He nurtured their first right-response toward a second and a third until they finally surrendered?

Faith in Action

Prayer:

Ask the Holy Spirit to lead me to set aside some time to worship the Lord God, alone or in fellowship with one or more believers, in a time intentionally set-apart to contemplate Heaven with Him.

Action:

Today I agree to share a report of the experience with at least one believer, and perhaps also one person who is considering Christ, as an encouragement to the first and a motivation to the second.

Be Specific ______________________________________________________

All Bible text is from the NET unless otherwise indicated - http://bible.org

Note 1: These Studies often rely upon the guidance of the NET Translators from their associated notes. Careful attention has been given to cite that source where it has been quoted directly or closely paraphrased. Feedback is encouraged where credit has not been sufficiently assigned.

Note 2: When NET text is quoted in commentary and discussion all pronouns referring to God are capitalized, though they are lower-case in the original NET text.

Commentary text is from David M. Colburn, D.Min. unless otherwise noted.

Copyright © 2012 by David M. Colburn. This is a BibleSeven Study – “Revelation” Section – Revelation 19 – 22:5 – prepared by David M. Colburn and edited for bible.org in July of 2012. This text may be used for non-profit educational purposes only, with credit; all other usage requires prior written consent of the author.

Related Topics: Devotionals, Curriculum