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Luke 22

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

UBS4 NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
The Plot to Kill Jesus The Plot to Kill Jesus Jesus' Death
(22:1-23:56)
The Plot Against Jesus The Conspiracy Against Jesus: Judas Betrays Him
22:1-6 22:1-6 22:1-2 22:1-2 22:1-2
      Judas Agrees to Betray Jesus  
    22:3-6 22:3-6 22:3-6
The Preparation of the Passover Jesus and His Disciples Prepare the Passover The Last Supper Jesus Prepares to Eat the Passover Meal Preparation for the Passover Supper
22:7-13 22:7-13 22:7-13 22:7-8 22:7-13
      22:9  
      22:10-12  
      22:13  
The Institution of the Lord's Supper Jesus Institutes the Lord's Supper   The Lord's Supper The Supper
22:14-23 22:14-23 22:14-23 22:14-16 22:14-16
      22:17-18 22:17-18
        The Institution of the Eucharist
      22:19-20 22:19-20
        The Treachery of Judas Foretold
      22:21-22 22:21-23
      22:23  
The Dispute About Greatness The Disciples Argue About Greatness   The Argument About Greatness Who is Greatest?
22:24-30 22:24-30 22:24-27 22:24-27 22:24-27
        The Reward Promised to the Apostles
    22:28-30 22:28-30 22:28-30
Peter's Denial Foretold Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial   Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial Peter's Denial and Repentance Foretold
22:31-34 22:31-34 22:31-34 22:31-32 22:31-34
      22:33  
      22:34  
Purse, Bag, and Sword Wallet, Bag, and Sword   Purse, Bag, and Sword A Time of Crisis
22:35-38 22:35-38 22:35-38 22:35a 22:35-38
      22:35b  
     

22:36-37

 
      22:38a  
      22:38b  
The Prayer on the Mount of Olives The Prayer in the Garden Gethsemane Jesus Prays on the Mount of Olives The Mount of Olives
22:39-46 22:39-46 22:39-46 22:39-40 22:39-40
      22:41-44 22:41-44
      22:45-46 22:45-46
The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus Betrayal and Arrest in Gethsemane   The Arrest of Jesus The Arrest
22:47-53 22:47-53 22:47-53 22:47-48 22:47-51
      22:49-50  
      22:51  
      22:52-53 22:52-53
Peter's Denial of Jesus Peter Denies Jesus and Weeps Bitterly   Peter Denies Jesus Peter's Denial
22:54-62 22:54-62 22:54-62 22:54-56 22:54-62
      22:57  
      22:58a  
      22:58b  
      22:59  
      22:60a  
      22:60b-62  
The Mocking and Beating of Jesus Jesus Mocked and Beaten   Jesus Is Mocked and Beaten Jesus Mocked by the Guards
22:63-65 22:63-65 22:63-65 22:63-65 22:63-65
Jesus Before the Council Jesus Faces the Sanhedrin   Jesus Before the Council Jesus Before the Sanhedrin
22:66-71 22:66-71 22:66-71 22:66-67a 22:66-23:1
      22:67b-69  
      22:70a  
      22:70b  
      22:71  

READING CYCLE THREE (from "A Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

 

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

A. 1 Corinthians 11:20ff is the first written account of the Last Supper. It was recorded by Paul. Luke, in many ways, mirrors Paul's presentation.

 

B. The only account of the dialog during the Lord's Supper is John 13-17, though no reference to the actual meal is included.

 

C. There are two great textual difficulties related to this chapter, Luke 22:17-20 and Luke 22:43-44. See the notes below.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:1-2
 1Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which is called the Passover, was approaching. 2The chief priests and the scribes were seeking how they might put Him to death; for they were afraid of the people.

22:1 "the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which is called the Passover" These two feasts are discussed in Exodus 12 (Passover, Luke 22:1-14,21-36 and Unleavened Bread, Luke 22:15-20). Originally they were separate feasts, but were later combined into one eight- day feast (cf. Num. 28:16-31) beginning on the 14th of Nisan (March-April). The Passover Feast commemorates the Death Angle passing over the Jewish slaves' homes in Egypt and the deliverance of God's people from the Egyptians as promised in Gen. 15:12-21.

22:2 "The chief priests and the scribes" This refers to the Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court of the Jews in Jerusalem. See Special Topic: Sanhedrin at Luke 9:22.

▣ "how they might put Him to death" The religious leaders felt that Jesus

1. was heretical

2. could cause problems with Rome (cf. Matt. 26:5)

3. made them to feel jealous

The Gospel of John mentions several plots to kill Jesus (cf. John 7:30,44; 8:59; 10:31,39; 11:53).

▣ "death" This word for death (anaireō) is used in the NT almost exclusively by Luke for someone being put to death (cf. Luke 22:2; 23:32: Acts 2:23; 5:33,36; 7:28; 9:23,24,29; 10:39; 12:2; 13:28; 16:27; 22:20; 23:15,21,27; 25:3; 26:10). It is also used this way in the Septuagint (cf. Gen. 4:15; Exod. 15:9; 2 Sam. 10:18).

The other Synoptic Gospels use the terms apollumi or apokteinō for these murderous plots by these Jerusalem leaders.

Luke, being the only Gentile writer of the NT, had a different vocabulary from the other Gospel writers whose primary language was Aramaic. Luke is heavily influenced by the terminology and vocabulary of the Greek translation of the NT, the Septuagint.

"for they were afraid of the people" This is a recurrent theme (cf. Matt. 21:26,44; Mark 11:18,32; 12:12; Luke 20:19).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:3-6
 3And Satan entered into Judas who was called Iscariot, belonging to the number of the twelve. 4And he went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers how he might betray Him to them. 5They were glad and agreed to give him money. 6So he consented, and began seeking a good opportunity to betray Him to them apart from the crowd.

22:3 "And Satan entered into Judas" Luke mentions Satan often (cf. Luke 4:13; 10:18; 13:16; and 22:3,31). Judas had heard, fellowshiped with, and observed the Lord Jesus at close range for several years, but apparently he still had no personal relationship with Him by faith (cf. Matt. 7:21-23). Peter undergoes the same intensity of temptation as does Judas, but with drastically different results. Much discussion has taken place over the motives of Judas' treachery: (1) it was primarily monetary (cf. John 12:6); (2) it was primarily political (cf. William Klassen, Judas Betrayer of Friend of Jesus?); (3) it was spiritual (cf. John 13:27).

On the subject of Satanic influence or demon possession, there are several good resources (listed in the order of those I trust).

1. Merrill F. Unger, Biblical Demonology, Demons in the World Today

2. Clinton E. Arnold, Three Crucial Questions About Spiritual Warfare

3. Kurt Koch, Christian Counseling and Occultism, Demonology Past and Present

4. C. Fred Dickason, Demon Possession and the Christian

5. John P. Newport, Demons, Demons, Demons

6. John Warwick Montgomery, Principalities and Powers

Also see my Special Topics at Luke 4:2 (Satan) and 4:33 (The Demonic).

Be careful of cultural myths and superstitions. Satan affects Peter in Matt. 16:23 to tempt Jesus in the very same way—to avoid His substitutionary death. Satan is consistent. He is trying any way possible to stop Jesus' redemptive work on our behalf.

1. Satan' temptation of Jesus, Luke 4; Matthew 4

2. Peter, Matthew 16

3. Judas and the Sanhedrin, here

Jesus even describes Judas as a devil in John 6:70. The Bible does not discuss the subject of demon possession and influence as it relates to believers. But, believers are obviously affected by personal choices and personal evil!

▣ "Iscariot"

SPECIAL TOPIC: ISCARIOT

"belonging to the number of the twelve" These were the special disciples whom Jesus chose to intimately reveal Himself to and train to become the "new Israel." A really good book on Jesus' training methodology is Robert E. Coleman, The Master Plan of Evangelism. These men became known as "the Twelve." See Special Topic at Luke 6:13.

22:4 "officers" This refers to the Temple police. One of the divisions of the Levites was charged with guarding, maintaining order, and inflicting punishment on the Temple mount. The priests guarded the temple itself, but the temple police (we learn from Philo, De Specialibus Legibus (Loeb 7, 1.156) were assigned to

1. opening and closing the outer doors of the temple area

2. guarding the opening between the Court of the Gentiles and the Court of the Women

3. patrolling the commercial area known as the Court of the Gentiles

At night there were twenty-one guards posted around the temple area's perimeter (M. M. dd. 1.1).

They were under the control of the Sanhedrin, which usually met in the temple. They are usually referred to

1. as officials or attendants, John 7:32,45,46; 18:18

2. at Jesus' arrest, John 18:3,12

3. at the night trials, John 18:18,36

a. at Peter's denial, Matt. 26:58; Mark 14:54,65; John 18:18

b. at Jesus' sentencing by Pilate, John 19:6

4. in Acts 4:1; 5:22-26; 21:30

 

22:5 "they were glad" They rejoiced because now they could arrest Jesus quietly and discreetly in private without the pilgrims or townspeople knowing anything about it (cf. Luke 22:6).

▣ "and agreed to give him money" We learn from Matt. 26:15 that it was thirty pieces of silver, which fulfills the prophecy of Zech. 1:12.

22:6 "and began seeking a good opportunity to betray Him" The night of the Passover observance would have been an opportune time because everyone was home with their family groups on this special holy evening.

▣ "apart from the crowd" We must remember that Jesus was a very popular person in Galilee and during this festival hundreds and hundreds of people from Galilee were in Jerusalem. This is the very reason the High Priest had decided to wait in Mark 14:2, but when one of His own offered to betray Him, they changed their minds.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:7-13
 7Then came the first day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 8And Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, so that we may eat it." 9They said to Him, "Where do You want us to prepare it?" 10And He said to them, "When you have entered the city, a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house that he enters. 11And you shall say to the owner of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?"' 12And he will show you a large, furnished upper room; prepare it there." 13And they left and found everything just as He had told them; and they prepared the Passover.

22:7 "Then came the first day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed" There is a chronological difference between the Synoptic Gospels (Passover) and John (the day of preparation, cf. Exod. 12:6; John 13:1; 18:28) on exactly what day the Lord's Supper took place. Remember that Jewish days start at dusk because of Genesis 1. The day of Jesus' crucifixion is uniform in all four Gospels as being Friday. If one retraces the lunar calendar back to Jesus' day in a.d. 30, the 14th of Nisan (cf. Lev. 23:5-6) fell on a Thursday, the 15th of Nisan on a Friday, which fits exactly.

22:8 "And Jesus sent Peter and John" Only Luke names these two preparers. Usually James is included with this inner circle of Apostles, but not here.

"Go and prepare" This is a good example of an idiomatic use of a participle before an imperative, where both are used as imperatives (cf. Matt. 28:19).

This preparation would have been done on the afternoon of the 14th of Nisan. The meal would be eaten that night (the 15th of Nisan).

22:9 "Where do You want us to prepare it" The disciples did not know the exact location, possibly because Jesus did not want Judas' betrayal to interrupt the meal.

22:10 "a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water" Woman usually carried water in pitchers, men sometimes carried it in animal skins. This is another of many examples in the Gospels that can be interpreted as (1) the supernatural knowledge of Jesus or (2) a pre-arranged setting. The people of Jerusalem and surrounding areas opened their homes during these festival occasions for pilgrims.

22:11 "And you shall say to the owner of the house" This may have been John Mark's home, which became the disciples' meeting place in Jerusalem known as the upper room (cf. Acts 12:12).

"the guest room" See note at Luke 2:7, where it is translated "inn."

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:14-23
 14When the hour had come, He reclined at the table, and the apostles with Him. 15And He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; 16for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God." 17And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He said, "Take this and share it among yourselves; 18for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes." 19And when He had taken some bread and given thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me." 20And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, "This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood. 21But behold, the hand of the one betraying Me is with Mine on the table. 22For indeed, the Son of Man is going as it has been determined; but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!" 23And they began to discuss among themselves which one of them it might be who was going to do this thing.

22:14 "When the hour had come" This would be twilight on the beginning of the 15th of Nisan.

▣ "He reclined at the table" Remember the Lord's Supper was done as all Jewish meals, by reclining on the left elbow around a horseshoe-shaped, low table.

22:15 This verse has two wordplays.

1. "with desire (epithumia) I desired (epethumēsa)," which is a common idiom in the Septuagint for "strongly desired"

2. "passover" (pascha) and "suffer" (paschō)

Jesus had forewarned them several times (cf. Luke 9:22-27; Mark 8:31-9:1; Matt. 16:21-28; 17:9,12,22-23; 20:18-19) of His upcoming suffering in Jerusalem at the instigation of the Jewish authorities and the cruel Roman justice (crucifixion).

22:16 "I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God" This is a strong double negative, which refers to the Passover meal. It seems to be a reference to the Messianic banquet (cf. Luke 22:18,30; 14:15; Matt. 8:11; 26:29; Rev. 19:9).

This metaphor of intimate fellowship is hard to interpret. It obviously refers to table fellowship, which was so important in ancient Israel and the Near East. However, is it to be understood literally? Resurrected bodies do not need physical food. It is this type of idiomatic language about the afterlife that caused the Pharisees to think of it in such earthly, physical terms (Islam also). Humans have many questions about the afterlife, but the Bible speaks of it in symbol, idiom, analogy, and metaphor. Perhaps 1 Cor. 2:9, which is a quote from Isa. 64:4 and 65:17, is best!

▣ "kingdom of God" See Special Topic at Luke 4:21.

22:17-20 There is a manuscript variant in these verses. The long text (Luke 22:17-20) is recorded in the NASB, NRSV, NJB, NKJV, TEV. It is not in Manuscript D, on which the King James Version is normally based, but it is in the other four, most ancient witnesses (MSS P75, א, A, B) and is quoted by Justin Martyr around a.d. 150.

In the short text (Luke 22:17-19a), the wine comes before the bread, which follows the order of 1 Cor. 10:16 (and the Didache 9:1-3). If the longer text is followed, then the order is reversed which is found in Matthew, Mark, and 1 Cor. 11:23-27.

There are two good discussions of this textual problem:

1. Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual commentary on the Greek New Testament, pp. 173-177

2. Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, pp. 198-209

This textual problem does not affect any Christian doctrine (because of the parallels in Matthew and Mark), but only a proper reading of Luke and his purposes and idiosyncrasies as an author. At the stage of textual criticism there is no way to determine the reading of the autograph copy (original handwritten copy) of Luke. Both forms were known to second century Christians.

22:17 "a cup" There are four cups of blessing during the Seder service. I believe that Jesus used the third cup of blessing as the point of departure from the national meal of Israel to the new meal of the church.

SPECIAL TOPIC: PASSOVER (ORDER OF SERVICE)

22:18 "the fruit of the vine" See Special Topic below.

SPECIAL TOPIC: BIBLICAL ATTITUDES TOWARD ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM

22:19 "some bread" Notice that the lamb is not mentioned. This meal has a completely new relevance for the church and is not linked inseparably to an annual Feast of national Israel. It symbolized a new deliverance (exodus) from sin (i.e., the new covenant, cf. Jer. 31:31-34).

▣ "This is My body" There have been four major understandings of this meal in the church:

1. Roman Catholic trans-substantiation, which means that this is in reality the body of Christ

2. Martin Luther's con-substantiation, which is slightly less literal than number 1

3. John Calvin's spiritual presence, which is slightly less literal than numbers 1 and 2

4. Zwingli's symbolic understanding

The interpretation that the elements actually become the body and blood of Christ comes from John 6:43-58 which, however, in context, it records the feeding of the five thousand and the Jews expectation that the Messiah would feed them as Moses did, not the Lord's Supper.

"do this in remembrance of Me" This is a Present active imperative. The phrase is unique to Luke's Gospel. The word anamnēsis occurs twice in Paul's account of the Lord's Supper in 1 Cor. 11:24,25. Luke may have gotten his terminology from Paul's churches. This is probably why there are several non-Lukan forms and words in Luke 22:19b-20.

22:20

NASB, NRSV,
TEV, NJB"poured out"
NKJV"shed"

SPECIAL TOPIC: POURED OUT

▣ "the new covenant in My blood" This new covenant is described in Jer. 31:31-34, Ezek. 36:22-36, and Zech. 9:11. It was horrid for Jews to think of drinking blood (cf. Lev. 17:14). It is obvious that Jesus is referring to His sacrificial death and not of literally drinking His blood!

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE LORD'S SUPPER IN JOHN 6

22:21 "the hand of the one betraying Me is with Mine on the table" In Luke, Judas participates in the entire Lord's Supper. In John 13:21-30 he leaves before the Supper is begun. In Matthew and Mark he takes part in half of the Supper. We must continue to remember that the Gospels are not modern histories, but evangelistic tracts! Judas' betrayal is a fulfillment of Ps. 41:9 (cf. John 13:18).

22:22 "the Son of Man is going as it has been determined" For "Son of Man" see Special Topic at Luke 5:24.

The verb is a perfect passive participle of horizō, which means a boundary or limit. We get the English word "horizon" from this Greek term. Jesus' sacrificial death is part of the pre-determined plan of God (cf. Gen. 3:15; Isa. 52:13-53:12; Acts 2:23; 3:18; 4:28; 10:42; 13:29; 17:26,31). Jesus's death was not an afterthought or plan B! Jesus came to die (cf. Mark 10:45; John 3:16; 2 Cor. 5:21)!

▣ "but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed" It is the Gospel of John that mentions Judas' treachery early and often (cf. John 6:70; 12:4; 13:2,26,27; 17:12; 18:2-5).

22:23 This verse shows the confusion and uncertainty of the Twelve. They had been with Jesus for several years. They had heard His teachings, seen His miracles, and functioned as His representatives, yet they did not understand! They were not even sure which one of them was the betrayer!

Passages like this are an encouragement to me in my doubts, confusions, and fear. Christianity is a life of faith, trust, hope, fear, and uncertainty; get used to it! The wonder of wonders is that through it all there is peace, joy, contentment, and assurance!

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:24-27
 24And there arose also a dispute among them as to which one of them was regarded to be greatest. 25And He said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who have authority over them are called 'Benefactors.' 26But it is not this way with you, but the one who is the greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader like the servant. 27For who is greater, the one who reclines at the table or the one who serves? Is it not the one who reclines at the table? But I am among you as the one who serves."

22:24 "And there arose also a dispute among them as to which one of them was regarded to be greatest" Every time Jesus related His death, the disciples began to argue over who would be His successor (cf. Matt. 18:1-5; 20:24-28; Mark 9:33-37; 10:41-45; Luke 9:46-48). The Greek word for "dispute" implies one ready to argue. The context of John 13 involves this same issue. The larger context is the dialogue in the "guest room" during the Lord's Supper, John 13-17. They still had in their minds an earthly kingdom, a Jewish kingdom (cf. Acts 1:6). They were arguing over which one of them would take Jesus' place as leader.

22:25-27 Jesus uses several words denoting powerful men: "kings," "those who have authority," "benefactors" (used of Syrian kings). These all refer to people in power. Christ's leaders must be servant leaders. Jesus demonstrated this for them as He washed their feet in John 13:3-5 and supremely when He died on the cross. God's leaders must be Kingdom people, Great Commission people!

The fall involved selfishness; faith in Jesus promotes and provides selflessness (cf. Gal. 2:20). We are saved to serve; we live to serve! It is all about Jesus, not all about us (cf. Luke 9:48).

SPECIAL TOPIC: SERVANT LEADERSHIP

22:27 The second question of Luke 22:27 expects a "yes" answer. This is a typical biblical "role reversal" statement. God's ways are not our ways (cf. Isa. 55:8).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:28-30
 28"You are those who have stood by Me in My trials; 29and just as My Father has granted Me a kingdom, I grant you 30that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel."

22:28

NASB"those who have stood by Me in My trials"
NKJV"those who have continued with Me in My trials"
NRSV"those who have stood by Me in my trials"
TEV"you have stayed with me all through my trials"
NJB"you are the men who have stood by me faithfully in my trials"

This is a Perfect active participle. Jesus must be referring to the events and struggles of their years together in ministry on the road. The large crowds came and went, but this core of followers remained. This group also included several women who traveled with them (cf. Luke 8:1-3) and some of the hundred and twenty in the upper room on Pentecost (cf. Acts 1:13-15).

SPECIAL TOPIC: WOMEN WHO TRAVELED WITH JESUS AND HIS DISCIPLES

22:29-30 Jesus knew who He was and why He came (cf. John 15:1-7). He has the authority (cf. Matt. 28:18) to appoint His followers a place that was given to Him by the Father (places of honor at the head table).

22:30 "and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel" The exact time, purpose, and people to be ruled is uncertain (cf. Matt. 19:28; 2 Tim. 2:11-12; Rev. 3:21). This phrase surely links the OT Israel and the NT church in an inseparable embrace.

SPECIAL TOPIC: REIGNING IN THE KINGDOM OF GOD

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:31-34
 31"Simon, Simon, behold, Satan has demanded permission to sift you like wheat; 32but I have prayed for you, that your faith may not fail; and you, when once you have turned again, strengthen your brothers." 33But he said to Him, "Lord, with You I am ready to go both to prison and to death!" 34And He said, "I say to you, Peter, the rooster will not crow today until you have denied three times that you know Me."

22:31 "Simon, Simon" The doubling of a name was a way of gently chiding (cf. Luke 6:46; 10:41; 22:31; Acts 9:4; 22:7; 26:14). Notice Jesus calls him Simon and not Peter (rock). He will be anything but a rock in the next few hours.

NASB"Satan has demanded permission to sift all of you like wheat"
NKJV"Satan has asked for you, that he may sift you as wheat"
NRSV"Satan has demanded to sift all of you like wheat"
TEV"Satan has received permission to test all of you, to separate the good from the bad, as a farmer separates the wheat from the chaff"
NJB"Satan has got his wish to sift all of you like wheat"

The "you" is plural. This means all of the disciples. This sounds much like Job 1:12; 2:6. Satan must ask God's permission before he acts. The TEV and NJB catch the connotation of the verb exaiteō (here an aorist middle indicative) as it was used in the papyri (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, p. 221).

Sifting was a process of (1) shaking grain through a strainer to remove dirt and small stones and other impurities before preparing it to eat or (2) separating the grain from the chaff by winnowing. Here it is metaphorical of a time of testing/separation.

22:32 "but I have prayed for you" The pronoun egō is fronted, implying "I myself." Jesus prayed specifically for Peter. Jesus prayed for His disciples then and now in John 17. Jesus continues to pray for all believers (cf. Heb. 7:25; 9:24; 1 John 2:1). This same verb is used in Luke 21:36 for believers praying and keeping watch.

▣ "that your faith may not fail" This is a sobering thought (see Special Topic at Luke 6:46). Peter will deny any knowledge of Jesus three times, with an oath! But Peter repents and reestablishes his relationship by faith (Judas does not).

If the strong leader of the Apostolic group is open to Satanic attack and failure, why not the rest of Jesus' followers (past and present)?

▣ "when once you have turned again" Even in the midst of temptation, Jesus strengthens Peter by this statement. I believe John 21 is Peter's official reinstatement as leader of the Apostolic group after his denial. Amazingly, he will preach the first Christian sermon at Pentecost in Acts 2!

22:33 This verse clearly shows the struggle of the will. Peter truly wanted to follow and serve his Lord, but there is a terrible conflict in the fallen human heart (cf. Eph. 6:10-19). Self, self-interest, and self-preservation become ultimate issues (cf. Rom. 7). Peter was willing to die for Jesus at the arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, but not at the fire outside the high priest's home (cf. Matt. 26:41; Mark 14:38).

22:34 "the rooster will not crow" The time of the crowing (before 3 a.m.) and the number of crowings (cf. Mark. 14:30) are examples of Jesus' supernatural knowledge.

"that you know Me" The verb "know" is a perfect active infinitive denoting a past act come to a settled state of being. The Hebrew connotation of "know" is not facts about, but intimate personal relationship (cf. Gen. 4:1; Jer. 1:5). Peter was asserting that he had never had a personal relationship with Jesus!

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:35-38
 35And He said to them, "When I sent you out without money belt and bag and sandals, you did not lack anything, did you?" They said, "No, nothing." 36And He said to them, "But now, whoever has a money belt is to take it along, likewise also a bag, and whoever has no sword is to sell his coat and buy one. 37For I tell you that this which is written must be fulfilled in Me, 'And He was numbered with transgressors'; for that which refers to Me has its fulfillment." 38They said, "Lord, look, here are two swords." And He said to them, "It is enough."

22:35 "When I sent you out without money belt and bag and sandals" This relates to the mission trips of the Twelve and the Seventy (cf. Luke 9:3; 10:4). This reminds them of a ministry time when they had to totally depend on God for sustenance, protection, and provision.

▣ "you did not lack anything did you" This question expects a "no" answer.

22:36 "and whoever has no sword is to sell his coat and buy one" Peter apparently took this literally as did the other disciples (see Luke 22:38). This is probably the background of Peter's cutting off the ear of the High Priest's servant. I do not believe Jesus was speaking literally, but figuratively of the struggle ahead.

There is a paradox between divine provision and human preparation. Both are needed. It is part of the faith covenant relationship with God. Believers are not blessed or effective because of their efforts, but because they are blessed they freely give themselves to the spiritual tasks assigned by God.

This verse, which contains three aorist active imperatives, shows that not all commands are to be taken literally. Human language has a complex relationship to specific historical settings and literary contexts. Part of the image of God in mankind is our linguistic abilities.

22:37 "that this which is written must be fulfilled in Me" This refers to OT prophecy (here Isa. 53:12). The verb "is written" is a Perfect passive participle, which is an idiom for inspired OT Scripture. Jesus' life, teachings, and actions had OT prophetic implications.

The OT and NT authors believed God was intimately involved in His creation. He reveals Himself to humans in Scripture. One of the powerful ways He substantiates the validity and authority of His revelation (Bible) is predictive prophecy. Many of the OT prophecies are typological fulfillments (something happens to Israel or her leaders that later also occur in Jesus' life, cf. Psalm 22; Hos. 11:1) and others like this one specifically record future events unique to the Messiah (cf. Isaiah 53; Micah 5:2). No other "holy book" of world religions has predictive prophecy. It clearly shows the supernatural nature of the Bible and God's control and knowledge of history.

NASB"for that which refers to Me has its fulfillment"
NKJV"for the things concerning Me have an end"
NRSV"and indeed what is written about me is being fulfilled"
TEV"what was written about me is coming true"
NJB"Yes, what it says about me is even now reaching its fulfillment"

This could refer to (1) prophetic Scripture about the Messiah or (2) Jesus' life work of accomplishing the redemptive will and plan of God, about to be finished. His hour has come. Charles B. Williams, The New Testament In the Language of the People has "yes that saying about me has its fulfillment," which makes Luke 22:37 Hebrew synonymous parallelism.

▣ "He was numbered with transgressors" This is a quote from a Servant Song of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (cf. Luke 53:12). It is the most specific OT prophecy of the Messiah's rejection and subsequent death. The Messiah will suffer (cf. Gen. 3:15)!

22:38 "It is enough" This either refers to the fact that (1) there are enough swords or (2) this is enough of this kind of talk (cf. TEV footnote).

Both A. T. Robertson (Word Pictures) and Joseph A. Fitzmyer (Anchor Bible, vol. 28A) assume that Jesus is speaking metaphorically and that the Apostles have taken Him literally. Since He cannot communicate to them because of their world view/mind set, He terminates the discussion. They take this approach because it sounds so out of character for Jesus to advocate buying swords for a physical battle between His disciples and a large group of soldiers.

F. F. Bruce, Questions and Answers, says:

"Our Lord speaks here with a certain sad irony: since the Son of Man is about to be numbered with transgressors (more particularly, with bandits like the two who were crucified with Him), why should His followers not dress accordingly and wear swords as well as other articles which they had formerly been forbidden to take with them? Taking Him up literally, the disciples revealed that they had two swords with them. But He, realizing that they had not understood Him, dismissed the matter: "Enough!" He said, "that will do." He certainly did not wish them to use the swords for defending Him (as the sequel makes plain), and two swords would have been inadequate for their own self-defense" (p. 63).

This is basically the understanding found in Hard Sayings of the Bible, pp. 486-487.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:39-46
 39And He came out and proceeded as was His custom to the Mount of Olives; and the disciples also followed Him. 40When He arrived at the place, He said to them, "Pray that you may not enter into temptation." 41And He withdrew from them about a stone's throw, and He knelt down and began to pray, 42saying, "Father, if You are willing, remove this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Yours be done." 43Now an angel from heaven appeared to Him, strengthening Him. 44And being in agony He was praying very fervently; and His sweat became like drops of blood, falling down upon the ground.
 45When He rose from prayer, He came to the disciples and found them sleeping from sorrow, 46and said to them, "Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you may not enter into temptation."

22:39 "as was His custom to the Mount of Olives" Apparently Jesus used this place often for prayer. There is also the possibility that this was His camp site while in Jerusalem.

The Mount of Olives is really a ridge to the east of Jerusalem running about 2.5 miles. It is about 300-400' higher than the city. This makes it a beautiful place to overlook the holy city and the temple. Jesus apparently camped out here while in Jerusalem (cf. Luke 21:37).

22:40 "When He arrived at the place" Luke never mentions the garden of Gethsemane as Mark (cf. Luke 14:32) and Matthew (cf. Luke 26:36) do.

▣ "Pray that you may not enter into temptation" "Pray" is a present middle (deponent) imperative, which denotes an ongoing command. Jesus faced His hour of trial through His constant fellowship with the Father in prayer. Luke, of all the Gospels, emphasizes Jesus' prayer life.

The term "temptation" is the noun form of the verb peirazō. See Special Topic at Luke 4:2.

22:41 Jesus came to Gethsemane with all His Apostles (except Judas) to pray. Apparently He left the larger group as well as the inner circle of disciples, Peter, James, and John. He then left them and went a short distance away and began to pray (imperfect middle [deponent] indicative), which denotes the beginning of an action in past time or the recurrence of an action (cf. Matt. 26:39,42,44).

"knelt down" Matthew and Mark have Jesus prostrate on the ground (cf. Matt. 26:39; Mark 14:35). Luke has Jesus kneeling. The normal position of Jewish prayer was standing with the eyes and hands lifted to heaven. This experience was not normal in any sense!

22:42 "Father" See Special Topic below.

SPECIAL TOPIC: FATHER

▣ "if" This is a first class conditional sentence, which implies Jesus' request was possible. This phrase is repeated in all three Synoptic Gospels (cf. Matt. 26:39 and Mark 14:35).

▣ "remove this cup from Me" We are on extremely holy ground here as Jesus' human nature struggles with the Father's will.

This was an OT metaphor for one's destiny (cf. Ps. 16:5; 23:5; Jer. 51:2; Matt. 20:22). It was usually used in a judgmental (i.e., negative) sense (cf. Ps. 11:6; 75:8; Isa. 51:17,22; Jer. 25:15-16,27-28; 49:12; Lam. 4:21; Ezek. 23:31-33; Hab. 2:16). This idiom is often associated with drunkenness, which is another OT metaphor for judgment (cf. Job 21:20; Isa. 29:9; 63:6; Jer. 25:15-16,27-28). Jesus wants out! Fear is not sin. He faced fear with faith; so must we!

"yet not My will, but Yours be done" In this context the true humanity and faith of Jesus shines forth! Though His human nature cries out for deliverance, His heart is set on fulfilling the Father's eternal plan of substitutionary atonement (cf. Gen. 3:15; Isaiah 53; Mark 10:45; Luke 22:22; Acts 2:23; 3:18; 4:28; 13:29; 2 Cor. 5:21; Eph. 2:11-3:13).

The "to be" verb is a Present middle (deponent) imperative. The temptation was to bypass the cross! This was exactly Satan's temptation in the wilderness in Luke 4 (see James S. Stewart, The Life and Teaching of Jesus Christ, pp. 39-46).

22:43-44 These verses are found in the ancient manuscript Greek uncial א*, אi2, D, K, L, X, and Delta. They are also found in the quotations of Justin, Martyr, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Eusebius, and Jerome. However, they are omitted in MSS P69 [probably] 75, אi1, A, B, N, T, and W, as well as the manuscripts used by Clement of Alexandria and Origen. The UBS4 ranks their omission as "certain" (A).

Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, pp. 187-194, assumes these verses are an early second century addition to refute docetic (Gnostic) Christologies who denied Christ's humanity and suffering. The church's conflict with Christological heresies was the possible source of many of the early manuscript changes.

The UBS4, NASB, and NRSV bracket these verses, while NKJV, TEV, and NIV have a footnote which says, "some ancient manuscripts omit verses 43 and 44." This information is unique to Luke's Gospel.

22:45 "sleeping from sorrow" Only Luke adds this note to explain why the disciples could not stay awake.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:47-53
 47While He was still speaking, behold, a crowd came, and the one called Judas, one of the twelve, was preceding them; and he approached Jesus to kiss Him. 48But Jesus said to him, "Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?" 49When those who were around Him saw what was going to happen, they said, "Lord, shall we strike with the sword?" 50And one of them struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his right ear. 51But Jesus answered and said, "Stop! No more of this." And He touched his ear and healed him. 52Then Jesus said to the chief priests and officers of the temple and elders who had come against Him, "Have you come out with swords and clubs as you would against a robber? 53While I was with you daily in the temple, you did not lay hands on Me; but this hour and the power of darkness are yours."

22:47 "a crowd" Luke often mentions the crowd of people who followed Jesus to hear His teaching and observe His miracles. It is ironic that now in this verse and 23:4 they are enemies, but in Luke 23:48 (the cross) the crowd who came to watch, grieves and disperses.

▣ "and he approached Jesus to kiss Him" This was a typical greeting of a student for his rabbi (cf. Mark 14:45). It was a sign of affection (cf. Luke 22:48), but here it was a way of pointing to Jesus so that He could be arrested (cf. Mark 14:44; Matt. 26:49).

22:50 John 18:10 names the disciple (Peter) and the High Priest's slave (Malchus).

22:51

NASB"Stop, no more of this"
NKJV"Permit even this"
NRSV"No more of this"
TEV"Enough of this"
NJB"that is enough"

This is a present active imperative. This has three possible meanings.

1. if He is addressing the disciples, it means allow this to happen to Me

2. if He is addressing the crowd, it means we will put up no more struggle

3. the NASB (1970) footnote relates this phrase to Jesus' healing of the severed ear, also implying no more violence

 

▣ "and He touched his ear and healed him" Matthew, Mark, and John all mention that Peter cut off the High Priest's slave's ear. Only Luke records the healing. It is uncertain whether Jesus (1) stopped the bleeding or (2) restored the ear. Luke the physician is interested in this.

I wonder whether Malchus became a believer. This must have been a very dramatic moment for all of these men sent to arrest Jesus!

22:52 "chief priests" The reason for the plural is that since the Romans occupied Palestine, the High Priesthood had been a political plumb purchased by a family. It is doubtful that the High Priest himself came to the garden, but probably his representatives from the Sanhedrin (elders).

▣ "with swords and clubs" The Romans would have had swords and the Temple police (officers, see note at Luke 22:4) would have had the clubs.

22:53 This verse relates to the temple police and the representatives of the Sanhedrin. It is a penetrating question and accusation. As Jesus had His prophetic "hour" (definite article, cf. Matt. 26:45; Mark 14:35,41), so too, did these forces and pawns of evil (authority of darkness). Jesus' arrest, trials, death, and resurrection were all part of God's plan of redemption.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:54-62
 54Having arrested Him, they led Him away and brought Him to the house of the high priest; but Peter was following at a distance. 55After they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and had sat down together, Peter was sitting among them. 56And a servant-girl, seeing him as he sat in the firelight and looking intently at him, said, "This man was with Him too." 57But he denied it, saying, "Woman, I do not know Him." 58A little later, another saw him and said, "You are one of them too!" But Peter said, "Man, I am not!" 59After about an hour had passed, another man began to insist, saying, "Certainly this man also was with Him, for he is a Galilean too." 60But Peter said, "Man, I do not know what you are talking about." Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. 61The Lord turned and looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how He had told him, "Before a rooster crows today, you will deny Me three times." 62And he went out and wept bitterly.

22:54 "they led Him away and brought Him to the house of the high priest" Possibly Annas and Caiaphas lived in one large home (cf. Matt. 26:57-58; John 18:13,15,24). The order of trials seems to be (1) before Annas; (2) before Caiaphas; (3) before the entire Sanhedrin; (4) before Pilate; (5) before Herod; and (6) again before Pilate.

"but Peter was following at a distance" The Gethsemane arrest caused most of the disciples to flee in fear of arrest. However, John may have known people in the High Priest's family, for apparently he was present at the trials before the Jewish leaders. Peter, too, did not completely desert Jesus, but followed at a distance. He could not stay with Jesus, but he could not leave either (cf. Matt. 26:58; Mark 14:54).

22:55 "they had kindled a fire" This seems to refer to (1) the Temple Police or (2) servants of the high priests.

22:56 "a servant-girl" There is a great variety among the Gospels on the who and the when of Peter's accusers. It is obvious that several around the fire recognized him and challenged him.

22:57 "I do not know Him" The interpretive key to this phrase is not the verb, but the Hebrew connotation of "know." Peter is denying any personal relationship with Jesus of Nazareth.

22:58 Here Peter denies he was part of Jesus' group of disciples.

22:59 "Certainly this man also was with Him, for he is a Galilean too" This refers to Peter's accent. The pronouncement of gutturals in Aramaic was different between Jerusalem and Galilee. Peter denies even his accent!

22:61 "The Lord turned and looked at Peter" This was not done in anger, but in sorrow and compassion. Possibly Jesus was being moved from Annas' chambers to Caiaphas' chambers within the same house. This fulfilled Jesus' prophecy in Luke 22:34. This starts Peter's sorrowful repentance (cf. Luke 22:62; Matt. 26:75)!

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:63-65
 63Now the men who were holding Jesus in custody were mocking Him and beating Him, 64and they blindfolded Him and were asking Him, saying, "Prophesy, who is the one who hit You?" 65And they were saying many other things against Him, blaspheming.

22:63 "the men who were holding Jesus in custody were mocking Him and beating Him" Jesus was beaten by the Jewish guards, Herod's guards, and the Roman guards. These beatings may be a fulfillment of Isa. 53:2.

22:64-65 These Roman soldiers took out their anger and frustration against the exclusivism and continuing rebellion of the Jewish population on Jesus. He became the object of their ridicule!

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: LUKE 22:66-71
 66When it was day, the Council of elders of the people assembled, both chief priests and scribes, and they led Him away to their council chamber, saying, 67"If You are the Christ, tell us." But He said to them, "If I tell you, you will not believe; 68and if I ask a question, you will not answer. 69But from now on the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God." 70And they all said, "Are You the Son of God, then?" And He said to them, "Yes, I am." 71Then they said, "What further need do we have of testimony? For we have heard it ourselves from His own mouth."

22:66 "When it was day" If the night trial occurred on Thursday (Nisan 14), then this occurred on the Friday morning (Nisan 14). Jesus will be crucified by noon (Nisan 14, cf. Luke 23:44) and buried before the beginning of the Sabbath at twilight on Friday (Nisan 15, cf. Luke 23:54).

The timing and order of these trials vary from Gospel to Gospel. We must remember these are not western histories or biographies, but salvation tracts targeted to certain people groups. The variety does not diminish the inspiration or trustworthiness of the events themselves!

▣ "the Council of elders of the people assembled" This was done by the Sanhedrin (See Special Topic at Luke 9:22) to give a semblance of legality to the illegal nighttime trial.

SPECIAL TOPIC: Illegalities of the Sanhedrin's Night Trial, Matt. 26:57-68

22:67 "If" The first "if" in this verse is a First class conditional. It usually denotes the reality of a statement, but here it is used sarcastically, which shows how literary context affects grammatical form. There are no hard and fast rules. Context, context, context is crucial!

NASB, NKJV
NJB"the Christ"
NRSV, TEV"the Messiah"

Here is a good example of Aramaic speakers being recorded in Greek. They are asking Jesus if He is the promised Anointed One of God—the Messiah!

▣ "tell us" This is an aorist active imperative. They want a clear "yes" or "no."

"if" The second "if" in this verse is a third class conditional, which denotes potential action.

"you will not believe" The Sanhedrin did not want information about Jesus. They wanted to condemn Him. Remember this encounter was after two lengthy night trials before Annas and Caiaphas (Luke 22:54). Whatever Jesus said, their minds and hearts were already hardened. No faith response was possible. The unpardonable sin had occurred. See Special Topic at Luke 11:19.

This verse (as does Luke 22:68) has the grammatical form of the strongest negation in Koine Greek.

1. the double negative, ou +

2. Aorist subjunctive

 

22:68 "if" This is another third class conditional sentence. Jesus had tried, on many occasions, to enter into a dialog with the Jerusalem leadership, but they would not or could not answer His questions. Jesus knew them well!

▣ "not" This is a strong double negative with the aorist subjunctive, which is emphatic negation!

22:69 "the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God" This is an incomplete sentence which is a reference to Ps. 110:1, a specifically Messianic text, related to "the" special descendant of David linked to the coming Messiah.

The phrase "at God's right hand" is an anthropomorphic phrase speaking of God as if He were a man. In reality God is Spirit and has no body and, therefore, no need of a physical throne or hand (see Special Topic at Luke 1:51). Jesus answered their question in unmistakable OT prophetic terms!

22:70 "and they all said" Notice the plural. Those present spoke with one voice!

▣ "Are You the Son of God, then" We learn from Mark 14:55-59 that the false witnesses had failed in their accusations. At this point the Sandehrin tried to get Jesus to incriminate Himself. This was illegal in Jewish Law. The phrase "Son of God" is used in the OT for the nation of Israel, the king of Israel, and the Messiah. It definitely had Messianic connotations. See Special Topic at Luke 1:35.

NASB"Yes, I am"
NKJV"You rightly say that I am"
NRSV, TEV,
NET"you say that I am"
NJB, REB"it is you who say I am"
NIV"you are right in saying I am"

Jesus, in a round-about way, affirms that He is the Messiah (cf. Mark 14:62). He knew they would take this title in such a way as to accuse him before Rome.

Moffat's translation at this point is very helpful to catch the subtle connotation of this phrase. "That is your word, not mine, I would not put it like that, but since you have, I cannot deny it" (cf. Matt. 26:64).

A. T. Robertson, Word Pictures In the New Testament, vol. 2, p. 277, makes the pertinent analysis that Jesus admits to being

1. the Christ (Messiah), Luke 22:67

2. the Son of Man at God's right hand, Luke 22:69

3. the Son of God, Luke 22:70

All of these phrases are used in a parallel way.

22:71 This verse shows the purpose of their questioning. They wanted Him to admit to what they considered blasphemy. They were attempting to justify their attitudes and actions!

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought-provoking, not definitive.

1. What does it mean that Satan entered Judas?

2. Is Judas responsible for his acts since they were predestined?

3. Why did Judas betray Jesus?

4. How is the Lord's Supper related to the Passover meal?

5. Why do the Gospels differ as to the day the Lord's Supper was instituted?

6. Why are the Gospel account of Peter's denial so different?

7. Why did the Sanhedrin reject Jesus' Messiahship?