PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS
|The Parable of the Sheep Fold||Jesus the True Shepherd||Jesus, the Shepherd Who Gives His Life||The Parable of the Shepherd||The Good Shepherd|
|Jesus the Good Shepherd||Jesus the Good Shepherd||Jesus the Good Shepherd|
|Jesus Rejected by the Jews||The Shepherd Knows His Sheep||Jesus Is Rejected||Jesus Claims to Be the Son of God|
|Renewed Efforts to Stone Jesus||10:25-30|
|The Believers Beyond Jordan||Jesus Withdraws to the Other Side of the Jordan|
READING CYCLE THREE
FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL
This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.
Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five modern translations. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.
1. First paragraph
2. Second paragraph
3. Third paragraph
WORD AND PHRASE STUDY
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: JOHN 10:1-6
1"Truly, truly, I say to you, he who does not enter by the door into the fold of the sheep, but climbs up some other way, he is a thief and a robber. 2But he who enters by the door is a shepherd of the sheep. 3To him the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. 4When he puts forth all his own, he goes ahead of them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice. 5A stranger they simply will not follow, but will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of strangers." 6This figure of speech Jesus spoke to them, but they did not understand what those things were which He had been saying to them.
10:1 "Truly, truly" See note at John 1:51.
▣ "but climbs up some other way, he is a thief and a robber" Notice there are some in the sheepfold who do not belong to the good shepherd (cf. Matt. 7:21-23 and "the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares," Matt. 13:24-30). The problem here is that some are trying to attain through personal effort what God freely offers through Christ (cf. Rom. 3:19-31; 9:30-33; 10:2-4; Gal. 2:16; 5:4). The Pharisees of chapter 9 are a good example.
10:2 "But he who enters by the door is a shepherd of the sheep" There is a very obvious mixing of metaphors in this chapter. Jesus as the door of the sheepfold, John 10:7, and also the shepherd of the sheep (John 10:11 and 14). However, this mixing of metaphors is not uncommon in John and the NT.
1. Jesus is the bread and the giver of the bread (cf.John 6:35,51)
2. Jesus is the truth and the speaker of truth (cf. John 10:8:45-46 and 14:6)
3. Jesus is the way and He shows the way (cf. John 14:6)
4. Jesus is the sacrifice and the one who offers the sacrifice (cf. the Book of Hebrews)
The title "shepherd" was a common OT title both for God and the Messiah (cf. Ps. 23; Ps. 80:1; Isa. 40:10-11; 1 Pet. 5:1-4). The Jewish leaders are called the "false shepherds" in Jeremiah 23; Ezekiel 34 and Isa. 56:9-12. The term "shepherd" is related to the term "pastor" (cf. Eph. 4:11; Titus 1:5,7).
10:3 "the sheep hear his voice" Recognition and obedience are based on relationship. In John both "hear" (cf. John 4:42; 5:24,25,28-29; 8:47; 10:16,27; 18:37) and "see" (cf. John 3:3; 12:40; 20:8) are used of believing/trusting in Jesus as the Christ.
▣ "he calls his own sheep by name" Jesus knows His own personally and individually (as YHWH does, cf. John 10:29-31). Shepherds often had nick names for their animals, even in large herds.
It is theologically shocking that Jesus calls His true sheep out from among the false sheep of the nation of Judah. The covenant people were not the true people of God. This is the radical scandal of the New Covenant. One's faith, not lineage, determines one's future! Faith is personal, not national.
The Jewish leaders who opposed Jesus were not part of God's people (cf. John 10:26)!
▣ "and leads them out" This refers not only to salvation, but also to daily guidance (cf. John 10:4, 9).
10:4 This may be a reference to the custom of keeping several different flocks in one enclosure at night. In the morning the shepherd would call and his sheep would come to him.
10:5 The church has always had to deal with false shepherds (cf. 1 Tim. 4:1-3; 2 Tim. 4:3-4; 1 John 4:5-6; 2 Peter 2).
10:6 "This figure of speech Jesus spoke to them" This is not the normal term translated "parable" (parabolē), but it comes from the same root (paroimian). This form is found only here and in John 16:25,29 and 2 Pet. 2:22. Although it is a different form, it seems to be synonymous with the more common term "parable" (used in the Synoptic Gospels). The term "parable" usually means to place a common cultural occurrence beside a spiritual truth so as to help in understanding. It can, however, refer to the hiding of truth from spiritually blind eyes (cf. John 16:29; Mark 4:11-12).
▣ "but they did not understand" If chapter 10 is related in time to chapter 9, the "they" would refer to the Pharisees. They claimed to see (cf. John 9:41), but they did not see (cf. John 10:20). Religion can be a barrier, not a bridge.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: JOHN 10:7-10
7So Jesus said to them again, "Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep. 8All who came before Me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not hear them. 9I am the door; if anyone enters through Me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture. 10The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly."
10:7 "I am the door of the sheep" This is one of John's seven famous "I am" statements. This metaphor highlights the truth that Jesus is the only true way (cf. John 8, 10; 14:6). This is often called the scandal of the exclusivism of the gospel. If the Bible is the self-revelation of God, then there is only one way to be right with God-faith in Christ (cf. Acts 4:12; 1 Tim. 2:5). See note at John 8:12.
10:8 "All who came before Me are thieves and robbers" Because of the context of chapters 9 and 10, the Feast of Dedication, Hanukkah (cf. John 10:22), it is possible that this refers to the messianic pretensions of the Macabees and their descendants during the inter-testamental period. However, it probably relates to the OT passages about false shepherds (cf. Isa. 56:9-12; Jeremiah 23; Ezekiel 34; and Zechariah 11).
This highly figurative language and ambiguous antecedents caused early scribes to modify or expand the text in an attempt to explain the meaning. One manuscript (MS D) simply omitted the inclusive term "all" and several early manuscripts (P45, P75, א*) omitted the phrase "before me."
10:9 "if anyone enters through Me, he will be saved" This is a third class conditional sentence with a future passive verb. Jesus is the only way to God (cf. John 14:6). The verb "saved" in this context probably relates to the OT connotation of physical deliverance (i.e., the sheep are safe). However John often chooses terms that have two overlapping meanings. The concept of spiritual salvation is not lacking from this context also (cf. John 10:42).
10:10 "The thief" This shows the ulterior motives of false shepherds. It also reflects the purpose of the evil one! This attitude of the carelessness of hired workers can be seen in John 10:12-13.
▣ "destroy" See Special Topic following.
▣ "I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly" This phrase is quoted so often as a promise of material things, but in context it relates to knowing Jesus personally and the spiritual blessings, not material prosperity, that He brings (it is parallel to 4:14 and 7:38). It is not having so much more in this life, but knowing and possessing true life!
As the Synoptics record Jesus' emphasis on the Kingdom of God, John records Jesus' emphasis on eternal life. One can have it now! The Kingdom has been inaugurated!
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: JOHN 10:11-18
11"I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep. 12He who is a hired hand, and not a shepherd, who is not the owner of the sheep, sees the wolf coming, and leaves the sheep and flees, and the wolf snatches them and scatters them. 13He flees because he is a hired hand and is not concerned about the sheep. 14I am the good shepherd, and I know My own and My own know Me, 15even as the Father knows Me and I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep. 16I have other sheep, which are not of this fold; I must bring them also, and they will hear My voice; and they will become one flock with one shepherd. 17For this reason the Father loves Me, because I lay down My life so that I may take it again. 18No one has taken it away from Me, but I lay it down on My own initiative. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again. This commandment I received from My Father."
10:11,14 "I am the good shepherd" This was an OT title for the Messiah (cf. Ezek. 34:23; Zech. 11; 1 Pet. 5:4) and for YHWH (cf. Ps. 23:1; 28:9; 77:20; 78:52; 80:1; 95:7; 100:3; Isa. 40:11; Jer. 23:1; 31:10; Ezek. 34:11-16).
There are two Greek terms which can be translated "good": (1) agathos, which is usually used in John for things, and (2) kalos, which was used in the Septuagint to refer to good as opposed to evil. In the NT it has the meanings of "beautiful," "noble," "moral," and "worthy." These two terms are used together in Luke 8:15. See note at John 8:12.
10:11 "the good shepherd lays down His own life for the sheep" This refers to the vicarious substitutionary atonement of Christ (cf. John 10:11,15,17,18). He voluntarily laid down his life for sinful mankind (cf. Isa. 52:13-53:12; Mark 10:45; 2 Cor. 5:21). True life, abundant life only comes through His death.
Bruce M. Metzger's A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament has an interesting point on this verse:
"Instead of the expression 'to lay down one's life,' which is characteristically Johannine (10:15,17; 13:37,38; 15:13; 1 John 3:16), several witnesses (P45, א*, D) substitute the expression 'to give one's life,' which occurs in the Synoptic Gospels (Mt. 20:28; Mark 10:45)" (p. 230).
10:14 "I know my own and My own know Me" This is the Hebrew sense of the word "know" (see Special Topic at John 1:10). As the Son knows the Father and the Father the Son, so too, Jesus knows those who trust Him and they know Him. They have "seen" and "heard" (cf. John 10:4) and responded (cf. John 1:12; 3:16). Christianity is a personal relationship (cf. John 17:20-26).
10:15 "even as the Father knows Me and I know the Father" This is a recurrent theme in John. Jesus acts and speaks out of His intimate relationship with the Father.
The surprising analogy in John 10:14-15 is that the intimacy between Father and Son is compared to the intimacy between Son and followers (cf. John 14:23). John focuses on the Hebrew connotation of "know" as intimate fellowship, not cognitive facts. Jesus knows the Father; those who know Jesus, know God!
10:16 "I have other sheep, which are not of this fold" This is an allusion to Isa. 56:6-8. The context seems to demand that this refers to (1) the Samaritans (cf. John 4:1-42) or (2) the Gentile Church (cf. John 4:43-54). This speaks of the unity of all who exercise faith in Christ. The new covenant unites Jews and Gentiles (cf. Eph. 2:11-3:13; also note 1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:28; Col. 3:11)! Genesis 3:15 and John 3:16 merge!
▣ "and they will become one flock with one Shepherd" This has always been the goal of God (cf. Gen. 3:15; 12:3; Exod. 19:5-6). The theological aspects of this unity are discussed in Eph. 2:11-3:13 and 4:1-6.
10:17 "For this reason the Father loves Me" As the Son was not forced to lay down his life, the Father was not forced to give His Son. This should not be interpreted that God rewarded the man Jesus for his obedience (this heresy is often called adoptionism, see Glossary).
▣ "I lay down My life so that I may take it again" This implies the resurrection. Usually in the NT it is the Father who raises the Son (cf. John 18b) to show His acceptance of His sacrifice. But here the power of Jesus Himself in the resurrection is asserted.
This phrase is an excellent opportunity to show that the NT often attributes the works of redemption to all three persons of the Godhead.
1. God the Father raised Jesus (cf. Acts 2:24; 3:15; 4:10; 5:30; 10:40; 13:30,33,34,37; 17:31; Rom. 6:4,9; 10:9; 1 Cor. 6:14; 2 Cor. 4:14; Gal. 1:1;Eph. 1:20; Col. 2:12; 1 Thess. 1:10)
2. God the Son raised Himself (cf. John 2:19-22; 10:17-18)
3. God the Spirit raised Jesus (cf. Rom. 8:11)
10:18 "I have authority" This is the same term used in John 1:12. It can be translated "authority," "legal right," or "power." This verse shows the power and authority of Jesus.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: JOHN 10:19-21
19A division occurred again among the Jews because of these words. 20Many of them were saying, "He has a demon and is insane. Why do you listen to Him?" 21Others were saying, "These are not the sayings of one demon-possessed. A demon cannot open the eyes of the blind, can he?"
10:19 As there were divided opinions about Jesus in John 6:52; 7:12,25,43; 9:16; 10:19-21; 11:36-37, this theme continues through John. The mystery of some receiving the gospel and others rejecting it is the tension between predestination and human free will!
10:20 "He has a demon and is insane" This was a common charge made against Jesus from two different perspectives.
1. in this verse, as in John 7:20, it was used to say that Jesus had a mental illness
2. this same charge is used by the Pharisees to try to explain the source of Jesus' power (cf. John 8:48,52)
10:21 There are two questions in John 10:21.
1. v. 21a has ouk, which expects a "yes" answer
2. v. 21b has mē, which expects a "no" answer
See James Hewett, New Testament Greek, p. 171. This verse shows, however, how difficult hard and fast rules are in Koine Greek. Context, not grammatical form, is the final determiner.
The healing of the blind was a Messianic sign (cf. Exod. 4:11; Ps. 146:8; Isa. 29:18; 35:5; 42:7). There is a sense in which the blindness of Israel (cf. Isa. 42:19) is being shown here as it was in chapter 9.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: JOHN 10:22-30
22At that time the Feast of the Dedication took place at Jerusalem; 23it was winter, and Jesus was walking in the temple in the portico of Solomon. 24The Jews then gathered around Him, and were saying to Him, "How long will You keep us in suspense? If You are the Christ, tell us plainly." 25Jesus answered them, "I told you, and you do not believe; the works that I do in My Father's name, these testify of Me. 26But you do not believe because you are not of My sheep. 27My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me; 28and I give eternal life to them, and they will never perish; and no one will snatch them out of My hand. 29My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father's hand. 30I and the Father are one."
10:22 "the feast of the Dedication" Josephus calls this the "Festival of Lights." It is known in our day as Hanukkah. It was an eight-day feast that occurred around the middle of December. It celebrates the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem after the military victory of Judas Maccabeus in 164 b.c. In 168 b.c., Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who was a Seleucid leader, tried to force the Jews into Hellenistic practices (cf. Dan. 8:9-14). He turned the Temple in Jerusalem into a pagan shrine with even an altar to Zeus in the Holy Place. Judas Maccabeus, one of several sons of the priest of Modin, defeated this Syrian overlord and cleansed and rededicated the Temple (cf. I Macc. 4:36-59; II Macc. 1:18).
John uses the feasts of Judaism as occasion for Jesus to use their symbolism to reveal Himself to the Jewish leadership, the citizens of Jerusalem, and the crowds of pilgrims (cf. chapters 7-11).
▣ "the portico of Solomon" This was a covered area along the eastern side of the Court of the Women where Jesus taught. Josephus said it had survived the Babylonian destruction of 586 b.c.
10:23 "it was winter" This is an eyewitness detail.
10:24 "If" This is a first class conditional sentence which is assumed to be true from the author's perspective or for his literary purposes. There are several first class conditional sentences in this context (cf. John 10:24, 35, 37, and 38). This usage in John 10:24 shows how this construction can be used in a literary sense. These Pharisees did not really believe Jesus was the Messiah; they were baiting him.
▣ "tell us plainly" There are several things to discuss in this verse. First, Jesus taught in parables, figurative language, and ambiguous dualistic statements. This crowd in the Temple wanted Him to express Himself clearly. See Special Topic: Parrhēsia at John 7:4.
Second, the Jews of Jesus' day did not expect the Messiah to be Deity incarnate. Jesus had seemingly alluded to His oneness with God on several occasions (cf. John 8:56-59), but in this context they are asking specifically about the Messiah. The Jews expected this Anointed One to act like Moses (cf. Deut. 18:15,19). Jesus had done exactly that in chapter six. His works fulfilled OT prophecies, especially the healing of the blind (chapter 9). They had all the evidence needed. The problem was that Jesus did not fit their traditional military, nationalistic expectations of the Messiah.
10:25 "the works that I do in My Father's Name, these testify of Me" Jesus asserted that His actions verified His claims (cf. John 2:23; 5:36; 10:25,38; 14:11; 15:24).
10:26 What a shocking statement!
10:28 "I give eternal life to them" Eternal life is both characterized by quantity and quality. It is the life of the new age. It is available now by faith in Christ (cf. John 3:36; 11:24-26).
▣ "they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of My hand" This is a double negative with an Aorist middle subjunctive. This is one of the strongest passages on the security of the believer anywhere in the NT (cf. John 6:39). It is obvious that the only one who can separate us from God's love is ourselves (cf. Rom. 8:38-39; Gal. 5:2-4). Assurance (see Special Topic at 1 John 5:13) must be balanced with perseverance (see Special Topic at John 8:31). Assurance must be based on the character and actions of the Triune God.
The Gospel of John asserts the assurance of those who continue to put their faith in Christ. It starts with an initial decision of repentance and faith and issues in lifestyle faith. The theological problem is when this personal relationship is perverted into a product that we possess ("once saved, always saved"). Continuing faith is the evidence of a true salvation (cf. Hebrews, James, and 1 John).
NASB, NKJV"My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all"
NRSV"What my Father has given me is greater than all else"
TEV"What my Father has given me is greater than everything"
NJB"The Father, for what he has given me, is greater than anyone"
The question is what is the object of the phrase, "greater than": (1) the people God has given Jesus (NRSV, TEV) or (2) God Himself (NASB, NKJV, NJB). The second part of this verse implies someone may try to snatch Jesus' followers. Theologically the second option seems best. See Special Topic on Assurance at John 6:37.
This is a wonderful passage on the assurance of the believer based on the power of the Father! The security of the believer, like all biblical truths, is presented in a tension-filled, covenantal pattern. Believers' hope and assurance of salvation is in the character of the Triune God, His mercy and grace. However, the believer must continue in faith. Salvation begins with an initial Spirit-led decision of repentance and faith. It must also issue in continuing repentance, faith, obedience, and perseverance! Salvation is not a product (life insurance, ticket to heaven), but a growing personal relationship with God through Christ.
The conclusive evidence of a right relationship with God is a changed and changing life of faith and service (cf. Matthew 7). There is such little biblical evidence for carnal Christians (cf. 1 Corinthians 2-3). The norm is Christlikeness now, not just heaven when we die. There is no lack of biblical security and assurance to those who are growing, serving, even struggling with sin. But, no fruit, no root! Salvation is by grace alone, through faith alone, but true salvation will issue in "good works" (cf. Eph. 2:10; James 2:14-26).
10:30-33 "I and the Father are one. . .the Jews picked up stones again to stone Him" This is just one of the strong statements of Jesus' Messiahship and Deity (cf. John 1:1-14; 8:58; 14:8-10, esp. 17:21-26, which also uses the word "one"). The Jews understood completely what He was saying and counted it as blasphemy (cf. John 10:33; 8:59). They were going to stone Him based on Lev. 24:16.
In the early controversy over the person of Christ (i.e., Arius - the first born; Athanasius - fully God) John 10:30 and 14:9 were used often by Athanasius (see The Cambridge History of the Bible, vol. 1, p. 444). For "Arianism" see the Glossary.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: JOHN 10:31-39
31The Jews picked up stones again to stone Him. 32Jesus answered them, "I showed you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you stoning Me?" 33The Jews answered Him, "For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy; and because You, being a man, make Yourself out to be God." 34Jesus answered them, "Has it not been written in your Law, 'I said, you are gods'? 35If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture cannot be broken), 36do you say of Him, whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, 'You are blaspheming,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God'? 37If I do not do the works of My Father, do not believe Me; 38but if I do them, though you do not believe Me, believe the works, so that you may know and understand that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father." 39Therefore they were seeking again to seize Him, and He eluded their grasp.
10:31 This verse relates to Jesus' statement in John 10:30. Jesus answers their charges in a very unusual rabbinical argument. It basically is a word play on Elohim, which is the OT term for God (cf. Gen. 1), but in form is plural and often was used of both angels and human leaders (judges). See SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY at John 6:20.
10:32 The good (kalos) shepherd does good (kalos) works from the Father.
10:33 "for blasphemy" Jesus knew that they correctly understood His claim of oneness with the Father.
10:34 "in your Law" Jesus quotes from the Psalms but calls it "the Law" (i.e., Torah means "teachings," cf. John 12:34; 15:25; Rom. 3:9-19). The term Law usually referred to the writings of Moses (Torah), Genesis-Deuteronomy. This shows the wider use of the term to cover the whole OT.
▣ "you are gods" Jesus used a quote from Ps. 82:6. It used elohim to refer to human judges (see Elohim in Special Topic at John 6:20). These judges (though wicked) are called "sons of the Most High." These Jews were attacking Jesus because although He was a man He claimed to be: (1) the Son of God and (2) one with God. Yet other men (cf. Exod. 4:16; 7:1; 22:8,9; Ps. 82:6; 138:1) were called "gods."
Jesus' rabbinical argument seems to follow this line: the Scriptures are true, men are called elohim, therefore, why do you call Me a blasphemer for asserting that I am the Son of God? The term Elohim is plural in Hebrew but translated singular and used a singular verb when referring to the OT Deity. See SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY at John 6:20. This may be a typical Johannine word play: (1) a term that has two connotations and (2) a Greek question that expects a "yes" answer.
10:35 "(and the Scripture cannot be broken)" John often comments on Jesus' dialogues. It is uncertain whether this is a statement of Jesus or John. However, since both are equally inspired, it does not matter. The thrust of the quote is the trustworthiness of Scripture. Jesus and the Apostles viewed the OT and their interpretations of it as the very words of God (cf. Matt. 5:17-19; 1 Cor. 2:9-13; 1 Thess. 2:13; 2 Tim. 3:16; 1 Pet. 1:23-25; 2 Pet. 1:20-21; 3:15-16).
Bishop H. C. G. Moule in The Life of Bishop Moule says,
"He [Christ] absolutely trusted the Bible, and, though there are in it things inexplicable and intricate that have puzzled me so much, I am going, not in a blind sense, but reverently to trust the Book because of Him" (p. 138).
10:36 In this verse Jesus claims that the Father chose (or "consecrated" or "sanctified") Him and sent Him (as Messiah). He surely then has the right to be called "son of God." As the judges of Israel represented God (cf. Ps. 82:6), He represents the Father in word and deed. See Special Topic: Send (Apostellō) at John 5:24.
10:37 This is exactly what John 10:19-21 are saying. Jesus' miracles reflected the activity of God.
10:37,38 "If. . .if" These are first class conditional sentences. Jesus did the works of the Father. If so, then they should believe in Him, being confident that He and the Father are one (cf. John 10:30,38). See Special Topic: Abiding in 1 John 2:10.
10:39 This is one of several times that Jesus eluded those who tried to hurt Him (cf. Luke 4:29-30; John 8:59). It is uncertain whether these escapes were due to (1) a miraculous event or (2) Jesus' physical likeness to everyone else, which allowed Him to melt into the crowd.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: JOHN 10:40-42
40And He went away again beyond the Jordan to the place where John was first baptizing, and He was staying there. 41Many came to Him and were saying, "While John performed no sign, yet everything John said about this man was true." 42Many believed in Him there.
10:40 This refers to the trans-Jordan area across from Jericho, close to a city called Bethany.
10:41 Again John states John the Baptist's affirmation of Jesus (cf. John 1:6-8,19-42; 3:22-30; 5:33)! This may have been to counteract some heresies that had developed around John the Baptist.
10:42 As the Jewish leaders rejected Jesus, so many of the common people (people of the land) responded in faith to Him (cf. John 2:23; 7:31; 8:30). See Special Topic at John 2:23.
This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.
These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought-provoking, not definitive.
1. Why does John mix his metaphors so often (Example: "Jesus is both the door of the sheepfold and the good shepherd")?
2. What is the OT background to John 10?
3. What is the significance of Jesus "laying down His life?"
4. Why did the Jews continue to accuse Jesus of being demon-possessed?
5. Why are Jesus' works so important?
6. How do we relate the "security of the believer" to the "perseverance of the saints?"
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