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Appendix 4: Analysis of data for semantic subject and function

Analysis of data for semantic subject and function

Table 1. Complete List of Target Clusters Functioning as SPN

Constructions in Koine Greek

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Nominative (FN) to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

400 B.C.

Aristoteles,

Fragmenta varia 8.44.527.3

ὁ δὲ Νικοκλέους τοῦ Κυπρίου πατήρ ᾧ τὰς παραινέσεις ὁ ᾿Αθηναῖος σοφιστὴς ἔγραψεν τὸ μὲν ὄνομα αὐτῷ Τίμαρχος ἦν [cf. Pollux Onom. 2. 95]

“And the father of the Cyprian Nicocles, (concerning whom the Athenian sophist, Isocrates, wrote the addresses) the name given to him was Timarchus,”

The SS is showing that a king’s sons and brothers are usually called lords and that his female relatives are usually called ladies.

The FN is “the name” and is similar to the SS.

2

1

Conv

400 B.C.

(ca. 346 B.C.)

Aeschines Orat.,

In Timarchum 111.3

Θαυμασάντων δ ᾿ ὑμῶν πῶς ἀνὴρ καὶ γυνὴ καὶ τίς ὁ λόγος εἶπε μικρὸν διαλιπών: ἀγνοεῖτε‚” ἔφη ὅτι λέγω; μὲν ἀνήρ ἐστιν ῾Ηγήσανδρος ἐκεῖνος νυνί,” ἔφη‚ “πρότερον δ ᾿ ἦν καὶ αὐτὸς Λεωδάμαντος γυνή:

“When you cried out, ‘How is it you say “a man and a woman,” what are you talking about?’ after a little while he continued, ‘Understand,’ he said, ‘What I say. The man is Hegesandrus there now,’ he said, ‘but before he was also Laodamas’ woman,’”

The SS is Pamphilus’ revealing of the identity of two thieves, a man who used to be a woman and Timarchus who the narrator calls a woman.

The FN is “the man” and is similar to the SS.

4

2

Sub

250 B.C. A.D. 100

Septuaginta

Genesis 17:5

Καὶ οὐ κληθήσεται ἔτι τὸ ὄνομά σου Αβραμ ἀλλ᾿ ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου Αβρααμ

“No longer will your name be called Abram, but your name will be Abraham,”

The SS starts with the renewing of the grant covenant to multiply Abraham exceedingly. It then focuses on the name change as a reminder of that covenant promise.

The FN is “the name” and is similar to the SS.

6

3

Conv

250 B.C. A.D. 100

Septuaginta

Genesis 17:15

Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ θεὸς τῷ Αβρααμ Σαρα ἡ γυνή σου οὐ κληθήσεται τὸ ὄνομά αὐτῆς Σαρα ἀλλὰ Σαρρα ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά αὐτῆς.

“And God said to Abraham, ‘Sarai, your wife, will not be called by her name Sarai, but Sarah will be her name.’”

The SS begins with God reminding Abraham of His grant covenant. It then focuses on Sarai, his wife.

The FN is Sarah and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

250 B.C. A.D. 100

Septuaginta

Genesis 32:29

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ Οὐ κληθήσεται ἔτι τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Ιακωβ ἀλλὰ ᾿Ισραηλ ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου ὅτι ἐνίσχυσας μετὰ θεοῦ καὶ μετὰ ἀνθρωπων δυνατός.

“And He said to him, ‘your name will no longer be called Jacob, but your name will be Israel because you have grown strong (or regained strength) along with (or by) God and are strong among men.’”

The SS is the event that led to (or the background behind) Jacob’s name change.

The FN is Israel and predicates on the SS.

3

5

Conv

250 B.C. A.D. 100

Septuaginta

Genesis 35:10

Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτω ὁ θεός τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Ιακωβ οὐ κληθήσεται ἔτι ᾿Ιακωβ ἀλλ ᾿ ᾿Ισραηλ ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου.

“And God said to him, ‘Your name is Jacob; it will no longer be called Jacob, but your name will be Israel.’”

The SS starts with reviewing the Grant Covenant. Then it focuses on the significance of changing Jacob’s name.

The FN is Israel and predicates on the SS.

3

5

Conv

250 B.C. A.D. 100

Septuaginta

1 Chronicles 23:11

καὶ ἦν Ιεθ ὁ ἄρχων καὶ Ζιζα ὁ δεύτερος

“…and Jahath was the first and Zizah the second…”

The SS is the telling of the order of Shimei’s sons.

The FN is Jahath and is similar to the SS.

5

3

Sub

250 B.C. A.D. 100

Septuaginta

Esther 10:3c

ἡ μικρὰ πηγή ἣ ἐγένετο ποταμὸς καὶ ἦν φῶς καὶ ἥλιος καὶ ὕδωρ πολύ Εσθηρ ἐστὶν ὁ ποταμός

“A little fountain became a river, and there was light, and the sun, and much water: this river is Esther,”

The SS begins with the claim that God is the source of deliverance. It then moves into the description of a dream about a little fountain which becomes a river.

The FN is Esther and predicates on the SS.

3

5

Sub

250 B.C. A.D. 100

Septuaginta

Tobit 1:22 in Text Family BA

Αχιαχαρος δὲ ἦν ὁ οἰνοχόος

“And Achiacharus was cupbearer…”

The SS is Achiacharus (Ahikar).

The FN is Achiacharus is the same as the SS.

3

2

Sub

250 B.C. A.D. 100

Septuaginta

Tobit 1:22 in Text Family S

Αχιαχαρος γὰρ ἦν ὁ ἀρχιοινοχόος

“For Achiacharus was chief cupbearer…”

The SS is Achiacharus (Ahikar).

The FN is Achiacharus is the same as the SS.

3

2

Conv

100 B.C. A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 24)

Strabo,

Geographica 13.1.39.8

πῶς γὰρ ἂν αἱρεθῆναι διαιτητὴν τὸν προσπολεμοῦντα; ᾿Αχίλλειον δ ᾿ ἔστιν ὁ τόπος ἐν ᾧ τὸ ᾿Αχιλλέως μνῆμα κατοικία μικρά.

“For how could the opponent of the Athenians have been chosen as arbiter? Achilleium is the place where the monument of Achilles stands and it is only a small settlement.”

The SS is a little ambiguous, but appears to be an argument against the claim that Periander fortified Achilleium.

The FN is Achilleium and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

 

Table 1—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Nominative (FN) to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

100 B.C. A.D. 100

Philo Judaeus Phil.,

Legum allegoriae 3.217.6

εἶπεν ὁ θεὸς τῷ ᾿Αβραάμ: Σάρα ἡ γυνή σου οὐ κληθήσεται Σάρα ἀλλὰ Σάρρα αὐτῆς ἔσται τὸ ὄνομα: εὐλογήσω αὐτὴν καὶ δώσω σοι ἐξ αὐτῆς τέκνον.”

“God said to Abraham, ‘Sarai, your wife, will not be called Sarai, but Sarah will be her name: I will bless her and will give you a child of her.’”

The SS is the description of an example of “virtue” (Sarah) pregnant with “joy” (Isaac).

The FN is Sarah in this non-verbatim (Greek or Hebrew) quotation of Genesis 17:15. It is the same as the original SS and is the same as Philo’s SS.

3

2

Conv

100 B.C. A.D. 100

Philo Judaeus Phil.,

De ebrietate 82.6

ἐπήχησαν οἱ χρησμοί: οὐ κληθήσεται τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Ιακώβ ἀλλ ᾿ ᾿Ισραὴλ ἔσται σου τὸ ὄνομα ὅτι ἴσχυσας μετὰ θεοῦ καὶ μετὰ ἀνθρώπων δυνατός ᾿Ιακὼβ μὲν οὖν μαθήσεως καὶ προκοπῆς ὄνομα ἀκοῆς ἐξηρτημένων δυνάμεων ῾Ισραὴλ δὲ τελειότητος ὅρασιν γὰρ θεοῦ μηνύει τοὔνομα.

“Then it was that the oracles rang out their proclamation, ‘Your name will not be called Jacob, but Israel will be your name because you have been strong along with (or by) God and have been strong among men.’ Now Jacob is a name for learning and progress, gifts depending on the hearing; Israel is a name for perfection, for the name expresses the vision of God.”

The SS begins with the calling to consider the exchange(s) seen in Jacob. It then converges on an explanation about the significance of Jacob’s name change.

The FN is Israel in this non-verbatim (Greek or Hebrew) quotation of Genesis 32:29. It predicates on the original SS and is similar to Philo’s SS.

3

2

Conv

100 B.C. A.D. 100

Philo Judaeus Phil.,

De ebrietate 128.1

᾿Ααρὼν δέ ἐστιν ὁ ἱερεύς καὶ τοὔνομα ὀρεινὸς ἑρμηνεύεται μετέωρα καὶ ὑψηλὰ φρονῶν λογισμός

“Now Aaron is the priest and his name means ‘mountainous.’ He is the reason whose thoughts are lofty and sublime,”

The SS starts with a description of the priestly duty of sobriety. It then converges on showing Aaron as example of priestly sobriety.

The FN is Aaron and is the same as the SS.

3

2

Sub

100 B.C. A.D. 100

Philo Judaeus Phil.,

De congressu eruditionis gratia 57.7

καὶ γὰρ ὁ πρὸς ἀλήθειαν ῞Αιδης τοῦ μοχθηροῦ βίος ἐστίν ὁ ἀλάστωρ καὶ παλαμναῖος καὶ πάσαις ἀραῖς ἔνοχος.

“For the true Hades is the life of the bad, the accursed wretch and blood-guilty man and the one subject to every curse.”

The SS starts with Philo describing the place to where God sends the vanished unjust and godless souls. It then converges on claiming that it is, “not mythical but” a life ill lived.

The FN is Hades and is similar to the SS.

1

1

Sub

100 B.C. A.D. 100

Philo Judaeus Phil.,

De congressu eruditionis gratia 61.2

κεφαλὴ δὲ ὡς ζῴου πάντων τῶν λεχθέντων μερῶν ὁ γενάρχης ἐστὶν ᾿Ησαῦ

“And of all the members of the clan here described, Esau is the progenitor,”

The SS begins with giving examples of passion in the “Body” which lead to the fainting of the “Soul.” It then focuses on how Esau is the Biblical example of these metaphors.

The FN is “the progenitor” and predicates on the SS.

4

5

Conv

100 B.C. A.D. 100

Philo Judaeus Phil.,

De mutatione nominum 60.1

κλῆρον ἀποφήνας τῶν λαμβανόντων ἑαυτόν οὓς εὐθέως καὶ προσρήσεως ἑτέρας ἠξίωσε. λέγεται γὰρ ὅτι οὐ κληθήσεται τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Αβράμ ἀλλ᾿ ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Αβραάμ.”

“…Himself the portion of those who receive Him. On these He presently bestows as their due a different name. For it says, ‘Your name will not be called Abram, but your name will be Abraham.’”

The SS begins with the description of how God offers the highest form of covenant to some people. It then focuses on how these people get a different name, explaining the significance of the name change.

The FN is “the name” and is similar to the SS.

6

3

Conv

A.D. 100

Novum Testamentum

John 8:39

᾿Απεκρίθησαν καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῶ ῾Ο πατὴρ ἡμῶν ᾿Αβραάμ ἐστιν. Λέγει αὐτοι)ς ὁ ᾿Ιησου)ς Εἰ τέκνα τοῦ ᾿Αβραάμ ἐστε τὰ ἔργα τοῦ ᾿Αβραὰμ ἐποιεῖτε:

“They answered and said to Him, ‘Our father is Abraham.’ Jesus said to them, ‘If you are Abraham’s children, do the deeds of Abraham,’”

The SS concerns relationships to Abraham and the identity of Abraham’s true seed.

The FN is “our father” and is similar to the SS.

2

1

Conv

A.D. 100

Novum Testamentum

John 20:31

ταῦτα δὲ γέγραπται ἵνα πιστεύ[σ]ητε ὅτι ᾿Ιησου)ς ἐστιν ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἵνα πιστεύοντες ζωὴν ἔχητε ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ.

“but these have been written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.”

The SS is a statement of the two reasons for recording the signs that Jesus did.

The FN is Jesus and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 100

Novum Testamentum

1 John 2:22

Τίς ἐστιν ὁ ψεύστης εἰ μὴ ὁ ἀρνούμενος ὅτι ᾿Ιησοῦς οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ Χριστός; οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἀντίχριστος, ὁ ἀρνούμενος τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὸν υἱόν.

“Who is the liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, the one who denies the Father and the Son.”

The SS is a description of how to identify the antichrist.

The FN is Jesus and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

Novum Testamentum

1 John 4:15

ὃς ἐὰν ὁμολογήσῃ ὅτι ᾿Ιησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ὁ θεὸς ἐν αὐτῷ μένει καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν τῷ θεῷ.

“Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God.”

The SS is the assertion that God is love and that His children abide in love.

The FN is Jesus and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 100

Novum Testamentum

1 John 5:1

Πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ὅτι ᾿Ιησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ Χριστὸς ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ γεγέννηται καὶ πᾶς ὁ ἀγαπῶν τὸν γεννήσαντα ἀγαπᾷ [καὶ] τὸν γεγεννημένον ἐξ αὐτοῦ.

“Whoever believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God, and whoever loves the Father loves the child born of Him.”

The SS is a description of who is rightly related to God and how.

The FN is Jesus and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

Novum Testamentum

1 John 5:5

τίς [δέ] ἐστιν ὁ νικῶν τὸν κόσμον εἰ μὴ ὁ πιστεύων ὅτι ᾿Ιησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ;

“Who is the one who overcomes the world, but he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God?”

The SS is a description of who is rightly related to God and how.

The FN is Jesus and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Sulla 3.4.8

ἦν δὲ ἡ γραφὴ Βόκχος μὲν παραδιδούς Σύλλας δὲ παραλαμβάνων τὸν ᾿Ιογόρθαν.

“The engraving was Bocchus the deliverer and Sylla the receiver of Jugurtha.”

The SS is the signet ring which Sulla wore in commemoration of his handing over Jugurtha to Marius from Bocchus.

The FN is “the engraving” and is the same as the SS.

6

3

Sub

 

Table 1—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Nominative (FN) to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Antonius 9.7.1

ἦν δὲ καὶ Σέργιος ὁ μῖμος τῶν μέγιστον παρ ᾿ αὐτῷ δυναμένων

“And Sergius also was the mime of greatest influence over him,”

The SS is the description of Antonius’ shady company of drinking buddies, among whom were several mimes.

The FN is Sergius and is similar to the SS.

5

3

Conv

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

De exilio 607.B.7

τὸ δὲ τοῦ ᾿Αντισθένους οὐκ ἐπαινεῖς πρὸς τὸν εἰπόντα ὅτι Φρυγία σού ἐστιν ἡ μήτηρ,” “καὶ γὰρ ἡ τῶν θεῶν;”

“Do you not commend the angry reply of Antisthenes to the one who said, ‘Phrygia is your mother,’ retorting, ‘for indeed she is the mother of the gods?’”

The SS is the showing of how individuals from foreign lands make great contributions to the places in which they currently reside.

The FN is Phrygia and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Amatoriae narrationes 775.B.10

῎Αλκιππος τὸ μὲν γένος Λακεδαιμόνιος ἦν:

“Now Alcippus was the descendant of a Lacedamonian,”

The SS is Alcippus.

The FN is Alcippus and is the same as the SS.

1

1

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Vitae decem oratorum 839.E.2

᾿Ισαῖος Χαλκιδεὺς μὲν ἦν τὸ γένος παραγενόμενος δ ᾿ εἰς ᾿Αθηνας καὶ σχολάσας

“Now Isaeus was the descendant of Chalcidice, but came to Athens and to school...”

The SS is Isaeus.

The FN is Isaeus and is the same as the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

Lucius Annaeus Cornutus,

De natura deorum 4.11

Ποσειδῶν δέ ἐστιν ἀπεργαστικὴ τοῦ ἐν τῇ γῇ καὶ περὶ τὴν γῆν ὑγροῦ δύναμις

And Poseidon is the effectual power of the sea which is in and around the land,”

As the title suggests, the broader SS is a description of how various gods came to be. The immediate SS is Poseidon, the earth-shaker and ruler of water.

The FN is Poseidon and is the same as the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

Lucius Annaeus Cornutus,

De natura deorum 12.14

Αἶσα δέ ἐστιν ἄιστος καὶ ἄγνωστος αἰτία τῶν γινομένων-

Aisa [Destiny] is the unseen and unknown cause of the ones who have come into existence-”

As the title suggests, the broader SS is a description of how various gods came to be. The immediate SS concerns fate and/or destiny.

The FN is Aisa and is the same as the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

Lucius Annaeus Cornutus,

De natura deorum 45.4

᾿Αφροδίτη δέ ἐστιν συνάγουσα τὸ ἄρρεν καὶ τὸ θῆλυ δύναμις

And Aphrodite is the co-leading masculine and feminine power,”

As the title suggests, the broader SS is a description of how various gods came to be. The immediate SS concerns goddesses whose etymology is related to various observable traits of the sea (namely, Nereus) such as the foam created by the waves.

The FN is Aphrodite and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 93)

Flavius Josephus,

Antiquitates Judaicae 9.53.4

μηδὲ ὑποεῖν αὐτὸν ὡς πρὸς τὸν ἐχθρὸν αὐτοῦ κατειρηκότας τὴν ἔκπεμψιν τῶν ἀναιρησόντων αὐτούς ἀλλὰ γινώσκειν ὅτι ᾿Ελισσαῖός ἐστιν ὁ προφήτης ὁ πάντα μηνύων αὐτῷ καὶ φανερὰ ποιῶν τὰ ὑπ ᾿ αὐτοῦ βουλευόμενα προσέταξε πέμψας μαθεῖν ἐν τίνι πόλει τυγχάνει διατρίβων ᾿Ελισσαῖος.

“...and that he should not suspect them of having told his enemy of the sending out of the men who were to kill him, but should know that Elisha was the prophet who had informed him of everything and had revealed to him the things to be done against him. So he [Adados] gave orders to send men to learn in what city Elisha was living.”

The SS is the recounting of how one of Adados’ own men revealed to him that Elisha was the one who had ruined his plot to kill king Joram and not his co-conspirators, as Adados was claiming.

The FN is Elisha and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

(unknown)

<Cebes> (of Thebes),

Cebetis tabula 3.3.1

γὰρ ἀφροσύνη τοῖς ἀνθρώποις Σφίγξ ἐστιν.

“For Sphinx is the folly to men.”

From the immediately preceding line, the SS appears to be the Sphinx.

The FN is “the folly” and predicates on the SS.

2

4

Sub

(unknown)

Manetho,

Fragmenta 42.1

Μανεθὼν δ ᾿ ἦν τὸ γένος Αἰγυπτιος ἀνὴρ τῆς ῾Ελληνικῆς μετεσχηκὼς παιδείας ὡς δῆλός ἐστι: γέγραφε γὰρ ῾Ελλάδι... [Josephus Contra Apionem I, 14 (ca. A.D. 93 or A.D. 100)]

“But Manetho was the descendant of an Egyptian, and a man who had been transformed by Greek upbringing, as it is clear, for he wrote in Greek…”

The SS is Josephus’ description of Manetho’s credibility as an Egyptian historian and of his ability as a Greek writer/translator.

The FN is Manetho and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 95)

Dio Chrysostomus,

Orationes 43.9.3

ἀλλ ᾿ ὅμως ὑπο τοῦ δήμου δι ᾿ ὃν ἐκινδύνευεν ὕστερον εὖ πράττοντος διαβληθεὶς ὑπὸ συκοφαντῶν τινων ἀπέθανεν. ἦν δὲ ὁ κατηγορος Μέλητος βδελυρὸς ἄνθρωπος καὶ συκοφάντης.

“But nevertheless, it was by the government of the people, on whose account he then risked his life, that later on when that government was flourishing, because he had been slandered by certain false witnesses, he was put to death. Now his accuser was Meletus, a loathsome man, and a liar.”

The SS begins with the retelling of how even Socrates experienced betrayal while trying to help the people whose government ultimately killed him.

The FN is “the accuser” and is similar to the SS.

6

3

Sub

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 130)

Flavius Arrianus,

Historia successorum Alexandri 1,15.2

Δείναρχος δὲ ὁ Κορίνθιος ὁ κατήγορος ἦν.

“And Deinarchus, the Corinthian, was the accuser.”

The SS is a bullet point description of Demades’ role in the condemnation of Demosthenes (and others) and in his own condemnation.

The FN is Deinarchus and is consistent with the clause constructions of the preceding bullet point accounts, in which most of the grammatical subjects are proper names.

1

1

Sub

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 150)

Hermas, Pastor 23.4

διὰ τοῦτο ὁ κύριος ἀπέστειλεν τὸν ἄγγελον αὐτοῦ τὸν ἐπὶ τῶν θηρίων ὄντα οὗ τὸ ὄνομά ἐστιν Σεγρί

“Therefore the Lord sent his angel who has authority over the beasts, the name of whom is Segri,”

The SS begins with the describing of the Shepherd’s great faith. It converges on showing the angel’s authority over the beast to deliver the Shepherd.

The FN is “the name” and is not similar to the SS.

4

2

Conv

 

Table 1—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Nominative (FN) to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 150)

(Leucius),

Acta Joannis 46.21

Κἀκείνῳ τρόμῳ καὶ φρίκῃ συνεχόμενος εἶπε Ναὶ κύριε ῥίψας ἑαυτὸν εἰς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ. Καὶ ὁ ᾿Ιωάννης: Ο κύριος ἡμῶν ἐστιν ᾿Ιησοῦς Χριστός ὅστις τὴν δύναμιν αὐτοῦ δείξει ἐν τῷ νεκρῷ σου συγγενεῖ ὁ ἀναστήσας αὐτόν.

“Having been overcome with trembling and fear, he said, ‘Yes, lord;’ and he cast himself at his feet. And John said, ‘Our Lord is Jesus Christ, who will show his power in your dead relative by raising him up.’”

The story is a description of how John knew the heart of an Ephesian who had postponed the burial of his dead relative in order to hear John preach, and perhaps even get him to raise him from the dead. Upon hearing John expose his very intentions, he falls to John’s feet and calls him, “lord.” The tighter SS is the question of “who is Lord.”

The FN is “the Lord of us” and is the same as the SS.

4

2

Conv

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 150)

Tatianus,

Oratio ad Graecos 17.1.3

ὅτι κατὰ τὸν κοινὸν λόγον ᾿Αβδηρολόγος ἐστὶν ἀπὸ τῶν ᾿Αβδήρων ἄνθρωπος

“…that according to the common saying, Abderos is the man from/of the Abderas.”

The SS is the description of a comparison between Hercules’ friend and “those who boast of the Magian Ostanes.” Their fate will be the same.

The FN is Abderos and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 160)

Justinus Martyr,

Dialogus cum Tryphone 58.7.4

ἄν μή με εὐλογήσῃς. εἶπε δὲ αὐτῷ: Τί τὸ ὄνομα σου ἐστίν; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν: ᾿Ιακώβ. εἶπε δὲ αὐτῷ: Οὐ κληθήσεται τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Ιακώβ ἀλλὰ ᾿Ισραὴλ ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου: ὅτι ἐνίσχυσας μετὰ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ μετὰ ἀνθρώπων δυνατὸς ἔσῃ. ἠρώτησε δὲ ᾿Ιακὼβ καὶ εἶπεν: ᾿Ανάγγειλόν μοι τὸ ὄνομά σου.
“[And when he saw that he could not overcome him, He touched the sinew of his thigh while they wrestled, and forthwith it became numb. And He said to him, ‘Let me go for it is the break of day.’ He answered, ‘I will not let you go] except/until you bless me.’ He said, ‘What is your name?’ And he said, ‘Jacob.’ And He said to him, ‘Your name will not be called Jacob, but your name will be Israel because you have grown strong along with God, and you will be powerful among men.’ And Jacob asked and said, ‘Tell me your name.’”

The broader SS is an argument showing that God is also called “Angel” and “Lord.”

The FN in this non-verbatim (Greek or Hebrew) quotation of Genesis 32:29 is Israel. It predicates on the original SS and is unrelated to Justin Martyr’s SS.

3

NA

Conv

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 160)

Justinus Martyr,

Dialogus cum Tryphone 58.8.12

ὅτε παρεγένετο ἐν Μεσοποταμίᾳ τῆς Συρίας καὶ εὐλόγησεν αὐτόν. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεός: Τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Ιακὼβ οὐ κληθήσεται ἔτι ἀλλὰ ᾿Ισραὴλ ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου. θεος καλεῖται καὶ θεος ἐστι καὶ ἔσται.

“[And God appeared again to Jacob,] after he returned from Mesopotamia of Syria, and He blessed him. And God said to him, ‘Your name will no longer be called Jacob, but Israel will be your name.’ He (Angel/Lord) is called God, and He is and always will be God.”

The broader SS is an argument showing that God is also called “Angel” and “Lord.”

The FN in this non-verbatim (Greek or Hebrew) quotation of Genesis 35:10 is Israel. It predicates on the original SS and is unrelated to Justin Martyr’s SS.

3

NA

Conv

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 160)

Justinus Martyr,

Dialogus cum Tryphone 113.1.6

οὐδὲ νῦν ἀκούων ὅτι ᾿Ιησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ Χριστὸς ἡμῶν συλλογίζῃ οὐκ ἀργῶς οὐδ ᾿ ὡς ἔτυχεν ἐκείνῳ τεθεῖσθαι τοὔνομα.

“and even now, though you hear that Jesus is our Christ, you do not consider that the name was bestowed on Him not purposelessly nor by chance.”

The SS concerns the name change of Osee, the son of Nun, into Joshua and his taking Israel into the promised land. Thus he was a type of Jesus the Christ.

The FN is Jesus and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 163)

Polyaenus,

Strategemata 1.3.5.3

῾Ηρακλῆς Μινύαις πολεμῶν ἦσαν δὲ ἱππομαχεῖν ἐν πεδίῳ Μινύαι δεινοὶ μάχην συνάψαι μὴ θαρρῶν ποταμὸν ἐπαφῆκεν. ἦν δὲ ὁ ποταμὸς Κηφισὸς ὁρίζων ὄρη δύο Παρνασσὸν καὶ ῾Ηδύλιον.

“Heracles, wanting to take away fields of battles against the Mydians (and Mydians were dreadful warriors to fight on horseback in the open fields), not being confident to join in a battle immediately, he had previously let loose a river upon the battlefield. And the river was Cephisus which divided two mountains, Parnassus and Hedylius.”

The SS is a river which Heracles used to increase his chance at winning open field battles against the Mydians.

The FN is “the river” and is the same as the SS.

6

3

Sub

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 170)

Hegesippus,

Fragmenta 209.9

(ex incerto libro)

τίς ἡ θύρα τοῦ ᾿Ιησοῦ: καὶ ἔλεγε τοῦτον εἶναι τὸν Σωτῆρα. ἐξ ὧν τινὲς ἐπίστευσαν ὅτι ᾿Ιησους ἐστὶν ὁ Χριστός.

“[Now some persons belonging to the seven sects existing among the people (which have been previously described by me in the notes) asked him,] ‘What is the door of Jesus?’ And he replied that He was the Saviour. In consequence of this answer, some believed that Jesus is the Christ. [But the previously mentioned sects did not believe, either in a resurrection or in the coming of One to requite every man according to his works; but those who did believe, believed because of James. So, when many even of the ruling class believed, there was a commotion among the Jews, and scribes, and Pharisees, who said: ‘A little more and we shall have all the people looking for Jesus as the Christ.’]”

The SS is Jesus.

The FN in this allusion to John 20:31 and/or 1 John 5:1 is Jesus. It is the same as the original SS and is the same as Hegesippus’ SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 200

Aelius Aristides,

῾Ροδιακός 552.15

οἵᾳ πρόσθεν ἐκεῖνο λέγω καὶ μηδεὶς τραχυνθῇ πρὸς τὸν λόγον ἦν χρόνος ἡνίκ ᾿ οὔπω ῾Ρόδος ἦν ἡ πόλις αὕτη ὡς μὲν οἱ ποιηταί φασιν οὐδε ἡ νῆσος αὕτη ἀλλ ᾿ ἦν ταῦτα θαλαττα ψιλὴ ποτέ.

“[To those of you who think that life is certainly eroding unless they live in a country] such as the one in which they formerly lived, I say the following, and no one should be exasperated with the account. There was a time when Rhodes was not yet this city. As the poets tell it, it was not even this island, but this was once a barren sea.”

The immediate SS is the fact that all is not lost, that the Rhodian people still have “a place to stand.”

The FN is Rhodes and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

 

Table 1—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Nominative (FN) to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 174)

Pausanias,

Graeciae descriptio 5.3.6.8

δὲ ἀνὴρ ἦν ῎Οξυλος Αἵμονος τοῦ Θόαντος: Θόας δὲ ἦν οὗτος ὃς καὶ τοῖς ᾿Ατρέως παισὶν ἀρχὴν συγκαθεῖλε τὴν Πριάμου

“And the man was Oxylus, son of Haemon, son of Thoas. This was the Thoas who helped the sons of Atreus to destroy the empire of Priam,”

The SS is the “one with three eyes” which the oracle identified as the man who would lead the Dorian army on their return to Peloponnesus.

The FN is “the man” and is the same as the SS.

4

2

Sub

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 174)

Pausanias,

Graeciae descriptio 5.5.9.2

ὅτι δὲ τῷ ᾿Ακίδαντι ὄνομα ᾿Ιάρδανος ἦν τὸ ἀρχαῖον αὐτὸς μὲν οὐδαμόθεν συνεβαλόμην ἀκούσας δὲ ἀνδρὸς ᾿Εφεσίου λέγω τὸν λόγον.

“Though I can not support it in any way, having heard it from an Ephesian man, I repeat the statement that with respect to the name given to the Acidas, Iardanus was the original.”

The broader SS is the tributary Acidas and how it can support edible fish life. The immediate SS appears to be its name.

The FN is Iardanus and is similar to the immediate SS

3

2

Sub

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 177)

Julius Pollux,

Onomasticon 2.95.6

ὁ δὲ Νικοκλέους τοῦ Κυπρίου πατήρ ᾧ τὰς παραινέσεις ὁ ᾿Αθηναῖος σοφιστὴς ἔγραψεν τὸ μὲν ὄνομα αὐτῷ Τίμαρχος ἦν διστοίχους δ ᾿ εἶχεν ἄρα τῷ ᾿Αριστοτέλους (frg 527R) λογῳ τοὺς ὀδοντας κατὰ δὲ τὴν ῎Ιωνος τοῦ Χίου (T G F p 738.30N) δόξαν τρισοίχους ῾Ηρακλῆς.

“And the father of the Cyprian Nicocles, (concerning whom the Athenian sophist, Isocrates, wrote the addresses), the name given to him was Timarchus; And, by Aristotle’s account, he who had a two-fold threshold (but according to the opinion of Ionus of Chius, had a three-fold threshold), his name was Heracles (i.e., Hercules).”

As the work’s title suggests, the SS is “the name of” various historical and literary figures.

The FN is “the name” and is the same as the SS.

2

1

Conv

A.D. 200

Lucianus,

De Syria dea 15.2

῎Εστιν δὲ καὶ ἄλλος λόγος ἱρός τὸν ἐγὼ σοφοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἤκουσα ὅτι μὲν θεὴ ῾Ρέη ἐστίν τὸ δὲ ἱρὸν ῎Αττεω ποίημα. ῎Αττης δὲ γένος μὲν Λυδὸς ἦν πρῶτος δὲ τὰ ὄργια τὰ ἐς ῾Ρέην ἐδιδάξατο.

“There is also another wonderful story, which I heard from a wise man, that the goddess is Rhea (Cybelé) and the temple is the work of Attis. And now Attis was racially a Lydian, and first taught the rituals pertaining to Rhea.”

The broader SS is the telling of who are the gods of the great sanctuary in “the holy city.” Lucian records that he was told several stories (De Syria dea 11.1-3). The immediate SS is the telling of one of those stories.

The FN is “the goddess” and is similar to the SS.

2

1

Sub

A.D. 200

A.D. 300

Pseudo-Galenus,

Definitiones medicae 19.430.11

῾Ροπάλωσίς ἐστιν κατὰ τὸ ἄκρον τῶν τριχῶν ἀμερὴς σχέσις μετὰ τοῦ μηκέτι συναύξεσθαι.

“Rhopalosis is the whole condition concerning the ends of hairs that no longer grow together.”

The SS is the description of various hair diseases by name.

The FN is Rhopalosis and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 200

A.D. 300

Pseudo-Galenus,

Definitiones medicae 19.430.13

Διχοφυί∂∂α ἐστὶν διαμερὴς κατὰ τὸ ἄκρον τῶν τριχῶν σχέσις μετὰ τοῦ μηκέτι συναύξεσθαι.

“Dichofuia is a separate (or partial) condition concerning the ends of hairs that no longer grow together.”

The SS is the description of various hair diseases by name.

The FN is Dichofuia and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 200 A.D. 300

Aelius Herodianus et Pseudo,

De prosodia catholica 3,1.196.10

περὶ ἧς Ξενίων ἐν Κρητικοῖς φησι πορρώτερω δὲ τῆς ῾Ιεραπύτνης ῎Ωλερος ἦν ἡ πόλις ἐφ ᾿ ὑψηλοῦ μὲ ᾠκισμένη τόπου.”

“…concerning which Xenion says in the work known as ‘Cretans,’ ‘further on from Ierapytna, Oleros was the city, having resided in me, upon a high location (i.e., held in high regard).’”

The SS is an explanation of how various cities in Lycia, Illyria, and Crete came to be known by name.

The FN is Oleros and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 200

A.D. 300

Aelius Herodianus et Pseudo,

Περὶ ῥημάτων 3, 2.808.30

τινὲς δὲ διὰ τοῦ ω γράφουσιν αὐτὸ λέγοντες ὅτι ἔχει ὄνομα πρου+ποκείμενον τὸ ῎ΑρηςΑρης γάρ ἐστιν ὁ σίδηρος.

“And some write it using the W, saying that it has a name which subsisted before ‘Ares,’ for Ares is the iron writing tool.”

The broader SS is a description of how certain words evolved but the tighter SS from the preceding clause shows that Ares is in focus.

The FN is Ares and is the same as the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 200

A.D. 300

Claudius Aelianus,

De natura animalium 12.37.1

Οἰνοχόου βασιλικου (καὶ ἦν ὁ βασιλεὺς Νικομήδης ὁ Βυθυνῶν) ἀλεκτρυὼν ἠράσθη Κένταυρος ὄνομα καὶ λέγει Φίλων τοῦτο.

“And Philo says this, a rooster named Centaurus fell in love with the royal cupbearer (the king was Nicomedes, the king of Bithynians).”

The broader SS is the telling of how animals fall in love with humans. The immediate SS is the identity of the royal cupbearer.

The FN is “the king” and is similar to the SS.

6

3

Sub

A.D. 200

A.D. 300

Clemens Alexandrinus,

Stromata 1.16.75.1.2

Κάδμος δὲ Φοῖνιξ ἦν τῶν γραμμάτων ῞Ελλησιν εὑρετης ὥς φησιν ῎Εφορος ὅθεν καὶ Φοινικήια τὰ γράμματα ῾Ηρόδοτος κεκλῆσθαι γράφει: οἳ δὲ Φοίνικας καὶ Σύρους γράμματα ἐπινοῆσαι πρώτους λέγουσιν.

“And Cadmus, a Phoenician, was the inventor of the Greek characters, as Ephorus says. For this reason Herodotus also writes that they were called Phoenician characters. But others say that Phoenicians and Syrians invented the first characters.”

The SS is the non-Greek origins of certain skills of the known civilized world.

The FN is Cadmus and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

 

Table 1—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Nominative (FN) to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Commentarii in evangelium Joannis 6.46.240.4

Διὰ τὰ παραδεδομένα ἡμῖν περὶ τοῦ ᾿Ιορδάνου ὅς τύπος ἦν τοῦ τὴν κατάβασιν ἡμῶν καταβάντος λόγου λεκτέον ὅτι παρὰ τῷ ἀποστόλῳ σαφῶς ἡ πέτρα Χριστὸς ἦν ἥτις τῇ ῥάβδῳ δὶς πλήσσεται ἵνα δυνηθῶσιν πιεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς πνευματικῆς ἀκολουθούσης πέτρας.”

“[But if someone should take offense at the expression, ‘He stuck the water,’] because of the assertion among us about the Jordan, which was a type of the Word who condescended to our descent, we must say that, by the Apostle, clearly the rock was Christ, which to be sure is struck twice with the staff in order that they might be able to drink from the ‘spiritual rock which follows.’”

The broader SS is an explanation of archetypal objects in the Old Testament which were somehow “struck.”

The FN is “the rock” and is similar to the SS.

2

1

Sub

A.D. 300

Origen

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Commentarii in evangelium Joannis 19.23.151.4

τί δὲ τὸ αἴτιον τοῦ ἐν ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις αὐτῶν ἀποθνήσκειν ἀνθρώπους ἢ τὸ μὴ πιστεύειν ὅτι ᾿Ιησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ χριστός;” αὐτὸς γάρ φησιν:᾿Εὰν μὴ πιστεύσητε ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ἀποθανεῖσθε ἐν ταῖς ἁ μαρτίαις ὑμῶν.”

“And why do men die guilty in their sins if not because they do not ‘believe that Jesus is the Christ?’ For he himself declares, ‘if you do not believe that I am he, you are dead in your sins.’”

The SS is a commentary on Jesus’ words to His disciples in John 8:24.

The FN in this allusion to John 20:31 and/or 1 John 5:1 is Jesus. It is the same as the original SS and is similar to Origen’s SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Commentarii in evangelium Joannis 20.15.125.3

ὅπερ οὐ πεποιήκασιν οἱ ἐλεγχόμενοι ἐπὶ τῷ μὴ ὑγιῶς εἰρηκέναι: ῾Ο πατὴρ ἡμῶν ᾿Αβραάμ ἐστιν.”

“[Therefore, Abraham went forth from his father’s house, the very thing] that those who are reproved for having incorrectly said, ‘Our father is Abraham,’ have not done. [For if the children of Abraham do the works of Abraham, and the…]”

The SS is a commentary on what Jesus meant by telling the Jews to do the works of their father after they had claimed to be children of Abraham.

The FN in this quotation of John 8:39 is “our father.” It is similar to the original SS and is similar to Origen’s SS.

2

1

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Commentarii in evangelium Joannis 20.16.132.4

φιλονεικότερον ἀπεκρίναντο: εἰπόντες γὰρ πρότερον τὸ Σπέρμα ᾿Αβραάμ ἐσμεν‚” καὶ οἷον τοῦτο τρανότερον ὁμολογήσαντες διὰ τοῦ ῾Ο πατὴρ ἡμῶν ᾿Αβραάμ ἐστιν‚” ἀκούσαντες πρὸς τοῦτο τὸ Εἰ τέκνα τοῦ ᾿Αβραάμ ἐστε τὰ ἔργα τοῦ ᾿Αβραὰμ ποιεῖτε‚”

“[Now it seems to me that] they answered rather contentiously. For though they had said first, ‘We are Abraham’s seed,’ and later acknowledged this more clearly by saying, ‘Our father is Abraham,’ upon hearing this from Jesus, that ‘If you are Abraham’s children, then do the works of Abraham,’”

The broader SS is a commentary on why the Jews responded vindictively in John 8:41 to Jesus’ claims that their desire to kill Him showed that they were doing the work of their real father.

The FN in this quotation of John 8:39 is “our father.” It is similar to the original SS and is similar to Origen’s SS.

2

1

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Commentarii in evangelium Joannis 20.27.240.4

τῇ ἀληθείᾳ προτρέπων ὁ κύριος Μωσέα εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν: ᾿Ιδοὺ τόπος παρ ᾿ ἐμοί καὶ στήσῃ ἐπὶ τῆς πέτρας: εἰ γὰρ ἡ πέτρα Χριστὸς ἦν Χριστὸς δέ φησιν: ᾿Εγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀλήθεια‚” μήποτε τὸ στήσῃ ἐπὶ τῆς πέτρας ἴσον δύναται τῷ στήσῃ ἐπὶ τῆς ἀληθείας.” μόγις δέ ποτε τοῦτο καὶ μετὰ πολλὰ ἐγγίγνεταί τινι.

“The Lord, urging Moses [to stand on this, that is] in the truth, said to him, ‘Behold , there is a place by me, and you will stand on the rock.’ For if the rock was Christ, and Christ says, ‘I am the truth,’ then perhaps the statement, ‘you will stand on the rock,’ can be equivalent to the statement, ‘you will stand on the truth.’ But with toil and pain this is presumably possible for someone and after many trials.”

The broader SS is a commentary on what it means to stand on the truth. Origen allegorizes an OT passage to show that Moses stood on truth when he stood on a rock by the Lord’s side. The argument is rock = Christ = truth.

The FN is “the rock” and is similar to the SS.

2

1

Sub

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Commentarii in evangelium Joannis 20.32.285.3

Κατανοοῦντες δὲ τί τὸ κυρίως πιστεύιν καθ ᾿ ὃ Πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ὅτι ᾿Ιησοῦς ὁ χριστός ἐστιν ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ γεγέννηται‚” καὶ αἰσθανόμενοι ὅσῳ τοῦ οὕτως πιστεύειν ἀπολειπόμεθα ταῦτα ἀποκρινώμεθα παρακαλοῦντες τὸν τῶν τῆς ψυχῆς ὄψεων ἰατρὸν τῇ ἑαυτοῦ σοφίᾳ καί φιλανθρωπίᾳ

“But when we contemplate what believing is in the proper sense, insofar as ‘everyone who believes that Jesus is the Christ has been born of God,’ and when we perceive how far short we fall of believing in this manner, let us respond as follows, exhorting the physician of the eyes of the soul by his wisdom and beneficence…”

The SS is a commentary on Jesus’ words to His disciples in John 8:46 which describes the nature and object of believing.

The FN in this non-verbatim quotation of 1 John 5:1 is Jesus. It is similar to the original SS and is similar to Origen’s SS.

1

1

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Commentarii in evangelium Joannis 20.37.347.4

καὶ δάκνων καὶ καταιτιώμενος καὶ κατεσθίον τὸν πλησίον καὶ πεπληρωμένος τῆς ἐν τῷ ἡγεμονικῷ ἑαυτοῦ στάσεως τῶν παθῶν καὶ τούτῳ ἂν λεχθεῖν τὸ

῾Υμεῖς ἀτιμάζετέ με.” Χριστὸς γάρ ἑστιν ἡ εἰρήνη ἡμῶν.

“[But if someone should be argumentative,] and biting, and accusing, and devouring the neighbor, and having been filled by passionate discord by his own readiness (i.e., ambition) to lead; to this one also it would be said, ‘You dishonor me.’ For Christ is our peace.”

The broader SS is a commentary on what Christ means by “you dishonor me” in John 8:49.

The FN is Christ and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Sub

 

Table 1—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Nominative (FN) to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Fragmenta in evangelium Joannis 24.2

Οὐ τοῦτο δὲ εἰπεῖν βούλεται ὅτι οἱ προφῆται οὕτως ἔγραψαν ὅτι ᾿Ιησοῦς ἔσται ὁ υἱος ᾿Ιωσὴφ ἀπὸ Ναζαρέτ ἀλλ ᾿ ἀντὶ τοῦ Τὸν ᾿Ιωσὴφ υἱὸν” “τὸν ἀπὸ Ναζαρὲττοῦτον εὑρήκαμεν ὄντα ἐκεῖνον περὶ οὗ Μωϋ>σῆς τε ἐν τῷ νόμῳ καὶ οἱ προφῆται εἶπον.

“But it did not mean to say this, that the prophets had thus written that Jesus would be the son of Joseph from Nazareth; for instead of the statement, ‘the son of Joseph,’ we found this statement, ‘the one from Nazareth,’ to be that about which Moses and the prophets spoke in the law.”

The SS is a commentary on John 1:45 and focuses on what the prophets and Moses really said about Jesus.

The FN is Jesus and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Fragmenta in Lucam 18.4

ἀπόλλυσι τὴν φονήν <ἀνα>λαμβάνων αὐτὴν καὶ παυόμενος τῆς ἐπιπόνου σιωπῆς ὅτε γεννᾶται ὁ πρόδρομος τοῦ λόγου φωνή καὶ ὅτε γράφει ὅτι

᾿Ιωάννης ἐστὶν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ.” ἐνωτίζεσθαι οὖν δεῖ φωνήν ἵν ᾿ ὁ νοῦς τὸν ὑπ ᾿ αὐτῆς δεικνύμενον δέξηται λόγον.

“…loses his speech. Then after regaining it, his speech, and ceasing from the painful silence, when the forerunner is born he writes, ‘John is his name.’ Therefore, a voice is necessary for speaking out, in order that the mind might glorify the one who reveals the message by speech (lit. her).”

The SS is a commentary on what it means that John came as a forerunner in the spirit and in the power of Elijah.

The FN in this quotation of Luke 1:63 is John. It is similar to the original SS and is similar to Origen’s SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

In Jeremiam 13.3.35

Συμπαραληφθῆναι Σοδομίταις μήποτε εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω στραφῇς μηδὲ στῇς ἐν τῇ περιχώρῳ Σοδόμων μηδὲ ἀλλαχοῦ γένῃ ἢ εἰς τὸ ὄρος: ἐκεῖ γάρ ἐστι μόνον σωθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ τὸ ὄρος κύριος ᾿Ιησοῦς ᾧ ἐστιν ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ᾿Αμήν.

“[If you do not want] to be taken with the Sodomites, never turn back to the things of the past, nor stay in the surrounding countryside of Sodom nor with people of other places elsewhere, rather turn to the mountain. For there, it is the only place to be saved. And the mountain is Lord Jesus, to whom is the glory and the power to the ages. Amen.”

The SS is an exhortation to save oneself as Lot did by looking towards the mountain to which he fled rather than looking back to Sodom.

The FN is “the mountain” and is similar to the SS.

6

3

Sub

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Fragmenta ex commentariis in epistulam i ad Corinthios 25.5

᾿Ιησοῦς ὁ χριστός ἐστιν νέα ζύμη.

“The new leaven is Jesus Christ.”

The SS begins with a commentary on 1 Corinthians 5:7 which elaborates on the metaphors of old leaven, unleavened bread, and the new leaven. It then focuses on the appearing of the new leaven.

The FN is Jesus and predicates on the SS.

3

5

Sub

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Fragmenta ex commentariis in epistulam i ad Corinthios 27.41

[vi 9] ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ἄδικοι θεοῦ Βασιλείαν οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν; Εἰ ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ ἐστιν Χριστὸς δε ἡ δικαιοσύνη ἐστίν ὁ δίκαιος βασιλείαν θεοῦ κληρονομεῖ ἐν Χριστῷ δικαιοσύνῃ ὄντι: καὶ ακολούθως ὁ ἐν τῇ ἐναντίᾳ καταστάσει οὗτος οὐ κληρονομεῖ βασιλείαν θεοῦ.

“[vi 9] ‘Or do you not know that the unrighteous one will not inherit the kingdom of God?’ If the kingdom of God is in Christ, and Christ is the righteousness of God/us, then the righteous one inherits the kingdom of God in Christ who is righteousness; and consequently, the one in an opposite condition, this one does not inherit the kingdom of God.”

The SS in the immediate context is Christ, the person in whom is the kingdom of God.

The FN is Christ and is the same as the SS.

1

1

Sub

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Fragmenta in Psalmos 1-150 73.11.15

τί ἀπεκρύβης φησὶ πρὸς τὸν Πατέρα τὸν Υἱόν σου ἐν τῷ κόλπῳ σου; Χριστός ἐστιν ἡ δεξιὰ τοῦ Πατρός:

“‘…why did you hide,’ he says to the Father, ‘your Son in your bosom?’ Christ is the right hand of the Father;”

The SS appears to be the Son.

The FN is Christ and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Fragmenta in Psalmos 1-150 88.13.41

Θαβὼρ δὲ ἐστι τὸ ὄρος τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἐφ ᾿ οὗ μετεμορφώθη ὁ Χριστός. ῾Ερμωνιεὶμ δέ ἐστιν ὄρος ἐφ ᾿ οὗ κει)ται ἡ πόλις Ναὶ∂ν ἐν ᾗ ἤγειρε τὸν τῆς χήρας υἱὸν ὁ Θεός.

“And Tabor is the mountain of Galilee on which Christ was transfigured. And ‘Little Hermon’ is a mountain against which the city Nain lies, in which God raised the son of the widow.”

The SS of the Psalm 88:13 (89:12 in English) and of Origen’s commentary is Tabor and “Little Hermon.”

The FN is Tabor and is the same as the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Epistula ad Africanum 11.73.13

Τί τὸ ὄνομα σου; ῾Ο δὲ εἶπεν: ᾿Ιακώβ: εἶπε δὲ αὐτῷ: Οὐ κληθήσεται ἔτι τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Ιακώβ ἀλλ ᾿ ᾿Ισραὴλ ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου, ὅτι ἐνίσχυσας μετὰ θεοῦ καὶ μετὰ ἀνθρώπων δυνατὸς. ᾿Ηρώτησε δὲ ᾿Ιακὼβ καὶ εἶπεν: ᾿Ανάγγειλόν μοι τὸ ὄνομά σου:

“What is your name? And he said, ‘Jacob.’ And He said to him, ‘Your name will no longer be called Jacob, but your name will be Israel because you have grown strong along with God and have been strong among men.’ And Jacob asked and said, ‘Tell me your name.’”

The broader SS is an argument to show that Daniel spoke by revelation coming from both inspiration and encounters (dreams or appearances) with Angelic beings. It then focuses on Jacob’s encounter with God as an example.

The FN in this quotation of Genesis 32:29 is Israel. It predicates on the original SS and is unrelated to Origen’s SS.

3

NA

Conv

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Selecta in Genesim 12.116.12

Καὶ οὐ κληθήσεται ἔτι τὸ ὄνομά σου ᾿Αβρὰμ ἀλλ ᾿ ἔσται το ὄνομα σου ᾿Αβραάμ.

“And your name will no longer be called Abram, but your name will be Abraham.”

The broader SS is whether or not the significance of the name change is ascertainable.

The FN in this quotation of Genesis 17:5 is “the name.” It is similar to the original SS and is similar to Origen’s SS.

6

3

Conv

 

Table 1—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Nominative (FN) to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Scholia in Lucam 17.324.1

Μετὰ τὸ γράψαι δηλονότι ἐν δέλτῳ ὅτι ᾿Ιωάννης ἔσται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐλύθη ἡ δεδεμένη φωνή.

“After he wrote in the tablet, namely, that John will be his name, the mouth, having been giving back, was loosed.”

The SS is a commentary on how both Elizabeth and Zacharias divinely received the appellation (ποσηγορία) for their child and obediently gave it to him.

The FN in this allusion to Luke 1:63 is John. It is similar to the original SS and is similar to Origen’s SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 300

Heliodorus,

Aethiopica 2.14.4.1

Καὶ ὁ Κνήμων ἄγαν ἐσπουδασμένως Θύαμίς ἐστιν ὁ σφαγεύς ἔλεγεν ἀπολύσασθαι τῆς ὑποψίας ἑαυτὸν ἐπειγόμενος καὶ μαρτύριον ἐπεδείκνυ τὸ ξίφος ὅ παρὰ

“And Cnemon very hastily said, ‘Thyamis is the murderer,’ for he was eager to absolve himself of suspicion, and displayed as a testimony/evidence the sword which [had been found by the corpse.]”

The context includes an account of how Thyamis killed Thisbe because he mistook her for Charicleia. It then focuses on Thermouthis’ description (to Theagenes and Cnemon) of how he had fought to protect Thyamis, barely escaped with his life, and hurried back to look for Thisbe, whom he had found dead. Thermouthis suspects Theagenes and Cnemon to be the killers so the immediate SS is the dispelling of this notion.

The FN is Thyamis and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Sub

A.D. 300

Hippolytus,

Contra haeresin Noeti 13.4.2

εἰ δὲ οὖν Λόγος ἀποστέλλεται διὰ ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ Πατρός ἐστιν ᾿Ιησοῦς Χριστός.

“[And that he was sent, Peter declares to the centurion Cornelius when he says: ‘God sent out his Word to the sons of Israel, through the preaching of Jesus Christ. He it is who is God, the Lord of all.’] But if it is the Word who is sent out through Jesus Christ, then the will of the Father is Jesus Christ.”

The SS is the Incarnate Word as the manifest representation of the idea/purpose/intention (νοοῦμεν) of the Father.

The FN is “the will” and is similar to the SS.

4

2

Conv

A.D. 300

Hippolytus,

Refutatio omnium haeresium 10.34.5.1

φιλεχθ<ρ>ήσητε τοίvυν ἑαυτοῖς ἄνθρωποι μηδὲ <περὶ> τὸ παλινδρομεῖν διστάσητε. Χριστὸς γάρ ἐστιν κατὰ πάντων θεός: ὃς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀποπλύvνειν προσέταξε νέον τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον ἀποτελῶν

“Therefore, be not inflamed, O ye men, with enmity one towards another, nor hesitate to retrace with all speed your steps. For Christ is the God above all, and He has arranged to wash away sin from human beings, rendering regenerate ‘the old man.’”

The SS is an assertion that every human possesses divinity by virtue of being created in the image of God.

The FN is Christ and is similar to the SS.

3

2

Conv

A.D. 300

Porphyrius,

Vita Plotini 7.3

῎Εσχε δὲ ἀκροατὰς μὲν πλείους ζηλωτὰς δὲ καὶ διὰ φιλοσοφίαν συνόντας ᾿Αμέλιόν τε ἀπὸ τῆς Τουσκίας οὗ τὸ ὄνομα ἦν Γεντιλιανὸς τὸ κύριον αὐτὸς δὲ διὰ τοῦ ρ ᾿Αμέριον αὐτὸν καλεῖν ἠξίου ἀπὸ τῆς ἀμερείας ἢ τῆς ἀμελείας πρέπειν αὐτῷ καλεῖσθαι λέγων.

“And he (Plotinus) was letting loose (gaining) more hearers to be sure, and even zealous ones and ones who by means of philosophy were enjoined, such as Amelius of Tuscia, the name of whom was properly Gentilianus. But he, by use of the Rho called himself Amerius, saying he thought it to be clearly seen for him to be called of the unity rather than of the indifference/negligence.”

The SS is the careful identification, by name, of key people who studied under Plotinus.

The FN is “the name” and is similar to the SS.

4

2

Conv

Notes: The names of authors and titles are as they appear in Thesaurus Linguae Graecae #E (TLG #E).1 This includes their special characters to show doubt of authorship. In some instances parenthesis are used to express my own doubts regarding authorship or the dating of a particular work. Text family B represents Codex Vaticanus, text family S represents Codex Sinaiticus, and text family A represents Codex Alexandrinus.

Table 2. Corroborating Data from Clusters Containing

Participial or Adjectival Articular Substantives

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Substantive to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

400 B.C.

(ca. 330 B.C.)

Demosthenes,

De corona 21.4

αλλ ᾿ μὲν πρῶτος εἰπὼν καὶ μνησθεὶς ὑπὲρ τῆς εἰρήνης ᾿Αριστόδημος ἦν ὁ ὑποκριτής ὁ δ ᾿ ἐκδεξάμενος καὶ

“But the first one who addressed the question of peace was Aristodemus, the actor, and the one who next…”

The SS is the cause of present troubles, namely, the peace which Philip offered.

The first substantive is “the first one who addressed” and is similar to the SS.

P2

1

Conv

400 B.C.

(ca. 330 B.C.)

Demosthenes,

De corona 127.2

Εἰ γὰρ Αἰακος῾ΡαδάμανθυςΜίνως ἦν ὁ κατηγορῶν ἀλλὰ μὴ σπερμολόγος

“For if Aeacus, or Rhadamanthus, or Minos, had been the one who accused me, instead of a scrap-monger,”

The SS concerns the identity of Aeschines, the narrator’s accuser.

The first substantive is “Aeacus, or Rhadamanthus, or Minos” and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

400 B.C.

Demosthenes (or Apollodorus),

Contra Nicostratum 21.5

Οὗτοι ἢ ὀπώραν πρίαιντο ἢ θέρος μισθοῖντο ἐκθερίσαι ἢ ἄλλο τι τῶν περὶ γεωργίαν ἔργων ἀναιροῖντο ᾿Αρεθούσιος ἦν ὁ ὠνούμενος και μισθούμενος ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν. ὡς δ ᾿ ἀληθῆ λέγω καὶ τοὺτων ὑμῖν τοὺς μάρτυρας παρέξομαι

“[Furthermore, from this you will see that the men belong to Arethusius.] For when they bought the produce of an orchard, or hired themselves out to reap a harvest, or undertook any other piece of farming work, Arethusius was the purchaser and the one who paid the wages on their behalf. And I speak as truth, and I will also bring to you witnesses of these facts.”

The SS concerns showing that a group of workers belong to Arethusius.

The first substantive is Arethusius and is the same as the SS.

P3

2

Sub

400 B.C.

(ca. 350 B.C.)

Aristoteles,

᾿Αθηναίων πολιτεία 23.4.4

(Athênaiôn Politeia)

ἐπι δὲ τὴν ἀπόστασιν τὴν τῶν ᾿Ιώνων ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων συμμαχίας ᾿Αριστείδης ἦν ὁ προτρέψας τηρήσας τοὺς Λάκωνας διαβεβλημένους διὰ Παυσανίαν.

“But in regard to the secession of the Ionian states from the Lacedaemonian alliance, Aristeides was the one who promoted it, having brought Lacedaemonian imprisonment through Pausanias.”

The SS begins with showing how Themistocles and Aristeides came into their roles of general and counselor, respectively. It then converges on showing that Aristeides is the cause for secession leading to taxation.

The first substantive is Aristeides and is the same as the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Sulla 3.3.7

μὲν οὖν θριαμβεύων ἐπὶ τούτῳ Μάριος ἦν ἡ δὲ δόξα τοῦ κατορθώματος ἣν ὁ Μαρίου φθόνος Σύλλᾳ προσετίθει παρελύπει τὸν Μάριον ἡσυχῇ.

“It is true that the one who celebrated a triumph for this was Marius, but those who envied him attributed the glory of the success to Sulla, and this secretly annoyed Marius.”

The SS is the recounting of how Sulla came to rob Marius’ fame in the matter of Jugurtha’s capture.

The first substantive is “the one who celebrated” and is related to the SS.

P2

1

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Caesar 21.2.3

και γὰρ ὁ κίνδυνος ἐφάνη μέγας ἐθνῶν ἅμα τοσούτων ἀναρραγέντων καὶ τὸ νίκημα λαμπρότερον ὅτι Καῖσαρ ἦν ὁ νικῶν ἡ πρὸς ἐκεῖνον εὔνοια τῶν πολλῶν ἐποίει.

“For the danger was seen to have been great when so many nations at once had broken out in revolt, and because Caesar was the victor, the good will of the multitude towards him made his victory more splendid.”

The SS is the unprecedented celebrating of Caesar’s recent daring military success against the Nervii.

The first substantive is Caesar and is the same as the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Caesar 61.9.2

ὁ δὲ δῆμος εἵπετο κροτῶν καὶ Βρούτους ἀπεκάλει τοὺς ἄνδρας ὅτι Βροῦτος ἦν ὁ καταλύσας τὴν τῶν βασιλέων διαδοχὴν καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς βουλὴν καὶ δῆμον ἐκ μοναρχίας καταστήσας.

“Moreover, the people followed the tribunes with applause and called them Brutuses, because Brutus was the man who put an end to the royal succession and brought the power into the hands of the senate and people instead of a sole ruler.”

The SS is the recounting of how Caesar offended tribunes by stripping them of their offices and insulted the people by calling them brutes.

The first substantive is Brutus and is similar to the SS (a word play).

P3

2

Conv

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Antonius 22.1.4

οὐθεν ἔργον ἐφανη μέγα τοῦ καίσαρος ἀλλ ᾿ ᾿Αντώνιος ἦν ὁ νικῶν πάντα καὶ κατορθῶν.

“…no work of Caesar’s appeared great, but Antonius was the one victorious and successful in all things.”

The SS is the description of the superiority of the outcome of Antonius’ efforts over those of Caesar.

The first substantive is Antonius and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

De Pythiae oraculis 405.B.3

οὐ γὰρ εἶχεν ῞Ομηρος τὴν αὐτὴν Πανδάρῳ διάνοιαν εἴ γε Πάνδαρος ἦν ὁ ποιήσας θεοῦ θέλοντος κἂν ἐπὶ ῥιπὸς πλέοις žEur. fr. 397Ÿ:ἀλλ ᾿ ἐγίνωσκεν ἄλλας πρὸς ἄλλα δυνάμεις καὶ φύσεις γεγενημένας ὧν ἑκάστη κινεῖται διαφόρως κἂν ἓν ᾖ τὸ κινοῦν ἁπάσας.

“For the fact is that Homer did not have the same idea as Pandarus (Pindar), if indeed Pandarus was the one who wrote, ‘God willing, you may voyage on a mat;’ but Homer recognized the fact that some faculties and natures have been created for some purposes and others for others, and each of these is moved differently, even if the power that moves them all be one and the same.”

The SS is Pandorus.

The first substantive is Pandorus and is the same as the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 75)

Plutarchus,

Demetrius 16.5.2

Ε᾿ν δὲ τούτοις ἡ περιβόητος ἦν Λάμια

“And the famous one among this booty, was Lamia,”

The SS is the description of the richness and splendor of Demetrius’ spoils after defeating Ptolemy.

The first substantive is “the famous one” and is similar to the SS.

A4

2

Sub

A.D. 100

(ca. A.D. 97)

Flavius Josephus,

Josephi vita 124.5

οἱ δὲ Γάβαρα κατοικοῦντες προστίθενται τῷ ᾿Ιωάννῃ: Σίμων δ ᾿ ἦν ὁ παρακαλῶν αὐτούς πρωτεύων μὲν τῆς πόλεως ὡς φίλῳ δὲ καὶ ἑταίρῳ τῷ ᾿Ιωάννῃ χρώμενος.

“…while the inhabitants of Gabara did go over to John. And Simon was the one who persuaded them, both because he was head of the city and because he was noted as a friend and companion to John.”

The SS is the description of how the people of Gabara switched to John’s side. It was through the persuasion of Simon.

The first substantive is Simon and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

 

Table 2—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Substantive to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

A.D. 100

Heraclitus,

Allegoriae 69.16.1

(id. Quaestiones Homericae)

Ποσειδῶν δ ᾿ ἐστὶν ὁ ῥυόμενος παρ ᾿ ῾Ηφαίστου τὸν ῎Αρη πιθανῶς

“And Poseidon is the one who plausibly delivers Ares from Hephaestus,”

The broader SS is a description of the relationship of Hephaestus (the god of fire) to Ares (also called iron) and then tightens on the possible relationship of Poseidon (the god of the sea/water) to Hephaestus and Ares.

The first substantive is Poseidon and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 200

Aelius Aristides,

Πρὸς Πλάτωνα ὑπὲρ τῶν τεττάρων 217.4

δὲ πρεσβεύων ἦν ᾿Αλέξανδρος Μακεδόνων Βασιλεύς.

“The one sent as ambassador was Alexander, king of Macedon.”

The SS is the account of peace negotiations between Persia and Greece after the battle at Salamis.

The first substantive is “the one who was sent as ambassador” and is similar to the SS.

P4

2

Sub

A.D. 200

Aelius Aristides,

Πρὸς Πλάτωνα ὑπὲρ τῶν τεττάρων 218.20

Θεμιστοκλῆς ἐστιν ὁ βεβαιώσας αὐτὴν ἅπασι τοῖς ῞Ελλησιν

“Themistocles is the one who established her (deliverance) to all the Greeks,”

The SS is the recounting of the people’s support of Themistocles.

The first substantive is Themistocles and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Conv

A.D. 200

Aelius Aristides,

Πρὸς Πλάτωνα ὑπὲρ τῶν τεττάρων 232.9

Νῦν δὲ ᾿Αρχύτας ἦν ὁ κωλύσας καὶ Διονύσιος

“And now Archytas was the one who prevented it and Dionysius…”

The immediate SS is the “Italian man” or “him in Sicily.”

The first substantive is Archytas and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 150)

(James),

Protevangelium Jacobi 38.1

Καὶ εὑρων ἤνεγκεν ἀπὸ ὀρεινῆς καταβαίνουσαν. Καὶ εἶπεν ᾿Ιωσὴφ τῇ μαίᾳ ὅτι Μαρία ἐστὶν ἡ μεμνηστευμένη μοι ἀλλὰ σύλλημμα ἔχει ἐκ Πνεύματος ἀγίου ἀνατραφεῖσα ἐν ναῷ Κυρίου.”

“And when he found her it came about that she was coming down from the hill. And Joseph said to the midwife, ‘Mary is the one who is betrothed to me, but that which is conceived and in the womb she has from the Holy Spirit; she is the one who was raised in the temple of the Lord.’”

The SS is the midwife wanting to know if Mary, the pregnant one, is Joseph’s wife.

The first substantive is Mary and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 160)

Justinus Martyr,

Dialogus cum Tryphone 113.4.6

ὅτι γὰρ ᾿Ιησοῦς ἦν Μωυσεῖ καὶ τῷ ᾿Αβραὰμ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἁπλῶς πατριάρχαις φανεὶς καὶ ὁμιλήσας τῷ τοῦ πατρὸς θελήματι ὑπηρετῶν ἀπέδειξα:

“For I showed that Jesus was the one who appeared to and talked with Moses, Abraham, and, in short, with all the other Patriarchs, adhering to the will of the Father;”

The SS is the name change of Osee the son of Nun into Joshua (a form of Jesus) and his stopping of the sun as evidence that he had received power from Jesus’ Spirit.

The first substantive is Jesus and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Conv

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 174)

Pausanias,

Graeciae descriptio 3.24.10.6

λέγοντι δὲ ἐπ ᾿ ἀληθείᾳ Πάτροκλός ἐστιν τὸν Λᾶν ἀποκτείνας: οὗτος γὰρ καὶ ὁ μνηστευσάμενός ἐστιν ῾Ελένην.

“But in fact, the one who killed Las is Patroclus, for indeed he is the one who courted Helen.”

The SS is the testing of the claim that Achilles killed Las and courted Helen, in other words, the SS is the true identity of Las’ killer/murder and Helen’s courter.

The first substantive is Patroclus and predicates on the SS.

P3

5

Conv

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 174)

Pausanias,

Graeciae descriptio 7.23.6.6

ὅτι Εἰλείθυιά ἐστιν ἐς φῶς ἄγουσα τοὺς παῖδας.

“…that Eileithyia is the one who brings children to light.”

The SS is the careful description of Eileithyia’s statue and the possible significance of the torch in her hand.

The first substantive is Eileithyia and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 200

(ca. A.D. 185)

Hermogenes,

Περὶ ἰδεων λόγου 2.7.150

οἷον εἰ γὰρ Αἰακὸς῾ΡαδάμανθυςΜίνως ἦν ὁ κατηγορῶν ἀλλὰ μὴ σπερμολόγος περίτριμμα ἀγορᾶς ὄλεθρος γραμματεύςμέθοδος δέ τις οἶμαι καὶ αὕτη δι ᾿ ἣν οὔτ ᾿

“such as: ‘For if Aeacus, or Rhadamanthus, or Minos, had been the one who accused me, instead of a scrap-monger, a loafer from the market place, a wretched scribe,’ and this also, I suppose, is a method whereby the one [who uses abusive language does not seem to give offense because …]”

The SS is the demonstration of passages with spontaneous expressions of emotions.

The first substantive in this quotation of De corona 127.2 is “Aeacus, or Rhadamanthus, or Minos.” It is similar to the original SS and is unrelated to Hermogenes’ SS.

P3

NA

Sub

A.D. 200 A.D. 300

Aelius Herodianus et Pseudo,

De prosodia catholica 3,1.154.2

Θέων δέ θησιν ὅτι ῎Αλος θεράπαινα ἦν ᾿Αθάμαντος ἡ μηνύσασα τὴν ᾿Ινὼ φρύγειν τὰ σπέρματα ἧς εἰς τιμὴν τὴν πόλιν ὠνόμασεν.

“And by the Gods, he says that Alos, a handmaiden of Athamas, was the one who showed Ino to roast seed, and the one in whose honor the city is named.”

The SS is an account of how the names, Alos and Alope, came to be given to the two cities in Phthiotis.

The first substantive is Alos and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Conv

A.D. 200

A.D. 300

Clemens Alexandrinus,

Eclogae propheticae 24.1.1

Καῖσαρ δέ ἐστιν πρόσκαιρος ἄρχων

“And Caesar is the one who rules temporarily,”

The immediate SS is Caesar.

The first substantive is Caesar and is the same as the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

Commentarii in evangelium Joannis 13.57.392.2

καὶ τάχα ὁ Βασιλικὸς ᾿Αβραὰμ ἦν᾿Ιακώβ ὧν υἱόν-ὄντα τὸν λαόν- μετὰ <τὸ> τὸ πλήρωμα τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰσελθεῖν σώσει ἐπὶ τέλους

“[The former occurred that He might gladden those who feasted with Him; and the second, that He might restore the son who was near death, not the son of a king, but of some royal official.] And perhaps the royal official was Abraham or Jacob, whose son (being the people) he will save at the end after the fullness of the Gentiles has entered.”

The SS is an allegorization of the royal official and his son in John 4:26.

The first substantive is “the royal official” and is similar to the SS.

A2 or A4

1 or 2

Sub

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

In Jeremiam 14.7.11

οὐκοῦν κἂν δικάζηται Χριστιανὸς οὐ δι ᾿ ἄλλο τι οὐ διὰ τὰς ἰδίας ἁμαρτίας ἀλλ ᾿ ὅτι Χριστιανός ἐστι Χριστός ἐστιν ὁ δικαζόμενος. ἐν πάσῃ οὖν τῇ γῇ δικάζεται Χριστὸς ᾿Ιησοῦς:

“So then, if a Christian is judged not for something else, nor for their sins, but because he is a Christian, Christ is the one who is judged. Therefore, in all the earth Christ Jesus is judged.”

The SS is a description of how Jesus Christ is the one who is judged every time a martyr is judged.

The first substantive is Christ and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

 

Table 2—Continued

Date

Author

and

Title

Greek Text

with English Translation

Relationship of First

Substantive to the Semantic Subject (SS)

ST

FT

SPN

T

A.D. 300

(ca. A.D. 240)

Origenes,

In Jeremiam 14.7.13

ἐν πάσῃ οὖν τῇ γῇ δικάζεται Χριστὸς ᾿Ιησοῦς: καὶ ὁσάκις οὖν Χριστιανὸς δικάζεται Χριστός ἐστιν ὁ δικαζόμενος: οὐ μόνον ἐπὶ τούτων τῶν δικαστηρίων ἀλλὰ φέρε συκοφαντεῖσθαι Χριστιανὸν [ἃ δεῖ] περί τινος ἐγκαλούμενον καὶ τότε Χριστὸς ἀδικος

“Therefore, in all the earth Christ Jesus is judged. And as often as a Christian is judged, Christ is the one who is judged; not only before these judges/judgments. But suppose a Christian is slandered and accused [unjustly] for something, then Christ unjustly…”

The SS is the description of how Jesus Christ is the one who is judged every time a martyr has been judged.

The first substantive is Christ and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

A.D. 300

(Heliodorus),

Aethiopica 8.12.5.4

ἔφη δεῖ λόγων ἀλλὰ τουτὶ τὸ γράμμα ἀναγίνωσκε λαβὼν καὶ πρό γε τούτου τῆς σφραγῖδος τοὐπίσημον ἀναγνώριζε καὶ ὡς ᾿Οροονδάτης ἐστὶν ὁ κελεύων πίστευε καὶ τὰ ἐπεσταλμένα πρᾶττε νυκτὶ καὶ τάχει συμμάχοις εἰς τὸ λαθεῖν ἀποχρώμενος.”

“[Bagoas] said, ‘There is need of words but this, take and read the letter, but first recognize the seal of this signet ring. And as though Oroondates himself is the one who commands it, believe and execute those things which have been sent by letters (i.e. the orders). You will be sufficiently supplied with the helps of the night and speed in order to go (or with the result of going) unnoticed.”

The broader SS is Oroondates sending Bagoas and 50 horsemen to Memphis with letters ordering the release of Charicleia and Theagenes. The immediate SS is the arrival of Bagoas with the letters for Euphrates and Arsace.

The first substantive is Oroondates and is similar to the SS.

P3

2

Sub

Note: The names of authors and titles are as they appear in TLG #E. This includes their special characters to show doubt of authorship. In some instances parenthesis are used to express my own doubts regarding authorship or the dating of a particular work.

Bibliography

Bauer, Walter. A Greek-English Lexicon Of The New Testament And Other Early Christian Literature. Revised And Edited By Frederick William Danker. 3d Ed. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2000.

Bernard, J. H. A Critical And Exegetical Commentary On The Gospel According To St. John. Edited By A.H. Mcneile International Critical Commentary, Ed. S. R. Driver, A. Plummer And C. A. Briggs. 2 Vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1928.

Brown, Raymond Edward. The Gospel According To John (Xiii-Xxi). 1st Ed. Anchor Bible, Ed. William Foxwell Albright And David Noel Freedman. Vol. 29a. Garden City: Doubleday, 1966.

Carson, D. A. “The Purpose Of The Fourth Gospel: John 20:31 Reconsidered.” Journal Of Biblical Literature 106 (1987): 639-51.

Carson, D. A. The Gospel According To John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

Harris, W. Hall. “Exegetical Commentary On John.” Unpublished Class Notes In Nt 325 Gospel Of John. Dallas Theological Seminary, 2005.

Keener, Craig S. The Gospel Of John: A Commentary. 2 Vols. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 2003.

Metzger, Bruce Manning. A Textual Commentary On The Greek New Testament. 2d Ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Biblegesellschaft, 1994.

Moloney, Francis J. The Gospel Of John Sacra Pagina Series, Ed. Daniel J. Harrington. Vol. 4. Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1998.

Morris, Leon. The Gospel According To John. Rev. Ed. The New International Commentary On The New Testament, Ed. Ned B. Stonehouse, F. F. Bruce And Gordon D. Fee. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae #E. University Of California, Los Angles.

Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond The Basics: An Exegetical Syntax Of The New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.


1 Thesaurus Linguae Graecae Ver. #E (Los Angles: University of California).

Related Topics: Grammar