8. Qualities of Deacons and Deaconesses—Faithful Servants (1 Timothy 3:8-13)Related Media
Deacons likewise must be dignified, not two-faced, not given to excessive drinking, not greedy for gain, holding to the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience. And these also must be tested first and then let them serve as deacons if they are found blameless. Likewise also their wives must be dignified, not slanderous, temperate, faithful in every respect. Deacons must be husbands of one wife and good managers of their children and their own households. For those who have served well as deacons gain a good standing for themselves and great boldness in the faith that is in Christ Jesus.
1 Timothy 3:8-13 (NET)
What are the essential qualities of deacons and deaconesses? What are characteristics of faithful servants?
Steven Cole shared this challenging illustration and exhortation in his sermon on deacons:
A man used to visit a tiny country general store that had a clerk named Jake who seemed to be the laziest man on earth. One day he noticed that Jake wasn’t around, so he asked the proprietor, “Where’s Jake?” “Oh, Jake retired,” the proprietor answered. “Retired, huh?” the man replied. “What are you going to do to fill the vacancy?” The owner replied, “Jake didn’t leave no vacancy!”
I’m concerned that the same thing could be said of so many Christians with regard to their service for Christ: “They didn’t leave no vacancy!” Every Christian should leave a vacancy when he or she moves on, because we’re all called to serve the Lord Jesus Christ.1
As we consider the qualities of deacons, it challenges us to be faithful servants. All are called to serve but some are called to serve in an official capacity as deacons. Before we consider qualities, we must ask first ourselves, “What is a deacon?”
The word “deacon” really just means “servant” or “attendant.” It was used of somebody who waited on tables or did menial tasks.2 The office of deacon seems to originate from Acts 6:1-6, where the apostles were confronted with the needs of the widows in the community. In order to focus on prayer and the ministry of the Word, they had the church select seven faithful men who were full of the Spirit to care for the widows (v. 2-3).
Though the word deacon is never used in that context, the verb form of the word is. Acts 6:2 says, “So the twelve called the whole group of the disciples together and said, ‘It is not right for us to neglect the word of God to wait on tables.” “Wait on tables” is literally “deacon.”3 These men partnered with the apostles, allowing them to focus on specific ministry tasks. Similarly, deacons perform the same ministry with elders. They partner in serving the church by allowing elders to focus on specific aspects of ministry, like teaching. In fact, as you compare the qualities required of an elder with those of a deacon, they essentially are the same. Both elders and deacons need to be people of character. The primary difference is that the elders need to be “able to teach” (v. 3). With that said, deacons are called to hold onto the deep truths of the faith (v. 9), which implies that they at times teach as well. Nevertheless, teaching is not their primary ministry.
Deacons are mentioned in Philippians 1:1, as Paul writes to the elders and deacons of that church. They are mentioned here alongside the elders in 1 Timothy 3. However, they are missing from Titus 1, where Paul commands for elders to be selected and gives their qualifications. Some have surmised that the office of deacon, unlike the office of an elder, is not mandatory for the organization of the church. As with the early church, when the ministry grows and becomes too much for elders, it becomes necessary to appoint deacons in an official capacity to support the elders’ ministry.4
As we consider the office of a deacon and a deaconess, we must be reminded that Christ, our Lord, did not come as a king, but as a servant. He washed the feet of his disciples—the task of a servant. And he calls each of us to serve God and others. One day, he will return and to those who have been faithful, he will say, “Well done, good and faithful servant” and to others, he will call them a “wicked and lazy servant” (Matt 25:23, 26 NIV). As we consider the qualities of a deacon, we can be sure these are qualities of faithful servants—those approved by our Lord. Therefore, we must be challenged to grow in them so that we may be found faithful when our Lord returns.
In this study, we will first consider qualities of deacons in verses 8-10 and 12-13, and then we will consider qualities of deaconesses in verse 11.
Big Question: What are the essential qualities of deacons and deaconesses, and therefore faithful servants? How can we apply these qualities to our lives and the church?
Qualities of Deacons
Deacons likewise must be dignified, not two-faced, not given to excessive drinking, not greedy for gain, holding to the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience. And these also must be tested first and then let them serve as deacons if they are found blameless … Deacons must be husbands of one wife and good managers of their children and their own households. For those who have served well as deacons gain a good standing for themselves and great boldness in the faith that is in Christ Jesus.
1 Timothy 3:8-10, 12-13
Deacons Must Be Dignified
Paul says that deacons must be “dignified” (v. 8). It can also be translated worthy or respect, reverent, or serious. “It comes from a root word (sebomai) that means ‘to venerate,’ or ‘to worship.’ Those characterized by it have a majestic quality of character that makes people stand in awe of them.”5 Essentially, deacons must be serious about the faith and serving God. They conduct themselves in such a manner that others respect and desire to imitate them.
Again, this is a characteristic of faithful servants. The way they seek to obey and honor Christ creates a sense of awe or reverence in those watching. Where faithful servants are serious about the faith, unfaithful ones are not. As in Christ’s parable, they say to themselves that the Master delays his coming, and therefore, they beat the other servants, eat, drink, and get drunk (Lk 12:45). Unfaithful servants live in discord, waste time and the Master’s resources. They don’t live in a manner worthy of respect.
Are you serving God and others in a manner worthy of respect?
Application Question: What Christians impacted you in such a way that their lives drew a sense of awe and respect from you? What about them caused this reaction? How is God calling you to live in a more reverent manner?
Deacons Must Be Sincere
Paul says these men must not be “two-faced” (v. 8). It can also be translated “sincere” or “not double-tongued.”6 They are people of their word. Their yes means yes and their no means no (Matt 5:37). They are not gossips. They don’t say something to one person and something else to another. They are sincere in their communication and others sense that.
It is very common to meet officers in church ministry who are almost like politicians. They shake your hand and ask how you are doing, but you get the sense that they are simply fulfilling their duty on a superficial level before they move on to others. However, faithful servants are not like that. They are sincere and everyone can discern it. What you share with them, won’t be shared with others, and as you share, you sense that they truly care and are concerned.
Are you sincere in your communication with others? Do you really care about their well-being? It has been said that people don’t care how much you know unless they know how much you care. Sincere people are effective in ministry because people trust them.
Is your ministry sincere?
Application Question: Why is being sincere an important characteristic for those serving in ministry? How can we grow in sincerity?
Deacons Must Not Be Drunkards
Paul’s says deacons must not be “given to excessive drinking” (v.8). This was especially important since serving wine was a common gesture of hospitality in homes. Deacons often traveled house to house caring for members, and if they were addicted to wine, they would be tempted to become drunk and shame God and his church. Therefore, deacons had to practice moderation with alcohol, if not full abstinence. This is true for deacons and Christians in general. Scripture does not forbid drinking alcohol, but it does caution against it and forbid drunkenness. William MacDonald’s comment are helpful:
The NT does not forbid the use of wine for medicinal purposes, or as a beverage in those countries where the water supply is polluted. But even though the moderate use of wine is permitted, the Christian must also consider his testimony in regard to this matter. Whereas in some countries it might be perfectly all right for a Christian to drink wine without having any adverse effect on his testimony, in other countries it might cause an unbeliever to stumble, should he see a Christian indulging in wine. Thus, although the use of wine might be lawful, it might not be expedient.7
This is a wisdom principle that must be discerned and applied in various contexts. First Corinthians 6:12 says, “‘Everything is permissible for me’—but not everything is beneficial. ‘Everything is permissible for me’—but I will not be mastered by anything” (NIV 1984). Faithful servants avoid anything that might master them by causing an addiction and anything that might cause others to stumble. Certainly, this doesn’t just apply to alcohol but also to tobacco use and anything else of an addictive nature that might cause others to stumble in certain contexts.
Application Question: How would you describe your use of alcohol? Why is it important to consider our culture or weak Christians when it comes to our practice of alcohol consumption (Rom 14:21)?
Deacons Must Not Be Greedy
“Not greedy for gain” can also be translated “not greedy for money” (v. 8). This would be especially important because deacons often handled the money in the early church. This exposed them to special temptations to be dishonest. We can be sure that Judas was not the last treasurer to betray Christ for money. For this reason, deacons must be people with tremendous financial integrity so they will not fall into Satan’s trap in this area.
However, it must be heard that this is not only true for deacons but for faithful servants in general. Jesus spoke about money more than heaven or hell, which means it is of great importance to him. Consider what Christ said in Luke 16:9-11 about our use of finances:
And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by how you use worldly wealth, so that when it runs out you will be welcomed into the eternal homes. “The one who is faithful in a very little is also faithful in much, and the one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. If then you haven’t been trustworthy in handling worldly wealth, who will entrust you with the true riches?
He commands us to use our money to gain friends in heaven. We must use our money to win souls to Christ and to disciple saints. By doing this, we make friends in eternal dwellings who will one day welcome us when we get to heaven. In addition, Christ said that if we’re faithful with little (our money), we will be faithful with much, but if we’re unfaithful with little (our money), God will not give us true riches (Lk 16:11).
What are true riches? True riches include the discipleship of souls and greater ministry opportunities on earth and in heaven. How we use our money is really a litmus test for our spirituality—it reveals our heart. Christ said where our treasure is there our hearts will be also (Matt 6:21).
If we primarily invest our money into the kingdom, that is where our heart is. If we primarily invest into the temporary things of this world, that also reveals our hearts. In a sense, we can discern our spiritual maturity by our checking accounts. Wherever we put our money reveals our heart and true passion.
When our Lord returns and evaluates his servants, he will consider their faithfulness with money. What did they do with the financial talents given to them (cf. Matt 25:14-30)? Lack of financial faithfulness will inhibit the ways that God can use us for his kingdom here on earth and in heaven. To those who are faithful, he gives true riches.
Deacons must not be greedy for money but must be financially faithful, and so must all servants of the King. One day, Christ will approve the faithful.
Application Question: How can we grow in financial faithfulness?
- We must realize that our money is not ours but the Lord’s. Many times believers only consider their tithe and offering as the Lord’s—meaning they can use the rest as they wish. However, Psalm 24:1 says, “The Lord owns the earth and all it contains, the world and all who live in it.” God does not just own 10% of our money, he owns it all. If we think wrongly about our money—that it is all ours—then we will be prone to misuse it.
- We must seek to excel in our giving to the Lord’s work. Second Corinthians 8:7 says, “But as you excel in everything—in faith, in speech, in knowledge, and in all eagerness and in the love from us that is in you—make sure that you excel in this act of kindness too.” Instead of being greedy for money, we must be zealous in our giving. God blesses those who do so (2 Cor 9:6-11).
How are you with the Lord’s money? Are you eager to store it up or eager to distribute it for the building of God’s kingdom (cf. Matt 6:19-21)?
Application Question: Why is financial faithfulness so important for ministry? What blessings does Paul describe as rewards for those who faithfully give to God’s kingdom in 2 Corinthians 9:6-11?
Deacons Must Know and Practice Scripture
First Timothy 3:9 says they must hold “to the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience.” What does Paul mean by the mystery of the faith? Paul commonly uses this term throughout his writings (cf. Eph 3:3, 6, 9, 1 Cor 4:1). It refers to secrets in the Old Testament that were more fully disclosed in the New. It refers to all New Testament doctrine but especially to the gospel. First Timothy 3:16 (NIV) says,
Beyond all question, the mystery from which true godliness springs is great: He appeared in the flesh, was vindicated by the Spirit, was seen by angels, was preached among the nations, was believed on in the world, was taken up in glory.
Deacons must faithfully hold the mystery of the gospel. Christ incarnated as he took on flesh. He died and rose from the dead (vindicated by the Spirit). In his ascension, he was seen by angels. This gospel has been preached and believed throughout the world.
The fact that deacons must hold to the mysteries of the faith implies that they must be students of the Word of God. This is also true for faithful servants of God. Consider these verses:
One should think about us this way—as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God. Now what is sought in stewards is that one be found faithful.
1 Corinthians 4:1-2
Make every effort to present yourself before God as a proven worker who does not need to be ashamed, teaching the message of truth accurately.
2 Timothy 2:15
Servants must be faithful stewards of the mysteries of God. They must do their best to study and correctly handle those mysteries. Those are the servants that God approves. When our Master, Christ, returns, he will consider our stewardship of his mysteries. Did we study them? Did we share them with others? These are qualities of faithful servants, whether official or unofficial.
Deacons must not just be stewards of doctrine; they must be practitioners of it, as they keep a clear conscience (v. 9b). They live out what they preach. If not, they would be hypocritical and push people away from God, rather than draw them near God. Paul gave similar instructions to Timothy in 1 Timothy 4:16. He said, “Be conscientious about how you live and what you teach. Persevere in this, because by doing so you will save both yourself and those who listen to you.” By keeping a godly life and true doctrine, Timothy would save himself and those who listened to him. If he didn’t, he would lead himself and others to destruction.
Are you a student of God’s Word? Are you practicing it? Faithful servants hold fast to the truth and a clear conscience. Unfaithful servants do not and therefore shipwreck their faith and others (cf. 1 Tim 2:19, 4:16).
Application Question: Why is orthodoxy (what one believes) just as important as orthopraxy (what one practices)? How can we be faithful in both?
Deacons Must First Prove Themselves Faithful
Paul adds, “And these also must be tested first and then let them serve as deacons if they are found blameless” (v. 10). The implication of this is that potential deacons have served the church for some time in an unofficial capacity and proved themselves faithful. No doubt, this includes faithfully attending service, serving whenever there is a need, and seeking to excel in their devotional life and their knowledge of God’s Word, among other things.
As with elders, the church is not, in a sense, choosing them, they are simply recognizing who God has chosen, as manifested by their works. Deacons excel in serving and therefore the church simply recognizes what God is doing through them.
Sadly, in many churches, instead of recognizing God’s work in people, they put people in an office with the hope they will step up and become servants. In actuality, we can hurt people by doing this. In talking about elders, Paul said if we put someone unprepared in the position he could fall into the judgment and trap of Satan (3:6-7). He could become prideful and therefore be judged by God or succumb to other temptations, as spiritual warfare increases with the position. Before selecting deacons, they must be observed and found blameless in their previous service. As Luke 16:10 teaches, if they have been faithful with little, they will be faithful with much.
Warren Wiersbe’s comments on how many biblical leaders first began as servants are helpful:
It is worth noting that quite a few leaders mentioned in the Bible were first tested as servants. Joseph was a servant in Egypt for thirteen years before he became a second ruler in the land. Moses cared for sheep for forty years before God called him. Joshua was Moses’ servant before he became Moses’ successor. David was tending his father’s sheep when Samuel anointed him king of Israel. Even our Lord Jesus came as a servant and labored as a carpenter; and the Apostle Paul was a tentmaker. First a servant, then a ruler.8
Are you being a faithful servant right where you are? Only then can God give you more responsibility. If you’re unfaithful, he will take away the responsibility you already have (cf. Matt 25:28-29).
Application Question: What are some ways church members can get involved with serving in the church?
Deacons Must Be Moral in Their Conduct with the Opposite Sex
In 1 Timothy 3:12, he says, “Deacons must be husbands of one wife...” As mentioned before with elders, this does not refer to one’s marital status. It literally can be translated a “one-woman man.” If they are married, they must be faithful to their wife. If not, they must be pure in their conduct with the opposite sex.
Elders and deacons often counsel and minister to women. In those days, this was especially true with the widows and single women (cf. Acts 6:1-6, James 1:27). For that reason, they needed to be pure in thought, word, and deed, lest they be tempted.
Again, this is not only true about the spiritual leaders of the church. This is a characteristic of all faithful servants. They are striving to be holy in the area of purity in order to not stumble or cause others to. Whether single or married, they must wisely set boundaries with the opposite sex so that their conduct will not open doors to temptation or sin or be questioned by others. Sexual impurity is a tremendous stronghold that destroys the witness and ministry of many Christians.
Are you walking in holiness with the opposite sex in word, mind, and deed?
Application Question: What are some wise boundaries for ministering to and with the opposite sex?
Deacons Must Run Their Homes Well
In addition, 1 Timothy 3:12 says that deacons must be “good managers of their children and their own households.” As with the elders (v. 4-5), faithfulness at home is a proving ground for ministry. First Timothy 5:4 says our first ministry is our family. Therefore, one who is unfaithful with shepherding their children, caring for their wife, and other aspects of household management, will be unfaithful serving the church.
No doubt, one of the major areas Christ will look at when judging the faithfulness of his servants is their family life. Did they train their children in the Lord? Did they love them and provide for them? Were they faithful brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, husbands or wives? Sadly, many have bad priorities. They prioritize ministry, work, friendships, entertainment, and many other things before their family, and therefore, they will be found unfaithful before our Lord. Faithful servants care for their families first.
Are you running your household well? Are you cultivating the faith of family? Is your family first?
Application Question: Why is it so common for spiritual leadership to neglect their family for ministry? How can we avoid this sin? In what ways is God calling you to prioritize family ministry?
Deacons, Who Are Faithful, Will Be Rewarded
Finally, Paul describes the rewards faithful deacons receive. He says, “For those who have served well as deacons gain a good standing for themselves and great boldness in the faith that is in Christ Jesus” (v. 13).
Observation Question: What rewards do faithful deacons receive and what do they represent?
1. Faithful deacons receive a good standing in their faith.
What does this mean? The word translated “standing” can be translated “rank, degree, or base.”9 It seems to refer to respect and honor from God and man. It may even imply a promotion. Those who are faithful shall be blessed by God here on earth and in heaven.
2. Faithful deacons gain great boldness in their faith?
What does this mean? It seems Paul is saying that as deacons faithfully serve God, they will gain great confidence and boldness in sharing their faith with others.
No doubt, we see both of these rewards in the narrative of the first deacons in Acts 6. Philip and Stephen were ordained to care for widows, but later on we see that Philip and Stephen both became powerful preachers and miracle workers (Acts 6-8). In fact, Stephen demonstrated tremendous boldness as he rebuked the Jews and the Sanhedrin—leading to his martyrdom (Acts 7).
Certainly, we see these rewards with Christ as well—the prototypical servant. He did not come to be served but to serve (Mk 10:45). He humbled himself and took the form of a servant (Phil 2:7). On the earth, he served and sought the benefit of others and not his own. He cared for the poor, the sick, and the marginalized, and ultimately died for all. And because of this, God gave him a name above every name. Christ humbled himself to serve others and God exalted him (Phil 2:10-11). God fights against the proud but gives grace to the humble (James 4:6).
Are you humbling yourself to faithfully serve God and others? If so, God will reward you.
Application Question: In what ways should the prospect of reward encourage us to be more faithful in serving others? How have you experienced greater boldness in the faith, as a result of faithful service?
Qualities of Deaconesses
Likewise also their wives must be dignified, not slanderous, temperate, faithful in every respect.
1 Timothy 3:11
Interpretation Question: In verse 11, is Paul referring to the deacons’ wives as translated by the NET or to women (i.e. deaconesses), as in the NIV 2011?
In the midst of talking about deacons, Paul says, “Likewise also their wives must be dignified, not slanderous, temperate, faithful in every respect” (v. 11). There is some controversy over this text. Is he referring to the wives of deacons, as translated by the NET, KJV, and the NASB, or to the role of the deaconess, as in the NIV 2011?
Those who believe Paul is talking about the wives of deacons make the argument that it is awkward for Paul to place the requirements for deaconesses in the middle of talking about deacons. Why not wait until he finished teaching about deacons? Those who hold this position typically would not accept female deacons. For them, both the elder and the deacon offices are reserved for men.
However, there is strong evidence that 3:11, in fact, refers to female deacons. Why is this interpretation most likely?
Interpretation Question: What are some arguments for interpreting it as “women” instead of “wives” in 1 Timothy 3:11—thus allowing for deaconesses?
- Paul’s use of “likewise” argues for a third distinct group. He used the same phrase to distinguish the deacons from the elders in 1 Timothy 3:8 and the women from the men in 1 Timothy 2:9.
- There are no possessive pronouns connecting the women to the deacons. In versions that translate it as wives, “their” is supplied by the interpreter.
- There are no qualifications for the elders’ wives. Why would there be qualifications for the deacons’ wives and not the elders’?
- There seems to be other evidences for deaconesses in the New Testament. In Romans 12:1, Paul talks about deaconess (servant) Phoebe.
- Finally, the deacon role, since it is not primarily a teaching and ruling position, would not violate Paul’s instructions about women not teaching or having authority over males in the church (2:12). Therefore, it seems best to see this as referring to female deacons instead of deacon’s wives.
Now, we will consider the essential qualities of a deaconess.
Deaconesses Must Be Dignified
Again, as with male deacons, they must be serious about the faith and live it out in a manner that draws respect from everybody. There should be an awe about how these women live out their faith.
Deaconesses Must Not Be Slanderous
This can also be translated “not malicious talkers,” “not false accusers,” or “not devils.”10 They must not be gossips—spreading rumors or lies around the church. They use their tongues to build up and not break down.
Deaconesses Must Be Temperate
This means they practice self-control and restraint. They are not drawn to any excesses that might dull their spiritual discernment. This includes their eating and drinking, their entertainment, and how they handle their emotions. They demonstrate self-mastery which allows them to think clearly and help others more effectively.
Deaconesses Must Be Faithful
“Faithful in every respect” can also be translated “trustworthy in everything.” This refers not only to their Christian faith but also to their word in general. They always follow through. They can be counted on and trusted with various tasks, truths, and secrets.
Though not having an official position, many women serve this role in the church. They do much of the behind the scenes work: they pray, administrate, counsel, and even teach, but not in a manner where others often see or give them praise. They are the backbone of the church’s ministry, and as Paul says in verse 13, they achieve an excellent standing before God and great assurance in the faith (v. 13). God will abundantly reward them for their faithful service here on earth and one day in heaven.
Application Question: What faithful women have strongly inspired or challenged your faith and how?
Deacons and deaconesses are official servants of the church. As the ministries in the church grow, they are officially recognized to support the ministry of the elders. As we consider them, we must remember that God has called all of us to be faithful servants and that one day, he will reward the faithful (Matt 25:23). As we close, let’s consider a few more characteristics of faithful servants.
Application Question: What are some other characteristics of faithful servants?
- 1. Faithful servants always seek the interests of others before their own.
In Philippians 2:4, Paul said: “Each of you should be concerned not only about your own interests, but about the interests of others as well.” Our questions should not be, “What do I want or need?” and “How can the church fulfill my needs?” but “What does the church need?” and “How can I help fulfill those needs?” Sadly, most people join churches primarily based on how the church can serve them and not how they can serve the church. Servants put the needs of others before their own.
2. Faithful servants willingly perform menial or despised tasks.
Some people always seek to do great things but are never willing to do little things. True servants are willing to perform both great and menial tasks. Certainly, we have a great example of this in Christ. When there was no one to wash his disciples’ feet, he got down on his knees and performed the chore of a slave as he washed the feet of his disciples (John 13). Faithfulness with little leads to faithfulness with much.
3. Faithful servants are willing to serve in secret without applause.
In Matthew 6:3, Jesus said: “‘But when you do your giving, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, so that your gift may be in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you.’” Christ called for his disciples to practice serving in secret. They should only care about the applause of heaven and not of men. Christ also said this to his disciples about serving: “So you too, when you have done everything you were commanded to do, should say, ‘We are slaves undeserving of special praise; we have only done what was our duty’” (Luke 17:10).
Can you serve without the applause of men? Is the Lord’s applause enough?
4. Faithful servants know and use their gifts.
First Peter 4:10-11 says,
Just as each one has received a gift, use it to serve one another as good stewards of the varied grace of God. Whoever speaks, let it be with God’s words. Whoever serves, do so with the strength that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.
Each of us has at least one spiritual gift. We must know what our gifts are and employ them in service to Christ and his church. Certainly, at times God will call us to serve outside of our gifts, and when he does, he provides grace. But we must know our specific gifts so that we can faithfully employ them to build up the church (cf. 1 Cor 12:7).
Are you faithfully using your gifts to serve others? In what ways is God calling you to grow in being more of a servant?
Application Question: As we’ve considered the essential qualities of deacons and deaconesses, how is God challenging you to grow as a faithful servant? Are there any specific qualities he is calling you to work on?
1 Accessed 4/16/16 from https://bible.org/seriespage/lesson-10-servants-official-and-otherwise-1-timothy-38-13
2 Hughes, R. K., & Chapell, B. (2000). 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: to guard the deposit (p. 83). Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.
3 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 2088). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
4 Accessed 4/16/16 from https://bible.org/seriespage/lesson-10-servants-official-and-otherwise-1-timothy-38-13
5 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1995). 1 Timothy (pp. 125–126). Chicago: Moody Press.
6 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 221). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
7 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 2088). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
8 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 222). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
9 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 222). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
10 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 222). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.