What does “life” mean in John 10:10?
John 10:10 says that Jesus came to give us life (ZOE, not BIOS—thus, accenting the quality of life, not mere subsistence), and to give it more abundantly. The adverb translated ‘abundantly’ is used in 2 Cor 9:1 in the sense of ‘superfluously.’ The idea of John 10:10, in the context of the good shepherd analogy, involves the shepherd choosing pasture land, taking care of the sheep, feeding and watering them, etc. In other words, the sheep should hear and obey the shepherd’s voice because he is their protector and provider and knows where the goods are! He gives them more than mere subsistence; he gives them life in its fullest sense. Of course, the analogy is that since we are spiritual sheep, the ‘good life’ refers to spiritual joy and fullness. But even so, since we are spiritual-physical creatures, whom God has created with specific desires and needs on both planes, he is able and willing to satisfy us on both planes. The one is connected to the other.