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Zechariah 12



  The Coming Great Day of the Lord
The Coming Deliverance of Judah Jerusalem Shall Lament Its Sin and Be Purged of Idolatry
The Future Deliverance of Jerusalem
The Deliverance and Restoration of Jerusalem
12:1-9 12:1-5 12:1-5 12:1
  12:6 12:6  
  12:7-9 12:7-9  
Mourning For the Pierced One     12:9-14
12:10-14 12:10-14 12:10-14  

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the four modern translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.



A. There is a parallel relationship between chapters 9-11 and 12-14, which can be seen in the use of "burden," 9:1 and 12:1 (see Baldwin, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, p. 187 and H. C. Leupold, Exposition of Zechariah, p. 223). Chapters 12-14 form a literary unit.


B. The emphasis of this chapter is on the restoration of God's people.

1. God fighting for them as symbolized in Jerusalem under siege by the nations.

2. Their repentance and faith in the crucified Messiah (cf. John 19:37 and Rev. 1:7).

3. The phrase "in that day" or "on that day" occurs sixteen times in chapters 12-14. This phrase is often linked to an eschatological setting.



 1The burden of the word of the Lord concerning Israel. Thus declares the Lord who stretches out the heavens, lays the foundation of the earth, and forms the spirit of man within him, 2"Behold, I am going to make Jerusalem a cup that causes reeling to all the peoples around; and when the siege is against Jerusalem, it will also be against Judah. 3It will come about in that day that I will make Jerusalem a heavy stone for all the peoples; all who lift it will be severely injured. And all the nations of the earth will be gathered against it. 4In that day," declares the Lord, "I will strike every horse with bewilderment and his rider with madness. But I will watch over the house of Judah, while I strike every horse of the peoples with blindness. 5Then the clans of Judah will say in their hearts, ‘A strong support for us are the inhabitants of Jerusalem through the Lord of hosts, their God.'"

12:1 "The burden of the word" It seems that Zech. 9:1 and 12:1 introduce a parallel section in this closing section of the book of Zechariah. See note on "burden" at 9:1.

▣ "concerning Israel" This is the only use of "Israel" in this chapter and it seems to refer to all of the Jewish people, not just the northern tribes (cf. 9:1,13; 11:14). During this period the Jewish people only controlled a small area around Jerusalem.

▣ "the Lord who" There are three major theological statements about YHWH's creative activity: (1) He "stretches out the heavens"; (2) He "lays the foundation of the earth"; and (3) He "forms the spirit of man within him." All of these verbal forms are Qal ACTIVE PARTICIPLES, which emphasize ongoing creation.

▣ "stretches out the heavens" This means to "put up a tent" (BDB 639, KB 692, Qal PARTICIPLE, e.g. Gen. 33:19; Exod. 12:8; Isa. 40:22; 42:5; 45:12; 51:13). This refers to the atmosphere above the earth. It was idiomatically spoken of as an inverted bowl of stretched skin.

▣ "lays the foundation of the earth" This refers to creation (cf. Job 38:4-6; Ps. 102:25-26 [Heb. 1:10-12]; 104:5; Isa. 48:13; 51:13,16). It may be an allusion to Isa. 42:5. In chapters 12-14 this term (BDB 75-76) is used in several ways.

1. all the earth, 12:1,3; 14:9,17

2. inhabitants of a region, 12:12; 13:8

3. a region, 13:2; 14:10


▣ "forms the spirit of man within him" The Hebrew term "spirit" (BDB 924-926) can mean "breath," "wind," or "spirit." In Gen. 2:7 God's breath turned a clay-formed man into a living being (Nephesh). The "wind" of God (cf. Gen. 8:1, re-creation after the flood) and the "Spirit" of God (cf. Gen. 1:2, initial creation) are active forces of YHWH Elohim in Genesis. The unseen God is active initially and continually in creation. The physical material aspect of creation is only part of the wonder and scope of God's creative activities.

God created/creates (first three PARTICIPLES are Qal ACTIVE) for the purpose of fellowship with mankind. We are partially like the animals of this planet (Nephesh) and also partially like God ("image or likeness," cf. Gen. 1:26). The "spirit" of man means the unique person (cf. Ps. 139) with the potential of rebellion or fellowship.

12:2 "I am going to make Jerusalem a cup" It must be seen that this phrase is in the Hebrew parallel relationship with "Jerusalem a heavy stone" from v. 3. This phrase means that the unbelieving nations who come against God's people are going to be made drunk and foolish (cf. Jer. 51:7) because of their attacking Jerusalem. The idiom of "cup" (several different words) in the Bible usually refers to judgment (cf. Ps 75:8; Isa. 51:17,22; Jer. 25:15-16,27-28; 49:12; Matt. 20:22; 26:39,42; Luke 22:42; John 18:11).

▣ "to all the peoples around" This refers to the nations which have attacked God's people (cf. v. 3; Isa. 51:22; Jer. 25:17,28).

NASB"and when the siege is against Jerusalem, it will also be against Judah"
NKJV"when they lay siege against Judah and Jerusalem"
NRSV"it will be against Judah also in the siege against Jerusalem"
TEV"And when they besiege Jerusalem, the cities of the rest of Judah will also be besieged"
NJB"(That will be at the time of the siege of Jerusalem)"

This is a very ambiguous phrase because of the brevity of the Hebrew. There is no consistency in how the ancient versions translate it.

Because of 14:14 some Jewish interpreters see this as Judah being forced to fight against Jerusalem by the invading enemy army (cf. UBS, Handbook, p. 311).

12:3 "all who lift it will be severely injured" This seems to be used of a stone which the nations attempted to lift off of its foundation, but all were herniated by the attempt.

This cognate VERB and NOUN (BDB 976, KB 1355, Niphil IMPERFECT) mean "to scratch" or "cut." The pagan nations practiced ritual cutting (cf. Lev. 19:28; 21:5), but Israel was forbidden to do this. Now the eschatological judgment on these attacking pagan nations will be "cutting" or "scratching" (irony).

"and all the nations of the earth will be gathered against it" It is a continuing emphasis throughout prophetic literature that the kingdoms of this world will attack God and His people in a future, end-time, climactic battle (cf. v. 3; Ps. 2; Isa. 8:9-10; 17:12-14; Ezek. 38-39; Dan. 9:24-27; 11:36-45; Joel 3:9-17; Zech. 14:2; Rev. 16:14-16; 19:17-19). History is moving toward a climactic moment of confrontation with evil. Evil will lose and be isolated.

12:4 "in that day" This is a common theme in the literary unit of chapters 12-14. It is used sixteen times and refers to an eschatological future (cf. Zeph. 1:14-18; 3:16; Amos 5:18-20; Joel 1:15; 2:11; 3:14; Mal. 4:5).

▣ "I will strike every horse with bewilderment, and his rider with madness" This is related to the curse of Deut. 28:28 (both BDB 1067, "bewilderment" and BDB 993, "madness"); also "blindness" (BDB 234) is used in Deut. 28 and 29. The history of God's OT people can be viewed through the cursing and blessing section of Deut. 27-29.

NASB"I will watch over the house of Judah"
NKJV"I will open My eyes on the house of Judah"
NRSV"But on the house of Judah I will keep a watchful eye"
TEV"I will watch over the people of Judah"
NJB"(But I shall keep watch over Judah)"

The NKJV is the most literal. This is a Hebrew idiom for care and attentiveness (cf. I Kgs. 8:29; II Chr. 7:15; Neh. 1:6). The question remains if this phrase intends to show that Judah had been forced to join in the attack against Jerusalem and if so that God spared the Judean soldiers when all the rest of the invading army was struck mad.

In the ancient Near East, cavalry and chariots were the most powerful and feared military weapon, but YHWH will overpower them (cf. 10:5; 12:4; 14:15; Hag. 2:22), and remove them, even those of Ephraim and Judah, 9:10. He is the victor!

This intervention by God on behalf of His people is reminiscent of His action during (1) the Exodus; (2) conquest and settlement of Canaan; and (3) the fall of Mesopotamian capitals.

12:5 "A strong support for us are the inhabitants of Jerusalem through. . .their God" This phrase is understood in several ways.

1. there was a tension between the inhabitants of Jerusalem and the rest of Judah (cf. v. 7 and New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, vol. 1, p. 440)

2. Judah was forced to participate in the besieging of Jerusalem (cf. v. 2c; 4b), but took courage to rebel when they saw the faith of Jerusalem's defenders (UBS, Handbook)

3. Judah's leaders recognized YHWH's help by His defense of Jerusalem


"the Lord of hosts" This is a common post-exilic title (YHWH Sabaoth), which emphasizes God as military warrior. It seems to see God as the captain of the military army. Verse 5 also recognizes the intervention of the supernatural God, which must be linked to vv. 7 and 8. See SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY at Dan. 4:2.

 6"In that day I will make the clans of Judah like a firepot among pieces of wood and a flaming torch among sheaves, so they will consume on the right hand and on the left all the surrounding peoples, while the inhabitants of Jerusalem again dwell on their own sites in Jerusalem. 7The Lord also will save the tents of Judah first, so that the glory of the house of David and the glory of the inhabitants of Jerusalem will not be magnified above Judah. 8In that day the Lord will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and the one who is feeble among them in that day will be like David, and the house of David will be like God, like the angel of the Lord before them. 9And in that day I will set about to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem."

12:6 "In that day" See note at v. 4.

As verse 5 affirms God's help to Jerusalem, verse 6 affirms God's help to the "clans of Judah" (BDB 49 II, lit. "thousands," but used of leaders, cf. 9:7).

God will make the clans rebel and become a destroying flame against the invading army of the nations. They became God's destroyers amidst the enemy's army.

There is a constant tension between "the nations" as enemies (cf. v. 9) and welcomed converts (cf. 2:11; 8:20-23) throughout the book of Zechariah.


12:7 "The Lord also will save the tents of Judah first" The VERB (BDB 446) is a Hiphil PERFECT. There are two ways to understand this phrase.

1. God allows the Judean forces to defeat the invaders so that Jerusalem will not be overly exalted.

2. God saves the tents of Judah first because they are more vulnerable to attack. In this way He shows that He has no favoritism between those who live in Jerusalem and those who live in the countryside.

The word "tents" (BDB 13) is being interpreted in two senses: (1) a military camp or (2) a metaphor for homes.

12:8 "the Lord will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem" This means "cover as with a shield" (BDB 170, KB 199, Hiphil IMPERFECT, cf. 4:14-15; 9:15).

▣ "and the one who is feeble among them" The literal meaning is "stumble" (BDB 505, KB 502, Niphal PARTICIPLE). This refers to the oldest and weakest of the community who will be made as strong as King David, who was noted as a formidable warrior.

▣ "the house of David will be like God, like the angel of the Lord before them" This is a striking metaphor used in the sense of God's empowering of His people. The term for God is the term Elohim, which is used in the sense of supernatural beings (cf. Exod. 4:16; 7:1; I Sam. 28:13; Ps. 8:5; 82:1,6).

The angel of the LORD is often seen as God's representative among the people (cf. Exod. 13:21; 14:19; 23:20-21; 32:34; 33:2,14-15,22). In two passages David is likened to the angel of the Lord (cf. I Sam. 29:9; II Sam. 14:17,20; 19:27). Remember there are three phrases (no VERBS) here which build on each other for literary, not theological, effect.

12:9 This shows the continuing metaphor of God's sovereign protection of His people. These invading nations were defeated by Judean forces, but through YHWH's empowerment!

 10"I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn. 11In that day there will be great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the plain of Megiddo. 12The land will mourn, every family by itself; the family of the house of David by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of the house of Nathan by itself and their wives by themselves; 13the family of the house of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of the Shimeites by itself and their wives by themselves; 14all the families that remain, every family by itself and their wives by themselves.

12:10 "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication" The phrase "I will pour out" (BDB 1049, KB 1629, Qal PERFECT) is used quite often in the OT to denote God giving the Spirit (cf. Ezek. 39:29; Joel 2:28,29, a different word but same concept in Isa. 12:15; 44:3). The terms "grace" (BDB 336, cf. 4:7) and "supplication" (BDB 337, cf. Jer. 31:9) are from the same root. This is a strong verse which emphasizes the national conversion of Israel to faith in God's crucified ("pierced") Messiah (cf. Rom. 11:25-27; John 19:37; Rev. 1:7). The physical deliverance of vv. 2-9 are not complete without the spiritual deliverance of v. 10!

The phrase "a spirit of" (NRSV, NJB) or "the Spirit" (NASB, NKJV) has no ARTICLE in the Hebrew text. This is not a reference to the Holy Spirit, but the human spirit: (1) positive attributes (a) Deut. 34:9, "filled with the spirit of wisdom"; (b) Isa. 28:6, "a spirit of justice" and (2) negative attributes, (a) Num. 5:14,30, "a spirit of jealousy"; (b) Isa. 19:4, "a spirit of distortion"; (c) Isa. 29:10, "a spirit of deep sleep"; and (d) Hos. 4:12, "a spirit of harlotry." These physically delivered Jewish people will be empowered by God to see and understand their spiritual need and God's redemptive plan.

Other prophetic texts where "the Spirit" is poured out are Isa. 44:3; Ezek. 39:29 and also the classic text of Zech. 4:5. It is God who energizes and motivates the fallen human spirit to appropriate and righteous attitudes and actions.

▣ "so that they will look on Me" The VERB (BDB 613, KB 661) is a Hiphil PERFECT. The Hebrew PREPOSITION translated "on" (BDB 39) in this verse should really be translated as "to" or "unto" (see New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis, vol. 3, p. 9 and The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol. 7, p. 683). It speaks of looking to this one for help or grace (cf. Num. 21:9; Isa. 45:22 for this usage of the PREPOSITION).

▣ "whom they have pierced" This VERB (BDB 201, KB 230, Qal PERFECT) means "to pierce through" ("kill," cf. Num. 25:8; Jdgs. 9:54; I Sam. 31:4; I Chr. 10:4). This is a different word from the one in Isa. 53, but the theological concept is exactly the same (cf. John 19:37; Rev. 1:7).

▣ "they will mourn for Him as one mourns for an only son" The VERB (BDB 704, KB 763) is another Qal PERFECT. This seems to imply their repentance and faith ("look to") in the one whom they had pierced (cf. Isa. 53:5). The mourning (lit. "wailing" or "lamenting" BDB 704, cf. vv. 10,11,12) will be intense like that over an only son (cf. Jer. 6:26), who in a Jewish home was an especially important person.

This verse has been extremely difficult for the rabbis to interpret.

1. Therefore, they developed from this verse the concept of two Messiahs; one of the son of David and one of the son of Joseph, who was going to die (cf. the Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, 52a). This same theory also appears among the Essenes of the Dead Sea community.

2. The modern translators of the Jewish Publication Society of America turn this verse into a lament by Israel to God to spare the remnant of the invading nations, but admits in the footnote that the Hebrew is uncertain.


"they will weep bitterly" The term (BDB 600, KB 638, Hiphil INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE), which is used twice, means a bitter outcry (cf. Isa. 22:4).

12:11 "In that day there will be great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the plain of Megiddo" There have been many theories to try to describe what is referred to here: (1) the RSV and NRSV translate this as referring to a person; (2) the KJV and NKJV, following Jerome, interpret this to refer to a city located four miles from Megiddo (the site of the end-time battle, cf. vv. 2-9); (3) recent scholars believe that this refers to a Canaanite deity, Ba'al, mentioned in II Kgs. 5:18. This word, "Hadadrimmon" is made up of two proper names (one Syrian and one Assyrian) which are used in the OT for ancient deities; or (4) the term is ambiguous. It is possible that it refers to the mourning over Josiah's death at this geographical location (609 b.c., cf. II Kgs. 23:29ff; II Chr. 35:20ff). The exact allusion is uncertain, but great mourning occurred over something and this is simply the illustration used to back up the emphasis of v. 10.

12:12 "And the land will mourn" This could mean several things.

1. the term land stands for the inhabitants of the land, as in v. 12 and 13:8

2. the land is affected by human actions (e.g. Gen. 3:17-19; Deut. 27-29; Rom. 8:19-25)


"every family by itself" This is a continuing emphasis on the gravity and extent of the mourning. The royal family is mentioned, David and his son Nathan (cf. II Sam. 5:14; I Chr. 3:5; 14:4; Luke 3:31; this is the line of David [i.e. Judah]). Levi and his son (Shimeites) are mentioned in Num. 3:18; I Chr. 6:17. The royal family and the priestly family (Shimeites were Levites, cf. Exod. 6:16-17; Num. 3:12-18,21) are uniquely involved in this mourning as representatives of the entire people. It is also possible to note that Zechariah combined the royal and priestly roles (cf. chapters 3 & 4, as well as 6:9-15).

The Mishnah teaches that these verses prove that men and women should mourn and worship separately (cf. Sukkoth 51b, 52a).


This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought-provoking, not definitive.

1. Is the continuing allusion in the prophets to the people of God's battle with the surrounding nations a continuing event, a contemporary event of the prophet, or a future event? Why?

2. Why and how did the rabbis develop the theory of two Messiahs?

3. List the prophecies in this chapter which were fulfilled in the life of Jesus.

4. Will national Israel repent and turn to the Messiah one day? (Give references)

5. What is your interpretation of v. 11 and why?


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