STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS
The Lord's Wonderful Work in Behalf of Israel
No MT Intro
|The Eternal Faithfulness of the Lord||The Story of God's Great Deeds on Behalf of His People||God and His People||The Wonderful History of Israel|
READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")
FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL
This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.
Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.
1. First paragraph
2. Second paragraph
A. Psalm 105 and Psalm 106 form a theological unit.
Just an added thought, modern Bible interpreters really do not know why, how, or when the Psalms were edited and by whom. This is true for all the Hebrew Bible. The process has been lost to us. So, it must be admitted that many presuppositions and speculations drive modern theories of the process of canonization. I surely and completely affirm the inspiration of the Scriptures (see three videos on www.freebiblecommentary.org, first paragraph), but also accept the Jews' understanding of their canon and the early church's decisions on which books to include.
B. Psalm 105 describes God's acts of love and grace in the life of the covenant people.
1. initial call to the Patriarchs, Ps. 105:1-7
2. Patriarchs' journey to Canaan, Ps. 105:8-15
3. Patriarch (Jacob) to Egypt, Ps. 105:16-24
4. Israel from Egypt, Ps. 105:25-36
5. Israel to Canaan, Ps. 105:37-45
C. Psalm 106 describes the disgrace of Israel's rebellious response.
D. There are many similarities with this Psalm and 1 Chronicles 16:7-46.
WORD AND PHRASE STUDY
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 105:1-7
1Oh give thanks to the Lord, call upon His name;
Make known His deeds among the peoples.
2Sing to Him, sing praises to Him;
Speak of all His wonders.
3Glory in His holy name;
Let the heart of those who seek the Lord be glad.
4Seek the Lord and His strength;
Seek His face continually.
5Remember His wonders which He has done,
His marvels and the judgments uttered by His mouth,
6O seed of Abraham, His servant,
O sons of Jacob, His chosen ones!
7He is the Lord our God;
His judgments are in all the earth.
105:1-7 This Psalm and this strophe highlight YHWH's special call and relationship with Abraham and his descendants. YHWH acted in powerful, purposeful ways to accomplish His revelation through this one family.
This Psalm uses several terms to describe these acts.
1. His deeds, Ps. 105:1 - BDB 760, cf. 1 Chr. 16:8; Ps. 9:11; 66:5; 77:13; 78:11; 103:7; Isa. 12:4
2. all His wonders, Ps. 105:2 - BDB 810, cf. Exod. 3:20; 34:10; Jos. 3:5; Jdgs. 6:13; 1 Chr. 16:9,24; Job 37:5,14; Ps. 9:1; 26:7; 78:11; 139:14; Jer. 21:2; Micah 7:15, see Special Topic: Wonderful Things
3. his wonders, Ps. 105:5 - BDB 810, see Special Topic at #2
4. His marvels, Ps. 105:5 - BDB 68, cf. Exod. 7:3; 11:9; 1 Chr. 16:12; Job 3:3
5. the judgments, Ps. 105:5 - BDB 1048, see SPECIAL TOPIC: TERMS FOR GOD'S REVELATION
6. His judgments, Ps. 105:7 - BDB 1048
7. His wondrous acts, Ps. 105:27 - BDB 68
Different periods of Israel's history demonstrate YHWH's special activities on behalf of Abraham's family. The purpose of these divine acts was to help the nations know YHWH, cf. 1 Kgs. 8:42-43; see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan.
Psalm 105:1-5 has a series of imperatives imploring the worship of YHWH in the temple.
1. give thanks - BDB 392, KB 389, Hiphil, cf. 1 Chr. 16:8,34; Isa. 12:4
2. call upon - BDB 894, KB 1128, Qal, cf. Ps. 99:6
3. make known - BDB 393, KB 390, Hiphil, cf. Ps. 145:12
4. sing - BDB 1010, KB 1479, Qal
5. sing praises - BDB 274, KB 273, Piel, cf. Ps. 66:2; 68:4; 135:3
6. speak/muse - BDB 967, KB 1319, Qal cf. Ps. 77:12; 119:27; 145:5; 147:1
7. glory - BDB 237, KB 248, Hithpael
8. seek - BDB 205, KB 233, cf. Exod. 33:7; Deut. 4:29; 1 Chr. 16:10; 2 Chr. 11:10-11; Isa. 51:1; Jer. 50:4; Hos. 3:5; 5:6
9. seek - BDB 134, KB 152, Piel, cf. 1 Chr. 16:11; 2 Chr. 7:14; Ps. 27:8; Amos 4:5
10. remember - BDB 269, KB 269, Qal cf. 1 Chr. 16:12
105:1 "the Lord" See SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY.
▣ "call upon His name" Psalm 105:1-4 describes cultic (religious procedures) worship. The "name" represents the person's character. See Special Topic: "The Name" of YHWH.
▣ "Make known His deeds among the peoples" It is God's will that all the earth (cf. Ps. 105:7b) know Him (cf. Ps. 145:12; Isa. 12:4-5, see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan). Israel was a means to this end and the Bible is a record of this revelation.
105:2 "Sing to Him" This (BDB 967, KB 1319) also describes cultic worship. They sang songs about YHWH and His acts of salvation.
▣ "Speak" This is literally "meditate" or "muse." We are to keep God's character and acts before our minds (cf. Ps. 105:5; Deut. 6:6-9).
105:3 "glory" This verb means to boast (BDB 237). Israel was to "glory" in the kind of God who called them and was uniquely their God.
▣ "Let the heart of those who seek the Lord be glad" The "heart" speaks of the entire person (see SPECIAL TOPIC: THE HEART). We must respond (the verb is a Qal imperfect used in a jussive sense) to God's initiative, and the appropriate way is with "joy" (BDB 970).
NJB, NRSV"and His strength"
LXX, Moffatt"and be strengthened"
JPSOA"His might" (referring to the Ark, cf. Ps. 78:61; 132:8)
Peshitta, REB"be strong"
NET Bible"and the strength he gives"
As is obvious from the variety of translations, the phrase is uncertain. I think, from the context of temple worship (i.e., Ps. 105:1-4), that the JPSOA option is best (i.e., the Ark, cf. Ps. 78:61; 132:8).
▣ "Seek His face continually" This is an idiomatic way of calling on faithful followers to keep YHWH and His revelation before their minds (cf. Deut. 6:6-9).
This is similar to Paul's emphasis of praying without ceasing (cf. Eph. 6:18; 1 Thess. 5:16-18).
105:5 "the judgments uttered by His mouth" This reflects the Hebrew concept of the power of the spoken word (cf. Gen. 1:1; Isa. 55:1; John 1:1; and note at Gen. 1:3). For "judgments" see Special Topic: Terms for God's Revelation.
105:6 This verse reflects God's choice of Abraham (Ps. 105:6a) and his descendants (105:6b) as His chosen means to redeem all mankind, Gen. 3:15.
Remember, in the OT the term "chosen" (BDB 104; 1 Chr. 16:13) is used for instrumentality (i.e., service), not salvation. God chooses to use nations, people, and historical events for His larger redemptive plan (see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan).
105:7 "He is the Lord our God" This phrase may be a reference to the covenant language of Exod. 20:2. It involves the two most common names for Deity, YHWH - Lord and Elohim - God. Modern western scholarship has asserted that these represent the name of Deity used by two different human authors of the OT. The Jews assert that they represent the characteristics of the one true God (see SPECIAL TOPIC: MONOTHEISM). Elohim is Deity's title as creator, provider, and sustainer of all life, while YHWH is Deity's covenant title as savior and redeemer. See Special Topic: Names for Deity.
▣ "His judgments are in all the earth" This refers to God's universal focus, which is so dominant in this section of the Psalms (i.e., Psalm 96, see notes there).
The term "earth" can be translated "land." See Special Topic: Land, Country Earth.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 105:8-15
8He has remembered His covenant forever,
The word which He commanded to a thousand generations,
9The covenant which He made with Abraham,
And His oath to Isaac.
10Then He confirmed it to Jacob for a statute,
To Israel as an everlasting covenant,
11Saying, "To you I will give the land of Canaan
As the portion of your inheritance,"
12When they were only a few men in number,
Very few, and strangers in it.
13And they wandered about from nation to nation,
From one kingdom to another people.
14He permitted no man to oppress them,
And He reproved kings for their sakes:
15"Do not touch My anointed ones,
And do My prophets no harm."
105:8-15 This strophe alludes to YHWH's call to Abraham to leave Ur and follow Him to a new land of promise (i.e., Genesis 12-18). This same promise was reaffirmed to Jacob/Israel (cf. Gen. 28:13-15).
YHWH protected and provided for the descendants of Abraham as they sojourned in Canaan (i.e., Gen. 12:7; 20:1-7; 35:5).
105:8 "He has remembered His covenant forever" Almost all of God's promises are conditioned on human response. Therefore, "forever" must be interpreted in the context of conditional/unconditional covenant (see Special Topic: Forever ('olam).
The focus of the biblical revelation is that God is faithful even when mankind is not (compare Psalm 105 with Psalm 106). Fallen mankind's hope is not in his ability to perform, although there is a required continuing repentant faith response necessary. It is the unchanging character of God that provides hope and assurance (cf. Mal. 1:6).
For "covenant" see SPECIAL TOPIC: COVENANT.
▣ "to a thousand generations" This is an idiom for God's faithfulness. It is parallel to "forever" in Ps. 105:8a. It is used as a contrast between God's love and justice in Deut. 5:9 and 7:9.
"Thousand" is a symbolic number used in several senses. See Special Topic: Thousand (eleph) and Special Topic: Symbolic Numbers in Scripture.
105:9-10 YHWH repeated His initial promise about the land to Abram to the other Patriarchs.
1. Abraham - Gen. 12:7; 13:15; 15:18
2. Isaac - Gen. 26:3-4
3. Jacob/Israel - Gen. 28:13
105:11 This is an allusion to Gen. 12:1; 13:15; and 15:18.
▣ "As the portion of your inheritance" See full note online at Ps. 78:55.
105:12 The family of Abraham started out very small (cf. Gen. 34:30; 46:26-27; Deut. 7:7; 1 Chr. 16:19) but grew to be as numerous as the stars of heaven, the sand on the sea shore.
105:15 "My anointed ones. . .My prophets" These are in a parallel relationship and, therefore, refer to the Patriarchs (cf. Gen. 20:7).
This term "anointed ones" (BDB 603) is the root meaning of Messiah (see SPECIAL TOPIC: MESSIAH). It refers to the Patriarchs or the community that God has chosen and equipped to perform His will.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 105:16-24
16And He called for a famine upon the land;
He broke the whole staff of bread.
17He sent a man before them,
Joseph, who was sold as a slave.
18They afflicted his feet with fetters,
He himself was laid in irons;
19Until the time that his word came to pass,
The word of the Lord tested him.
20The king sent and released him,
The ruler of peoples, and set him free.
21He made him lord of his house
And ruler over all his possessions,
22To imprison his princes at will,
That he might teach his elders wisdom.
23Israel also came into Egypt;
Thus Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham.
24And He caused His people to be very fruitful,
And made them stronger than their adversaries.
105:16-24 This strophe deals with YHWH leading His covenant people from Canaan to Egypt. This was God's plan.
1. to raise up Joseph as a leader in preparation, Ps. 105:17
2. to force the move by way of a famine, Ps. 105:16
3. to cause later friction between the Egyptians and Israelites so as to demonstrate His power over the Egyptian gods and reveal Himself to the Egyptians and the surrounding nations of the ANE, Ps. 105:25
The "few in number" of Ps. 105:12 is contrasted with Ps. 105:24.
105:16 "He called. . .He broke" God uses calamity for His purposes, Isa. 45:7. This seems contradictory to Ps. 105:14-15, but God uses both positive and negative events. This is obvious in His covenant relationship with Israel (cf. Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 27-29; Psalm 1). See full note at Isa. 45:7 online.
▣ "staff and bread" This idiom is used several times in the OT (cf. Lev. 26:26; Ezek. 4:16; 5:16; 14:13). God controls rain and food. He wants to bless but sin and rebellion cause the necessities of life to be withheld (i.e., Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 27-30). In Psalm 105 the famine was to accomplish a divine plan (i.e., Joseph to a place of leadership in Egypt and Israel to take up residence there).
The term "staff" (BDB 641) could refer to
1. stalk of grain
2. wooden rod on which the food was carried
3. wooden rod to suspend the food so that animals could not eat it
4. symbolic way of referring to the absolute necessity of bread for life in the Ancient Near East
105:17 "He sent a man before them" This refers to Joseph as being God's means of saving and sustaining the chosen family of Jacob (cf. Genesis 37; 39-46). Joseph's own sense of YHWH's actions is expressed in Gen. 45:4-8; 50:20. The eyes of faith see history clearly!
105:18 "He himself was laid in irons" This reflects the painful experience of Joseph being sold by his own brothers, though he recognized God's hand (cf. Genesis 37; 45:4-8).
The MT is literally "iron came (into his) soul."
The verb "came" (BDB 97, KB 112, Qal perfect) is a common verb, with several connotations.
The word "soul" is nephesh (BDB 659), which also has a wide semantic field, but usually denotes air-breathing life on this planet (i.e., human and animal).
Most modern English translations assume that the consonants for nephesh, in this context, reflect an Akkadian root for "throat" or "neck" (cf. NRSV, TEV, NJB, JPSOA, REB). Iron was a way of referring to imprisonment (cf. Ps. 107:10).
However, the LXX translated the phrase as "his soul passed through iron." Joseph's life experiences of rejection by his brothers and the cruel treatment in the Egyptian prison were painful and lasting scars. But they also produced a strong, faithful follower (cf. Heb. 5:8).
105:19 "the Lord tested him" God tests all His children (cf. Adam and Eve, Genesis 3; Abraham, Gen. 22:1; Jesus, Matt. 4:11). The test is meant to strengthen, not destroy. See SPECIAL TOPIC: GOD TESTS HIS PEOPLE.
105:20 "the king" There is much scholarly disagreement about the dates related to Israel's sojourn in Egypt and the date of the Exodus. Modern scholars are not sure of
1. the date of the Exodus
2. the number of Israelites involved in the Exodus
3. the Pharaoh of the Exodus
4. the route of the Exodus
105:22 Psalm 105:20-22 relates to Pharaoh. He allowed Joseph to have authority over his own princes and elders.
The term "imprison" is literally "to bind" (BDB 63, KB 75, Qal infinitive construct). It is the legal terminology related to "binding and loosing" (cf. UBS Text Project, p. 380).
In context this word, which usually denotes "the binding of a prisoner," is what the powerful imagery of Ps. 105:18 describes, but it does not use the word. However, there is an obvious play on - the Egyptians bindimg Joseph, now he binds them!
104:24 This reflects the blessing of numerous children seen in Exod. 1:7,9.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 105:25-36
25He turned their heart to hate His people,
To deal craftily with His servants.
26He sent Moses His servant,
And Aaron, whom He had chosen.
27They performed His wondrous acts among them,
And miracles in the land of Ham.
28He sent darkness and made it dark;
And they did not rebel against His words.
29He turned their waters into blood
And caused their fish to die.
30Their land swarmed with frogs
Even in the chambers of their kings.
31He spoke, and there came a swarm of flies
And gnats in all their territory.
32He gave them hail for rain,
And flaming fire in their land.
33He struck down their vines also and their fig trees,
And shattered the trees of their territory.
34He spoke, and locusts came,
And young locusts, even without number,
35And ate up all vegetation in their land,
And ate up the fruit of their ground.
36He also struck down all the firstborn in their land,
The first fruits of all their vigor.
105:25-36 As Ps. 105:8-15 reflects the Patriarchal period and Ps. 105:16-24 reflects the Joseph experience, Ps. 105:25-36 reflects the Exodus.
105:25 "He turned their heart to hate His people" As God hardened Pharaoh's heart toward Moses' requests, He hardened the people of Egypt toward the Jews. Following I have included my unpublished notes on Exod. 4:21.
Exod. 4:21 "but I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go" God informs Moses that though in the presence of great light, the Hebrews will believe, but Pharaoh will not be convinced. This passage, and ones similar to it, have caused tremendous problems to western theologians. We must allow this to speak in its original context and not bring to this passage questions that it was never intended to ask or to explicate. In the ANE, and particularly in Israel, God was the source of all things (cf. Job 2:10; Eccl. 3:28 Isa. 45:7; 54:16; Lam. 3:37; Ezek. 14:9; Amos 3:6b). Therefore, the Jews saw no problem in God hardening Pharaoh's heart or in Pharaoh hardening his own heart. It is only in light of further NT revelation about mankind's need to respond to God that the problem of God's sovereignty and mankind's free will becomes a mysterious paradox for the church. It is best to affirm both truths than it is to magnify one over the other. The best place in the Bible to ascertain the relationship between these two is Romans 9 on the sovereignty of God and Romans 10 on the free will of mankind. In Exodus Pharaoh is described as being hardened in three ways.
1. God hardened his heart, Exod. 4:21; 7:3; 9:12; 10:1,20,27; 11:10; 14:4,8 (cf. Rom. 9:34)
2. Pharaoh hardened his own heart, Exod. 8:15,32; 9:34
3. his heart was hardened but with no mention of the source, Exod. 7:13,14,22; 8:19; 9:7,35
It is also interesting to note that three different verbs are used to describe this hardening.
1. "to be strong" in the sense of callous, Exod. 4:21; 7:13,22; 8:19; 9:12,35; 10:20,27; 11:10; 14:4,8
2. "to be heavy" and, therefore, lack of responsiveness, Exod. 7:14; 8:15,32; 9:7,34; 10:1
3. "to be hard," Exod. 7:3
However, all of these seem to be used in a synonymous relationship. The Bible emphatically teaches that each of us is personally responsible for our actions, including Pharaoh and Judas Iscariot.
105:26 The account of YHWH calling Moses and sending him back to Egypt is recorded in Exodus 3-4.
The need for Aaron is explained in Exod. 4:10-17.
1. Exod. 4:10, Moses' excuse
2. Exod. 4:11-12, YHWH's answer
3. Exod. 4:13, Moses' continuing refusal
4. Exod. 4:14-16, YHWH's answer to send Aaron to speak for him
105:27 "the land of Ham" The Hebrews recognized that the Egyptians were ancient brothers. Ham is also mentioned in Ps. 78:51; 106:22. This speaks of the unity of mankind. See full notes at Genesis 10.
105:28-36 This describes the plagues (cf. Exodus 7-11). However, this is only a partial list. It starts with the 9th, then the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 3rd, 7th, 8th, and 10th.
105:28 "And they did not rebel against His words" The LXX and Peshitta leave out the negative. This is followed by NRSV and REB. However, the MT has the negative and the UBS Text Project gives its inclusion a "B" rating (some doubt). The interpretive issue is, who is "they."
1. MT - Moses and Aaron
2. LXX - the Egyptians, especially Pharaoh
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 105:37-45
37Then He brought them out with silver and gold,
And among His tribes there was not one who stumbled.
38Egypt was glad when they departed,
For the dread of them had fallen upon them.
39He spread a cloud for a covering,
And fire to illumine by night.
40They asked, and He brought quail,
And satisfied them with the bread of heaven.
41He opened the rock and water flowed out;
It ran in the dry places like a river.
42For He remembered His holy word
With Abraham His servant;
43And He brought forth His people with joy,
His chosen ones with a joyful shout.
44He gave them also the lands of the nations,
That they might take possession of the fruit of the peoples' labor,
45So that they might keep His statutes
And observe His laws,
Praise the Lord!
105:37-43 These verses reflect the wilderness wandering period (cf. Numbers 13-36).
105:37 "with silver and gold" The Egyptians gave the Israelites much gold and silver (cf. Exod. 3:21-22; 11:2; 12:35-36). It was a way of illustrating the humiliating defeat by YHWH (cf. Ps. 105:38).
▣ "among His tribes" This phrase may be related to "by their hosts" (BDB 838), which is found in Exod. 6:26; 12:51; and Josephus, Antiq. 14.6. It means that as the Israelites left Egypt on their Exodus, they camped by tribal groupings.
▣ "there was not one who stumbled" This shows God's special miraculous care for the old, sick, and young (cf. Deut. 8:4).
105:39 ". . .cloud. . ." This was called the "Shekinah Cloud of Glory" by the rabbis (cf. Exod. 13:21-22; 14:19,24; 33:9-10; Ps. 78:14; 99:7). It accomplished several things for the Israelites.
1. symbol of YHWH's personal presence (shekinah means "to dwell with")
2. it separated Israel from Pharaoh's elite troops (cf. Exod. 14:19-20)
3. it led Israel (cf. Exod. 13:21-22; Num. 9:17-23)
4. it covered them and protected them from the heat (cf. Ps. 105:39)
5. it lit up the camp by night, even allowed Israel to travel at night (cf. Exod. 13:21; Neh. 9:12,19)
6. it caused the nations to fear Israel (cf. Exod. 23:27; Deut. 2:25; 11:25; Jos. 2:9)
7. it finally disappeared when Israel crossed the Jordan (cf. Exod. 16:35; Jos. 5:12), but reappeared at the dedication of Solomon's temple (1 Kings 8).
105:40 "They asked" The MT has "he asked." The UBS Text Project (p. 381) gives this a "C" rating (considerable doubt). The question is who the pronoun refers to.
1. the people as a whole
2. one among them acting as a spokesperson
3. YHWH Himself
▣ "quail" God provided quail meat twice (cf. Exod. 16:13-14 and Num. 11:31) as a sign of His love and promise of provisions and care.
▣ "bread of heaven" This was another name for manna (cf. Exodus 16).
In Deut. 8:3, the people called it "manna" (BDB 577 I, [Exod. 16:31] from the question of Exod. 16:4, "What is it?" Moses called it "bread from heaven," Exod. 16:4). It was God's special provision of food during the wilderness wandering period. It is described in Exod. 16:4, 14-15; 31; Num. 11:7-8, but its exact substance is unknown to us (BDB says it was known to Bedouins in the Sinai and that it was strictly a juice from a certain twig, but this does not fit the biblical description). God provided what they needed for each day, not for a long period of time, so the people would learn to trust Him for their daily needs. He does this for new covenant believers also (cf. Matt. 6:11).
105:41 "He opened the rock" This divine provision of water was repeated several times (cf. Exod. 17:1-6; Num. 20:11; Deut. 8:15; Ps. 78:20; 114:8). It becomes a Messianic symbol in 1 Cor. 10:4.
105:42 "He remembered His holy word" This refers to God's initial covenant with Abraham (cf. Ps. 105:5-6; Genesis 12-15, especially Gen. 15:16).
105:44-45 These verses reflect the Conquest of Canaan under Joshua.
105:45 "keep His statutes,
And obey His laws" Obedience to the revealed word of God is crucial. Obedience reveals the heart. The covenant has two aspects.
1. the sovereignty and faithfulness of YHWH (cf. Deut. 4:39)
2. the faith and obedience of His people (cf. Deut. 4:40; Ps. 25:10; 103:18)
3. YHWH is faithful (cf. Deut. 7:9), so His followers must be also!
▣ "Praise the Lord" This is literally "praise Yah" (BDB 237 II, KB 248, Piel imperative with Yah, BDB 219). In English it is transliterated "hallelujah." This phrase is a common refrain in the last section of the Psalter (i.e., Ps. 104:35; 105:45; 106:1,48; 111:1; 112:1; 113:1,9; 116:19; 117:2; 135:1,21; 146:1,10; 147:1; 148:1,14; 149:1,9; 150:1,6). How appropriate!
These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.
1. Why does the Bible encourage us to participate in public, corporate worship?
2. What are the implications of monotheism?
3. Does God send famine? (Ps. 105:16)
4. Why are God's acts of love and deliverance on behalf of Israel so significant?
5. Are God's covenants conditional or unconditional?
6. Why is the Psalm called "salvation history"?