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Ijwi ryo hagati ryo mu 1 Abakorinto 13:8

Hari bamwe kugeza ubu bavuga ko Isezerano Rishya mu Kigiriki ryaretse uburyo bwa mbere bwo gukoresha ijwi ryo hagati aho ruhamwa ikora ibiyireba ubwayo mu buryo bumwe. Igitekerezo nk'icyo cyangiriza ibivugwa, mu ruhande rumwe, nibura uko byavuzwe na Ririe. Urugero, mu busobanuro bwo hasi ku rupapuro Bill Mounce yaranditse ati:

Abahanga benshi mu kibonezamvugo bavuga ko ijwi ryo hagati “ryigarukaho,” ariko ntitwemera iryo jambo. “Kwigarukaho kutaziguye” kwari kumenyerewe mu Kigiriki cya mbere ariko nti byari muri Koyine (Ikigiriki rusange). Ahantu hamwe mu Isezerano Rishya ni muri Matayo 27:5, ariko Moule (igitabo kirimo amagambo adasobanutse, urupapuro rwa 24) harabivuga.242

Mu yandi magambo y'ubusobanuro yo hasi ku rupapuro yaranditse ati:

Urugero rwiza rw'ingorane ziterwa no kwemeza ko uburyo bwa kera bw'ijwi ryo hagati buboneka mu 1 Abakorinto 13:8, aho Pawulo avuga ko impano yo kuvuga indimi “izagira iherezo” (Pausontai). Bivugwa na bamwe. Pawulo avuga ko kuvuga indimi bizagira iherezo muri byo kandi ubwabyo.

Hadakurikijwe uko umuntu abona iby'impano z'Umwuka, dutekereza ko ubu ari uburyo butari bwo bwo gukoresha ijwi ryo hagati. Bivuga ko ijwi ryo hagati aha ngaha rikoreshwa mu buryo bumenyerewe, nubwo BAGD adatanga urutonde rw'ibintu yikundira ku busobanuro bwa (Pauo). Kandi iyo umuntu arebye ku zindi nshuro umunani z'iyo nshinga, bigaragara ko inshinga iri mu ijwi ryo hagati ritari iryigarukaho. Urugero rwiza ruri muri Luka 8:24, aho Yesu yategetse inyanja gutuza. “Yesu acyaha umuyaga n'amazi yihindurije: birahosha, haba ituza.” Mu by'ukuri umuyaga n'amazi “ntibyarekeyaho” muri byo kandi ubwabyo. Ijwi ryo hagati ry'iyi nshinga ntiryerekana “kwikunda”; ni iryo hagati (bivuga ko inshinga itondaguwe mu gihe cyerekana ko igikorwa gikorerwa ruhamwa, ariko ko mu busobanuro nta cyo iyo nshinga ikora).243 (Ubu busobanuro ni ubwanjye).

Ariko ibyo Mounce avuga, n'iby'abandi, nta gihamya bifite kandi ntabwo bihuje n'ukuri. Mu gitabo “Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, Dan Wallace akora umurimo ukomeye wo gusubirisha ingingo zihakana imbaraga z'ijwi ryo hagati mu Isezerano Rishya, ariko cyane cyane mu 1 Abakorinto 8:13. Wallace yaranditse ati:

Uko umuntu abona Isezerano Rishya ry'Ikigiriki bifite ingaruka zikomeye ku gukoreshwa kw'ijwi ryo hagati. Niba hari utekereza ko Isezerano Rishya ry'Ikigiriki ryatakaje amategeko amenyerewe y'Ikigiriki, noneho ntagomba kwibanda ku mbaraga z'ijwi ryo hagati mu gice icyo ari cyo cyose. Urugero, Moule avuga ko “nk'itegeko, birenze kworoha kumanuka uva ku ruzitiro n'umugambi ukajya ku ruhande urwo ari rwo rwose rw'ubusobanuro bw'ingorane iyo iterwa n'ijwi ryo hagati” (Moule, Idiom Book, urupapuro rwa 24).

Icyakora, niba hari ukeka ko Isezerano Rishya ry'Ikigiriki ryakomeje ahanini amategeko amenyerewe y'Ikigiriki, noneho azabona umumaro mwinshi mu gukoresha ijwi ryo hagati. Ku rundi ruhande rw'uruzitiro, Zerwick yaranditse ati: “Uburyo 'buziguye' bwo gukoresha ijwi ryo hagati ... cyane cyane bwerekana ko umwanditsi yagumanye gushaka kwerekana itandukaniro nubwo ryaba ari rito hagati y'inshinga itondaguwe mu buryo ruhamwa ikora igikora igikorwa n'uburyo bw'ijwi ryo hagati” (Zerwick, Biblical Greek, urupapuro rwa 75).

Ikidushimisha ni uko gusuzuma twitonze gukoreshwa kw'ijwi ryo hagati kw'inshinga mu Kigiriki cyo mu gihe cy'Abagiriki b'abanyabwenge kuzatanga umucyo ku buryo bwinshi ijwi rishobora gukoreshwamo. Igikunze kwibazwaho, mu kiboneza-mvugo, ni ukumenya niba ijwi ryo hagati rishobora gufatwa nk'iriziguye cyangwa iritaziguye...244

Mu bishobora kugibwaho impaka kandi bifite akamaro mu busobanuro, Wallace yavuze ibi ku 1 Abakorinto 13:8:

Niba ijwi ry'inshinga rifite akamaro, noneho Pawulo arimo aravuga ko kuvuga indimi bizirangiza ubwabyo (ijwi ryo hagati ritaziguye) cyangwa, uko bigaragara, bizashiraho ku bushake bwabyo, ni ukuvuga, “kurangiraho” ntawe ubigiyemo (ijwi ryo hagati riziguye). Bishobora kugira umumaro ko hakurikijwe ubuhanuzi n'ubumenyi, Pawulo yakoresheje irindi jambo rivuga cyane (katargeo) kandi akarishyira mu buryo igikorwa gikorerwa ruhamwa. Mu mirongo ya 9-10, ingingo irakomeza: “kuko tumenyaho igice kandi duhanuraho igice; ariko ubwo igishyitse rwose kizasohora, bya bindi bidashyitse bizakurwaho ” Aha na none, Pawulo akoresha inshinga yerekana igikorerwa ruhamwa yakoresheje ku buhanuzi n'ubumenyi kandi avuga ku ruhande rw'inshinga, ku by' “ubuhanuzi” n' “ubumenyi.” Ariko ntabwo avuga iby'indimi zizashiraho “igihe igishyitse rwose kizasohora.” Ingaruka ishobora kuba ko kuvuga indimi byashoboraga kuba “byashizeho” ubwabyo mbere y'uko ibishyitse bisohora. Ijwi ryo hagati muri iki gice rero, rizaba ryarwanijwe niba umuntu agomba kugera ku musozo w'igihe kuvuga indimi bizarangirira.

Igitekerezo cy'abahanga mu by'Isezerano Rishya ba none, ni uko (pauosontai) atari ijwi ryo hagati riziguye. Ikivugwa ni uko (pauo) mu gihe kizaza itaziguye, kandi ko guhinduka kw'inshinga ari mu buryo bwo kwubaka interuro. Niba ari uko bimeze noneho, iki gice nta cyo kivuga ku gushiraho kwo kuvuga indimi ku bwazo, hatabayeho kuza kw'“igishyitse.” Icyakora hari ingingo eshatu zirwanya iby'ijwi ritaziguye. Iya mbere, niba (pauosontai) itaziguye, noneho igice cya kabiri cy'ingenzi (uburyo bw'igihe kizaza) ntigishobora kubaho mu buryo ruhamwa ari yo ikora igikorwa mu Kigiriki cyo mu gihe cy'Abayuda b'abanyabwenge. Bityo rero, inshinga ntishobora kuba itaziguye. Iya kabiri, rimwe na rimwe Luka 8:24 hagibwaho impaka: Yesu yacyashye umuyaga n'amazi kandi birahosha (epausantos, inshinga AORIST yo hagati) bireka kuba umuraba. Ingingo ni uko ibintu bidafite ubugingo bidashobora guhosha ku bwabyo; bityo rero, ijwi ryo hagati rya (pauo) rihwanye n'inshinga itondaguwe mu buryo igikorwa gikorerwa ruhamwa. Ariko ibi ni ukudasobanukirwa iby'inyandiko by'iki gice; niba amazi n'umuyaga bidashobora guhosha ku bushake bwabyo, ni kuki Kristo abicyaha? Kandi ni kuki abigishwa bavuga ko amazi n'umuyaga byumviye Yesu? Ibintu byafashwe nk'abantu muri Luka 8 kandi guhosha kwabyo bikareka kuba umuraba bifatwa nko kwitangira kwumvira Yesu. Niba hari igihari, Luka 8:23 hashyigikiye ijwi ryo hagati. Iya gatatu, igitekerezo cy'inshinga itaziguye ni uko ari inshinga yo mu ijwi ryo hagati, ariko mu buryo ruhamwa ari yo ikora igikorwa cy'inshinga. Ariko (pausontai) ikikijwe n'inshinga y'igikorwa gikorerwa ruhamwa muri 1 Abakorinto 13:8, zitari ibikorwa bya ruhamwa. Imbaraga z'ukuri za (pauo) mu ijwi ryo hagati ritagira icyuzuzo, mu gihe inshinga ya ruhamwa ikora igikorwa ifite icyuzuzo. Aho ruhamwa ikora igikorwa ifite imbaraga zo guhagarika ikindi kintu; mu ijwi ryo hagati, ishira ku bwayo.

Muri make, uburyo butaziguye bushingiye ku bintu by'ibinyoma nko ku kwita ko itaziguye, hahwanye no muri Luka 8:24, ndetse no ku busobanuro bwo kutazigura. Pawulo asa n'uwerekana ko guhinduka ku nshinga kwe gushingiye ku buryo interuro zubatswe...245

Ni ukuri, ibi ntibitubwira igihe kuvuga indimi bizarangirira, ariko bitanga gihamya ku gitekerezo cya Ryrie cy'uko byavuzwe mbere, kandi bigasubiza ingingo z'abashaka imbaraga z'ijwi ryo hagati ry'Ikigiriki mu 1 Abakorinto 13:8.


242 William Mounce, Basics of Biblical Greek, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1993, p. 224.

243 Mounce, Basics of Biblical Greek, p. 224.

244 Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1996, p. 420.

245 Wallace, p. 422.

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