5. Survey of Eschatological ViewsRelated Media
Many people find eschatology daunting because there are so many different views. Why are there so many views? For several reasons: (1) There is a great diversity of views because God never gives a clear timeline of eschatological events in Scripture. Passages dealing with eschatology are scattered throughout the Bible (though certain books, like Revelation and Daniel, have a great deal of them), and those passages are hard to systemize. Consequently, some people believe Revelation and passages like Matthew 24 all, or mostly, happened during the time of the apostles. This is called the preterist view. “Preter” in Latin means past. While others believe passages dealing with eschatology will happen in the last generation of Christians. This is called the futuristic view. (2) Also, some disagree on whether to interpret certain passages literally or symbolically. (3) Furthermore, there is disagreement over God’s plans for Israel and the church. Are Israel and the church the same (cf. Rom 2:28-29, Gal 6:17, Rev 7:4-8)? If so, Old Testament promises to Israel are fulfilled in the church. If they are not the same but simply different groups of God’s people (cf. Rom 11, Heb 12, Rev 22), then promises to Israel will literally be fulfilled at a future date. This overlaps with the previous point because those who believe Israel and the church are the same, typically, will spiritualize promises to Israel, since they believe they are fulfilled in the church. Because of these difficulties, we should not be overly dogmatic about our beliefs concerning eschatological timelines.
Areas of Eschatological Unity
With that said, though there is a great diversity of thought concerning eschatology, there are important things that all conservative Christians agree on. For example, all conservative Christians believe that Christ will suddenly, visibly, and physically return to the earth (Matt 24:30). They believe that all people will be resurrected. They believe that resurrected unbelievers will be judged by Christ (Rev 20:11-15), and that resurrected believers will be rewarded for their faithfulness on earth (1 Cor 3:12-15, Lk 19:11-19). Finally, believers will spend eternity worshipping and serving God in the new heaven and earth (Rev 21, 22).
Now we will consider the three primary eschatological views: amillennialism, postmillennialism, and premillennialism. Within premillennialism, there are two views: historical premillennialism and dispensational premillennialism. We will briefly consider each of the views.
The “a” in amillennialism negates the term in the sense that it teaches there will not be a literal, future 1000-year reign of Christ on the earth. Christ is reigning millennially now at the right hand of God in heaven and on earth in the hearts of believers. Because amillennialists do not deny a millennium but believe it is happening now, some prefer the term realized millennialism.1 In many ways, this eschatological system is the simplest because most of the end-time events happen right when Christ returns, including a general resurrection, judgment, and the ushering in of the eternal state.
The main passage for amillennialism (and the other millennial views) is Revelation 20:1-10. It teaches about a 1000-year period where Satan is bound and resurrected saints rule with Christ. It says,
Then I saw an angel descending from heaven, holding in his hand the key to the abyss and a huge chain. He seized the dragon—the ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan—and tied him up for a thousand years. The angel then threw him into the abyss and locked and sealed it so that he could not deceive the nations until the one thousand years were finished. (After these things he must be released for a brief period of time.) Then I saw thrones and seated on them were those who had been given authority to judge. I also saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of the testimony about Jesus and because of the word of God. These had not worshiped the beast or his image and had refused to receive his mark on their forehead or hand. They came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were finished.) This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who takes part in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for a thousand years. Now when the thousand years are finished, Satan will be released from his prison and will go out to deceive the nations at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to bring them together for the battle. They are as numerous as the grains of sand in the sea. They went up on the broad plain of the earth and encircled the camp of the saints and the beloved city, but fire came down from heaven and devoured them completely. And the devil who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet are too, and they will be tormented there day and night forever and ever.
Amillennialists understand this passage to be figuratively referring to this age—the time between Christ’s first and second coming, instead of a literal 1000-year future age where Christ reigns on the earth. When it describes Satan being bound in the abyss for 1000 years so he cannot tempt the nations (Rev 20:2-3), this means that Satan’s power is currently reduced in the sense that he cannot stop the gospel from being effectively proclaimed by the church to the nations.2 Since Satan was defeated by Christ at the cross (Col 2:15, Gen 3:15), the gates of hades will not prevail against the church (Matt 16:18). The church will be triumphant in spreading the gospel during this age because all authority has been given to Christ and the strongman, Satan, has been bound (Matt 28:18, 12:29). Satan will be let loose briefly at the end of this age to cause havoc in the world before Christ returns to judge him (Rev 12:12, 13:1-18, 20:7-10). In this view, when Revelation 20:4 describes saints who have died, been resurrected, and reign with Christ for a thousand years, this refers to believers who have died and are currently reigning with Christ in heaven and/or living believers who have been resurrected from spiritual death to spiritual life and are ruling with Christ in the heavens (cf. Eph 2:1-7).3 Therefore, “the first resurrection” in verse 5 refers to going into the presence of Christ in heaven; it is not a bodily resurrection.4 Others believe that Christ is ruling on earth through the lives of believers and the church corporately.5 Some combine the various views. Instead of a future millennial reign on the earth, Christ is ruling now in the heavens with believers and on earth in the hearts of believers. This would fit with Christ saying, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed, nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or ‘There!’ For indeed, the kingdom of God is in your midst” (Lk 17:20-21). Again, for amillennialists, the millennial kingdom is not a literal future kingdom; it is a present spiritual kingdom. The thousand years simply refers to a long period of time between Christ’s first coming and second coming, where Christ saves his elect on the earth. When the last believer is saved, Christ will come again to judge the earth. At Christ’s coming, there will be a general resurrection of the dead, including believers and nonbelievers (Acts 24:15, Dan 12:2). Nonbelievers will be sent to the lake of fire (Rev 20:11-15). Believers will be rewarded for faithfulness to Christ during this age (2 Cor 5:10). And then, the eternal state with the new heaven and earth will begin, where saints will worship Christ, rule with him, and serve him forever (Rev 2:26, 22:3-5).
Some amillennialists believe Christ could return at any moment to usher in the eternal stage, while others believe that certain events must happen before his return, such as the gospel going to all nations, the revealing of the antichrist, the great apostasy, the tribulation period, and the salvation of the elect (cf. Matt 24:9-12, 2 Thess 2:1-12, Rom 11:25-27).6 Those who believe no signs are needed typically believe that the signs have happened already, possibly by AD 70 when the temple was destroyed, or that they possibly but not likely have happened. For those who believe the signs have possibly but not likely happened, the thought process is that we cannot know with any certainty that the signs have been fulfilled; therefore, Christ could come at any moment.7 This allows this view to maintain a sense of imminency when considering the second coming, since Scripture says Christ will come like a thief in the night and early believers clearly believed Christ could come in their lifetime (1 Thess 5:2, 4:15-17).
In order to come to an amillennial timeline of eschatological events, a recapitulation view of the book of Revelation is taken.8 Instead of the book being primarily chronological, it is viewed as John repeating the same events (primarily the end of the world) from different angles, as seen in the seven seals (Rev 4:1-8:5), trumpets (8:6-11:19), and bowls (15:1-16:21), the interlude of Revelation 12-14, Revelation 19, Revelation 20, and possibly other passages. This allows for Revelation 20, which details the millennial reign of Christ, to happen before Revelation 19, which details Christ’s second coming. This is in contrast with the premillennial position which typically sees most of Revelation chronologically, including Christ’s second coming (Rev 19) and his millennial reign on the earth (Rev 20). Chronology would be argued from such things as the seven seals displaying consecutive judgments and then the final seal opening up to the next consecutive judgments seen in the seven trumpets (Rev 8:1-6), chronological markers like “then” used throughout John’s writing (e.g. Rev 19:6, 9, 11, 17, 19, 20:1, 4, 11, 14, 21:1, 9, etc.), and apparent chronological events such as the beast and false prophet being thrown into the lake of fire in Revelation 19:20 and how they are still there in Revelation 20:10 when Satan is thrown there.
Amillennialism was popularized in the 400’s by Augustine (AD 354–430) and his book the City of God. Consequently, Augustine is called the “father of amillennialism.”9 With his influence and others, amillennialism became the majority view throughout much of church history and is still held by many today. It is the standard view of Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox churches, and Reformed churches.
The chart below presents the sequence of events in the amillennial eschatological system.
Postmillennialism is the view that Christ will return at the end of the millennium. In some ways, this view is very similar to amillennialism. Like amillennialists, the millennium is not a literal 1000 years, but simply a long time period. During this time, Christ will not be physically ruling on the earth but spiritually in the hearts of those who submit to Christ. Both views come from taking a figurative interpretation of texts which deal with the millennium instead of a literal interpretation of them (cf. Is 2:1-5, 11:1-16, 65:17-25, Zech 14:16-21, Rev 20:1-10). Unlike amillennialism and premillennialism that believe the current age will ultimately get worse and worse before Christ comes (cf. 1 Tim 3:1-9, Matt 24:3-31, Rev 6-19), postmillennialism believes this age will get better and better until Christ comes. In fact, the millennium will begin at some point between Christ’s first and second coming, after a long period of growing righteousness on the earth which affects every aspect of society—economic, social, political, religious, and cultural.10 During the millennium, Satan will be bound in the sense of his inability to stop the gospel from spreading and its transforming effect on society (cf. Rev 20:1-3). “Evil in all its many forms eventually will be reduced to negligible proportions, that Christian principles will be the rule, not the exception, and that Christ will return to a truly Christianized world.”11 “Some postmillennialists allow for a brief time of apostasy at the conclusion of the millennium, just prior to the return of Christ.”12 When the millennium ends, Christ will return to resurrect the dead, judge them, and usher in the eternal state. Loraine Boettner gives a helpful summary of postmillennialism. She calls it:
That view of last things which holds that the kingdom of God is now being extended in the world through the preaching of the Gospel and the saving work of the Holy Spirit in the hearts of individuals, that the world is eventually to be Christianized, and that the return of Christ is to occur at the close of a long period of righteousness and peace commonly called the “Millennium.” … The second coming of Christ will be followed immediately by the general resurrection, the general judgment, and the introduction of heaven and hell in their fullness.13
A key theologian who helped articulate postmillennialism was Jonathan Edwards, who many consider the greatest theologian in American history (1703-1758).14 He preached during the Great Awakening, which was the religious revivals in the British American colonies primarily between 1720-40. During this period, postmillennialism grew in popularity—peaking during the 1800s and early 1900s before World War I and II. Tremendous progress in science, education, culture, and standards of living, especially because of the Enlightenment (1685-1815) and Industrial Revolution (1712-1914), helped foster the growing optimism that postmillennialism presents.15 However, after the two World Wars and the continued increase of wickedness globally, those who held the view sharply declined. With that said, there has been somewhat of a revival of the view in recent years.16
Postmillennialists find biblical support for their view in Scriptures that present prosperous conditions on the earth during the messiah’s rule, the powerful effects of the gospel, and the expansion of the spiritual kingdom (cf. Rom 1:16, Is 65:17-25, etc.).17 For instance, the Great Commission of Matthew 28:18-20 says:
Then Jesus came up and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age.”
Because Christ has authority over heaven and earth, the gospel will transform people from every nation, and they will learn to obey God’s Word. Also, the parables of the mustard seed and yeast describe the pervasive expansion of the kingdom during this age. Matthew 13:31-33 says,
He gave them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his field. It is the smallest of all the seeds, but when it has grown it is the greatest garden plant and becomes a tree, so that the wild birds come and nest in its branches.” He told them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with three measures of flour until all the dough had risen.”
Wayne Grudem said, “According to postmillennialists both of these parables indicate that the kingdom will grow in influence until it permeates and in some measure transforms the entire world.”18
They also emphasize Old Testament prophecies referring to the messiah’s rule on the earth and the prosperous conditions thereof, as seen in Isaiah 11:1-9. It says:
A shoot will grow out of Jesse’s root stock, a bud will sprout from his roots. The Lord’s spirit will rest on him— a spirit that gives extraordinary wisdom, a spirit that provides the ability to execute plans, a spirit that produces absolute loyalty to the Lord. He will take delight in obeying the Lord. He will not judge by mere appearances, or make decisions on the basis of hearsay. He will treat the poor fairly, and make right decisions for the downtrodden of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and order the wicked to be executed. Justice will be like a belt around his waist, integrity will be like a belt around his hips. A wolf will reside with a lamb, and a leopard will lie down with a young goat; an ox and a young lion will graze together, as a small child leads them along. A cow and a bear will graze together, their young will lie down together. A lion, like an ox, will eat straw. A baby will play over the hole of a snake; over the nest of a serpent an infant will put his hand. They will no longer injure or destroy on my entire royal mountain. For there will be universal submission to the Lord’s sovereignty, just as the waters completely cover the sea.
Instead of taking a literal interpretation of this passage, which would describe Christ’s literal rule on the earth during the millennium, they would interpret the passage figuratively, saying it refers to Christ’s impact on the world through the church and the gospel.
In addition, postmillennialists find support for the view in the various ways that they see the world progressing.19 For example, they would point to improved social conditions, such as women having a greater status in nations that have received the gospel. Also, they point to the spread of the gospel to many nations through various means, including media, and how the Bible is the world’s most translated and sold book.
With that said, a weakness of the view is the Scripture texts that say things will get continually worse right before Christ comes, including the tribulation promised in Matthew 24:3-31 and Revelation 6-19, and the continual decline of morality promised in other passages (cf. 2 Tim 3:1-9, Lk 18:8, 2 Thess 2:3-4). Many postmillennialists handle these by taking a preterist view of eschatological events—believing that all or most eschatological events happened before AD 70 when the Jewish temple was destroyed. For example, when Christ described the events of the end times, which will happen before his coming in Matthew 24, including natural disasters, persecution of believers, the rise of false messiahs, apostasy, and signs in the heavens, in Matthew 24:34, he said, “this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.” Since Christ’s discourse began with the disciples asking about when the temple would be destroyed, the signs of Christ’s coming, and the end of the age (Matt 24:1-3), preterists see all these events being fulfilled in the first generation of Christians. With the signs in the heavens like, “the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven will be shaken” (Matt 24:29), they typically see these fulfilled figuratively, not as literal events.20 With Christ coming at the end of these events as stated in Matthew 24:30, “Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and all the tribes of the earth will mourn,” they see it being fulfilled spiritually. Instead of Christ coming to rule on the earth, he came spiritually for judgment. Most preterists believe that Christ will come again physically to resurrect people, judge them, and usher in the eternal stage.21 Like many postmillennialists, some amillennialists take a preterist, or partial preterist, view of various eschatological passages—believing they were fulfilled, or mostly fulfilled, in the first generation of Christians, instead of them awaiting a future fulfillment.22
The chart below presents the sequence of events in the postmillennial eschatological system.
Premillennialism is the view that Christ will come back before the millennium to establish his earthly reign on the earth. This view takes a literal interpretation of Revelation 20:1-10 and other OT eschatological passages, unlike amillennialism and postmillennialism—though some believe that Christ’s 1000-year reign simply symbolizes a long time-period. There are two types of premillennialism: historic and dispensational. We will consider them both.
Historic or classical premillennialism is the oldest eschatological view—held by the majority of the church in its first 200 years.23 Many of the early church fathers held the view, including Ignatius (50–115) and Polycarp (70–167) who were instructed by John the apostle, the author of Revelation.24
Typical tenants of the position are that there will be a tribulation period on the earth (cf. Rev 6-18, Matt 24, Mark 13). Matthew 24:21 (ESV) says, “For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be.” Also, Matthew 24:29-30 (ESV) says, “Immediately after the tribulation of those days… Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.” When Christ returns, there will be a posttribulational rapture of saints. Saints that are dead will be resurrected, and living saints will receive glorified bodies (1 Thess 4:13-18). Then, Christ will establish his rule on earth, which will last for 1000 years (Rev 19-20). As mentioned, some believe that the 1000 years prophesied in Revelation 20:1-10 simply symbolizes a long time period.25 When Christ returns to the earth to establish his kingdom, the nation of Israel will repent of their sins and accept their messiah (Zech 12:10-13:2, Rom 11:26-27). Zechariah 12:10 says, “I will pour out on the kingship of David and the population of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication so that they will look to me, the one they have pierced. They will lament for him as one laments for an only son, and there will be a bitter cry for him like the bitter cry for a firstborn.” Also, Romans 11:26-27 says, “And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: ‘The Deliverer will come out of Zion; he will remove ungodliness from Jacob. And this is my covenant with them, when I take away their sins.’” In addition, though most unbelievers will be immediately judged by Christ and sent to hell (cf. 2 Thess 1:7-10), historic premillennialists believe some Gentiles will surrender to Christ without trusting him and enter the millennium as unbelievers.26 Zechariah 14:16 says, “Then all who survive from all the nations that came to attack Jerusalem will go up annually to worship the King, the Lord who rules over all, and to observe the Feast of Tabernacles.” This will allow for people with unglorified bodies to enter into Christ’s millennial kingdom and have children (Is 11:8-9, 65:17-20)—some of which will eventually rebel against Christ (Rev 20:7-9). In describing the millennial period, Isaiah 11:6-8 says:
A wolf will reside with a lamb, and a leopard will lie down with a young goat; an ox and a young lion will graze together, as a small child leads them along… A baby will play over the hole of a snake; over the nest of a serpent an infant will put his hand
At the end of 1000 years, Satan will be let loose to tempt the nations. When that happens, Christ will defeat Satan and all who follow him (Rev 20:7-10). Then, there be a resurrection of the lost, their judgment by Christ, and them being thrown in the lake of fire to be tormented forever (John 5:22, Rev 20:11-15). Then, Christ will usher in the eternal state, including the new heaven and earth (Rev 21-22). Revelation 21:1 says, “Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and earth had ceased to exist, and the sea existed no more.”
The chart below presents the chronology of classical premillennialism.
Dispensational premillennialism (sometimes called futuristic premillennialism) developed later than historical premillennialism. It was popularized by John Darby, a member of the Plymouth Brethren, in the 1830s and by Cyrus Ingerson (C.I.) Scofield, who published Darby’s ideas in the Scofield Reference Bible in 1909.27 Though it is probably the most prominent view today amongst evangelical believers, it is often criticized for its late development. Some even claim it was not discovered until the 1800s.28 However, it would be better to say it was popularized in the 1800s, since scholars have found a handful of dispensational writings that originated very early in church history. Jordan Ballard, a professor at Liberty University, cites a few in his published paper on the rapture:
… a sermon by Pseudo-Ephraem (4th-6th century) titled “On the Last Times, the Antichrist, and the End of the World” states, “All the saints and elect of God are gathered together before the tribulation, which is to come, and are taken to the Lord, in order that they may not see at any time the confusion which overwhelms the world because of our sins.” … Other examples … include Codex Amiatinus (ca. 690-716), 16 Brother Dolcino (d. 1307), Increase Mather (1693-1723), John Gill (1697-1771),19 Morgan Edwards (1722-1795), and others.29
Though developed later, dispensational premillennialism is very similar to historic premillennialism, except in a few ways. (1) Dispensationalists seek to consistently use a literal interpretation of Scripture, including when considering prophetic passages. Historic premillennialism, along with other eschatological systems, often spiritualize eschatological passages, specifically Old Testament ones considering Israel and Christ’s Davidic rule. For instance, it is common for historic millennialists to see Christ’s Davidic rule being fulfilled in heaven, as Christ sits at God’s right hand (cf. 2 Sam 7:11-16, Acts 2:34-36).30 Also, they commonly view eschatological prophecies about Israel being fulfilled by the church. (2) This leads to the next point. Dispensationalists maintain a strict distinction between the church and Israel. Historic premillennialism, along with other eschatological systems, often believe a form of replacement theology, where they see the church as replacing Israel or being the fulfillment of Israel. This is because some Scriptures seem to equate the two (cf. Rom 2:28-29, Gal 3:29, 6:16, etc.). For instances, Romans 2:28-29 says,
For a person is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision something that is outward in the flesh, but someone is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is of the heart by the Spirit and not by the written code. This person’s praise is not from people but from God.
Historic premillennialism, and other eschatological systems, would often view passages like this as saying those who believe in Christ (i.e. the church) are true Jews; while dispensationalists would view these as saying there is a remnant of true Jews within the church—those who believe in Christ (cf. Lk 19:9). Dispensationalists would argue that the term “Israel” always refers to the physical posterity of Jacob, and never to the church.31 Therefore, dispensationalists would view Old Testament covenants with Israel, such as the land of Israel being theirs eternally (Gen 17:8, Dt 30:1-10), them having a Davidic king with an everlasting throne (2 Sam 7:12–16), them being regathered to the land, God forgiving their sins, them receiving a new nature (Jer 31:31-34, Ez 36:24-28), and the nations of the earth streaming to Jerusalem to worship the messiah (Zech 14:16-19), as literally fulfilled by the Jews in the millennium. However, historic premillennialism, and other eschatological systems, do not view the Jews as having a prominent role in the coming millennial kingdom. With that said, though historic premillennialists often view the church as the new Israel, like amillennialists and postmillennialists, what distinguishes them is their belief that Christ will eventually save the nation of Israel, and not just a remnant from within, at his coming (cf. Rom 11:26-27), which is the same view dispensationalists hold.
(3) Another distinction that separates dispensationalists from historic premillennialists is that they view the second coming of Christ in two distinct stages. Christ’s first coming will most likely be pretribulational to rapture the saints and take them to heaven (1 Thess 4:13-18, John 14:1-3). The reason Christ will rapture his saints before the tribulation is because the tribulation is primarily to judge unbelievers (2 Thess 2:11-12, Rev 6:16-17) and purify Israel (Jer 30:7, Zech 13:8-9). Since the church is promised to be delivered from God’s wrath (Rev 3:10, 1 Thess 5:9), she will not go through the tribulation, but instead, be delivered from it. To further support this, they note how the church is continually mentioned in Revelation 1-3, but never mentioned in Revelation 6-18, which detail the tribulation period. Unlike Christ’s secret coming for his saints, his other coming will be visible and with his saints to judge the world and establish his kingdom on the earth (Matt 24:30, Rev 19:11-15). In contrast, historic premillennialism, like the other eschatological views, believes in a posttribulational rapture, where saints are raptured into the air and immediately return to the earth to judge and rule with Christ. The posttribulational and pretribulational rapture views will be more thoroughly considered in a later chapter.
(4) A final distinction that separates dispensationalists from historic premillennialists is that they believe only believers will enter the millennial kingdom because Christ will send all unbelievers to hell as described in the parable of the sheep and the goats (Matt 25:31-46), the weeds and wheat (Matt 13:24-30, 36-43), the net (Matt 13:47-50), and other NT passages (2 Thess 1:7-10). Since historical premillennialists believe in a posttribulational rapture that happens at the second coming, that does not leave any unresurrected believers to enter the kingdom and populate it, other than the Jews who will repent when Christ comes to the earth (Rom 11:25-26). Therefore, in order for Gentile nations to enter the kingdom as Scripture teaches (Zech 14:16), historic premillennialists have to say that they are unbelievers who surrendered to Christ without trusting in him and therefore Christ did not destroy them.32
Dispensational premillennialism is chronologically displayed in the chart below.
Paul Enns, in the Moody Handbook of Theology, gives a clear graphic summary of the four premillennial views, as shown below.33
In concluding a survey of these eschatological systems, it is good to remember that believers will often resonate with truths from the various systems and therefore not fit strictly within one. Because of this, other eschatological systems have been (and will be) created, which are less prominent than the ones covered here.
In the following chapters, we will consider major eschatological events. We will cover them primarily from a premillennial perspective, since premillennialists employ a more consistently literal hermeneutic when interpreting eschatological Scriptures.
- What stood out most in the reading and why?
- What do postmillennialism, amillennialism, and premillennialism believe and what are their major differences?
- What do historical (classical) premillennialism and dispensational (futuristic) premillennialism have in common and what are their major differences?
- Which eschatological view do you lean towards and why?
- What other questions or applications did you take from the reading?
Copyright © 2021 Gregory Brown
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1 Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology (p. 409). Moody Publishers. Kindle Edition.
2 MacArthur, J., & Mayhue, R. (Eds.). (2017). Biblical Doctrine: A Systematic Summary of Bible Truth (p. 884). Wheaton, IL: Crossway.
3 Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology (p. 409). Moody Publishers. Kindle Edition.
4 Grudem, W. A. (2004). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrine (p. 1115). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
5 MacArthur, J., & Mayhue, R. (Eds.). (2017). Biblical Doctrine: A Systematic Summary of Bible Truth (p. 884). Wheaton, IL: Crossway.
6 Grudem, W. A. (2004). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrine (p. 1110). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
7 Grudem, W. A. (2004). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrine (p. 1101). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
8 MacArthur, J., & Mayhue, R. (Eds.). (2017). Biblical Doctrine: A Systematic Summary of Bible Truth (p. 884). Wheaton, IL: Crossway.
9 MacArthur, J., & Mayhue, R. (Eds.). (2017). Biblical Doctrine: A Systematic Summary of Bible Truth (p. 885). Wheaton, IL: Crossway.
10 Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology (p. 413). Moody Publishers. Kindle Edition.
11 Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology (p. 413). Moody Publishers. Kindle Edition.
12 Ryrie, C. C. (1999). Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide to Understanding Biblical Truth (p. 512). Chicago, IL: Moody Press.
13 Ryrie, C. C. (1999). Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide to Understanding Biblical Truth (p. 511). Chicago, IL: Moody Press.
15 Loraine Boettner, The Millennium (Philadelphia: Presbyterian & Reformed, 1966), 14. See 3–105 for the definitive, representative position of postmillennialism.
16 Aaron, Daryl. Understanding Theology in 15 Minutes a Day. Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
17 MacArthur, J., & Mayhue, R. (Eds.). (2017). Biblical Doctrine: A Systematic Summary of Bible Truth (p. 887). Wheaton, IL: Crossway.
18 Grudem, W. A. (2004). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrine (p. 1122). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
19 Ryrie, C. C. (1999). Basic Theology: A Popular Systematic Guide to Understanding Biblical Truth (p. 513). Chicago, IL: Moody Press.
20 Grudem, W. A. (2004). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrine (p. 1125). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
21 Aaron, Daryl. Understanding Theology in 15 Minutes a Day. Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
22 Aaron, Daryl. Understanding Theology in 15 Minutes a Day. Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
23 MacArthur, J., & Mayhue, R. (Eds.). (2017). Biblical Doctrine: A Systematic Summary of Bible Truth (p. 885). Wheaton, IL: Crossway.
24 Wilmington, Harold. Wilmington’s Guide to the Bible (Revised Edition). Carol Stream, Il: Tyndale House Publishers, 2011.
25 Grudem, W. A. (2004). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrine (pp. 1111–1112). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
26 Grudem, W. A. (2004). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrine (p. 1133). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
27 Accessed 1/20/2021 from https://www.christianitytoday.com/history/people/pastorsandpreachers/john-nelson-darby.html
28 Grudem, W. A. (2004). Systematic theology: an introduction to biblical doctrine (p. 1134). Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; Zondervan Pub. House.
29 Cited 1/20/2021, by Ballard, Jordan in his thesis within the Liberty University Digital Commons, https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1037&context=symp_grad
30 MacArthur, J., & Mayhue, R. (Eds.). (2017). Biblical Doctrine: A Systematic Summary of Bible Truth (pp. 891–892). Wheaton, IL: Crossway.
31 Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology (p. 418). Moody Publishers. Kindle Edition.
Related Topics: Eschatology (Things to Come)