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19. Old Testament Prophets: A Selected Bibliography

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You will want to become familiar with OTI’s, Bible Geographies, and Encyclopedias.

General Works on the Prophets

Bullock, C. Hassell. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books. Chicago: Moody, 1986.

This is an excellent conservative introduction by a man committed to the Scriptures and to scholarship. It is fresh and up to date on current issues.

Freeman, Hobart E. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets. Chicago: Moody, 1968.

A good conservative introduction to the prophets. It explores both some introductory matters relating to prophecy in general and then has introductions for each of the prophets.

Kitchen, Kenneth. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2003.

This is not just about the prophets, but it is a valuable tool for all Old Testament study. Kitchen debunks much of the “minimalist” thinking, and presents a conservative approach to the Old Testament texts.

Young, Edward J. My Servants the Prophets. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952.

This is an excellent conservative introduction by a well known reformed scholar. It interacts with many of the critical views and supports fidelity of the Scriptures.

Isaiah

Alexander, Joseph. A. Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. Reprint. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1953.

An old standard conservative, reformed scholar.

Barnes, Albert. Notes on the Old Testament, Explanatory and Practical: Isaiah. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1950.

Beale, G. K. We Become What We Worship—a Biblical Theology of Idolatry. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2008.

Approaches the text “inter-textually.” This means that he develops a theology, not according to an arbitrary theme, but using verses and texts that are repeated throughout the OT and NT. He uses words such as “teasing out the usage,” “not an exact science but a kind of art,” “allusions and assumed allusions.” All this phraseology indicates that he is a “maximalist” in this interpretative device, that is, he pushes the envelope in finding connections between passages. (Introduction)

Boutflower, Charles. The Book of Isaiah, Chapters IXXXIX, in the Light of the Assyrian Monuments. New York: Macmillan, 1930.

Delitzsch, Franz. Isaiah. Trans. by James Martin. 2 vols. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1954.

Delitzsch’s work is old and out of date in many respects. At the same time, his conservatism, scholarship and insight cannot be surpassed. I always find him helpful.

Gray, George B. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Isaiah: Vol. I: Introduction and Commentary on IXXVII. The International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1912.

Gray represents an earlier generation of liberal scholars. His philological work will always need examination in light of more recent materials. As with all ICC works this one should be referred to.

Hayes, John H. and Stuart A. Irving. Isaiah, the Eighth Century Prophet; His Times and His Preaching, Abingdon Press, 1987.

A fresh critical is taken to the first 39 chapters of Isaiah. They list ten presuppositions in the introduction that depart from the standard form critical approach to Isaiah. An important work.

Hebert, A. S. The Book of the Prophet Isaiah: Chapters IXXXIX. Cambridge: University Press, 1973.

Jennings, F. C. Studies in Isaiah. New York: Loizeaux, 1950.

Jennings is a premillennial commentator. His approach to the text is to set it as poetry. From a literary point of view his work is interesting. From a scholarly point of view it leaves much to be desired.

Kaiser, Otto. Isaiah 112: A Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1972.

    . Isaiah 1339: A Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1974.

Knight, George A. F. DeuteroIsaiah: A Theological Commentary on Isaiah 4055. New York: Abingdon, 1965.

Leupold, H. C. Exposition of Isaiah. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968.

Leupold is a conservative, amillennial, Lutheran scholar. His commentaries are always helpful.

MacRae, Allan A. The Gospel of Isaiah. Chicago: Moody, 1977.

MacRae (Biblical Seminary) was a conservative, premillennial scholar. This work is somewhat popular.

Martin, Alfred. Isaiah: The Salvation of Jehovah. Chicago: Moody, 1956.

Conservative, premillennial, popular.

McKenzie, John L. Second Isaiah. The Anchor Bible. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1967.

This Roman Catholic scholar provides much insight into the book, but his position is liberal.

Mauchline, John. Isaiah 139. London: S. C. M., 1962.

Motyer, J. Alec. The Prophecy of Isaiah. Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 1993.

North, Christopher R. The Second Isaiah: Introduction, Translation and Commentary to Chapters 4055. Oxford: Clarendon, 1964.

North is a mediating scholar. I find him always very helpful even when I disagree with him.

    . The Suffering Servant in Deutero-Isaiah: An Historical and Critical Study. Oxford: University Press, 1948.

In my opinion, this is one of the best and most helpful discussions on the issue of the servant in Isaiah available.

Oswalt, John N. The Book of IsaiahChapters 139. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986.

Eerdmans has supplanted Young’s commentary on Isaiah with Oswalt’s. Oswalt is an excellent scholar, and premillennial in his orientation.

Ridderbos, J. Isaiah. Bible Student’s Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984.

Ridderbos is an evangelical Dutch scholar. His perspective is amillennial. This work was originally published in 1950-51 in Holland. It is a warm, scholarly work.

Skinner, J. The Book of Isaiah the Prophet. 2 vols. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: University Press, 1898.

Torrey, Charles Cutler. The Second Isaiah: A New Interpretation. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1928.

Cutler’s Old Testament studies tended to be so radical that they provide very little help.

Von Orelli, C. The Prophecies of Isaiah. Trans. by J. S. Banks. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1889.

Von Orelli is an old conservative scholar from the reformed perspective. His work is always helpful.

    . The Twelve Minor Prophets. Trans. by J. S. Banks. 1897. Reprint ed. Minneapolis: Klock & Klock Christian Publishers, 1977.

Westermann, Claus. Isaiah 4066: A Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969.

Wolf, H. M. Interpreting Isaiah. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

A conservative, popular commentary by a Wheaton Prof. Helpful.

Wright, G. Ernest. The Book of Isaiah. The Layman’s Bible Commentary. Richmond: John Knox, 1964.

Young, Edward J. The Book of Isaiah. 3 vols. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969‑1972.

Young was the first editor of the OT section of the NICOT. He is known as a careful, thorough scholar from the reformed perspective. This is an excellent commentary, though amillennial.

    . Studies in Isaiah. (Now out of print.)

Some of these studies will show up in his NICOT commentary but not all. If a copy of this can be found, it should be purchased.

Jeremiah

Ackroyd, Peter R. “The Book of Jeremiah--Some Recent Studies,” JSOT 28 (1984) 47‑59.

Good list of bibliography.

Ackroyd, Peter R. “Two Old Testament Historical Problems of the Early Persian Period,” JNES 217 (1958) 23-27.

On the seventy years.

Aitken, Kenneth T. “The Oracles Against Babylon in Jeremiah 50-51: Structures and Perspectives.” TynBul 35 (1984) 25-63.

“Specifically, it will be submitted that the composition is comprised of six movements—as we shall call them—set within a common framework, each one of which forms a unified and relatively independent structural pattern; further, that through its structure each movement articulates its own particular and, in essential respects, its own distinctive perspective on the general topic of the composition, and, finally, that the six movements themselves are structured together in such a way as to articulate a perspective now informing the composition as a whole” (p. 27).

Borger, Riekele. “An Additional Remark on P. R. Ackroyd, JNES XKVII, 23-27,” JNES 18 (1959) 74.

On the Seventy years.

Brueggemann, Walter. “Jeremiah: Intense Criticism, Thin Interpretation.” Interp 42 (1988) 268-80.

He quotes Anderson (“The Problem and Promise of Commentary,” Interp. 36 (1982) 343-46) on what a commentary should strive for: (1) Be reflective of and responsive to the history of interpretation. (2) Be reflective of a “double Loyalty” to the scholarly community and the community of faith. (3) Provide necessary information “without becoming tediously detailed or burdensomely lengthy.” (4) Take a firm stand on current hermeneutical debate. (5) Draw the reader into the world of the text without being didactic or moralistic. (p. 273). He is hard on Carroll’s commentary as being “pugilistic” and rejective of previous studies. McKane is commended for his scholarly work but is to “dense” to allow easy access. Holladay is too committed to historical identification. He criticizes all three for not interacting hermeneutically with the believing community (pp. 273-74). See his strong indictment (justly) of Carroll on ch. 3. He says, “How is it that criticism and interpretation have become such embarrassed and awkward partners? What of criticism that does not better serve interpretation? From where will the faith community do its interpretation, if it receives such lean help from criticism?” “I conclude that such an interpretative posture is not objective, but is in fact quite subjective.” “When the method used resists the claim and character of the text studied, we likely have distancing that is detached, in order (wittingly or not) to escape the terrible and wondrous claim of the text.” (Overall excellent article—should be read by all who write commentaries.)

Bright, John. Jeremiah in The Anchor Bible, Garden City, NY: Doubled and Co., Inc., 1965.

Bright has spent much of his life working in the book of Jeremiah. This commentary is the culmination of that work. It is mediating in its position and very helpful overall.

“Suffice it here to say that the style of these discourses, though indeed closely akin to that of the Deuteronomic literature, is a style in its own right with peculiarities and distinctive expressions of its own; it is by no means glibly to be classified as ‘Deuteronomistic.’ It is, moreover, not a late style, but a characteristic rhetorical prose of the seventh/sixth centuries. With this last, internal evidence agrees, for such relevant allusions as these prose pieces contain suggest that this material was given fixed form not much after the middle of the Exilic period—thus within a few decades at most after Jeremiah’s death. Though it may well have undergone some verbal expansion after that time at the hands of editors and scribes, there is really no reason to place any of it (or anything in the book, for that matter) after the Exile . . . At the same time, it must be admitted that these discourses scarcely provide us—certainly not as a rule—with Jeremiah’s ipsissima verba.” Pp. LXXI-LXXII.

“In a word, no power in ancient times affected the fortunes of Israel in a more catastrophic way than did Babylon. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that many a Jew came to look upon Babylon as the very arch-foe of the people of God, and that the prophecy directed against that nation should exceed all the others both in volume and in the emotional intensity that informs it.” p. 359.

Bright, John. “The Date of the Prose Sermons of Jeremiah,” JBL 70 (1951) 15-35.

Brueggemann, W. A Commentary on Jeremiah; Exile and Homecoming.” Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Carroll, Robert P. Jeremiah in Old Testament Library. London: SCM Press, 1986.

Craigie, Peter. Jeremiah 1-25. Word Biblical Commentary. Vol.. 26.

Crenshaw, James L. “A Living Tradition: The Book of Jeremiah in Current Research.” Interp. 37 (1983) 117-129.

De Roche, Michael. “Is Jeremiah 25:15-29 a Piece of Reworked Jeremianic Poetry?” JSOT 10 (1978) 58-67.

Reconstructs the passage as poetry, but drops 24-29 as prose added later.

Delcor, M. “Le culte de la ‘Reine du Ciel’” in From Kanaan bis Kerala, ed. W.C. Delsman, et al., Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchner Verlag, 1982, pp. 101-122.

The Masoretes vocalized malkat haššamayim as meleket hššamayim for tendentious reasons as they vocalized Melek = Moloch (bosheth) (p. 103).

Dorsey, David A. “Broken Potsherds at the Potter’s House: an Investigation of the Arrangement of the Book of Jeremiah,” Evangelical Journal 1 (1983) 3‑16.

Dorsey argues that the book has a very systematic arrangement and that it was all put together by Baruch. (1) Jer’s call (2) Messages of indictment and Judgment‑‑2‑20, negative/positive (3) special messages to individuals or dated‑‑21‑29 (4) Messages of hope‑‑30‑35, general/specific (5) Condemnatory narratives, Jere rejected‑‑36‑44 (6) Three appendices‑‑Baruch, Nations, Fall.

Should be tested for validity; how do we explain LXX e.g., nations not an appendix; how do we explain Baruch as editor of ch. 52. If he was 20 when he wrote scroll in 605, he would have been 85 when the events of ch. 52 took place. Ck out A. Millard on Scribes for age. The book would have been compiled by one hand 16 years after fall of Jerus. Why so long?

Dorsey, David. “Recent Commentaries on Jeremiah.” Evangelical Journal 6 (1988) 37-42.

Erdman, Charles R. The Book of Jeremiah and Lamentations. Westwood, New Jersey: Revell, 1955.

Feinberg, C. L. Jeremiah, a Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983.

Conservative, pre‑millennial, very helpful.

Friedman, H. Jeremiah. London: Soncino, 1949.

The Soncino series is Jewish and conservative. Most of the commentaries in it are helpful.

Gosse, Bernard. “La malédiction contre Babylone de Jérémie 51,59-64 et les rédactions du livre de Jérémie.” ZAW 98 (1986) 383-99.

“We propose to clarify the interpretation of this passage by showing that in fact it is the result of a process of turning against Babylon curses which were originally directed against Judah or even to Israel” (p. 383). “In conclusion, the primitive text of 25:1-13 concerned therefore Judah and presented a resume of that found in chs. 36-38. The “book” of 25:13 we encounter again in ch. 36 (cf. 36:2,4,6...). By reason of the importance given to ch. 36 in the primitive recension of the book, therefore the LXX is a witness that comes back upon the text of ch. 25” (p. 390). His comparisons of ch 36 and 51:59 are strong: 4th year of Jeh/zed; Baruch son of Neriah/Seriah, son of Neriah; Baruch to read/Seriah to read; Read all these words in the temple/read all these words in Babylon; Jer wrote all the words conc. is, Judah, all nations; Jer wrote all the words concerning Babylon; scroll destroyed by J’kim/scroll thrown in river. The comparison is strong between 50:41-43 and 6:22-24 and 50:2-3 and 4:5ff. Summary: “The primitive redaction of the book of Jeremiah, represented by the LXX, placed the accent on the fulfillment of the curses against Jerusalem. In the redaction of the MT, one witnesses at the redactional level, to a turning of the curses of Jerusalem against Babylon. If one sets aside the historical appendix of ch. 52, the text of 51:59-64 (MT), which concludes the MT text, plays an important role in this process. It is inspired by a scheme already present in the primitive introduction of the OAN of 25:1-13 (LXX). The two texts depart from a model of curses against Jerusalem of ch. 36 (MT) = ch. 43 (LXX), to finally produce a turn against Babylon. This turning of curses, at the level of the redaction of a segment of the book of Jeremiah, is the final form of a process of diversion against Babylon of curses which were originally destined for Jerusalem” (p. 399).

Grothe, J. F. “An Argument for the Textual Genuineness of Jeremiah 33:14-26 (MT),” Concordia Journal 7 (1981) 188-91.

Harrison, R. K. Jeremiah and Lamentations. Downers Grove, IL: Inter‑Varsity, 1973.

Harrison is the editor of the OT section of NICOT. His position is conservative to moderate. This series is limited by its size, but even so is very helpful.

Herr, Larry G. “The Servant of Baalis,” BA 48 (1985) 169-72.

Hobbs, T. R. “Some Remarks on the Composition and Structure of the Book of Jeremiah” in A Prophet to the Nations; Essays in Jeremiah Studies, eds. L. G. Perdue and B. W. Kovacs, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1984, pp. 175-91.

Originally pub. CBQ 34 (1972) 257-75.

Holladay, Wm. L. “Prototype and Copies: a New Approach to the Poetry‑Prose Problem in the Book of Jeremiah,” JBL 79 (1960) 351‑367.

He shows examples of phrases in the prose sermons that have antecedents in the poetry of Jeremiah. He still would not argue for Jeremianic authorship, but he does believe that whoever wrote this material down was working with Jeremiah’s poetry not deuteronomic stuff.

Holladay, Wm. L. “A Fresh Look at ‘Source B’ and ‘Source C’ in Jeremiah,” VT 25:2 (1975) 394‑412.

He rehearses the history of sources A,B,C. Mowinckel building on the work of B. Duhm concluded A: material to be ipsissima verba of Jeremiah [later others would say this was dictated on the first scroll]. B: biographical sections [later by others said to be produced by Baruch]. C: prose sermons produced by “deuteronomistic” redactors.

Subsequent work has questioned the validity of seeing these as unified sources. Rietzschel (Das Problem der Urrolle, Gutersloh, 1966) argues for “tradition blocks” which will contain one or more of the sources.

He reviews two works, which attack the consensus about the composition of the book. G. Wanke (Untersuchungen zur sogenannten Baruchschrift, BZAW 122, de Gruyter, Berlin/NY, 1971) comes to a negative conclusion, namely that “source B” is made up of three different “cycles,” of different origins, none of which can be attributed with any confidence to Baruch. H. Weippert (Die Prosareden des Jeremiabuches BZAW 132, de Gruyter, Berlin/NY, 1973) comes to a more positive conclusion, namely that “Source C” has no connection at all with the literary circles associated with Deuteronomy or the Deuteronomistic historical work, but rather shows a close connection with Jeremiah’s own poetic diction and theological work.

Holladay, William L. Jeremiah 1 and 2 in Hermeneia, Philadelphia: Minneapolis: Fortress, 1986, 1989

Much of the material found in previous articles. 2:15 “In my judgment Mowinckel’s idea of ‘sources’ is not valid; there are obviously form-critical contrasts between the prophetic oracles and the parenetic sermonic prose, but this contrast does not imply the existence of literary sources. There are several general considerations that lead me to this conclusion.”

2:16-21 Posits two scrolls: the burned one and the reconstructed one which was “open ended.” As a result he uncovers redactional layers (Baruch) mixing the two scrolls. But did Jer have a copy of the original? The text does not even imply it. He posits a third scroll from 594 which contains many of the confessions (2:20). It was also open ended and inserted after ch. 10.

2:5 The OAN belong in ch 25 as in LXX, but the order of MT is the correct one (probably chronological with the nemesis Bab last). 2:23-24 A short collection of OAN was included after 25 (sans Babylon) around 594 (but see 51:59ff). Then the material against Bab must have been proclaimed by J during the final siege of Jerus, that is, 588-587 (but notice the references to temple which must have been made after the fall of city).

Jackson, J. J. “A Vision of Figs: Current Problems.” Proceedings est Great Lakes and Midwest Bible Society 7 (1987) 143-157.

Jones, Douglas R. Jeremiah in the New Century Bible, Clements and Black, eds. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.

This commentary is moderately conservative and one of the best analyses of the structure of the Book of Jeremiah I have read.

Keil, C. F. The Prophecies of Jeremiah. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1950.

What I said about Delitzsch above (Isaiah) applies to Keil also.

Laberge, Leo. “Jeremie 25:1-14: Dieu et Juda ou Jeremie et tous les peuples.” Science and Esprit 36 (1984) 45-66.

Laetsch, Theodore. Jeremiah. St. Louis: Concordia, 1952.

Larsson, Gerhard. “When Did the Babylonian Captivity Begin?” JTS 18 (1967) 417-423.

Lemke, Werner E. “‘Nebuchadrezzar, my Servant,”‘ CBQ 28 (1966) 45-50.

Malamat, A. “The Historical Setting of Two Biblical Prophecies on the Nations.” IEJ 1 (1950-51) 149-59.

Discusses historical background of various OAN’s. Jer 47 “before Pharaoh attacked Gaza” should be related to the 609 campaign of Pharaoh Necho (p. 154).

Nov. 610: 16th year of Nabo. The Umman Manda (Scythians), w/ the Babylonian army, besiege the city of Harran (BabChr 59-60).

March 609: The Bab. army returns home; the Scythians penetrate quickly into Syria and Pal. (BabChr 64-65 gap in chron. Wiseman: went to their country) They must have been after the Eg. army since they did not loot Palestine (only Philistia upon retreating). This based on Herod. 1,105).

Apr-Jun 609: Psamtik I halts Scythians. Afterwards, Scyth. are no longer mentioned in the BabChr. They undoubtedly withdrew persuaded by gifts from Psamtik.

Under the new Pharaoh (Necho) an army was dispatched to help the Assyrians. Josiah.

July 609: Eg. army joined the army of Ashurubalit and attacked Harran (BabChr 66).

Jul-Sep 609: Siege at first successful (BC 68), Necho from Riblah settled politics in Palestine (J’hoaz and fine).

Sep 609: Indecisive siege of Harran lifted and Necho returned to Egypt (BC 69). The Eg. army, on its way home, conquered Gaza, which apparently had revolted at the same time as Judah (Jer 47:1; Herod. ii, 159).

McConville, J. Gordon. “Jeremiah: Prophet and Book.” TynBul 42:1 (1991) 80-95.

History of those who argue for Jeremiah and those who argue for a “book” with heavy emphasis on Deuteronomist. Argues for a position between: Jeremiah but after mature reflection on theology. Repentance/exile/salvation but not to be found chronologically even though they may have been preached that way, but they have been intermixed by Jeremiah at a later date. See pp. 86,87 for notes to add to my structure argument. (See Unterman for his rep/exile/sal position in which he criticizes form critical method). The oracles against the nations (Jer. 46-51) reverse early warnings addressed to Judah. Babylon, the destroying “foe from the north,” falls in turn to another of the same (50:3). . . . The position of the Oracles against the Nations in MT (as opposed to their position after 25:13 in LXX) is well fitted to their function there, providing a suitable climax to the book. (p. 93).

McKane, William. Jeremiah, 2 vols in ICC, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, Ltd, 1986.

See Brueggemann’s comments above.

Oded, B. “When did the Kingdom of Judah Become Subjected to Babylonian Rule?” Tarbiz 35 (1966) 104 [Hebrew].

Orr, Avigdor. “The Seventy Years of Babylon,” VT 6 (1956) 304-6.

Since the text says nothing about captivity, but refers to Babylon, it must mean Babylonian rule. Thus 605 B.C. (when the nations came under the yoke of Babylon) to 539 B.C. are the dates in question. The chronicler misinterpreted it and applied it to the desolation of Judah.

Overholt, Thomas W. “King Nebuchadnezzar in the Jeremiah Tradition.” CBQ 30 (1968) 39-48.

Response to Lemke (Neb. My Servant, CBQ 28 (1966) 45f) who argues for textual error on “servant.” “Even though the differences between MT and LXX are as great here as in any other section of the book [ch 25], it is important to notice that the narrative is in all its essentials the same, no matter which of these versions the exegete favors. A careful comparison of the two makes it evident that the sometimes lengthy phrases and sentences found in MT but not LXX are for the most part but narrative developments of ideas or actions already present in both texts” (p. 42). “though absent in name Nebuchadnezzar is very much present in the LXX by title (‘the king of Babylon’)” (p. 45).

Patterson, Robert M. “Reinterpretation in the Book of Jeremiah.” JSOT 28 (1984) 37-46.

15:10-21 and 51:59-64 were reinterpreted to have relevance to the exile. Originally 51 was to discourage false prophecy. The sinking of the scroll was to say that prophecy against Bab was ineffective. (This seems strange to me!!).

Plotkin, Albert. The Religion of Jeremiah. New York: Bloch, n.d.

Rietzschel, C. Das Problem der Urrolle, Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus G. Mohn, 1966.

He argues for “tradition blocks” which will contain one or more of the sources.

Schenker, Adrian. “Nebukadnezzars Metamorphose—vom Unterjocher zum Gottesknecht,” RB 89 (1982) 498-529, esp 518-19.

Shiloh, Yigal. “A Group of Hebrew Bullae from the City of David.” IEJ 36 (1986) 16-38.

51 seals found in Jerusalem from the 586 B.C. era. Gemariahu son of Shaphan is surely the same as in Jer. 36. He mentions other seals from other sites: Seraihu (son of) Neriahu (EI 14 (1978) 86-87 (Hebrew); Berachiahu son of Neriahu the scribe and Jerahmeel son of the king (Ibid). All theophoric elements spelled Yahu. He concludes that Yah is 7th century, and the fuller spelling later. Others: M. Dayagi: A Seal impression of a Servant of King Hezekiah IEJ 24 (1974) 270-29. Gedaliahu son of the king (O. R. Sellers: The Citadel of Beth Zur Phila, 1933, pp. 60-61.

Smothers, Thomas G. “A Lawsuit against the Nations: Reflections on the Oracles against the Nations in Jeremiah.” RevExp 85 (1988) 545-54.

Insists on reading the oracles in their context rather than imposing on them the criteria developed by earlier scholars. Refers to Barré “The Meaning of לאֹ אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּin Amos 1:3-2:6” JBL 105 (1986) 611-31 who argues that the indictment against the nations comes because of treaty violations not just violations of common decency. I will not take them back refers to Yahweh’s refusal to readmit them as vassals and hence they will be judged. He applies this standard to the OAN with the exception of Babylon (which has some of the elements normally ascribed to OAN, namely against Israel). This accounts for the “destruction” language which is treaty violation language. The cup of wrath is closely associated with OAN. He believes the cup is related to treaties: good if obedient; bad if disobedient.

Streane, A. W. The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah Together with the Lamentations. Cambridge: University Press, 1899.

Taylor, M. A. “Jeremiah 45: the Problem of Placement,” JSOT 37 (1987) 79-98.

Thompson, J. A. The Book of Jeremiah. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Conservative to moderate. An excellent commentary. Good introductory discussion. See my review in Christianity Today, Dec. 11, 1981.

Unterman, J. From Repentance to Redemption (Sheffield: JSOT 1987).

Wanke, B. Untersuchungen zur sogenannten Baruchschrift, BZAW 122, de Gruyter, Berlin/NY, 1971.

He comes to a negative conclusion, namely that “source B” is made up of three different “cycles,” of different origins, none of which can be attributed with any confidence to Baruch.

Weippert, H. Die Prosareden des Jeremiabuches BZAW 132, de Gruyter, Berlin/NY, 1973.

She comes to a more positive conclusion, than Wanke namely that “Source C” has no connection at all with the literary circles associated with Deuteronomy or the Deuteronomistic historical work, but rather shows a close connection with Jeremiah’s own poetic diction and theological work.

Weippert, by dealing with contexts rather than words alone, shows that the similarities urged between “C” and Deuteronomy do not exist. She argues for a Kunstprosa, that is, a demetrified poetry. The poetry of Jeremiah has been turned into a stylized prose. There is a close connection between the two. As a matter of fact C stands closer to Jeremiah than B and therefore it is not deuteronomistic. In general the prose sections are not from the hand of a redactor (though each unit must be analyzed; some are not jeremianic).

Whitley, Charles F. “The Term Seventy Years Captivity,” VT 4 (1954) 60-72.

Whitley, Charles F. “The Seventy Years Desolation—A Rejoinder,” VT 7 (1957) 416-18.

Winkle, Ross E. “Jeremiah’s Seventy Years for Babylon: A Re-assessment: Part I: The Scriptural Data.” AUSS 25 (1987) 201-14.

Zevit, Ziony. “The Use of עֶבֶד as a Diplomatic Term in Jeremiah,” JBL 88 (1969) 74-77.

Lamentations

Cohen, Abraham. The Five Megilloth. London: Soncino, 1946.

Erdman, Charles R. The Book of Jeremiah and Lamentations. Westwood, New Jersey: Revell, 1955.

Gordis, Robert. The Song of Songs and Lamentations. New York: KTAV, 1974.

Gottwald, Norman K. Studies in the Book of Lamentations. London: SCM, 1954.

Harrison, R. K. Jeremiah and Lamentations. Downers Grove, IL: Inter‑Varsity, 1973.

See above under Jeremiah.

Heater, H. “Structure and Meaning in Lamentations.” Vital Old Testament Issues. Ed. Roy Zuck. Grand Rapids: Kregal, 1996.

Hillers, Delbert R. Lamentations. The Anchor Bible. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1972.

Keil, C. F. The Prophecies of Jeremiah. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1950.

What I said about Delitzsch above (Isaiah) applies to Keil also.

Kuist, Howard Tillman. The Book of Jeremiah, the Lamentations of Jeremiah. The Layman’s Bible Commentary. Richmond: John Knox, 1960.

Streane, A. W. The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah Together with the Lamentations. Cambridge: University Press, 1899.

Ezekiel

Alexander, Ralph. Ezekiel. Chicago: Moody, 1976.

    . “Ezekiel,” EBC. 12 vols. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Vol. 6. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979.

Blackwood, Andrew W. Ezekiel: Prophecy of Hope. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1965.

Cooke, G. A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1936.

Davidson, A. B. The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel. Cambridge: University Press, 1892.

Eichrodt, Walther. Ezekiel. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1970.

Ellison, H. L. Ezekiel, the Man and His Message. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1956.

Erdman, Charles R. The Book of Ezekiel. Westwood, New Jersey: Revell, 1956.

Fairbairn, Patrick. An Exposition of Ezekiel. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1960.

Feinberg, Charles Lee. The Prophecy of Ezekiel, the Glory of the Lord. Chicago: Moody, 1969.

Feinberg’s material was original mostly published in The Chosen People. His conservative, premillennial position, coupled with excellent scholarship, makes this work very helpful.

Fisch, S. Ezekiel. London: Soncino, 1950.

See comments on Soncino series under Friedman under Jeremiah.

Gaebelein, Arno C. The Prophet Ezekiel. New York: Revell, 1918.

Conservative, premillennial, popular.

Greenberg, Moshe. Ezekiel 1-20. Anchor Bible. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983.

Excellent moderately liberal commentary.

Jensen, Irving L. Ezekiel—Daniel. Chicago: Moody, 1968.

Conservative, premillennial, popular.

Keil, C. F. Biblical Commentary on the Prophecies of Ezekiel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1950.

What I said about Delitzsch above (Isaiah) applies to Keil also.

Zimmerli, Walter. Ezekiel. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979.

Two volumes. Quite technical and critical. Not as helpful as others in this series.

Daniel

Anderson, Robert. The Coming Prince. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1957.

Anderson presents his argument for the chronological explanation of Daniel 9:24‑27.

Archer, Gleason. “Daniel,” in EBC. Vol. 7. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

Baldwin, Joyce. Daniel. Tyndale O. T. Commentaries. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 1978.

Barnes, Albert. Barnes’ Notes on the Old Testament: Daniel. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1950.

Culver, Robert D. Daniel and the Latter Days. Chicago: Moody, 1954.

Popular, conservative, premillennial.

Ford, Desmond. Daniel. Nashville: Southern Publishers Association, 1978.

Ford is a Seventh Day Adventist with very helpful introductory notes, but his commentary reflects SDA teaching.

Gaebelein, Arno C. The Prophet Daniel. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1955.

See above under Ezekiel.

Gaebelein, Frank E., ed. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Vol. 7. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

See below under Minor Prophets

Jensen, Irving L. EzekielDaniel. Chicago: Moody, 1968.

See above under Ezekiel.

Keil, C. F. Biblical Commentary on the Book of Daniel. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949.

What I said about Delitzsch above (Isaiah) applies to Keil also.

Kalafian, Michael. The Prophecy of the 70 Weeks of the Book of Daniel. Lanham, MD: University Press, 1991.

A Ph.D. dissertation surveying the major views. He is pre-millennial.

King, Geoffrey C. Daniel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966.

Lang, G. H. The Histories and Prophecies of Daniel. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1973.

Conservative, popular. Holds to a restored Babylon in the Eschaton.

Leupold, H. C. Exposition of Daniel. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1969.

See above under Isaiah.

Luck, G. Coleman. Daniel. Chicago: Moody, 1958.

Popular, conservative, premillennial.

Montgomery, J. A. Daniel in the International Critical Commentary, Driver, et al. editors. Edinburgh: T and T Clark, 1926.

Montgomery represents the best of the old liberal commentaries on the Book of Daniel. He interacts with conservative scholars (though rejecting their arguments).

Newell, Philip R. Daniel, the Man Greatly Beloved and His Prophecies. Chicago: Moody, 1951.

Popular, conservative, premillennial.

Pusey, Edward B. Daniel the Prophet. New York: Funk, 1885.

Old standard conservative, amillennial scholar. Always helpful.

Stevens, W. C. The Book of Daniel. New York: Revell, 1915.

Popular, conservative, premillennial.

Talbot, Louis T. The Prophecies of Daniel. Wheaton, IL: Van Kampen, 1940.

Early president of BIOLA. Popular, conservative.

Tregelles, J. P. Remarks on Prophetic Visions in the Book of Daniel. Edinburgh: Bagster, 1883.

Tregelles was an excellent British scholar of the Plymouth Brethren persuasion, but he was post‑tribulational.

Walvoord, John F. Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation. Chicago: Moody, 1971.

Popular. Very helpful.

Whitcomb, John C. Darius the Mede. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959.

A detailed study of the identity of Darius the Mede. Very helpful. See Wiseman, Notes on some problems in the Book of Daniel, for a different point of view.

Wilson, R. D. Studies in the Book of Daniel. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1972.

A Princeton Seminary scholar from the ‘20’s. Excellent, conservative, reformed.

Wood, Leon. A Commentary on Daniel. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1973.

Conservative, premillennial. Sometimes he needs to interact more with the critical issues.

Young, Edward J. The Messianic Prophecies of Daniel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1955.

See my comments on Young under Isaiah. His work in Isaiah is better than his work in Daniel, but this book is quite helpful.

    . The Prophecy of Daniel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949.

Minor Prophets

Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.

This is an excellent commentary in the NICOT series.

Anderson, F. I. and D. N. Freedman. Hosea in Anchor Bible. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1980.

This work is very helpful from many points of view. The analysis of the structure, the historical discussion and the comments are pertinent. Anderson and Freedman reflect a moderate conservatism in this analysis of Hosea.

__. Amos. Same publication data, same comments.

Baldwin, Joyce. Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. Tyndale O. T. Commentaries. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1972.

This commentary is part of the Tyndale series. It is an excellent, thought provoking commentary, though brief.

Cheyne, T. K. Hosea, with Notes and Introduction. Cambridge: University Press, 1899.

Cheyne is an older, critical scholar many of whose conclusions are not acceptable today even in critical scholarship.

    . Micah, with Notes and Introduction. Cambridge: University Press, 1902.

See Above.

Chisholm, Robert. The Minor Prophets. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991.

A brief, popular commentary, but very helpful on analysis.

Cohen, A. The Twelve Prophets. London: Soncino, 1948.

See under Friedman, Jeremiah, for my comments on Soncino.

Cripps, Richard S. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Amos. London: SPCK, 1929. Reprint ed., 1969.

Davidson, A. B. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. Cambridge: University Press, 1896.

Driver, S. R. The Books of Joel and Amos. Cambridge: University Press, 1897.

Driver is an excellent philologist from another generation. His comments are helpful, though from a liberal perspective.

Ellison, H. L. Men Spake from God. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952.

    . The Prophets of Israel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969.

Feinberg, Charles L. The Minor Prophets. Chicago: Moody, 1976.

See my comments on Feinberg under Ezekiel.

Freeman, Hobart O. Nahum, Zephaniah, and Habakkuk. Chicago: Moody, 1973.

See above under Introduction to the Prophets.

Gaebelein, Arno C. The Prophet Joel. New York: Our Hope, 1909.

See my comments on Gaebelein under Ezekiel.

Gaebelein, Frank E., ed. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Vol. 7. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

The commentators are: Hosea, Leon Wood; Joel, Richard Patterson; Amos, Micah, Thomas McComiskey; Obadiah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Carl Armerding; Jonah, H. L. Ellison; Zephaniah, Larry Walker; Haggai, Malachi, Robert Alden; Zechariah, Ken Barker. This is an excellent conservative, premillennial commentary.

Heater, H. “Zechariah” in Bible Studies Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.

Honeycutt, Roy L. Amos and His Message. Nashville: Broadman, 1963.

    . Hosea and His Message. Nashville: Broadman, 1975.

Hubbard, David Allan. With Bands of Love. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1968.

Keil, C. F. The Twelve Minor Prophets. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1954.

What I said about Delitzsch above (Isaiah) applies to Keil also.

Laetsch, Theodore. The Minor Prophets. St. Louis: Concordia, 1945.

Lanchester, H. C. O. Obadiah and Jonah. Cambridge: University Press, 1918.

Lewis, Jack P. The Minor Prophets. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1966.

Maier, Walter A. The Book of Nahum: A Commentary. St. Louis: Concordia, 1959.

Mays, James L. Amos: A Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969.

    . Hosea: A Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969.

Mays, James L. Micah: A Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976.  

McComiskey, T. E. “Amos,” in EBC. 12 vols. Ed. Frank Gaebelein. Vol. 7:269-331. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

    . “Micah,” in EBC. 12 vols. Ed. Frank Gaebelein. Vol. 7:395-445. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

Motyer, J. A. The Day of the Lion. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 1974.

Price, Walter K. The Prophet Joel and the Day of the Lord. Chicago: Moody, 1976.

Pusey, Edward B. The Minor Prophets. 2 vols. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1950.

See my comments on Pusey under Daniel.

Scott, Jack B. The Book of Hosea. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1971.

Stuart, Douglas. Hosea through Jonah in Word Biblical Commentary. Vol 31. Word Books: Waco, TX., 1987.

Von Orelli, C. The Twelve Minor Prophets. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1893.

See my comments on Von Orelli under Isaiah.

Watts, John D. W. Obadiah: A Critical Exegetical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969.

A good commentary on this short book from a moderate perspective.

Wolff, Hans W. Hosea: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Hosea. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974.

Wolff is a contemporary German scholar. Though he is working from a liberal perspective, his position is more conservative than the old liberal school was, and he is very perceptive of the text.

    . Joel and Amos. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.

    See above.

Works Cited In Notes

AB Anchor Bible. Ed. William F. Albright and David N. Freedman. New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1977.

Albright, W. F. “The Latest Pre-Exilic History of Judah, with some Observations on Ezekiel.” JBL 51 (1932): 77-106.

    . “The Seal of Eliakim and the Latest Pre-Exilic History of Judah, with some Observations on Ezekiel,” JBL 51 (1932): 77-106.

Albright, W. F. “The Son of Tabeel [Isa. 7:6].” BASOR 140 (1955): 34-35.

ANEP Ancient Near East in Pictures. Ed. J. B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

ANET Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Ed. J. B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Archer, Gleason. Daniel in EBC. Vol. 7. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

Avigad, N. Discovering Jerusalem. Jerusalem: Shikmona Pub. Co., 1980.

BKC Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Edited by J. F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1978.

Baldwin, Joyce. Daniel. Tyndale O. T. Commentaries. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 1978.

Barkay, G. and A. Kloner. “Jerusalem Tombs from the Days of the First Temple.” BAR 12 (April 1986): 23-29.

Beale, G. K. We Become What We Worship—a Biblical Theology of Idolatry. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2008.

Beck, John C. “The Fall of Tyre According to Ezekiel’s Prophecy.” Th.M. thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary.

Bright, John. History of Israel. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1959.

Brin, Gershon. Leshonenu 24 (1960): 8-14.

Browning, I. Petra. London: Chatto and Windus, 1982.

Bullock, C. Hassell. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books. See Bibliography.

Buttrick, George A. The Interpreter’s Bible. 12 vols. New York: Abingdon Press, 1951-55.

CAH Cambridge Ancient History. Ed. I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, and N. G. L. Hammond. 14 vols. 3d ed. Cambridge: University Press, 1970.

Cohen, Simon. “The Political Background of the Words of Amos.” HUCA 36 (1965): 153-160, 319-329.

Dijkstra, Meindert. “Prophecy by Letter Jeremiah XXIX 24-32,” VT 33 (1983): 319-322.

Driver, S. R. Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament. 1913. Reprint ed. Magnolia, MA: 1972.

EBC The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979.

Eissfeldt, Otto. The Old Testament: An Introduction. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1965.

Erlandsson, Seth. The Burden of Babylon. Lund, Sweden: CWK Gleerup, n.d.

Farr, G. “The Concept of Grace in the Book of Hosea.” ZAW 70 (1958): 98-107.

Feinberg, Charles L. The Prophecy of Ezekiel. Chicago: Moody, 1969.

Finegan, Jack. “The Chronology of Ezekiel.” JBL 69 (1950).

Freedman, David N. “The Book of Ezekiel.” Int 8 (1954): 466-71.

    and Anderson. “Harmon in Amos 4:3.” BASOR 198 (1970): 41.

GKC Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar. Edited by E. Kautzsch and trans. by A. E. Cowley. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.

Garrett, A. “The Structure of Joel.” JETS 28 (1985): 289-297.

Greenberg, M. “On Ezekiel’s Dumbness,” JBL 77 (1958): 101-105.

Haran, M. “Observations on the Historical Background of Amos 1:2—2:6.” IEJ 18 (1968): 201-212.

Harrison, R. K. Jeremiah and Lamentations. See Bibliography.

Hartman, Louis and Alexander DiLella. “Daniel” in AB. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977.

Hayes and Irvine. Isaiah, His Times and His Preaching. Nashville: Abingdon, 1987.

Hillers, Delbert R. “Lamentations” in AB. See Bibliography.

Holladay, W. L. “God Writes a Rude Letter (Jeremiah 29:1-23).” BA 46 (1983): 145-146.

    . “Jeremiah 31:22b Reconsidered: ‘The Woman Encompasses the Man.’” VT 16 (1966): 236-239.

Holscher, G. “Hesekiel: Der Dichter und das Buch.” BZAW 39 (1924).

IOTS Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Ed. B. S. Childs. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979.

Janzen, Gerald. Studies in the Text of Jeremiah. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Jensen, J. Isaiah 1—39. O. T. Message.

Johns, C. H. W. E.Bi.

Josephus. Jewish Antiquities XII. 9 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966.

Joüon, P. Grammaire de l’Hebrew Biblique. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1923.

Keil, C. F. and F. Delitzsch. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. See Bibliography.

Kenyon, K. Jerusalem.

Kitchen, K. Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago: Inter-Varsity, 1966.

    . The Third Intermediate Period.

Kline, M. “Death, Leviathan, and Martyrs: Isaiah 24:1—27:1.” A Tribute to Gleason Archer. Ed. W. Kaiser and R. Youngblood. Chicago: Moody, 1986.

Knudsen, Joel. “The Archetypes of Evil in Isaiah 13-27.” Th.M. thesis, DTS, 1980.

Lawhead, A. S. “A Problem of Unfulfilled Prophecy in Ezekiel: A Response.” WTJ 16 (1981): 15-19.

Luckenbill, D. D. Annals of Sennacherib. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1926.

McComiskey, T. E. “Amos,” in EBC. 12 vols. Ed. Frank Gaebelein. Vol. 7:269-331. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

    . “Micah,” in EBC. 12 vols. Ed. Frank Gaebelein. Vol. 7:395-445. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

McKenzie, John L. “Second Isaiah,” in AB. See Bibliography.

Millar, W. R. Isaiah 24—27 and the Origin of Apocalyptic. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1976.

MNHK The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings. Ed. Edwin R. Thiele. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983.

NICOT New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969-72.

North, Christopher R. The Suffering Servant in Deutero-Isaiah. See Bibliography.

Oded, B. “The Historical Background of the Syro-Ephraimite War Reconsidered.” CBQ 34 (1972): 153-65.

OTS Old Testament Survey. Ed. Lasor, et al. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982.

Patterson, Richard D. “Joel,” in EBC. 12 vols. Ed. Frank Gaebelein. Vol. 7:258. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.

Payne, J. B. “The Arrangement of Jeremiah’s Prophecies.” BETS (now JETS) 7:4 (1964): 120-130.

Pearce, R. A. “Shiloh and Jeremiah VII, 12, 14, & 15.” VT 23:1 (1973): 105-108.

Plotkin, Albert. The Religion of Jeremiah. New York: Bloch, n.d.

Ridderbos, J. Isaiah. See Bibliography.

Rogerson, John. Atlas of the Bible. New York: Facts on File, 85.

Rowley, H. H. “The Marriage of Hosea.” BJRL 39 (1956-57): 220-33.

Schafron, Phillip. “The Importance of Cyrus in the Argument of Isaiah 40—48.” Th.M. thesis, DTS, 1981.

Schedl, C. History of the Old Testament.

Soggin, J. A. Introduction to the Old Testament. Tran. J. Bowden. OTL. Philadelphia: 1976.

TDOT Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Ed. G. Johannes Botterweck and Helmer Ringgren. Trans. David E. Green. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Tadmor. “Azarijau of Yaudi,” Scripta Hierosolymitana 8 (1961): 232-271.

Thompson, D. L. “A Problem of Unfulfilled Prophecy in Ezekiel,” WTJ 16 (1981): 93-106.

Troth, William A. “A Study of the Termini of the Seventy Year Captivity.” Th.M. thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary.

Von Orelli, C. The Twelve Minor Prophets. See Bibliography.

Walton, J. H. “The Four Kingdoms of Daniel.” JETS 29 (1986): 25-36.

Watts, John D. W. Isaiah 1—33 in Word Biblical Commentary. Vol. 24. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1985.

Weiss, Meir. “The Origin of the ‘Day of the Lord’ Reconsidered.” HUCA 37 (1966): 29-71.

Whitcomb, John C. “Christ’s Atonement and Animal Sacrifices in Israel.” GTJ 6 (1985): 2:212.

    . Darius the Mede. See Bibliography.

Wilson, Robert D. Studies in the Book of Daniel. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1972.

Wiseman, Donald J. Chronicles of Chaldaean Kings. London: The Trustees of the British Museum, 1956.

    . Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon. London: Oxford Press, n.d.

    . Notes on some Problems in the Book of Daniel. London: The Tyndale Press, 1965.

Wolf, Herbert M. “The Relationship Between Isaiah’s Final Servant Song (52:13—53:12) and Chapter 1—6.” A Tribute to Gleason Archer.

Wolff, Hans W. Hosea. See Bibliography.

    . Joel and Amos. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.

Young, Edward J. The Book of Isaiah. NICOT. See Bibliography.

    . Studies in Isaiah. See Bibliography.

ZPBD Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary. Edited by Merrill C. Tenney. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1963.

Zimmerli, W. “The Message of the Prophet Ezekiel.” Int 23 (1969): 131-57.

“Did the Philistines Destroy the Israelite Sanctuary at Shiloh?—The Archaeological Evidence.” BAR 1:2 (1975): 3-5.

“DSS, Part I: Archaeology of Biblical MSS.” BA 49 (1986): 140-154.

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