14. CATASTROPHE: The Flood And The Fossils, Part 2Related Media
Billions of dead things, buried in rock layers, laid down by water, all over the earth!
Day One Study
Read Genesis 7:11-24.
1. Reread Genesis 7:17-20. What information is given to us about the first forty days of the Flood? Notice the frequent use of the terms “increased” / “prevailed.” What is the author plainly trying to convey to us?
2. Skeptics claim that the Flood of Noah must have been only confined to a local area or regional at most (just involving the Mesopotamian river valleys). How would you prove that the Flood was truly global from this passage? For example, think of the implications of having floodwaters covering even a short mountain by ~22.5 feet (which may have been the draft of the Ark).
3. Read Genesis 8:1-5. Up to this point, the Flood narrative has been an account of judgment upon a very wicked world. From this point on, it is a story of REDEMPTION. God “remembered” Noah. To “remember” in the Bible is not merely to recall to mind; it is to express concern for someone, to act with loving care for him. Read the following verses. In what ways did God act with loving care for someone?
· Genesis 19:29—
· Exodus 2:24-25—
· 1 Samuel 1:15-20—
After 40 days of heavy rain and water rising from the deep followed by 110 days of it prevailing over the earth…
4. What three specific things did God do (in vs. 1-3) on behalf of Noah and his family and all the animals so that the water stopped rising and began to recede?
5. The water also had to have a place to go. Part of Psalm 104 may be referring to the work of God at this time. What information is given in Psalm 104:6-9?
Scientific Insight: Mountains of Ararat—The Ark rested upon the mountains of Ararat (Greek, Armenia). The mountain known as Mount Ararat is volcanic in origin. It is speculated from studying the glass rocks, salt domes, and volcanic structures found there that the mountain may have been only 6000 feet in height at the time of Noah’s landing. Today Mt. Ararat itself (now 17,000 feet in elevation) abounds in what is known as pillow lava, a dense lava rock formed under great depths of water. The mountain also includes certain sedimentary formations containing marine fossils. It was the highest mountain in the region by far.
The existence of Noah’s Ark in the Ararat region and its exact location is still speculation. A rather large number of reported sightings of the Ark have come from explorers or travelers on this mountain during the past century, as well as during ancient and medieval times. Many books have been written and videos produced about the search for Noah’s Ark, all of them very interesting. A number of modern expeditions have been trying (unsuccessfully so far) to relocate the Ark with adequate documentation. This would surely be the most important archeological discovery of all time, if successful.
6. Discuss Noah’s actions to determine whether or not the ground was dry yet.
7. How many days were involved from the beginning of the Flood until the day Noah knew the earth was completely dry again? [Note: the Hebrew year was 360 days long.] Total = ______ days
8. In the entire passage of Genesis 6:12-8:14, count the number of times (in your translation) the words “all,” “every,” or “everything” are used. Total = _______ times. What is the author plainly trying to convey to the reader?
Think About It: The record of the Flood in Genesis gives every indication of being an eyewitness account, written originally by Noah or his sons. Despite the efforts of many commentators to explain it away as a local flood, it is obvious that the writer intended to tell of a worldwide, uniquely destructive cataclysm. In fact, it would be difficult to imagine how the concept of a universal Flood could be better presented than in the words actually recorded in Genesis. (Dr. Henry Morris, The Beginning of the World, page 116)
9. Regarding the Biblical account of a global flood, scoffers abound. Read 2 Peter 3:3-6. The concept of a local flood, lasting over a year, covering all the local high mountains by a depth of 22 feet but not leaving any destructive evidence or affecting the rest of the planet is illogical.
· What was the purpose of the Flood?
· Did God accomplish His purpose?
· What does this tell you about evaluating scripture that describes future judgment upon the earth?
· If you have chosen to place your faith in God’s Son Jesus Christ, God has chosen to save (deliver) you from any future judgment upon the earth. How does this make you feel?
Day Two Study
10. God lifted huge mountain ranges out of the earth to make the water drain off the land into the newly deepened ocean basins. Spend some time meditating on the beauty and majesty of mountains. Have you traveled to the mountains? What do you like about mountains? Do mountains inspire you? If so, how? Feel free to be creative in expressing your thoughts about mountains in the space on the next page.
· Read “Creation Answers: The Flood Rages On” following this lesson.
· Consider: If there really was a year-long, worldwide Flood, what would the evidence be?
Creation Answers: The Flood Rages On
Do the stones cry out? Jesus said that if His people stopped praising Him even the stones would cry out in praise to Him. Do the rocks cry out in testimony to God and the Flood He sent upon the earth?
Old earth scientists, whether creationists or evolutionists, say that either the Genesis Flood didn’t happen or that it wasn’t global, or that it left no surviving geological evidence. But, think about it. Scripture says the waters rose greatly, greatly and then prevailed mightily for almost 5 months before it started receding. Then it took another 220 days for the waters to go down completely. A year-long catastrophic world-shaping Flood would have left a massive amount of geological evidence, more than any event before or since.
There is no way that such a lengthy, global flood could have occurred without leaving any evidence! If there had been a year-long worldwide flood, what would the evidence be? Billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the earth. What do we find? Billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the earth.
This information sheet attempts to explore the possibility that the physical makeup of the surface of the earth may be related to the work of the Noahic Flood. It does not presume to have answers to the myriad of questions raised anytime this subject is discussed. However, you will be directed to resources if you want more information. Also, let me assure you that neither your salvation nor your spiritual maturity are dependent upon your acceptance of the structure of the earth’s surface as being due to the effects of a year-long flood or millions of years of slow processes.
Question #1: Do You Mean That Most Of The Rock Layers Could Have Been Formed In 1 Year Rather Than Millions? How Could That Be?
Nature Of Water As An Agent For Rapid Erosion And Deposition.
All that soil, sand, and clay plus rock from the fountains breaking up would be scoured from the surface, worked by the water, and deposited elsewhere. Any evidence?? You bet! 400 to 40,000 feet of sedimentary layers cover the surface of the earth. The question is not whether thick sediments exist, but whether they were deposited slowly over millions of years or rapidly. How rapidly can sediments be deposited?
Some geologists say that 1,000 years are needed to accumulate 5 inches of sediment and then deep burial and thousands of years are needed for cementation to take place. Evidence found in the world does not agree, however. Water is a great sorting agent, especially fast-moving water. Particles of rock and organic matter are sorted by size and density so that particles of similar size are deposited together, giving a layered effect. It is now known that beds (sediment layers) form quickly on river floodplains during floods, in shallow marine areas during storms, and in deep water by turbidity currents as well as the result of other catastrophic events (tsunamis and mud flows).
· River floods—The Waiho River of New Zealand, during a single, high-intensity rainstorm in 1965, deposited about 70 feet of sediment on its bed over several miles. Experiments with fast-moving water carrying sediment show that strata can form laterally and vertically at the same time and are not always a measure of chronology. So, thick sequences of layered rock don’t mean that each layer formed separately. This is a very important difference from what you are normally taught. A lot of water, but not a lot of time! Fast flowing water also carves huge channels into solid bedrock in a matter of hours. A small-scale example from Texas occurred when Canyon Lake poured over its spillway into the Guadalupe River, moving at >100,000 ft3/sec carving a new channel deep into bedrock in just a matter of hours.
· Tsunamis (tidal waves) are known to attain heights of 130 feet, extend inland several miles, and travel up to 450 miles per hour, eroding and depositing sediments 60 feet thick over vast areas in a matter of hours. Imagine the number of tsunamis occurring as the fountains of the great deep were split open sending repeated pulses of water toward the continents from every direction, bringing sediments and marine fossils to the land.
· Turbidity Currents are underwater avalanches that carry millions of tons of mud and ooze at express train speeds. These flow downhill under gravity then flow great distances over the ocean floor and sort the grains so the larger grains surpass the smallest ones and settle out most rapidly. The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake generated a turbidity current that ran down the slope at the edge of the North American continent at speeds up to 50 mph, ripping up cables and depositing sorted sediments up to 3 feet in thickness covering 600 miles—in about 13 hours. Lots of sedimentary layers are now being considered fast-forming turbidites. With the upheavals inevitably associated with the breaking up of the ‘fountains of the great deep’ recorded in the Bible, it is no wonder that most of the fossil record consists of buried sea creatures.
· Mud flows—Within months after the May 18, 1980 Mt. St. Helens explosion, significant deposits of ash and mud resembled layered rock strata, showing how strata in the geologic record could have been rapidly formed. On June 12, 1980, 25 feet of pumice/mud flow were deposited which developed a layered appearance that same day and was cemented. The layering was very precise, micro-thin bedding (called lamination) formed by the power of the surging flow (90 mi/hr). The hurricane-force surge of the volcano sorted out the grains. And volcanic dust and ash are good sources for cement.
The fountains burst forth, not sneaked out, requiring lots of earth movements and massive erosion! Water-laid deposits take a lot of churning, fast-moving water, not necessarily a lot of time!!
Nature Of The Rock Layers Themselves.
You would expect to find and do find thick extensive beds of similar materials.
· Widespread—Lots of water-sorted sediment extending over wide areas with varying thicknesses. Expect to find thick extensive beds of similar materials. Evidence? Yes. Examples: Dakota Sandstone–one of the most distinctive in the Rockies. No process today forming similar deposit. Also the Morrison Formation, famous for its dinosaurs, covers parts of 11 states! Thick sandstones reach from the Grand Canyon eastward to the Appalachian Mountains. Names change along the way, as does the thickness. But the layer is the same. Once again, the data match the prediction.
· Redbeds—Great thicknesses of red to reddish brown sediments cover our continent in a continuous sheet that extends west through the Grand Canyon and eastward to the Appalachian Mountains, commonly several thousand feet thick. The color is due to the presence of hematite, an iron mineral, the color of which is so dominant that a very small amount of it will color the rock a faint shade of red. Why so much iron in all these sediments? Volcanic rock contains a wealth of iron minerals. When these are decomposed in water, hematite is formed. Iron comes not only from the weathering of volcanic rock, but also from the associated hot waters released by volcanoes, water that is highly charged with iron. Extensive volcanism during a worldwide flood would release tons of mineral-rich water to mix with sediments as they are deposited. When exposed to oxygen, the iron forms hematite which drops out of solution, creating lenses and concretions in the deposits. The Woodbine Sandstone upon which we live is considered a redbed and contains hematite lenses and concretions.
· Ripple marks, “raindrop impressions,” animal tracks, cross beds, mud cracks—Ripple marks form as water moves over a surface. Raindrop marks are probably blisters formed as air bubbles escape from rapidly deposited sediments. Animal tracks are impressions left by a creature on soft sediment. These surface features are preserved in many rock layers. All had to be formed in soft sediment, are very fragile, and require rapid burial by sediment before they had a chance to erode or be destroyed. Crossbedding is caused by rapid sedimentation, requiring strong sheet-flow of sediment over sand waves. In order for it to be preserved, deposition must take place rapidly and then the whole sequence must be buried before it is washed away. Single crossbeds form in the Mississippi River in less than one minute. Deposits over thirty feet thick may have accumulated in only a few days. A lot of water, not a lot of time. Mud cracks are shrinkage cracks resulting from water loss. We often see mud cracks form when a mud puddle dries in the sun. But, mud cracks also form underwater in the muddy bottoms of lakes and in buried mud layers as water is pressed out. The cracks are then filled in with other material, which preserves them. Mud cracks have to be formed in soft sediment, are very fragile, and require rapid burial or cementation before they have a chance to erode or be destroyed.
More Evidence Of Rapid Deposition.
· Grand Canyon—Exhibit A used to prove millions of years to form rock strata. Sediments a mile thick; horizontal. They are widespread water-laid deposits, layered with particles sorted by size and preserving crossbeds, ripple marks and animal tracks—all evidence of rapid deposition. Closer examination shows that they could have been laid down quickly with little time delay between formations. Again, a lot of water; not a lot of time. Want to know more? Get the DVD or book Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe by Dr. Steve Austin.
· Conglomerates and Breccias—Conglomerates are rock deposits composed of pieces of other rock and/or fossil fragments. They may contain everything from rounded boulders to gravel-sized particles. Breccias are similar to conglomerates except the particles are angular, meaning freshly broken pieces from other rock. Both indicate quick deposition after a major upheaval and erosion of other rock. Throughout the rock layers in Colorado are thick layers of conglomerates and breccias. Castle Rock is one noteworthy example because it’s so conveniently located along the interstate highway. There is a conglomerate of oyster shells in the Woodbine formation along Lake Grapevine. Abundant broken fossil shells embedded in dirty sand and silt indicating they were transported away from where the oysters had grown. This also indicates rapid burial, for as shells are long exposed on the sea floor, they suffer abrasion and corrosion or perforation by boring animals.
Either the rock record is the evidence of millions of years, or it is largely the evidence of the Genesis Flood. It can’t be both. I think the evidence weighs heavily on the side of the Flood.
Question #2: Do You Mean That The Fossils We Find In The Rocks Could Have Been Buried By Noah’s Flood?
Rapid Burial—Did It Take Millions Of Years And Evolution?
· How is a fossil formed? A fossil forms through: (1) rapid burial and (2) burial under deep sediment. A fossil is formed when an animal is trapped and buried very quickly under sediment that seals the organism in and holds its body together. As the sediment turns to rock, so do the creature remains. The soft parts may rot away leaving only hard parts like teeth, bones and shells which are replaced by minerals from the sediments. Or, molds of the original creature are left.
· Fossils must be buried quickly or they don’t form at all. For example, multitudes of jellyfish are found in the fossil record, but when found stranded on the beach, they turn to formless lumps of jelly within hours. Intricately detailed jellyfish fossils are evidence only of rapid burial. Fish and other animals when they die will float. Such dead animals must be buried rapidly to form fossils in order to protect them from scavengers, bacterial decay, and weather conditions. This holds true with plants as well. They must be buried rapidly and fossilized quickly in order to keep “nature from taking over” and decomposing them. There are also many examples of creatures in the process of eating or giving birth—perfectly preserved—something that can only happen with rapid and complete burial. Flooding is the most likely way for an animal to be buried since floods come by surprise, trapping and burying animals.
Is There Evidence Of Rapid Burial In The Fossil Record?
Everywhere you look is evidence of rapid burial of billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the earth. Here are some special examples that can only be explained by catastrophic flood conditions:
· Glen Rose, Texas—A three-foot thick strata composed primarily of millions of closed fossil clams. Normally, clams like to burrow in sand separated from each other, but these are packed together by the millions. To be found closed and whole, a clam would need to be buried alive since only the muscles of a live clam can keep the valves closed. These clams must have been washed into their present position and buried alive. These clams are found throughout Texas in this layer. Clams are not the only fossils found here, just the most prevalent. Also fossilized worms in adobe dirt clods—still round, not squashed! Worms are very difficult to preserve since they have no hard body parts. After cutting open a live worm, it turns to dust quickly. This requires rapid burial and rapid changing to rock to keep the worm from decaying.
· Eating or Giving Birth—Many examples of creatures in the process of eating or giving birth, perfectly preserved, which can only happen with rapid and complete burial.
· Gooey Creatures—Thousands of intricately detailed fossil jellyfish are found in rocks. When jellyfish die or get stranded on the beach, they turn to formless lumps of jelly within hours. Terrific evidence of rapid flood-related burial under deep sediment, which turned to rock quickly.
Poly = many; strate = strata. A polystrate fossil extends through multiple layers.
· “Kamikaze” ichthyosaur—A complete preserved skull of an ichthyosaur (an extinct marine reptile that gave birth to live young) was found buried in a vertical, nose-down position through several layers. Unlike most fossils, the head was preserved in three dimensions, and had not been flattened by the weight of sediment above it. The various layers supposedly span 1 million years. Discuss evolution explanation. It’s impossible except if the layers had been deposited rapidly and deeply to bury the ichthyosaur and keep it from decaying.
· Tree trunks in coal seams—These penetrate coal plus sandstone layers above and below. One tree in a coal mine in Germany extends vertically 38 feet through the strata. No branches, no roots so did not grow where found. This is evidence of rapid deposition of the strata because the tree didn’t rot and fall over. Some are even upside down. They were carried by water and deposited at the same time as the surrounding sand or coal—over a short period of time.
· Yellowstone’s petrified forests—Numerous layers of upright petrified trees supposedly representing the growth and burial of >27 forests over millions of years. However, the lack of roots, bark and branches associated with these trees gives evidence that they were uprooted and transported from one location to another, buried rapidly, and mineralized. A modern example is what happened after the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption at Spirit Lake. Trees buried in different layers of soil were in position to be petrified in just a few years after the volcano’s eruption.
The most sensational, of course are the dinosaur bones.
· Scientists from the University of Montana found Tyrannosaurus rex bones that were not totally fossilized. Sections were like fresh bone and contained what seems to be blood cells and hemoglobin. If these bones really were millions of years old, then the blood cells and hemoglobin would have totally disintegrated. Also, there should not be ‘fresh’ bone if it were really millions of years old.
· Unfossilized frozen duck-billed dinosaur bones have been found on the North Slope in Alaska. Evolutionists would not say that these bones had stayed frozen for the many millions of years since these dinosaurs supposedly died out (according to evolutionary theory). Yet the bones could not have survived for the millions of years unmineralized. This is a puzzle to those who believe in an “age of dinosaurs’” millions of years ago, but not to someone who builds his thinking on the Bible.
Thousands of marine and land creatures are buried together in great “fossil graveyards,” tightly packed in a jumbled heap, choked with sediments, buried before they had time to decay. Fish, birds, reptiles, mammals, insects, and plants — creatures that don’t live together — have been piled together and preserved.
· Quarry near Lubbock—Many dinosaur and other reptile bones. Scientist says they drowned in a major flood.
· Agate Quarry in Nebraska—Thousands of rhinoceros, zebra, pig and camel bones in one layer. Whole herds buried at one time.
· Fossil Butte National Monument—Multitudes of perfectly preserved fish, crocodiles, insects, turtles and palm fronds. No signs of decay so were buried rapidly.
· Green River Formation—This rock formation consists of finely layered sediment, each layer supposedly like annual tree rings. Yet, it’s full of fish and bird fossils beautifully preserved spanning across the fine layers. The Mount St. Helens eruptions in the 1980s produced the same fine layering in just one afternoon. So, it’s possible the Green River layers represent equally rapid deposition. The traditional view contradicts the fossils amazingly preserved in them.
· Karoo deposits of southern Africa—The most massive, continuous, fossil deposit known on the planet. 800 billion vertebrate fossils in a 20,000-ft thick deposit of sandstones and shales stretching out for hundreds of miles.
· Gobi desert—Hundreds of dinosaurs as well as lizards, crocodiles, and small mammals preserved in a huge bone bed that’s been in the news frequently because of various claims that “dinobirds” have been found. Every one of those “dinobird” fossils, by the way, have been verified as completely dinosaur or completely bird. Check the Answers in Genesis website whenever you hear another “dinobird” claim.
· Florida south of Tampa—One of the richest fossil deposits in the United States, yielding bones of ~70 species of animals, birds, and sea creatures. About 80% of the bones belong to plains animals, such as camels, horses, mammoths, etc. Bears, wolves, large cats, and a bird with an estimated 30-foot wingspan are also represented. Mixed in with all the land animals are sharks’ teeth, turtle shells, and the bones of fresh and saltwater fish. The bones are all smashed and jumbled together, as if by some catastrophe. The big question for scientists is how bones from such different ecological niches—plains, forests, and ocean—came together in the same place.
Evidene Of Rapid Cementation:
It doesn’t take millions of years for a bone to become fossilized. Researchers have found that chicken bones and wood can be petrified, in just five to ten years. Perhaps a dinosaur bone would only take a hundred years to completely mineralize. Besides, not all fossil remains have yet turned to stone. Pieces of the original shell and bone are commonly present in strata as well as soft tissue.
Question #3: What About The Sequence In Which Fossils Are Found? Doesn’t It Prove Evolutionary Development?
The sequence in which fossils are found does not prove evolutionary development. Rather, it is evidence of sorting and differential abilities to escape floodwaters. Let’s consider these:
· The types of fossils preserved—95% of all fossils are marine creatures, particularly shellfish. That makes sense considering ocean waters swept up from the ocean bottom onto the land. The other 5% is plants and land invertebrates. Less than 1/5% are vertebrates—mostly fish, and most land vertebrate fossils consist of one bone.
· The order of burial—This is the evidence used for evolution. Burial sequence could definitely be influenced by where the organisms lived. Finding fossils in groups suggests that the rising floodwaters buried different ecological zones. You’d expect that large numbers of various marine organisms would be buried together. Above them are the free-swimming vertebrates. Then, at the higher elevations—birds, mammals, and finally man because the ability to escape would affect burial. Larger creatures can climb or swim; plants can float. Both could be buried later in the process. But, that’s not all…
· Hydrodynamic sorting—Floodwater sorts out objects according to similar shape and size. Streamlined objects settle out first; larger creatures with arms and tails settle out last. And, based on the nature of churning water and wave action, there is reason to believe that many initial sediment deposits were reworked and deposited elsewhere. So, you can’t go by the way they are found in the layers anyway. Since flood conditions are ideal for forming fossils, finding fossils in groups suggests that the rising floodwaters buried different ecological zones. The geologic column shows the usual sequence in which the rising floodwaters buried plants and animals from their different zones. It would be expected for large quantities and varieties of marine organisms to be buried together. Larger creatures that could climb or swim would be buried later; plants could float and also would be buried later. Again, the evidence matches the prediction. A lot of water; not a lot of time!!
There are over 2000 documented examples of fossils found that don’t fit into the evolutionary sequence, called Out-Of-Place fossils. There are examples of entire rock layers being out of place with “older” fossils overlying “younger” fossils. All of which are explained away without reason.
The fossil record is best understood as the result of a marine cataclysm that utterly annihilated the continents and land dwellers. Genesis 7:23 “Every living thing on the face of the earth was wiped out.” You would expect to find…Billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the earth. The evidence matches the prediction.
Was The Flood Regional Or Global?
Here are 7 clues from scripture that the Genesis Flood was global and not just regional or local.
· Global Flood Clue #1: Size of the Ark. Need for an Ark. Genesis 6:14-16, 19-21. Texas Size!!! Its size, construction, and stocking would be totally unnecessary for a local flood—a lot of work and materials. Why bother? God would have told Noah and his family to move to another area.
· Global Flood Clue #2: Purpose of the Flood. Genesis 6:17-18. To wipe out wickedness and violence on the earth. If the purpose of destruction was for the punishment of sin on earth, the purpose couldn’t be accomplished if only part of humanity had been affected.
· Global Flood Clue #3: Depth of the Flood. Genesis 7:17-24. The Flood covered “all the high mountains under the entire heavens” by ~22 feet which may have been the draft of the Ark. It would have taken that much water just to get the Ark floating. All breathing creatures outside the Ark perished. None escaped by swimming, climbing, or flying. The Hebrew translated “covered” is kasah, which means “overwhelmed to the point of washing away.” Psalm 104:6 refers to this part of the Flood, “You covered it with the deep as with a garment; the waters stood above the mountains.”
· Global Flood Clue #4: Duration of Flood. More than 40 days!! 21 weeks of rising and prevailing; 31 weeks of receding. Total = 371 days. Not a typical local flood. The Hebrew word translated “prevailed” means that the floodwaters were “overwhelmingly mighty.” Job 12:15 refers to this, “If he holds back the waters, there is drought; if he lets them loose, they devastate the land.”
· Global Flood Clue #5: Use of universal terms, >30 times—all, every, everything. Wording of entire record— 6:17; 7:4 (every), 19 (all), 21-23 (“everything, all” which God Himself uses). The word God uses for the Genesis Flood is not the same word used for a local flood in the rest of the Old Testament. Also, the phrase “all under the entire (whole) heavens” is a double emphasis in the Hebrew.
· Global Flood Clue #6: Promise of No More Floods. Genesis 9:15. There have been many floods, even regional foods, even in Mesopotamia since Noah’s day. If this was merely local flood, then God broke His promise, and the rainbow covenant means nothing.
· Global Flood Clue #7: The Rest of Scripture. Genesis, 2 Peter 2:5; 3:5-6; Isaiah 34:9; Psalm 29:10; 104:6-9; 1 Peter 3:20; Hebrews 11:7. Jesus clearly stated in Luke 17:26-27 that all men were destroyed by the Flood. See also Matthew 24:39. Also, God’s covenant w/Noah after Flood is meaningless if only part of humanity had been involved. The New Testament uses kataklusmos (cataclysm) for the Flood rather than the usual Greek word for flooding.
It had to be universal and it had to have left lots of evidence!!
Sources For Further Study:
1. Noah’s Flood Q & A, Answers in Genesis website
2. The Genesis Flood, Henry Morris and John Whitcomb.
3. The Genesis Record, Henry Morris.
4. There are a number of excellent videos about the Flood—Evidences: The Record and the Flood; Raging Waters; Fossils and the Flood; The World That Perished
5. Double Tragedies Frozen in Time, Dr. Joachim Vetter, www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v12/i4/lime.asp
6. Sensational Dinosaur Blood Report, Carl Wieland, Creation 19(4), September 1997 at /www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v19/i4/blood.asp
7. Florida Fossils Puzzle the Experts, Carol Armstrong, Creation Research Society Quarterly, 21:198, 1985
8. The Yellowstone Petrified Forests, Jonathan Sarfati, Creation 21(2), March 1999 at www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v21/i2/yellowstone.asp.
9. Dinosaur National Monument: Jurassic Park Or Jurassic Jumble? at http://www.icr.org/article/106.