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List of Abbreviations (for the NET Bible Footnotes)

As found on the Lumina Study Tool

  Abbreviations for Biblical Books and Nonbiblical Literature

Jump to the definitions for sn,tn,tc  click here

 

Old Testament

Gen

Genesis

Exod

Exodus

Lev

Leviticus

Num

Numbers

Deut

Deuteronomy

Josh

Joshua

Judg

Judges

Ruth

Ruth

1 Sam

1 Samuel

2 Sam

2 Samuel

1 Kgs

1 Kings

2 Kgs

2 Kings

1 Chr

1 Chronicles

2 Chr

2 Chronicles

Ezra

Ezra

Neh

Nehemiah

Esth

Esther

Job

Job

Ps(s)

Psalms

Prov

Proverbs

Eccl

Ecclesiastes

Song

Song of Songs

Isa

Isaiah

Jer

Jeremiah

Lam

Lamentations

Ezek

Ezekiel

Dan

Daniel

Hos

Hosea

Joel

Joel

Amos

Amos

Obad

Obadiah

Jonah

Jonah

Mic

Micah

Nah

Nahum

Hab

Habakkuk

Zeph

Zephaniah

Hag

Haggai

Zech

Zechariah

Mal

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament Apocrypha

Bar

Baruch

Add Dan

Additions to Daniel

Pr Azar

Prayer of Azariah

Bel

Bel and the Dragon

Sg Three

Song of the Three Young Men

Sus

Susanna

1–2 Esd

1–2 Esdras

Add Esth

Additions to Esther

Ep Jer

Epistle of Jeremiah

Jdt

Judith

1–4 Macc

1–4 Maccabees

Pr Man

Prayer of Manasseh

Ps 151

Psalm 151

Sir

Sirach/ Ecclesiasticus

Tob

Tobit

Wis

Wisdom of Solomon

New Testament

Matt

Matthew

Mark

Mark

Luke

Luke

John

John

Acts

Acts

Rom

Romans

1 Cor

1 Corinthians

2 Cor

2 Corinthians

Gal

Galatians

Eph

Ephesians

Phil

Philippians

Col

Colossians

1 Thess

1 Thessalonians

2 Thess

2 Thessalonians

1 Tim

1 Timothy

2 Tim

2 Timothy

Titus

Titus

Phlm

Philemon

Heb

Hebrews

Jas

James

1 Pet

1 Peter

2 Pet

2 Peter

1 John

1 John

2 John

2 John

3 John

3 John

Jude

Jude

Rev

Revelation

Other Ancient Documents

Two citation systems for Philo and Josephus are used in the notes. The older (classical) system is listed first, and the Loeb citation system then follows in parentheses.

1 En.

1 Enoch, a Jewish pseudepigraphic work that includes what are thought to be Christian interpolations in chaps. 37-71 (also called Ethiopic Enoch)

1 Kgdms

1 Kingdoms, the book of the LXX which corresponds to 1 Samuel

1QH

Thanksgiving Hymns, hymns composed for worship within the Qumran community

1QS

Rule of the Community, one of the first Dead Sea Scrolls recovered. This scroll details rules for admission into the Qumran community.

2 Bar.

2 Baruch, a Jewish apocalyptic work written early in the second century

2 En.

2 Enoch, an Jewish pseudepigraphic work that expands upon Gen 5:21-32

4QMMT

Miqsat Maàaseh Torah from Qumran Cave 4, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Ag. Ap.

Against Apion, a defense of the Jewish people written by Josephus, a Jewish historian who lived from a.d. 37/38 until the early years of the second century.

Ant.

Jewish Antiquities, a history of the Jewish people written by Josephus (seeAg. Ap. above)

b.

Indicates a tractate from the Babylonian Talmud, which contains the Mishnah and rabbinic interpretive expansions. Collected ca. a.d. 500-550.

CD

A copy of the Damascus Document, which is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, found in the Cairo genizah

Embassy

On the Embassy to Gaius, a philosophical work by Philo, a Jewish philosopher who lived from 20 b.c. to a.d. 50

Praep. Ev.

Praeparatio evangelica (Preparation for the Gospel), a work by Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, who lived ca. a.d. 260-341

Flaccus

Against Flaccus, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)

Heir

Who is the Heir?, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)

Herm.

Shepherd of Hermas, a Christian work written in Rome sometime during the 1st and 2nd centuries a.d.

Ibn Ezra

Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra, a medieval Jewish scholar who wrote many works, including a commentary on the Hebrew Bible. Lived a.d. 1092/1093 to a.d.1167.

Ign.

Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, who died as a martyr in Rome early in the second century. Following will be the abbreviation for one of his seven letters.

J. W.

Jewish War, a history of the events surrounding the war between Rome and the Jews ca. a.d. 70 written by Josephus (see Ag. Ap. above)

Jub.

Jubilees, a Jewish pseudepigraphic work that expands upon the narratives in Genesis and Exodus

Letter of Aristeas

An ancient letter which purports to explain the origins of the LXX. Posited by most scholars to have been written ca. 170 b.c.

Life

The Life, an autobiography of Josephus (see Ag. Ap. above)

m.

Indicates a tractate from the Mishnah, a codification of Jewish rabbinic oral tradition collected ca. a.d. 200-220

Pirqe Avot

A collection of the sayings from Jewish sages and rabbis

Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer

A collection of Jewish rabbinic tradition compiled ca. a.d. 750-850

Posterity

On the Posterity of Cain, a philosophical work by Philo (see Embassy above)

Rabbah

Jewish rabbinic commentary on books of the Bible, e.g., Genesis Rabbah

Sib. Or.

Sibylline Oracles, a collection of poetic prophecies contained within the Jewish pseudepigrapha

Sifre Deut

Sifre on Deuteronomy, a collection of rabbinic interpretations on the book of Deuteronomy compiled ca. a.d. 350-400

Smr

Samaritan Pentateuch, the version of the first five books of the Old Testament accepted as canonical by the Samaritans

t.

Indicates a tractate from the Tosefta, a codification of Jewish rabbinic oral tradition collected ca. a.d. 220-230

T. Gad

Testament of Gad, one of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, a group of works written between 109 and 106 b.c. and inspired by Jacob’s testament in Gen 49

T. Reu.

Testament of Reuben, one of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (see T. Gad above)

T. Sol.

Testament of Solomon, a story about Solomon building the Temple, written sometime during the 1st to 3rd centuries a.d.

Tg.

Indicates a Targum, an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible which often included interpretive comments

Tg. Onq.

Targum Onqelos, an Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch, regarded as the official targum of these books

Tg. Ps.-J.

Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, an Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch

y.

Indicates a tractate from the Jerusalem Talmud (which actually took shape in Galilee ca. a.d. 400-425), a work which contains the Mishnah and rabbinic interpretive expansions

Abbreviations for Bible Versions

English Versions

NET

The NET Bible / New English Translation (NT, 1998; First Beta Edition, 2001; Second Beta Edition, 2003; First Edition, 2005)3

TNIV

Today’s New International Version (NT, 2001)

NLT

New Living Translation (1996)

CEV

The Contemporary English Version (1995)

NIrV

New International Reader’s Version (1995)

Message

E. H. Peterson, The Message: The New Testament in Contemporary Language (1993)

NCV

New Century Version (1991)

REB

Revised English Bible (1989)

NRSV

New Revised Standard Version (1989)

NJB

New Jerusalem Bible (1985)

NJPS

Tanakh (1985), produced by the Jewish Publication Society

NKJV

New King James Version (1979)

TEV

Today’s English Version, also known as Good News for Modern Man (1976)

NIV

The New International Version (NT, 1973; OT, 1978)

LB

The Living Bible (1971)

NASB

New American Standard Bible (1971; update 1995)

NAB

The New American Bible (1970)

NEB

The New English Bible (1970)

JB

Jerusalem Bible (1966)

Amplified

The Amplified Bible (1965)

BBE

C. K. Ogden, The Bible in Basic English (1965)

JPS

The Torah (1962), The Prophets (Nevi’im) (1978), The Writings (Kethuvim) (1982), produced by the Jewish Publication Society

MLB

Modern Language Bible: New Berkeley Version (1959; rev. 1969)

Phillips

J. B. Phillips, The New Testament in Modern English (1958)

RSV

Revised Standard Version (NT, 1946; OT, 1952)

Knox

R. A. Knox, The New Testament in English (1945)

AT

The Bible—An American Translation (1927)

Moffatt

James Moffatt, A New Translation of the Bible (1926)

TCNT

The Twentieth Century New Testament (1898-1901; rev. 1904)

ASV

American Standard Version (1901)

RV

Revised Version (NT 1881; OT 1885)

YLT

Young's Literal Translation (1862; rev. 1898)

KJV (=AV)

The King James Version, known in Britain as the Authorized Version (1611)

AV (=KJV)

The Authorized Version, known in America as the King James Version (1611)

Douay

Douay-Rheims Version, a translation for the Roman Catholic Church (NT 1582; OT 1609-1610)

 

Ancient Versions

MT

Masoretic Text (the traditional rabbinical text of the Hebrew Bible, dating from the medieval period)

LXX

Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament, translated between 250-100 b.c.)

 

General Abbreviations

NET Bible Footnote Types

tn

Translator’s Note—explains the rationale for the translation and gives alternative translations, interpretive options, and other technical information.

sn

Study Note—includes comments about historical or cultural background, explanation of obscure phrases or brief discussions of context, discussions of the theological point made by the biblical author, cross references and references to Old Testament quotations or allusions in the New Testament, or other miscellaneous information helpful to the modern reader.

tc

Text-critical Note—discusses alternate (variant) readings found in the various manuscripts and groups of manuscripts of the Hebrew Old Testament and Greek New Testament.

map

Map Note—gives map coordinates for site within the two map sections, “The Journeys of Paul” and “The Holy Land from the Heavens.”

 

Journals

ABR

Australian Biblical Review

ADAJ

Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan

AION

Annali dell’Istituto Orientale di Napoli

AJBA

Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology

AJSL

American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature

ArOr

Archiv Orientální

ASTI

Annual of the Swedish Thelogical Institute

AUSS

Andrews University Seminary Studies

BA

Biblical Archaeologist

BAR

Biblical Archaeology Review

BASOR

Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research

BBR

Bulletin for Biblical Research

BETS

Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society

Bib

Biblica

BiBh

Bible Bhashyam

Bijdr

Bijdragen: Tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie

BJRL

Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester

BN

Biblische Notizen

BRev

Bible Review

BSac

Bibliotheca Sacra

BT

The Bible Translator

BTB

Biblical Theology Bulletin

BV

Biblical Viewpoint

BZ

Biblische Zeitschrift

CBQ

Catholic Biblical Quarterly

CentBib

Central Bible Quarterly

CTJ

Calvin Theological Journal

CTM

Concordia Theological Monthly

CTR

Criswell Theological Review

ErIsr

Eretz-Israel

EvQ

Evangelical Quarterly

ExpTim

Expository Times

FO

Folia orientalia

GOT

Glasgow Oriental Transactions

GTJ

Grace Theological Journal

HAR

Hebrew Annual Review

HBT

Horizons in Biblical Theology

HS

Hebrew Studies

HTR

Harvard Theological Review

HUCA

Hebrew Union College Annual

IEJ

Israel Exploration Journal

Int

Interpretation

JANESCU

Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of 
Columbia University

JAOS

Journal of the American Oriental Society

JBL

Journal of Biblical Literature

JCS

Journal of Cuneiform Studies

JETS

Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

JJP

Journal of Juristic Papyrology

JJS

Journal of Jewish Studies

JNES

Journal of Near Eastern Studies

JNSL

Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages

JPOS

Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society

JQR

Jewish Quarterly Review

JRAS

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

JSNT

Journal for the Study of the New Testament

JSOT

Journal for the Study of the Old Testament

JSS

Journal of Semitic Studies

JTS

Journal of Theological Studies

JTVI

Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute

Jud

Judaica

LesŒ

LesŒoneÃnu

LTQ

Lexington Theological Quarterly

MAOG

Mitteilungen der Altorientalischen Gesellschaft

Mus

Muséon: Revue d’études orientales

NovT

Novum Testamentum

NTS

New Testament Studies

Or

Orientalia

OTS

Old Testament Studies

PEQ

Palestinian Exploration Quarterly

RA

Revue d’assyriologie et d’archéologie orientale

RB

Revue biblique

RevExp

Review and Expositor

RHPR

Revue d’histoire et de philosophie religieuses

RHR

Revue de l’histoire des religions

RQ

Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte

RSR

Recherches de science religieuse

Sem

Semitica

SJT

Scottish Journal of Theology

ST

Studia theologica

SwJT

Southwestern Journal of Theology

TA

Tel Aviv

TB

Theologische Bücherei: Neudrucke und Berichte aus dem 20. Jahrhundert

TGUOS

Transactions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society

TJ

Trinity Journal

TLZ

Theologische Literaturzeitung

TRu

Theologische Rundschau

TynBul

Tyndale Bulletin

TZ

Theologische Zeitschrift

UF

Ugarit-Forschungen

VT

Vetus Testamentum

WTJ

Westminster Theological Journal

WW

Word and World

ZÄS

Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde

ZAW

Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft

ZDMG

Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft

ZNW

Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft

 

Commentary and Monograph Series

AB

Anchor Bible

AfO

Archiv für Orientforschung

AGJU

Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums

AnBib

Analecta biblica

AnOr

Analecta orientalia

AOAT

Alter Orient und Altes Testament

ArBib

The Aramaic Bible

ATD

Das Alte Testament Deutsch

BASORSup

Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research: Supplement Series

BECNT

Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

BibOr

Biblica et orientalia

BKAT

Biblischer Kommentar, Altes Testament

BSC

Bible Student’s Commentary

CBC

Cambridge Bible Commentary

CBQMS

Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series

CC

Continental Commentaries

CNT

Commentaire du Nouveau Testament

ConBOT

Coniectanea biblica: Old Testament Series

DissAb

Dissertation Abstracts

DJD

Discoveries in the Judaean Desert

DJDJ

Discoveries in the Judaean Desert of Jordan

DSBS

Daily Study Bible Series

EGGNT

Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament

FCI

Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation

FOTL

Forms of the Old Testament Literature

FRLANT

Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments

GBS

Guides to Biblical Scholarship

HNTC

Harper’s New Testament Commentaries

HSM

Harvard Semitic Monographs

IBC

Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching

ICC

International Critical Commentary

JAARSup

Journal of the American Academy of Religion: Supplement Series

JBLMS

Journal of Biblical Literature Monograph Series

JPSTC

Jerusalem Publication Society Torah Commentary

JSNTSup

Journal for the Study of the New Testament: Supplement Series

JSOTSup

Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series

KAT

Kommentar zum Alten Testament

LHD

The Library of History and Doctrine

MNTC

Moffatt New Testament Commentary

NAC

New American Commentary

NCBC

New Century Bible Commentary

NICNT

New International Commentary on the New Testament

NICOT

New International Commentary on the Old Testament

NIGTC

New International Greek Testament Commentary

NovTSup

Supplements to Novum Testamentum

NTL

New Testament Library

OBO

Orbis biblicus et orientalis

OBT

Overtures to Biblical Theology

OTL

Old Testament Library

OTM

Oxford Theological Monographs

PTMS

Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series

SB

Sources bibliques

SBA

Studies in Biblical Archaeology

SBG

Studies in Biblical Greek

SBLDS

Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series

SBT

Studies in Biblical Theology

ScrHier

Scripta hierosolymitana

SD

Studies and Documents

SHR

Studies in the History of Religions

SJLA

Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity

SNTSMS

Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series

SoBB

Soncino Books of the Bible

SOTBT

Studies in Old Testament Biblical Theology

SOTSMS

Society for Old Testament Studies Monograph Series

SPCKTC

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Theological Collections

SSN

Studia semitica neerlandica

StPB

Studia post-biblica

SUNT

Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments

TBC

Torch Bible Commentaries

TCS

Texts from Cuneiform Sources

TOTC

Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries

TU

Texte und Untersuchungen

VAB

Vorderasiatische Bibliothek

VTSup

Supplements to Vetus Testamentum

WBC

Word Biblical Commentary

WEC

Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary

WUNT

Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament

 

Text-critical Terms

al

Abbreviation for alii, a Latin phrase meaning “others,” referring to manuscripts

ms (mss)

manuscript (manuscripts)

pc

Abbreviation for pauci, “a few (others),” referring to manuscripts

pm

Abbreviation for permulti, “a great many (others),” referring to manuscripts

vid

Abbreviation for videtur, a Latin word meaning “apparently” or “so it appears,” referring to an uncertain reading in a manuscript

 

Miscellaneous Abbreviations

abs.

absolute

acc.

accusative

ANE

Ancient Near East (noun), Ancient Near Eastern (adjective)

ca.

approximately (from Latin circa)

cf.

compare (from Latin confer)

chap.

chapter

dat.

dative

ed.

editor; edited by; edition

e.g.

for example (from Latin exempli gratia)

ET

English text (when versification in the English Bible differs from the Greek or Hebrew text)

expr.

expression

ff.

following

fig.

figurative; figuratively

gen.

genitive

GT

Greek text (when versification differs from the English Bible)

HT

Hebrew text (when versification differs from the English Bible)

i.e.

that is (from Latin id est)

loc. cit.

in the place cited (from Latin loco citato), usually referring to a Bible verse or passage cited in a commentary or other work

ms (mss)

manuscript (manuscripts)

nom.

nominative

NT

New Testament

pl.

plural

q.v.

which see (from Latin quod vide)

sc.

supply (from Latin scilicet)

sing.

singular

suppl.

supplement

s.v.

under the word (from Latin sub verbo or sub voce)

trans.

translated; translator

v.

verse

viz.

namely (from Latin videlicet)

w.

with

 

 

List of Cited Works

Works Cited by Abbreviation

 

AHw

Soden, Wolfram von. Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965–1981.

ANEP

Pritchard, James B., ed. The Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old Testament. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954.

ANET

Pritchard, James B., ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3d ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

BDAG

Bauer, W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3d ed. Revised and edited by F. W. Danker. Translated by W. F. Arndt, F. W. Gingrich, and F. W. Danker. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2000.4

BDB

Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs.The New Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1979.

BDF

Blass, F. and A. Debrunner. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Translated and edited by Robert W. Funk. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

BHK

Kittel, R., ed. Biblia Hebraica. Stuttgart: Würtemburgische Bibelanstalt, 1905-1906, 1925, 1937, 1951, 1973.

BHS

Elliger, K. and W. Rudolph, eds. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1983.

BKCNT

Walvoord, John F., and Roy B. Zuck, eds. The Bible Knowledge Commentary. New Testament Edition. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1983.

BKCOT

Walvoord, John F., and Roy B. Zuck, eds. The Bible Knowledge Commentary. Old Testament Edition. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1985.

BRL2

Galling, Kurt, ed. Biblisches Reallexikon. 2d ed. Handbuch Zum Alten Testament 1/1. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1977.

CAD

Gelb, Ignace J., ed. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1956-.

CTA

Herdner, A., ed. Corpus des tablettes en cunéiformes alphabétiques découvertes à Ras Shamra-Ugarit de 1929 à 1939. Mission de Ras Shamra 10. Paris: P. Geuthner, 1963.

DCH

Clines, D. J. A., ed. Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993-.

DISO

Jean, Charles-François, and Jacob Hoftijzer, eds.Dictionnaire des inscriptions sémitiques de l’ouest. Leiden: Brill, 1965.

DJG

Green, J. B., and S. McKnight, eds. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1992.

DNWSI

Hoftijzer, J., and K. Jongeling, eds. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1995.

DPL

Hawthorne, Gerald F., and Ralph P. Martin, eds.Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1993.

EA

Knudtzon, J. A. Die el-Amarna-Tafeln. Vorderasiatische Bibliothek. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1915. Reprint, Aalen: Otto Zeller, 1964. Continued in Rainey, A. F. El-Amarna Tablets, 359-379. 2d rev. ed. Alter Orient Und Altes Testament 8. Kevelaer: Butzon und Bercker, 1978.

EAEHL

M. Avi-Yonah, ed. Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. 4 vols. Jerusalem: Massada 1975.

EBC

Gaebelein, Frank E., ed. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976-1992.

ExSyn

Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.

GKC

Kautzsch, E., ed. Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar. Translated by A. E. Cowley. 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.

HALOT

Koehler, L., W. Baumgartner, and J. J. Stamm. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Translated and edited under the supervision of M. E. J. Richardson. 5 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1994-2000.

IBHS

Waltke, B. K., and M. O’Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1990.

IDB

Buttrick, George A., ed. The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. 4 vols. New York: Abingdon, 1962.

IDBSup

Crim, Keith R, ed. The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible: Supplementary Volume. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976

ISBE

Bromiley, G. W., ed. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979-1988.

Jastrow

Jastrow, Marcus. A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature. 2d ed. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1903.

Joüon

Joüon, Paul. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Translated and revised by T. Muraoka. 1st edition with corrections. 2 vols. Subsidia biblica 14/1-2. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1993.

K&D

Keil, C. F., and F. Delitzsch. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Translated by J. Martin et al. 27 vols. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1857-1878.

KBL

Koehler, L., and W. Baumgartner. Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros. 2d ed. Leiden: Brill, 1958.

L&N

Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene Nida, eds. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains. New York, NY: United Bible Societies, 1988.

LSJ

Liddell, H. G., and R. Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. Revised and augmented by H. S. Jones, with the assistance of R. McKenzie. With a revised Supplement. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.

MHT

Moulton, J. H. A Grammar of New Testament Greek.4 vols. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1908-1976: Vol. 1 (1908) Prolegomena, by J. H. Moulton. 1st ed. (1906); 3d ed. (1908); Vol. 2 (1929): Accidence and Word Formation, by W. F. Howard; Vol. 3 (1963):Syntax, by N. Turner; Vol. 4 (1976): Style, by N. Turner.

MM

Moulton, J. H., and G. Milligan. Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1930. Repr., Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1997.

NA25

Nestle, E., and K. Aland, eds. Novum Testamentum Graece. 25th ed. Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 1963.

NA26

Aland, K., M. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, eds. Novum Testamentum Graece.26th ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1979.

NA27

Aland, B., K. Aland, J. Karavidopoulos, C. M. Martini, and B. M. Metzger, eds. Novum Testamentum Graece. 27th ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993.

NBD3

Wood, D. R. W., ed. New Bible Dictionary. 3d ed. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1996.

NIDOTTE

VanGemeren, W. A., ed. New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997.

PGL

Lampe, G. W. H., ed. Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford; New York: Clarendon, 1968.

TCGNT

Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. 2d ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: 1994.

TDNT

Kittel, G. and G. Friedrich. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-1976.

TDOT

Botterweck, G. Johannes and Helmer Ringgren, eds.Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Translated by J. T. Willis, G. W. Bromiley, and D. E. Green. 8 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974-.

THAT

Jenni, Ernst, ed., with assistance from Claus Westermann. Theologisches Handwörterbuch zum Alten Testament. 2 vols. Stuttgart: C. Kaiser, 1971-1976.

ThWAT

Botterweck, G. Johannes, and Helmer Ringgren, eds. Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1970.

TLG

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, a computerized database of all ancient Greek literature from Homer (8th century b.c.) to the 6th century AD.

TWOT

Harris, R. Laird, Gleason L. Archer, and Bruce K. Waltke, eds. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Chicago: Moody, 1980.

UBS3

Aland, K., M. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, eds. The Greek New Testament. 3d ed., corrected. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, 1983.

UBS4

Aland, B., K. Aland, J. Karavidopoulos, C. M. Martini, and B. M. Metzger, eds. The Greek New Testament. 4th ed., corrected. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, 1994.

UT

Gordon, Cyrus H. Ugaritic Textbook. Revised reprint. Analecta orientalia 38. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1998.

WUS

Aistleitner, Joseph. Das Wörterbuch der ugaritischen Sprache. Edited by Otto Eissfeldt. 3d ed. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1967.

ZPEB

Tenney, Merrill C., ed. The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. 5 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976.

Works Cited by Name and Short Title

Fauna and Flora of the Bible. 2d ed. Helps for Translators. New York: United Bible Societies, 1980.

The Illustrated Family Encyclopedia of the Living Bible. Chicago: San Francisco Productions, 1967.

Aharoni, Yohanan. The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography. Translated and edited by A. F. Rainey. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1979.

Aharoni, Yohanan and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Edited by Anson F. Rainey and Ze’ev Safrai. 3d ed. New York: Macmillan, 1976.

Albright, W. F. Archaeology and the Religion of Israel. 3d ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1953.

________. From the Stone Age to Christianity: Monotheism and the Historical Process. 2d ed. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1957.

________. “Archaic Survivals in the Text of Canticles.” Pages 1-7 in Hebrew and Semitic Studies. Edited by D. Winton Thomas and W. D. McHardy. Oxford: Claredon, 1963.

________. Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: A Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968.

Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. Ancient Peoples and Places 18. New York: Praeger, 1961.

Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.

________. Psalms 101-150. Word Biblical Commentary 21. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1983.

________. Ezekiel. 2 vols. Word Biblical Commentary 28-29. Dallas: Word, 1990-1994.

Alter, R. The Art of Biblical Narrative. New York: Basic Books, 1981.

Andersen, Francis I. Job. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1976.

Andersen, Francis I., and David Noel Freedman. Hosea. Anchor Bible 24. New York: Doubleday, 1980.

________. Amos. Anchor Bible 24A. New York: Doubleday, 1989.

André, Gunnel. Determining the Destiny: PQD in the Old Testament. Coniectanea biblica: Old Testament Series 16. Lund: Gleerup, 1980.

Archer, G. L. The Book of Job: God’s Answer to the Problem of Understanding Suffering. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1982.

Arnold, Bill T., and John H. Choi. A Guide to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Aune, David E. Revelation. 3 vols. Word Biblical Commentary 52ABC. Dallas: Word, 1997-1998.

Baker, J. A. The Book of Job: Unity and Suffering. Sheffield: JSOT, 1978.

Baldwin, Joyce. “Jonah.” Pages 543-90 in The Minor Prophets. Edited by Thomas E. McComiskey. 3 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

Barclay, William. The Gospel of John. 2 vols. Daily Study Bible Series. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1956.

Barr, James. Biblical Words for Time. 2d ed. Studies in Biblical Theology: First Series 33. London: S.C.M., 1969.

________. Comparative Philology and the Text of the Old Testament. Rev. ed. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987.

Barre, M. L., and J. S. Kselman. “New Exodus, Covenant, and Restoration in Psalm 23.” Pages 97-127 in The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman. Edited by C. F. Meyers and M. O’Connor. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1983.

Barrett, C. K. The Gospel According to St. John. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1978.

________. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. Edited by Henry Chadwick. Harper’s New Testament Commentaries. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1957. Repr., Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1987.

________. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles. 2 vols. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1994-1998.

Barstad, H. The Religious Polemics of Amos. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 34. Leiden: Brill, 1984.

Barth, Markus. Ephesians: Translation and Commentary on Chapters 1-3 and 4-6. 2 vols. Anchor Bible 34, 34A. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974.

________. The People of God. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 5. Sheffield: JSOT, 1983.

Barthélemy, Dominique, D. W. Gooding, J. Lust, and E. Tov. The Story of David and Goliath: Textual and Literary Criticism. Orbis biblicus et orientalis 73. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1986.

Barthélemy, Dominique, Adrian Schenker, and John Alexander Thompson. Preliminary and Interim Report on the Hebrew Old Testament Text Project. 5 vols. 2d ed. New York: United Bible Societies, 1979-1980.

Barthes, Roland. “The Struggle with the Angel: Textual Analysis of Genesis 32:23-33.” Pages 21-33 in Structural Analysis and Biblical Exegesis: Interpretational Essays. Edited by Roland Barthes. Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series 3. Pittsburgh: Pickwick, 1974.

Bartlett, J. R. “The Moabites and the Edomites.” Pages 229-58 in Peoples of Old Testament Times. Edited by D. J. Wiseman. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973.

Barton, J. Amos’s Oracles Against the Nations. Society for Old Testament Studies: Monograph Series 6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Bauckham, Richard. Jude, 2 Peter. Word Biblical Commentary 50. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1983.

Bauer, Hans, and Pontus Leander. Grammatik des Biblisch-Aramäischen. Halle/Saale: Max Niemeyer, 1927.

Beale, G. K. The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999.

Berlin, Adele. Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1994.

________. Zephaniah. Anchor Bible 25A. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

Bernard, J. H. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. John. 2 vols. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1928.

Best, Ernest. Mark: The Gospel As Story. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1983.

Beyer, Klaus. Semitische Syntax im Neuen Testament. Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1962.

Biggs, Robert D. Sà.zi.ga: Ancient Mesopotamian Potency Incantations. Texts From Cuneiform Sources 2. Locust Valley, N.Y.: J. J. Augustin, 1967.

Blank, S. H. “‘Perish the Day!’ A Misdirected Curse (Job 3:3).” Pages 61-63 in Prophetic Thought: Essays and Addresses. Edited by Sheldon H. Blank. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1977.

Blenkinsopp, Joseph. Ezra-Nehemiah. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1988.

Block, Daniel I. The Book of Ezekiel. 2 vols. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.

Bock, Darrell L. Luke. 2 vols. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament 3AB. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994-1996.

Boling, Robert G. Judges. Anchor Bible 6A. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1975.

Bonsirven, Joseph. Épîtres de Saint Jean: Introduction, traduction et commentaire. New ed. Commentaire du Nouveau Testament 9. Paris: Beauchesne, 1954.

Borger, Riekele. Die Inschriften Asarhaddons, Königs von Assyrien. Archiv für Orientforschung 9. Graz: Im Selbstverlage des Herausgebers, 1956.

Borowski, Oded. Agriculture in Iron Age Israel. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1986.

Boström, Gustav. Proverbiastudien: die Weisheit und das fremde Weib in Spr. 1-9. Lunds universitets årsskrift. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1935.

Brichto, H. C. The Problem of “Curse” in the Hebrew Bible. Journal of Biblical Literature Monograph Series 13. Philadelphia: Society of Biblical Literature, 1963.

Briggs, Charles A., and Emilie Grace Briggs. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms. 2 vols. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1906-1907.

Bright, John. Jeremiah. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965.

________. A History of Israel. 4th ed. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2000.

Brown, Raymond E. The Gospel According to John. 2 vols. Anchor Bible 29, 29A. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966-1970.

________. The Epistles of John. Anchor Bible 30. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1982.

Brownlee, William Hugh. Ezekiel 1-19. Word Biblical Commentary 28. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1986.

Bruce, F. F. The Acts of the Apostles. London: Tyndale, 1951.

________. The Book of the Acts. Rev. ed. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988.

Buchanan, George Wesley. The Consequences of the Covenant. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 20. Leiden: Brill, 1970.

Budd, Philip J. Numbers. Word Biblical Commentary 5. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1984.

________. Leviticus. New Century Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.

Bullinger, E. W. Figures of Speech Used in the Bible, Explained and Illustrated. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1898. Repr., Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968.

Burney, C. F. The Book of Judges. 2d ed. London: Rivingtons, 1920.

Burrows, Eric. The Oracles of Jacob and Balaam. London: Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1938.

Bush, Frederic W. Ruth, Esther. Word Biblical Commentary 9. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1996.

Buth, Randall. “Methodological Collision Between Source Criticism and Discourse Analysis.” Pages 138-54 in Biblical Hebrew and Discourse Linguistics. Edited by Robert D. Bergen. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1994.

Butler, Trent C. Joshua. Word Biblical Commentary 7. Waco, Tex: Word, 1983.

Caird, G. B. The Revelation of St. John the Divine. Edited by Henry Chadwick. Harper’s New Testament Commentaries. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.

Camp, Claudia V. Wisdom and the Feminine in the Book of Proverbs. Bible and Literature Series 11. Decatur, Ga.: Almond Press, 1985.

Campbell, Edward Fay. Ruth. Anchor Bible 7. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1975.

Carr, G. Lloyd. The Song of Solomon. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries 17. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1983.

Caspari, C. P. A Grammar of the Arabic Language. 3d ed. Translated and edited by William Wright. 3d edition revised by William Robertson Smith and Michael Jan de Goeje. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1933.

Cassuto, Umberto. A Commentary on the Book of Genesis: From Adam to Noah. Translated by Israel Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1961.

________. The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch. Translated by Israel Abrahams. 1st English ed. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1961.

________. A Commentary on the Book of Exodus. Translated by Israel Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1967.

Cathcart, Kevin J. Nahum in the Light of Northwest Semitic. Biblica et orientalia 26. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1973.

Cathcart, Kevin J., and R. P. Gordon. The Targum of the Minor Prophets. The Aramaic Bible 14. Wilmington, Del.: M. Glazier, 1989.

Childs, Brevard S. Memory and Tradition in Israel. Studies in Biblical Theology 37. Naperville, Ill.: Allenson, 1962.

________. The Book of Exodus: A Critical, Theological Commentary. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1974.

Chirichigno, G. C. Debt-Slavery in Israel and the Ancient Near East. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 141. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993.

Chisholm, Robert B. “A Theology of the Psalms.” Pages 257-304 in A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Edited by Roy B. Zuck. Chicago: Moody, 1991.

________. “Evidence From Genesis.” Pages 35-54 in A Case for Premillennialism: A New Consensus. Edited by Donald K. Campbell and Jeffrey L. Townsend. Chicago: Moody, 1992.

________. From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to Using Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.

Christensen, Duane L. Deuteronomy 1-11. Word Biblical Commentary 6A. Dallas: Word, 1991.

Clark, Gordon R. The Word Hesed in the Hebrew Bible. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 157. Sheffield: JSOT, 1993.

Clements, R. E. Isaiah 1-39. New Century Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Clines, David J. A. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. New Century Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984.

________. Job. Word Biblical Commentary 17. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1989.

Coats, George W. Rebellion in the Wilderness. Nashville: Abingdon, 1968.

Cody, Aelred. A History of Old Testament Priesthood. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1969.

Cogan, Mordechai, and Hayim Tadmor. II Kings. Anchor Bible 11. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1988.

Cohen, Abraham. Proverbs. Soncino Books of the Bible. London: Soncino, 1945.

________. The Five Megilloth. Soncino Books of the Bible. London: Soncino, 1946.

________. The Psalms. Edited by Ephraim Oratz. 2d ed. Soncino Books of the Bible. New York: Soncino, 1992.

Cohen, Harold R. Biblical Hapax Legomena in the Light of Akkadian and Ugaritic. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 37. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars, 1978.

Cole, R. A. Exodus: An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1973.

Collins, John Joseph. Daniel. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993.

Cook, Albert Spaulding. The Root of the Thing: A Study of Job and the Song of Songs. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1968.

Craigie, Peter C. The Book of Deuteronomy. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.

________. The Problem of War in the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.

________. Psalms 1-50. Word Biblical Commentary 19. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1983.

Craigie, Peter C., Page H. Kelley, and Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. Jeremiah 1-25. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1991.

Cramer, J. A., ed. Catenae in euangelia Lucae et Joannis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1841.

Cranfield, C. E. B. The Epistle to the Romans. Edited by J. A. Emerton and C. E. B. Cranfield. 2 vols. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1975-1979.

Crenshaw, James L. A Whirlpool of Torment: Israelite Traditions of God As an Oppressive Presence. Overtures to Biblical Theology 12. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.

Cross, Frank M. “The Divine Warrior in Israel’s Early Cult.” Pages 11-30 in Biblical Motifs: Origins and Transformations. Edited by A. Altman. Philip W. Lown Institute of Advanced Judaic Studies, Brandeis University: Studies and Texts 3. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966.

Cross, Frank M., and David Noel Freedman. Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 21. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars, 1975.

Cullmann, Oscar. Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr: A Historical and Theological Study. 2d ed. The Library of History and Doctrine. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962.

Cumont, Franz Valery Marie. After Life in Roman Paganism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1922. Repr., New York: Dover, 1959.

Currid, John D. Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1997.

Dahood, Mitchell J. Proverbs and Northwest Semitic Philology. Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici 113. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1963.

________. Psalms. Anchor Bible 16-17A. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1966.

Dalman, Gustaf. Arbeit und Sitte in Palästina. Schriften des Deutschen Palästina-Instituts. Gütersloh: C. Bertelsmann, 1928.

Davidson, A. B. The Book of Job. New ed. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1918.

Davies, Graham I. The Way of the Wilderness: A Geographical Study of the Wilderness Itineraries in the Old Testament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

________. Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Davies, W. D., and Dale C. Allison, Jr. Matthew. 3 vols. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1988-1997.

Davis, John James. Biblical Numerology. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968.

Day, John. Molech: A God of Human Sacrifice in the Old Testament. University of Cambridge Oriental Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Decker, Rodney J. Temporal Deixis of the Greek Verb in the Gospel of Mark with Reference to Verbal Aspect. Edited by D. A. Carson. Studies in Biblical Greek 10. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

de Waard, Jan. A Handbook on Isaiah. Textual Criticism and the Translator 1. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1997.

DeWit, C. The Date and Route of the Exodus. London: Tyndale, 1960.

Dhorme, E. A Commentary on the Book of Job. Translated by Harold Knight. London: T. Nelson, 1967.

Dillmann, August. Genesis, Critically and Exegetically Expounded. Translated by William B. Stevenson. 2 vols. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1897.

Dittenberger, Wilhelm, ed. Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum. Lipsiae: S. Hirzelium, 1915-1924.

Dobbs-Allsopp, F. W. Lamentations. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Preaching and Teaching. Louisville, Ky.: John Knox, 2002.

Dodd, C. H. The Johannine Epistles. Moffatt New Testament Commentary. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1946.

Dods, Marcus. “The Gospel of St. John.” Pages 653-872 in The Expositor’s Greek Testament. Edited by W. Robertson Nicoll. 5 vols. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1897-1910.

Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966.

Driver, G. R. Canaanite Myths and Legends. Edited by J. C. L. Gibson. 2d ed. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1978.

Driver, S. R. A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew and Some Other Syntactical Questions. 3d ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892.

________. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Deuteronomy. 3d ed. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1902.

________. The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1906.

________. The Book of Exodus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911.

________. Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel. 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1960.

Driver, S. R., and George Buchanan Gray. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Job. 2 vols. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1921.

Dunn, J. D. G. Romans. 2 vols. Word Biblical Commentary 38AB. Dallas: Word, 1988.

________. “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ.” Pages 730-44 in SBL Seminar Papers, 1991. Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers 30. Atlanta: Scholars, 1991.

Durham, John I. Exodus. Word Biblical Commentary 3. Dallas: Word, 1987.

Eaton, J. H. Kingship and the Psalms. Studies in Biblical Theology: Second Series 32. Naperville, Ill.: Allenson, 1976.

Eaton, M. A. Ecclesiastes. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1983.

Ehrman, Bart D. The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: The Effect of Early Christological Controversies on the Text of the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Eichrodt, Walther. Theology of the Old Testament. Translated by J. A. Baker. Old Testament Library. London: S.C.M., 1961-1967.

Eissfeldt, O. “Renaming in the Old Testament.” Pages 70-83 in Words and Meanings. Edited by P. R. Ackroyd and B. Lindars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

Ellis, E. Earle. “The Silenced Wives of Corinth (I Cor. 14:34-5).” Pages 213-20 in New Testament Textual Criticism: Its Significance for Exegesis. Edited by Eldon Jay Epp and Gordon D. Fee. Oxford: Clarendon, 1981.

Engnell, I. “‘Knowledge’ and ‘Life’ in the Creation Story.” Pages 103-19 in Wisdom in Israel and in the Ancient Near East. Edited by Martin Noth and D. Winton Thomas. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 3. Leiden: Brill, 1955.

Falk, Marcia. Love Lyrics From the Bible: A Translation and Literary Study of the Song of Songs. Bible and Literature Series 4. Sheffield: Almond, 1982.

Fanning, Buist M. Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek. Oxford Theological Monographs. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Fee, Gordon D. The First Epistle to the Corinthians. Edited by F. F. Bruce. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987.

________. Paul’s Letter to the Philippians. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.

Fensham, F. Charles. The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982.

Figart, Thomas O. A Biblical Perspective on the Race Problem. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1973.

Fishbane, Michael A. Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel. Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.

________. Biblical Text and Texture: A Literary Reading of Selected Texts. Oxford: Oneworld, 1998.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The Aramaic Inscriptions of Sefîre. Biblica et orientalia 19. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1967.

________. The Gospel According to Luke. 2 vols. Anchor Bible 28, 28A. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981-1985.

________. Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Edited by W. F. Albright and David Noel Freedman. Anchor Bible 33. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1993.

Fohrer, Georg. Introduction to the Old Testament. Nashville: Abingdon, 1968.

Fokkelman, J. P. Narrative Art in Genesis: Specimens of Stylistic and Structural Analysis. Studia semitica neerlandica 17. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1975.

Fox, Michael V. The Song of Songs and the Ancient Egyptian Love Songs. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

Fraser, J. G. Folklore in the Old Testament. London: Macmillan, 1919. Repr., New York: Hart, 1975.

Freedman, David Noel. “Strophe and Meter in Exodus 15.” Pages 163-203 in A Light Unto My Path: Old Testament Studies in Honor of Jacob M. Myers. Edited by Howard N. Bream, Ralph D. Heim, and Carey A. Moore. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1974.

Freedman, David Noel, and K. A. Mathews. The Paleo-Hebrew Leviticus Scroll (11QpaleoLev). Philadelphia: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1985.

Freedman, David Noel, and A. Welch. “Amos’s Earthquake and Israelite Prophecy.” Pages 188-98 in Scripture and Other Artifacts. Edited by M. Coogan, J. C. Exum, and L. E. Stager. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1994.

Freedman, H. Jeremiah. Soncino Books of the Bible. London: Soncino, 1949.

Freeman, Hobart E. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets. Chicago: Moody, 1969.

Gamble, Harry Y. The Textual History of the Letter to the Romans: A Study in Textual and Literary Criticism. Studies and Documents 42. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977.

Garrett, Duane. Rethinking Genesis. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1991.

Garstang, John. Joshua-Judges. New York: Smith, 1931.

Gemser, B. “The rîb – or Controversy – Pattern in Hebrew Mentality.” Pages 120-37 in Wisdom in Israel and in the Ancient Near East. Edited by M. Noth and D. Winton Thomas. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 3. Leiden: Brill, 1955.

George, Timothy. Galatians. New American Commentary 30. Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1994.

Gerleman, Gillis. Ruth, Das Hohelied. 2d ed. Biblischer Kommentar, Altes Testament 18. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1981.

Gerstenberger, Erhard S. Psalms, Part 1. Forms of the Old Testament Literature 14. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987.

________. Leviticus: A Commentary. Translated by Douglas W. Stott. Old Testament Library. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 1996.

Gill, D., and C. Gempf, eds. The Book of Acts in Its Graeco-Roman Setting. Vol. 2 of The Book of Acts in its First Century Setting.Edited by Bruce Winter. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994.

Ginsberg, Harold Louis. The Legend of King Keret: A Canaanite Epic of the Bronze Age. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research: Supplement Series 2-3. New Haven, Conn.: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1946.

Glasson, T. F. Moses in the Fourth Gospel. Studies in Biblical Theology 40. Naperville, Ill.: A. R. Allenson, 1963.

Glazier-McDonald, Beth. Malachi, the Divine Messenger. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 98. Atlanta: Scholars, 1987.

Glickman, S. Craig. A Song for Lovers. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1976.

Glueck, N. “Incense Altars.” Pages 325-29 in Translating and Understanding the Old Testament. Edited by H. T. Frank and W. L. Reed. Nashville: Abingdon, 1970.

Goldingay, John. Daniel. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1989.

Goppelt, Leonhard.Theology of the New Testament. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981-1982.

Gordis, Robert. The Song of Songs and Lamentations. Rev. ed. New York: Ktav, 1974.

________. The Book of Job. New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1978.

Gordon, C. H. “Biblical Customs and the Nuzu Tablets.” Pages 21-33 in The Biblical Archaeologist Reader. Edited by George E. Wright, David Noel Freedman, and Edward F. Campbell. 4 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor, 1961-1983.

Gottwald, Norman K. Studies in the Book of Lamentations. Studies in Biblical Theology 14. London: S.C.M., 1954.

________. The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B.C.E. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1979.

Goulder, M. D. The Song of Fourteen Songs. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 36. Sheffield: JSOT, 1986.

Gowan, Donald E. When Man Becomes God: Humanism and Hybris in the Old Testament. Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series 6. Pittsburgh: Pickwick, 1975.

Gray, George Buchanan. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1903.

________. Sacrifice in the Old Testament: Its Theory and Practice. New York: Ktav, 1971.

Green, Joel B. The Gospel of Luke. Edited by Gordon D. Fee. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.

Greenberg, Moshe. Ezekiel. 2 vols. Anchor Bible. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983-1997.

Greenstone, Julius H. Proverbs. The Holy Scriptures. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1950.

Hafemann, Scott J. Paul, Moses, and the History of Israel: The Letter/Spirit Contrast and the Argument From Scripture in 2 Corinthians 3. Edited by Martin Hengel and Otfried Hofius. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 81. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1995.

Hagner, Donald A. Matthew. 2 vols. Word Biblical Commentary 33AB. Dallas: Word, 1993-1995.

Haldar, Alfred. Studies in the Book of Nahum. Uppsala: Lundequistska bokhandeln, 1947.

Hamlin, J. E. “The Liberator’s Ordeal: A Study of Exodus 4:1-9.” Pages 33-42 in Rhetorical Criticism: Essays in Honor of James Muilenburg. Edited by Jared J. Jackson and Martin Kessler. Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series 1. Pittsburgh: Pickwick, 1974.

Haran, M. “The Passover Sacrifice.” Pages 86-116 in Studies in the Religion of Ancient Israel. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 23. Leiden: Brill, 1972.

Harland, J. P. “Sodom and Gomorrah.” Pages 41-75 in The Biblical Archaeologist Reader. Edited by George E. Wright, David Noel Freedman, and Edward F. Campbell. 4 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor, 1961-1983.

Harris, Murray J. Colossians & Philemon. Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

Harris, W. Hall. The Descent of Christ: Ephesians 4:7-11 and Traditional Hebrew Imagery. Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums 32. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Harrison, R. K. Healing Herbs of the Bible. Leiden: Brill, 1966.

________. Leviticus. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1980.

________. Numbers. Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary. Chicago: Moody, 1990.

Hartley, John E. The Book of Job. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988.

________. Leviticus. Word Biblical Commentary 4. Dallas: Word, 1992.

Hayes, John Haralson, and Stuart A. Irvine. Isaiah, the Eighth Century Prophet: His Times and His Preaching. Nashville: Abingdon, 1987.

Hays, Richard B. The Faith of Jesus Christ: An Investigation of the Narrative Substructure of Galatians 3:1-4:11. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 56. Chico, Calif.: Scholars, 1983.

Heater, Homer. A Septuagint Translation Technique in the Book of Job. Catholic Biblical Quarterly: Monograph Series 11. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association, 1982.

Heidel, Alexander. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946.

Heider, George C. The Cult of Molek: A Reassessment. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 43. Sheffield: University of Sheffield, 1985.

Hepper, F. N. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Plants. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992.

Herbert, A. S. Genesis 12-50. Torch Bible Commentaries. London: S.C.M., 1962.

Hillers, Delbert R. Treaty-Curses and the Old Testament Prophets. Biblica et Orientalia 16. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1964.

________. Lamentations. Anchor Bible 7A. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1979.

________. Micah. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.

Hindson, Edward E. The Philistines and the Old Testament. Baker Studies in Biblical Archaeology. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1972.

Hoehner, Harold W. Herod Antipas. Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.

________. Ephesians. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002.

Hoffner, H. A., Jr. “Hittites.” Pages 127-55 in Peoples of the Old Testament World. Edited by Alfred J. Hoerth, Gerald L. Mattingly, and Edwin M. Yamauchi. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996.

Holladay, William L. Jeremiah. 2 vols. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986-1989.

________. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988.

Houtman, Cornelis. Exodus. Edited by Johan Rebel and Sierd Woudstra. 4 vols. Historical Commentary on the Old Testament. Kampen: Kok, 1993-.

Howard, David M. “Philistines.” Pages 231-50 in Peoples of the Old Testament World. Edited by Alfred J. Hoerth, Gerald L. Mattingly, and Edwin M. Yamauchi. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994.

Hubbard, B. J. The Matthean Redaction of a Primitive Apostolic Commissioning: An Exegesis of Matthew 28:16-20. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 19. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars, 1974.

Hubbard, Robert L., Jr. The Book of Ruth. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988.

Hübner, Hans. Gottes Ich und Israel: zum Schriftgebrauch des Paulus in Römer 9-11. Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments 136. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1984.

Huey, F. B. Jeremiah, Lamentations. New American Commentary 16. Nashville: Broadman, 1993.

Huffmon, H. B. “Exodus 23:4-5: A Comparative Study.” Pages 271-78 in A Light Unto My Path: Old Testament Studies in Honor of Jacob M. Myers. Edited by Howard N. Bream, Ralph D. Heim, and Carey A. Moore. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1974.

Hyatt, J. Philip. Exodus. New Century Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Isserlin, B. S. J. The Israelites. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998.

Jacob, Benno. The Second Book of the Bible: Exodus. Translated by Walter Jacob. Hoboken, N.J.: Ktav, 1992.

Jacob, E. “Sagesse et Alphabet: Pr. 31:10-31.” Pages 287-95 in Hommages À André Dupont-Sommer. Edited by A. Caquot and M. Philonenko. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1971.

Jacob, Edmond. Theology of the Old Testament. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.

James, E. O. The Tree of Life: An Archaeological Study. Studies in the History of Religions 11. Leiden: Brill, 1966.

Japhet, Sara. I & II Chronicles. Old Testament Library. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 1993.

Johnson, Aubrey R. The Vitality of the Individual in the Thought of Ancient Israel. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1949.

________. “The Primary Meaning of √גאל.” Pages 67-77 in Congress Volume: Copenhagen, 1953. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 1. Leiden: Brill, 1953.

Junker, Hubert. Die zwolfe kleinen Propheten. Bonn: Hanstein, 1938.

Kaminsky, Joel. Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 196. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.

Käsemann, Ernst. Commentary on Romans. Translated and edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Keel, Othmar. The Symbolism of the Biblical World: Ancient Near Eastern Iconography and the Book of Psalms. Translated by Timothy J. Hallett. New York: Seabury, 1978.

Keener, Craig S. The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1993.

Keown, Gerald L., Pamela J. Scalise, and Thomas G. Smothers. Jeremiah 26-52. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1995.

Kessler, Martin. “Rhetorical Criticism of Genesis 7.” Pages 1-17 in Rhetorical Criticism: Essays in Honor of James Muilenburg. Edited by Jared Jackson and Martin Kessler. Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series Pittsburgh: Pickwick, 1974.

Kidner, Derek. The Proverbs: An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. London: Tyndale, 1964.

________. Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Chicago: InterVarsity, 1967.

Kikawada, I. M., and A. Quinn. Before Abraham Was: The Unity of Genesis 1-11. Nashville: Abingdon, 1985.

Kilmer, Anne D. “The Mesopotamian Counterparts of the Biblical Nephilim.” Pages 39-43 in Perspectives on Language and Text. Edited by Edgar W. Conrad and Edward G. Newing. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987.

King, L. W. Chronicles Concerning Early Babylonian Kings: Including Records of the Early History of the Kassites and the Country of the Sea. Studies in Eastern History 2-3. London: Luzac, 1907.

King, Philip J. Amos, Hosea, Micah: An Archaeological Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminister, 1988.

Kissane, Edward J. The Book of Isaiah. Dublin: Richview, 1941.

Kitchen, K. A. Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago: InterVarsity, 1966.

________. “The Philistines.” Pages 53-78 in Peoples of Old Testament Times. Edited by D. J. Wiseman. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973.

________. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.

Klein, Ernest. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

Klein, Ralph W. 1 Samuel. Word Biblical Commentary 10. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1983.

Kline, Meredith G. Treaty of the Great King: The Covenant Structure of Deuteronomy. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1963.

________. The Structure of Biblical Authority. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972.

Knight, George W., III. The Pastoral Epistles: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Edited by I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.

König, Eduard. Stilistik, Rhetorik, Poetik in Bezug auf die biblische Litteratur. Leipzig: Dieterich, 1900.

Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sacred Marriage Rite: Aspects of Faith, Myth, and Ritual in Ancient Sumer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.

Kugel, James L. The Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and Its History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

Labuschagne, C. J. “The Emphasizing Particle GAM and Its Connotations.” Pages 193-203 in Studia biblica et semitica. Wageningen: H. Veenman, 1966.

________. The Incomparability of Yahweh in the Old Testament. Pretoria Oriental Series 5. Leiden: Brill, 1966.

Lambdin, Thomas O. Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. New York: Scribner, 1971.

Lane, Edward William. An Arabic-English Lexicon. Beirut: Librairie du Liban, 1968.

Lane, William L. The Gospel According to Mark. Edited by F. F. Bruce. New International Commentary on the New Testament 2. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974.

Lang, B. Frau Weisheit. Dusseldorf: Patmos, 1975.

Layard, Austen Henry. Nineveh and Its Remains. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849.

Levin, Étan. The Aramaic Version of Jonah. 3d ed. New York: Sepher-Hermon, 1981.

Levine, Baruch A. In the Presence of the Lord: A Study of Cult and Some Cultic Terms in Ancient Israel. Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity 5. Leiden: Brill, 1974.

________. Leviticus. Jerusalem Publication Society Torah Commentary 3. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1989.

Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. 3 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.

Lincoln, Andrew T. Ephesians. Word Biblical Commentary 42. Dallas: Word, 1990.

Lindars, Barnabas. Judges 1-5. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1995.

Liver, J. “Korah, Dathan and Abiram.” Pages 189-217 in Studies in the Bible. Edited by Chaim Rabin. Scripta hierosolymitana 8. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1961.

Loewe, R. “Divine Frustration Exegetically Frustrated.” Pages 137-58 in Words and Meanings. Edited by Peter R. Ackroyd and Barnabas Lindars. London: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

Loewenstamm, Samuel E., ed. Thesaurus of the Language of the Bible. 3 vols. Jerusalem: Bible Concordance Press, 1957-1968.

Long, V. Philips. The Art of Biblical History. Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation 5. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.

Longacre, R. “Weqatal Forms in Biblical Hebrew Prose: A Discourse-modular Approach.” Pages 50-98 in Biblical Hebrew and Discourse Linguistics. Edited by Robert D. Bergen. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1994.

Longman, Tremper III. “Nahum.” In The Minor Prophets. Edited by Thomas E. McComiskey. 3 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

________. The Book of Ecclesiastes. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Löw, Immanuel. Die Flora Der Juden. 4 vols. Hildesheim: G. Olms, 1967.

Luckenbill, Daniel David. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1926.

MacDonald, W. G. “Christology and ‘The Angel of the Lord’.” Pages 324-35 in Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975.

Maier, Walter Arthur. The Book of Nahum. Saint Louis: Concordia, 1959.

Malina, Bruce J. The Palestinian Manna Tradition: The Manna Tradition in the Palestinian Targums and Its Relationship to the New Testament Writings. Leiden: Brill, 1968.

Mann, Thomas W. Divine Presence and Guidance in Israelite Traditions: The Typology of Exaltation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.

________. The Book of the Torah: The Narrative Integrity of the Pentateuch. Atlanta: John Knox, 1988.

Marshall, I. Howard. The Gospel of Luke: A Commentary on the Greek Text. New International Greek Testament Commentary 3. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.

Maurice, Frederick Denison. The Doctrine of Sacrifice, Deduced From the Scriptures: A Series of Sermons. London: Macmillan, 1893.

McCaffrey, James. The House With Many Rooms: The Temple Theme of Jn. 14, 2-3. Analecta biblica 114. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1988.

McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr. I Samuel. Anchor Bible 8. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980.

________. II Samuel. Anchor Bible 9. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1984.

________. Textual Criticism: Recovering the Text of the Hebrew Bible. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986.

McKane, William. Proverbs: A New Approach. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1970.

________. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Jeremiah. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1986-1996.

McLaughlin, J. L. The “Marzeah” in the Prophetic Literature: An Examination of the References and Allusions in Light of the Extra-Biblical Evidence. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 86. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

McNeile, A. H. The Book of Numbers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911.

Meeks, Wayne A. The Prophet-King: Moses Traditions and the Johannine Christology. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 14. Leiden: Brill, 1967.

Mendenhall, George E. The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

Merrill, Eugene H. Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987.

________. Deuteronomy. New American Commentary 4. Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1994.

Merwe, C. H. J. van der, J. A. Naudé, and Jan H. Kroeze. Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. Biblical Languages – Hebrew 3. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.

Mettinger, Tryggve N. D. In Search of God: The Meaning and Message of the Everlasting Names. Translated by Frederick H. Cryer. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.

Metzger, Bruce M. “The Punctuation of Rom. 9:5.” Pages 95-112 in Christ and the Spirit in the New Testament: In Honour of Charles Francis Digby Moule. Edited by B. Lindars and S. Smalley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Meyers, Carol L. The Tabernacle Menorah: A Synthetic Study of a Symbol From the Biblical Cult. American Schools of Oriental Research Dissertation Series 2. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars, 1976.

Milgrom, Jacob. Studies in Levitical Terminology. Near Eastern Studies 14. Berkeley: University of California, 1970.

________. Studies in Cultic Theology and Terminology. Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity 36. Leiden: Brill, 1983.

________. Numbers. Jerusalem Publication Society Torah Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1990.

________. Leviticus. 3 vols. Anchor Bible 3. New York: Doubleday, 1991-2001.

Miller, Cynthia L. The Representation of Speech in Biblical Hebrew Narrative: A Linguistic Analysis. Harvard Semitic Monographs 55. Atlanta: Scholars, 1996.

Miller, Patrick D. Sin and Judgment in the Prophets: A Stylistic and Theological Analysis. Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series 27. Chico, Calif.: Scholars, 1982.

Monier-Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages. New ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1899.

Montgomery, James A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1964.

Moo, Douglas J. Romans 1-8. Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary. Chicago: Moody, 1991.

________. The Epistle to the Romans. Edited by Gordon D. Fee. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.

Moore, Carey A. Esther. Anchor Bible 7B. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1971.

Moore, George Foot. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges. 2d ed. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1908.

Moran, William L. “A Kingdom of Priests.” Pages 7-20 in The Bible in Current Catholic Thought. Edited by John L. McKenzie. Saint Mary’s Theology Studies 1. New York: Herder and Herder, 1962.

Morris, H. M. The Remarkable Record of Job. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988.

Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to John. Rev. ed. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.

________. The Gospel According to John. Rev. ed. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.

Moscati, Sabatino. An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages: Phonology and Morphology. Porta linguarum orientalium: Neue Serie 6. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1980.

Motyer, J. A. The Prophecy of Isaiah. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1993.

Moule, C. F. D. The Phenomenon of the New Testament. Studies in Biblical Theology: Second Series 1. London: S.C.M., 1967.

Mounce, Robert H. The Book of Revelation. Edited by F. F. Bruce. New International Commentary on the New Testament 17. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977.

Murphy, Roland Edmund. The Song of Songs. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990.

Murray, John. The Epistle to the Romans. Edited by F. F. Bruce. 2 vols. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959-1965.

Neusner, Jacob. The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism. Leiden: Brill, 1973.

Niditch, Susan. War in the Hebrew Bible: A Study in the Ethics of Violence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Niehaus, Jeffrey J. God At Sinai: Covenant and Theophany in the Bible and Ancient Near East. Studies in Old Testament Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995.

Nineham, D. E. Historicity and Chronology in the New Testament. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Theological Collections 6. London: SPCK, 1965.

Nolland, John. Luke. 3 vols. Word Biblical Commentary 35ABC. Dallas: Word, 1989-1993.

Noordtzij, A. Numbers. Bible Student’s Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983.

North, Christopher R. The Second Isaiah. Oxford: Clarendon, 1964.

Noth, Martin. Exodus. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962.

________. Numbers. Translated by James D. Martin. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968.

O’Brien, Peter T. Colossians, Philemon. Edited by David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Word Biblical Commentary 44. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1982.

________. The Epistle to the Philippians: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Edited by I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

________. The Letter to the Ephesians. Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999.

Olmstead, A. T. History of Assyria. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Olyan, S. M. “The Oaths of Amos 8:14.” Pages 121-49 in Priesthood and Cult in Ancient Israel. Edited by G. A. Anderson and S. M. Olyan. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 125. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991.

Orelli, Conrad von. The Prophecies of Jeremiah. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1889.

Ortlund, Raymond C. Whoredom: God’s Unfaithful Wife in Biblical Theology. New Studies in Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.

Orton, David E. The Understanding Scribe: Matthew and the Apocalyptic Ideal. Journal for the Study of the New Testament: Supplement Series 25. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989.

Osburn, Carroll D. “The Text of 1 Corinthians 10:9.” Pages 201-11 in New Testament Textual Criticism: Its Significance for Exegesis. Edited by Eldon Jay Epp and Gordon D. Fee. Oxford: Clarendon, 1981.

Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah. 2 vols. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986-1998.

Parke-Taylor, Geoffrey H. Yahweh: The Divine Name in the Bible. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1975.

Paterson, J. A. The Book of Numbers. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1900.

Patterson, Richard Duane. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary. Chicago: Moody, 1991.

Paul, Shalom M. Amos. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.

Perowne, T. T. The Proverbs. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1899.

Pfeiffer, Charles F., and Howard Frederic Vos. The Wycliffe Historical Geography of Bible Lands. Chicago: Moody, 1967.

Pitard, Wayne Thomas. Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State From Earliest Times Until Its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 B.C.E. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1986.

Plaut, W. Gunther. Book of Proverbs. Jewish Commentary for Bible Readers: Union Adult Series. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1961.

Plummer, Alfred. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1915.

Polley, M. E. Amos and the Davidic Empire: A Socio-Historical Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Polzin, R., and D. Robertson. Studies in the Book of Job. Semeia 7. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars, 1977.

Pope, Marvin H. Song of Songs. Anchor Bible 7C. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1977.

Post, George Edward. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai: A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns, Native and Naturalized From the Taurus to Ras Muhammad and From the Mediterranean Sea to the Syrian Desert. Edited by John Edward Dinsmore. 2d ed. Beirut: American, 1932.

Pritchard, James B., ed. The Ancient Near East. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Propp, William H. C. Exodus 1-18. Anchor Bible 2. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Räisänen, Heikki. Paul and the Law. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 29. Tübingen: Mohr, 1983.

Redford, Donald B. A Study of the Biblical Story of Joseph (Genesis 37-50). Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 20. Leiden: Brill, 1970.

Reymond, Philippe. L’eau, sa vie, et sa signification dans l’Ancien Testament. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 6. Leiden: Brill, 1958.

Ridderbos, J. Isaiah. Bible Student’s Commentary. Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library, 1985.

Ringgren, Helmer. Religions of the Ancient Near East. Translated by John Sturdy. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1973.

Ringgren, Helmer, and Walther Zimmerli. Sprüche/Prediger. 3d ed. Das Alte Testament Deutsch. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980.

Roberts, J. J. M. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. Old Testament Library. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1991.

Robertson, A. T. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. 4th ed. Nashville: Broadman, 1934.

Robertson, Archibald, and Alfred Plummer. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the First Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. 2d ed. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1914.

Robinson, H. Wheeler. Inspiration and Revelation in the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1946.

Rodriguez, Angel M. Substitution in the Hebrew Cultus. Andrews University Seminary Doctoral Dissertations Series 3. Berrien Springs, Mich.: Andrews University Press, 1979.

Rosenthal, Franz. A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. 6th ed. Porta Linguarum Orientalium 5. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1995.

Ross, Allen P. Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposition of Genesis. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988.

Rowley, Harold Henry. Job. New Century Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Rudolph, Wilhelm. Des Buch Ruth, das Hohe Lied, die Klagelieder. Kommentar zum Alten Testament 17. Gütersloh: G. Mohn, 1962.

Sachs, Curt. The History of Musical Instruments. New York: W. W. Norton, 1940.

Saggs, H. W. F. The Greatness That Was Babylon: A Survey of the Ancient Civilization of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. 2d ed. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1988.

Sarna, Nahum M. Exodus. Jerusalem Publication Society Torah Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1991.

Sasson, Jack M. Ruth. 2d ed. The Biblical Seminar 10. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.

Schaberg, Jane. The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit: The Triadic Phrase in Matthew 28:19b. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 61. Chico, Calif.: Scholars, 1982.

Schley, Donald G. Shiloh: A Biblical City in Tradition and History. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 63. Sheffield: JSOT, 1989.

Schnackenburg, Rudolf. The Gospel According to St. John. 3 vols. New York: Seabury, 1968-1982.

Schramm, E. M. “Poetic Patterning in Biblical Hebrew.” Pages 175-78 in Michigan Oriental Studies in Honor of George G. Cameron. Edited by Louis Lawrence Orlin. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1976.

Scott, R. B. Y. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes. 2d ed. Anchor Bible 18. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970.

Segal, Judah Benzion. The Hebrew Passover From the Earliest Times to A.D. 70. London Oriental Series 12. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963.

Sherwin-White, A. N. Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament. The Sarum Lectures, 1960-1961. Oxford: Clarendon, 1963.

________. “The Trial of Christ.” Pages 97-116 in Historicity and Chronology in the New Testament. Edited by D. E. Nineham. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Theological Collections 6. London: SPCK, 1965.

Silva, Moisés. Philippians. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992.

Simons, J. The Geographical and Topographical Texts of the Old Testament. Studia Francisci Scholten Memoriae Dicata 2. Leiden: Brill, 1959.

Simpson, William Kelly, ed. The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, and Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.

Skehan, Patrick W. Studies in Israelite Poetry and Wisdom. Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 1. Washington: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1971.

Skinner, John. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Genesis. 2d ed. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1930.

Smick, E. B. “A Study of the Structure of the Third Balaam Oracle.” Pages 242-52 in The Law and the Prophets. Edited by John H. Skilton. Nutley, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1974.

Smith, Gary V. Amos. Library of Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library, 1989.

Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. Word Biblical Commentary 32. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1984.

Snaith, Norman Henry. The Jewish New Year Festival: Its Origins and Development. London: SPCK, 1947.

________. Leviticus and Numbers. New Century Bible Commentary. London: Nelson, 1967.

Soggin, J. Alberto. Judges. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1981.

Speiser, E. A. Genesis. Anchor Bible 1. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964.

________. “The Wife-Sister Motif in the Patriarchal Narratives.” Pages 62-81 in Oriental and Biblical Studies. Edited by J. J. Finkelstein and M. Greenberg. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia, 1967.

Spurrell, George James. Notes on the Text of the Book of Genesis. 2d ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1896.

Stadelmann, Luis I. J. The Hebrew Conception of the World. Analecta Biblica 39. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1970.

Stamm, Johann Jakob, and M. E. Andrew. The Ten Commandments in Recent Research. Studies in Biblical Theology: Second Series 2. Naperville, Ill.: A. R. Allenson, 1967.

Stein, Robert H. Luke. New American Commentary 24. Nashville: Broadman, 1992.

Streck, Maximilian. Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen könige bis zum untergange Niniveh’s. 3 vols. Vorderasiatische Bibliothek 7. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1918.

Stuart, Douglas K. Hosea-Jonah. Word Biblical Commentary 31. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1987.

Sutcliffe, Edmund F. The Old Testament and the Future Life. London: Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1946.

Swartley, Willard M. Slavery, Sabbath, War, and Women: Case Issues in Biblical Interpretation. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald, 1983.

Szpek, Heidi M. Translation Technique in the Peshitta to Job. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 137. Atlanta: Scholars, 1992.

Theissen, Gerd. Psychologische Aspekte paulinischer Theologie. Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments 131. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983.

Thomas, D. W. “בְּלִיַּעַל in the Old Testament.” Pages 11-19 in Biblical and Patristic Studies in Memory of Robert Pierce Casey. Edited by J. Neville Birdsall and Robert W. Thomson. New York: Herder, 1963.

Thompson, J. A. “Numbers.” Pages 168-200 in New Bible Commentary: Revised. Edited by D. Guthrie and J. A. Motyer. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970.

________. “The Date of the Book of Joel.” Pages 453-64 in A Light Unto My Path: Old Testament Studies in Honor of Jacob M. Myers. Edited by Howard N. Bream, Ralph D. Heim, and Carey A. Moore. Gettysburg Theological Studies 4. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1974.

________. Deuteronomy. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. London: InterVarsity, 1974.

________. The Book of Jeremiah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Thompson, K. C. “I Corinthians 15, 29 and Baptism for the Dead.” Pages 647-59 in Studia Evangelica, Vol. 2, Part I. Edited by F. L. Cross. Texte und Untersuchungen 87. Berlin: Akademie, 1964.

Thompson, R. Campbell, and Richard Wyatt Hutchinson. A Century of Exploration At Nineveh. London: Luzac, 1929.

Thompson, R. J. Penitence and Sacrifice in Early Israel outside the Levitical Law: An Examination of the Fellowship Theory of Early Israelite Sacrfice. Leiden: Brill, 1963.

Tigay, Jeffrey H., ed. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1985.

________. Deuteronomy. Jerusalem Publication Society Torah Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996.

Toy, Crawford H. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Proverbs. International Critical Commentary. 1899. Repr., Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1970.

Tromp, Nicholas J. Primitive Conceptions of Death and the Nether World in the Old Testament. Biblica et orientalia 21. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1969.

Ulrich, Eugene Charles. The Qumran Text of Samuel and Josephus. Harvard Semitic Monographs 19. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars, 1978.

Van Dam, Cornelis. The Urim and Thummim: A Means of Revelation in Ancient Israel. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1997.

Vaulx, Jacques de. Les Nombres. Sources bibliques. Paris: Gabalda, 1972.

Vaux, Roland de. Studies in Old Testament Sacrifice. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1964.

________. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. Edited by Astrid Beck and David Noel Freedman. Translated by John McHugh. The Biblical Resource Series. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.

Vergote, Jozef. Joseph en Égypte. Louvain: Publications Universitaires, 1959.

Vermès, Géza. Scripture and Tradition in Judaism. Studia post-biblica 4. Leiden: Brill, 1961.

Vogt, Ernst. Lexicon linguae aramaicae Veteris Testamenti documentis antiquis illustratum. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1971.

von Rad, Gerhard. Genesis: A Commentary. Translated by John H. Marks. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961.

________. Biblical Interpretations in Preaching. Translated by John E. Steely. Nashville: Abingdon, 1977.

________. God At Work in Israel. Translated by John H. Marks. Nashville: Abingdon, 1980.

Waterfield, Gordon. Layard of Nineveh. New York: F. A. Praeger, 1963.

Watson, Wilfred G. E. Classical Hebrew Poetry. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 26. Sheffield: JSOT, 1984.

Watts, John D. W. Isaiah. 2 vols. Word Biblical Commentary 24-25. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1985-1987.

Webb, Barry G. The Book of the Judges: An Integrated Reading. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 46. Sheffield: JSOT, 1987.

Weinfeld, Moshe. Deuteronomy 1-11: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. 1st ed. Anchor Bible 5. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

Wenham, Gordon J. The Book of Leviticus. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979.

________. Numbers. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries 4. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1981.

________. “The Religion of the Patriarchs.” Pages 157-88 in Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives. Edited by A. Millard and D. Wiseman. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1983.

________. Genesis. 2 vols. Word Biblical Commentary 1, 2. Dallas: Word, 1987-1994.

Wenham, John William. The Enigma of Evil: Can We Believe in the Goodness of God? Grand Rapids: Academie, 1985.

Westcott, B. F., and F. J. A. Hort. The New Testament in the Original Greek. 2 vols. Cambridge: Macmillan, 1881.

Westermann, Claus. Blessing in the Bible and the Life of the Church. Overtures to Biblical Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1978.

________.Genesis. Translated by John J. Scullion. 3 vols. Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg, 1984-1986.

________. Basic Forms of Prophetic Speech. Translated by Hugh Clayton White. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1991.

White, John Bradley. A Study of the Language of Love in the Song of Songs and Ancient Egyptian Poetry. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 38. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars, 1978.

Whybray, R. N. The Heavenly Counsellor in Isaiah xl 13-14: A Study of the Sources of the Theology of Deutero-Isaiah. Society for Old Testament Study Monograph Series 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

________. The Book of Proverbs. Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.

________. Isaiah 40-66. Edited by Ronald E. Clements and Matthew Black. New Century Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981.

Widengren, Geo. Sakrales Königtum im Alten Testament und im Judentum. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1955.

Wildberger, Hans. Isaiah. 3 vols. Continental Commentaries. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.

Williams, Ronald J. “The Passive Qal Theme in Hebrew.” Essays on the Ancient Semitic World. Edited by John W. Wevers and Donald B. Redford. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970.

________. Hebrew Syntax: An Outline. 2d ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.

Williamson, H. G. M. Ezra, Nehemiah. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco, Tex.: Word, 1985.

Wilson, J. A. “Egypt.” Pages 39-133 in Before Philosophy: The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man. Edited by Henri Frankfort, H. A. Groenewegen-Frankfort, J. A. Wilson, and Thorkild Jacobsen. Baltimore: Penguin, 1949.

Wilson, R. D. “Yahweh [Jehovah] and Exodus 6:3.” Pages 29-40 in Classical Evangelical Essays in Old Testament Interpretation. Edited by Walter C. Kaiser. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1972.

Wilson, Robert R. Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980.

Winnett, F. V. The Mosaic Tradition. Near and Middle East Series 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1949.

Wiseman, D. J., ed. Peoples of Old Testament Times. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973.

Wolff, Hans Walter. Hosea. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974.

________. Joel and Amos. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.

________. Anthropology of the Old Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981.

Wood, D. R. W., ed. New Bible Dictionary. 3d ed. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1996.

Wright, David P. The Disposal of Impurity: Elimination Rites in the Bible and in Hittite and Mesopotamian Literature. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 101. Atlanta: Scholars, 1987.

Wright, Ruth V., and Robert L. Chadbourne. Gems and Minerals of the Bible. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

Wuellner, Wilhelm H. The Meaning of “Fishers of Men.” The New Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1967.

Yadin, Yigael. The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands in the Light of Archaeological Study. Translated by M. Pearlman. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.

Yamauchi, Edwin M. “Cultic Prostitution.” Pages 213-23 in Orient and Occident: Essays Presented to Cyrus H. Gordon on the Occasion of His Sixty-Fifth Birthday. Edited by Harry A. Hoffner. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 22. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1973.

________. Foes From the Northern Frontier: Invading Hordes From the Russian Steppes. Studies in Biblical Archaeology. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1982.

Young, Edward J. My Servants, the Prophets. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1952.

________. The Book of Isaiah. 3 vols. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965-1972.

Zerwick, Maximilian. Biblical Greek: Illustrated by Examples (Graecitas Biblica). Translated by and adapted from the 4th Latin edition by Joseph Smith. Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici 114. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1963.

Zimmerli, Walther. Ezekiel. Translated by Ronald E. Clements. 2 vols. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979-1983.

Zöckler, Otto. The Proverbs of Solomon. Translated and edited by Charles A. Aiken. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Old Testament 10. New York: Charles Scribner, 1870.

Zuntz, Günther. The Text of the Epistles: A Disquisition Upon the Corpus Paulinum. The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.

Abbreviations and Introduction
to Principal Manuscript Evidence 
for the Greek New Testament

No ancient literature has survived in its original form; everything we have is derived from copies of the originals. The NT is no exception. However, in comparison with any other ancient literature, the NT is without a peer—both in terms of the chronological proximity and the surviving number. Several ancient authorities are preserved in only a handful of manuscripts. Not so with the NT. There are approximately 5,500 Greek witnesses, ranging in date from the second century AD into the middle ages. Besides the Greek evidence, there are nearly 30,000 versional copies (e.g., Latin, Coptic, and Syriac), and over 1,000,000 quotations from the NT in the church Fathers. NT textual criticism has always had an embarrassment of riches unparalleled in any other field.

The Greek Witnesses

The Greek witnesses are by far the most important, since in large measure they represent some of our earliest witnesses and since they involve direct reproduction from Greek to Greek. There are four kinds of Greek witnesses: papyri, uncials (or majuscules), minuscules (or cursives), and lectionaries. The first three are important enough to warrant some discussion here.

Papyri

These documents are written on the cheap writing materials of the ancient world that were roughly equivalent to modern paper. Literally thousands of papyrus fragments have been found of which approximately 100 contain portions of the New Testament. Actually, taken together, these 100 fragments constitute over half of the New Testament and all but four are in the form of codices (i.e., four are scrolls rather than the book-form [codex]). All NT papyri were written with uncial or capital letters. They range in date from the early second century through the eighth century. About 50 of them are to be dated before the fourth century. Though many of them are somewhat fragmentary, and at times the copying was looser than one would like (i.e., they were done before the canon was officially recognized), they are nevertheless extremely important for establishing the text of the New Testament—if for no other reason than the fact that they represent some of the most ancient witnesses we possess. Five important papyri are illustrated in the chart below. The symbol for each papyrus is Ì followed by a number (e.g., Ì45). The most important papyri cited in the NET NT footnotes are as follows:

Papyri

Name

Date

NT Books
Covered

General Characteristics

Ì45

Chester Beatty papyrus

3rdcentury AD

Gospels, Acts 4-17

Mark (Caesarean); Matt, Luke, John (intermediate between Alexandrian and Western texttypes)

Ì46

Chester Beatty papyrus

ca. AD 200

10 Pauline Epistles (all but Pastorals) and Hebrews

Overall closer to Alexandrian than Western

Ì47

Chester Beatty papyrus

3rdcentury AD

Revelation 9:10-17:2

Alexandrian; often agrees with Sinaiticus (Í)

Ì66

Bodmer Papyrus

ca. AD 200

John

Mixed text between Western and Alexandrian

Ì75

Bodmer papyrus

early 3rd century

Luke and John

Alexandrian, often agrees with B

 

Uncials

There are approximately 300 uncials known to exist today that contain portions of the New Testament and one uncial that contains the entire NT. Like the papyri, these manuscripts were written with uncial or capital letters, but unlike the papyri they were written on animal skins or vellum. For the most part they are beautiful manuscripts, elegantly written and routinely done in scriptoria and often for special purposes. Generally speaking, they range in date from the fourth through the ninth centuries. Our oldest complete copy of the NT is an uncial manuscript, Í (see chart below). The symbol for each uncial is either a capital letter (in Latin or Greek letters [though one ms has a Hebrew letter, Í]) or a number beginning with 0 (e.g., 01, 0220, etc.). The most important uncials cited in the NET NT footnotes are as follows:

Uncial

Name

Date (approx.)

NT Books Covered

General Characteristics

Í (01)

Aleph or

Sinaiticus

4thcentury

The entire NT

Alexandrian; best in epistles

A (02)

Alexandrinus

5thcentury

Most of the NT

Important in the Epistles and Revelation

B (03)

Vaticanus

4thcentury

Most of NT except Hebrews 9:14ff, the Pastorals, Phlm, Rev

Alexandrian; best in Gospels

C (04)

Ephraemi 
Rescriptus

5thcentury

Portions of every book except 2 Thess and 2 John

mixed

D (05)

Bezae/
Cantabrigiensis

5thcentury

Gospels and Acts

Western

D (06)

Claromontanus

6thcentury

Pauline Epistles and Hebrews

Western

F (010)

Augiensis

9thcentury

Pauline Epistles

Western

G (012)

Boernerianus

9thcentury

Pauline Epistles

Western

L (019)

Regius

8thcentury

Gospels

Often agrees with Vaticanus

W (032)

Washingtonianus

early 5th century

Gospels

mixed; earliest representation of Byzantine texttype. Alexandrian in John 5:12-21:25.

Θ(038)

Koridethi

9thcentury

Gospels

The text of Mark is similar to that used by Origen and Eusebius in the third and fourth centuries at Caesarea

Ψ(044)

Athous Laurae

8th/ 9th century

Gospels/Acts/

Paul/General Epistles

Contains Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine influences

 

Minuscules

There are approximately 2,813 NT Greek minuscule manuscripts known to us today. These copies range in date from the ninth to sixteenth centuries, were produced on vellum or paper, and were written in cursive or a lower-case, flowing hand. They are the best representatives of the medieval ecclesiastical text, that is, the Byzantine text. There are approximately 150-200 that deviate from the Byzantine standard, almost always representing an earlier transmissional stream and hence quite important for NT textual criticism. The symbols for the minuscules are of three kinds: (a) Arabic numbers (e.g., 1, 565, 1739), each of which represents one manuscript; (b) “family 1,” [Ë1] “family 13” [Ë13] (involving a group of closely associated manuscripts); (c) Byz(involving the majority of Byzantine minuscules). The following are among the more important witnesses cited in the NET NT notes:

Minuscule

Date (approx.)

NT Books Covered

General Characteristics

33

9thcentury

Gospels, Acts, Paul, Catholic Epistles

Alexandrian

81

AD 1044

Acts, Paul, Catholic Epistles

Very important for establishing the text of Acts. Agrees substantially with the Alexandrian texttype.

1739

10thcentury, but probably goes back to a late 4th century ms

Acts, Paul, Catholic Epistles

Alexandrian

Family 1 (Ë1)

12th-14thcenturies

Gospels

Caesarean (of the 3rd or 4th centuries)

Family 13 (Ë13)

11th-15thcenturies

Gospels

Important in the discussion of the authenticity of thepericope adulterae (i.e., John 7:53-8:11)

 

Versional Evidence

Versions were initially prepared for missionary purposes. The history and transmission of versions are often quite complex, and scholars often do not agree on or do not know the particular dates or characteristics of the versions. The chart below contains the major versions cited in the notes; the most important abbreviations are listed, but not all abbreviations are indicated. For more information on the versional evidence for the NT, consult B. M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (3d ed.; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 67-86; B. M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon, 1977); and B. D. Ehrman and M. W. Holmes, eds., The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research: Essays on the Status Quaestionis (Studies and Documents 46; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995), 75-187.

Version

Abbreviations

Date (approx.)

General Characteristics

Vulgate and part of the Itala witnesses

lat

2nd to 3rd century

Western, Alexandrian, and others

Itala

it

3rdcentury

Western

Vulgate

vg

4thcentury and later

extensive cross-contamination of texttypes

Syriac

syr

2nd to 6th centuries

Old Syriac (syrcand syrs) is generally Western. The Peshitta (syrp) has a mixed text in Gospels and Epistles, Western in Acts. The Harclean version (syrh) of Acts is Western. The Palestinian Syriac (syrpal) is generally Caesarean.

Coptic

cop

3rd and 4th centuries (Sahidic dialect is 4thto 5thcenturies; Bohairic dialect is 9thcentury)

generally Alexandrian in the entire tradition; Sahidic (sa) and Bohairic (bo) are Alexandrian with numerous Western readings

Armenian

arm

5thcentury

generally Caesarean but sections are Byzantine, and the mss of Paul show strong Alexandrian affinities

Georgian

geo

5thcentury

mixed texttypes; generally Caesarean, but becoming strongly Byzantine in later mss

Ethiopic

eth

exact date unknown, but most likely within the 4th to 5thcenturies

mixed text, but generally early Byzantine

Slavonic

slav

9thcentury

Byzantine

 

Patristic Evidence

A tremendous source for evidence of the Greek NT are citations found in early Church Fathers. They help to locate and date various readings and texttypes found in the manuscripts and versions. This field is quite complex for two broad reasons: (1) It is often difficult to determine if what the Father actually wrote has been preserved in the extant manuscripts or if corruption has occurred. (2) It is often difficult to determine if a Father is citing a text verbatim, paraphrasing it, or alluding to it. All of the Fathers cited in the notes are listed below. For more information on the patristic evidence for the NT, consult B. M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (3d ed.; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 86-92; and B. D. Ehrman and M. W. Holmes, eds.,The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research: Essays on the Status Quaestionis (Studies and Documents 46; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995), 189-236.

Ambrose of Milan, d. 397

Ambrosiaster of Rome, active 366-384

Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, d. 373

Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, d. 430

Chromatius, d. 407

Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople, d. 407

Clement of Alexandria, d. before 215

Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, d. 258

Cyril of Alexandria, d. 444

Cyril-Jerusalem, d. 386

Didymus of Alexandria, d. 398

Ephraem the Syrian, d. 373

Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis, d. 403

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, d. 339 or 340

Hesychius of Jerusalem, d. after 451

Hilary of Poitiers, d. 367

Hippolytus of Rome, d. 235

Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, d. ca. 202

Jerome, d. 420

Justin Martyr, d. ca. 165

Marcion of Rome, 2nd century

Origen of Alexandria and Caesarea, d. 254

Pseudo-Athanasius, dates unknown

Serapion, d. after 362

Severian, d. after 408

Tertullian of Carthage, d. after 220

Theodore of Mopsuestia in Cilicia, d. 428

Victorinus-Pettau, d. 304

 

Related Topics: NET Bible