MENU

Where the world comes to study the Bible

Report Inappropriate Ad

Morphological abbreviations in Lumina

These are the abbreviations used in the parsing of verbs in Lumina, our online Bible study tool.

*Note that some of the following are represented by the same letters. This means that it is important to understand where in the string of parsing the letter is, as well as what part of speech is in view (verb, noun, adjective, participle, etc.). Scroll down farther for additional actual examples for comparison.

Part of Speech
A - Adjective
ADV - Adverb
CONJ - Conjunction
N - Noun
P - Pronoun
PREP - Preposition
PRT - Particle
T - Article
V - Verb

Tense
A - Aorist
F - Future
I - Imperfect
P - Present
X - Perfect
Y - Pluperfect

Voice
A - Active
M - Middle
P - Passive

Mood
M - Imperative
I - Indicative
N - Infinitive
P - Participle
S - Subjunctive

Case
A - Accusative
D - Dative
G - Genitive
N - Nominative

Gender
M - Masculine
F - Feminine
N - Neuter

Person
1 - First
2 - Second
3 - Third

Number
S - Singular
P - Plural

Grammar Tag Codes

+ intertag connector
& "and," crasis
^ function, "used as"
/ "or"
! "or" (order is significant)

Grammar Tag Information

The uniqueness of this edition of the Greek New Testament. and the feature that justifies the word analytical in its title, is the grammatical analysis located immediately below each word of the Greek text.

Every "grammatical tag" consists primarily of capital letters. The first letter indicates whether the Greek word is a noun (N); verb (V): adjective (A); determiner (i.e., definite article) (D); preposition (P); conjunction (C); or particle (Q) The category of "noun" includes both nouns (N-) and pronouns (NP). That of  "adjective" includes those used substantivally, or "pronominals," (AP); adverbs (AB); and attributive and predicate adjectives (A-).

Subsequent letters in the tag, then, further specify the form of the Greek word. For example, the tag for a noun begins with N. The next place tells whether the word is a pronoun (P) or not (-). The third place specifies the case; the fourth, gender; the fifth, person; and the sixth, number. A noun (N) that is not a pronoun (-) and that is nominative (N), feminine (F). and singular (S) would have below it this tag: N-NF-S. Chart I outlines for other parts of speech what has just been explained concerning the noun.

To further illustrate how to read the abbreviated grammatical analysis, the first seven words of John 3:16 are reproduced, with tags, below, after which the seven tags are deciphered:

Οὕτως γὰρ ἠγάπησεν
AB CS VIAA--3S DNMS
θεὸς τὸν κόσμον,
N-NM-S DAMS N-AM-S
Οὕτως adjective, adverb
γὰρ conjunction, subordinating
ἠγάπησεν verb, indicative, aorist, active, -, -, third person, singular
determiner, nominative, masculine, singular
θεὸς noun, -, nominative, masculine, -, singular
τὸν determiner, accusative, masculine, singular
κόσμον noun, -, accusative, masculine, -, singular

CHART I

noun (subcategory) case gender person number    
verb mood/mode tense voice case gender person number
adjective (subcategory) (type) case gender person number  
determiner case gender number        
preposition case            
conjunction (type)            
particle (type)            

In some cases there has been added to the basic analysis of a word's form a secondary analysis of function. This results in a "complex" tag, the two elements of which are connected by a box  (^). An example, from Matthew 1:20, is this tag for the word υἱὸς in the phrase Ἰωσὴφ υἱὸς Δαυίδ: N-VM-S^N-VM-S. The reader who is interested only in the word's form may simply stop reading at the box.

Other and less frequent kinds of complex tags are connected by a slash (/) meaning "or"; a dagger (!), also meaning "or"; and an ampersand (&), meaning "and." The slash and dagger indicate that two analyses are possible; the dagger is used in preference to the slash when the order of alternatives possesses significance. The ampersand conjoins two tags neither of which would be adequate by itself, as in the case of crasis.

A plus sign (+) immediately before or after a tag indicates a close relationship between the word above the tag and another word, as in cases of verbal periphrastics. The sign appears on the side of the tag on which the pairing occurs.

 

VPRNDM-P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle or passive deponent

Case:

Dative

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

APONN-P

Pronominal Adjective

Type:

Ordinal

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

VPRMVF2S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Vocative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Singular

+VPRMNF-S

Plus Sign (+):

Verbal periphrastics

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPRMNF-S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPRANF-P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Active

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

VIIA--1S+

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Indicative  

Tense:

Imperfect  

Voice:

Active  

Case:

-  

Gender:

-  

Person:

First Person  

Number:

Singular  

Plus Sign (+):

Verbal periphrastics

APONN-S

Pronominal Adjective

Type:

Ordinal

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPRMNM-P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

A-OGN-S

Adjective

Type:

Ordinal

Case:

Genitive

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

A-ONN-S

Adjective

Type:

Ordinal

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

A-OAN-P

Adjective

Type:

Ordinal

Case:

Accusative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

+VNAD

Plus Sign (+):

Verbal periphrastics

Verb: Infinitive

Tense:

Aorist

Voice:

Middle deponent

A-SDF-S

Adjective

Type:

Superlative

Case:

Dative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

APRAM2S

Pronominal Adjective

Type:

Relative

Case:

Accusative

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Singular

+VSPA--3S

Plus Sign (+):

Verbal periphrastics

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Subjunctive

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Active

Case:

-

Gender:

-

Person:

Third Person

Number:

Singular

-APRAF-S

Minus Sign (-):

No antecedent

Pronominal Adjective

Type:

Relative

Case:

Accusative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

NPAN2P

Pronoun

Case:

Accusative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

VSPM--1P

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Subjunctive

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Middle

Case:

-

Gender:

-

Person:

First Person

Number:

Plural

VIRN--1P

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Indicative

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle or passive deponent

Case:

-

Gender:

-

Person:

First Person

Number:

Plural

VPRPNF-S+

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect  

Voice:

Passive  

Case:

Nominative  

Gender:

Feminine  

Person:

-  

Number:

Singular  

Plus Sign (+):

Verbal periphrastics

       

AP-GF1P

Pronominal Adjective

Type:

Regular

Case:

Genitive

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

First Person

Number:

Plural

A-INN-P

Adjective

Type:

Indefinite

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

VPAMNF-S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Aorist

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPADNN-S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Aorist

Voice:

Middle deponent

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPRAAM2P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Active

Case:

Accusative

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

VIFA--1S+

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Indicative  

Tense:

Future  

Voice:

Active  

Case:

-  

Gender:

-  

Person:

First Person  

Number:

Singular  

Plus Sign (+):

Verbal periphrastics

A-SAN-P

Adjective

Type:

Superlative

Case:

Accusative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

VPRNGF-S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle or passive deponent

Case:

Genitive

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPAADM2P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Aorist

Voice:

Active

Case:

Dative

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

APMVM-P

Pronominal Adjective

Type:

Comparative

Case:

Vocative

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

VPPAGF-S+

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Present  

Voice:

Active  

Case:

Genitive  

Gender:

Feminine  

Person:

-  

Number:

Singular  

Plus Sign (+):

Verbal periphrastics

       

VMPM--3P

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Imperative

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Middle

Case:

-

Gender:

-

Person:

Third Person

Number:

Plural

VPPNDF-S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Middle or passive deponent

Case:

Dative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPRNAM2P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle or passive deponent

Case:

Accusative

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

VNRN

Verb: Infinitive

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Middle or passive deponent

VOPA--2P

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Optative

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Active

Case:

-

Gender:

-

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

A-MDN-S

Adjective

Type:

Comparative

Case:

Dative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPPNNF2P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Middle or passive deponent

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

VPPANF2P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Active

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

APRGF2P

Pronominal Adjective

Type:

Relative

Case:

Genitive

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

VRPPNF2P

Verb: Participle (imperative sense)

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Passive

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

VRPENM2P

Verb: Participle (imperative sense)

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Either middle or passive

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

VPAPDN-S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Aorist

Voice:

Passive

Case:

Dative

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPAMGM-P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Aorist

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Genitive

Gender:

Masculine

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

VPPMGN-S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Genitive

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VMAD--3P

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Imperative

Tense:

Aorist

Voice:

Middle deponent

Case:

-

Gender:

-

Person:

Third Person

Number:

Plural

VPPENF-S

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Either middle or passive

Case:

Nominative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

AP-VF-P

Pronominal Adjective

Type:

Regular

Case:

Vocative

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

VNPMA

Verb: Infinitive

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Accusative

VPPMGF-P

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Present

Voice:

Middle

Case:

Genitive

Gender:

Feminine

Person:

-

Number:

Plural

A-SGN-S

Adjective

Type:

Superlative

Case:

Genitive

Gender:

Neuter

Person:

-

Number:

Singular

VPPANM2P+

Verb: Participle

Tense:

Present  

Voice:

Active  

Case:

Nominative  

Gender:

Masculine  

Person:

Second Person  

Number:

Plural  

Plus Sign (+):

Verbal periphrastics

       

VMRA--2P

Verb

Mood/Mode:

Imperative

Tense:

Perfect

Voice:

Active

Case:

-

Gender:

-

Person:

Second Person

Number:

Plural

Report Inappropriate Ad