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An Argument Of The Gospel Of Mark

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Message Statement:

Jesus As The Serving Messiah Urges His Followers To Understand The Suffering Aspects Of His Ministry Of Redemption And Thus, To Follow In His Example As They Faithfully Proclaim Him As Messiah

I. THE PROLOGUE / IN THE WILDERNESS: The good news that Jesus is Messiah is affirmed in accordance with Scripture, and then demonstrated through Jesus’ baptism and temptation whereupon Jesus goes north to Galilee in order to proclaim the good news of the Kingdom urging all to repent and to believe 1:1-15

A. Introducing Prologue and Gospel: This is the good news about Jesus who is Messiah, Son of God, the coming deliverer of Israel 1:1-2

1. This is the beginning of the good news about Jesus, Messiah--Son of God 1:1

2. Jesus is the deliverer spoken of through Isaiah the prophet (Isa. 40:3) which Israel should prepare to meet 1:2-3

B. John: John the Baptizer appeared in the wilderness as the prophetic-messenger of the coming deliver before whom all should repent because he will baptize with the Holy Spirit 1:4-8

1. John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness proclaiming a gospel of repentance for the forgiveness of sins 1:4

2. All of the people of Jerusalem and Judea were going out to John and being baptized in the Jordan river confessing their sins 1:5

3. John was dressed like a prophet (Elijah, cf. 2 Ki. 1:8; Mal 3:1; Zech. 13:4) 1:6

4. John was proclaiming that One was going to follow him who was greater then he in that He will perform a baptism of the Holy Spirit 1:7-8

C. John and Jesus: Jesus comes from Nazareth to the Jordan river to be baptized by John, and is then confirmed by the Father to be His Servant-Messiah 9-11

1. Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee to the wilderness-Jordan area where John was baptizing, and was baptized by John 1:9

2. When Jesus came up from John’s baptism, the Father confirmed him as being His Messiah/Servant (cf. Ps. 2:7; Isa. 42:1) 1:10-11

D. Jesus: After Jesus’ baptism, he demonstrates himself to be the second Adam who is victorious over Satan, and in harmony with fallen creation, whereupon he takes up, in John’s detainment, the prophetic proclamation of the good news of the kingdom urging the people of Galilee to repent and to believe 1:12-15

1. After Jesus is baptized he is demonstrated to be the new Adam who is victorious over Satan’s temptations, is at peace with the wild beasts, and is ministered to by angels 1:12-13

a. Immediately after Jesus’ confirmed baptism, the Holy Spirit impelled Him to go into the wilderness 1:12

b. Jesus was tempted by Satan for forty days in the wilderness 1:13a

c. After the temptation Jesus was shown to be the new Adam who is at rest with nature (wild animals), and is ministered to by angels 1:13b

Mark accentuates terse but significant parallels between the first and Second Adam in his two verse temptation account:

While I have related the beast to Adam in his pre-fallen state, Goppelt significantly notes that, “This connection seems to indicate that “as Adam was once honored by beasts in Paradise ..., so Christ is with the wild beasts after overcoming temptation. He thus ushers in the paradisacal state of the last days when there will be peace between man and beast (Is. 11:6-8; 65:25).”1 While it is not impossible that both pictures are present in this narrative, Goppelt’s suggestion goes beyond the contrasting comparisons of Paul (Romans 5) to a true similarity between the two Adams in that Jesus, after the fall, regains the harmony with creation that the original Adam once had. Therefore Jesus can bring with Him this harmony for all to enjoy as He sets up His kingdom. “Jesus opens paradise closed to the first man.”2

Old Adam

New Adam

in paradise

in the wilderness

rules over the animals

is among wild animals

is tempted by Satan

is tempted by Satan

succumbs to temptation

overcomes temptation

is guarded against by an angel

is ministered to by angels

2. After John was arrested, Jesus went north into Galilee proclaiming the good news that God’s rule was present and the people should thus repent and believe 1:14-15

a. John was taken into custody 1:14a

b. Jesus came into Galilee proclaiming the good news from God 1:14b

c. The content of Jesus’ good news was that this was the fulfilled time when God’s rule was present, thus the people should repent and believe in the good news

II. EPISODES AT OR NEAR THE SEA OF GALILEE: Through numerous scenes around the Sea of Galilee Jesus continually authenticates Himself as Messiah/Lord to His disciples urging them to follow Him, obey Him, and to not remain hardened (in the national pattern), but to understand who He is 1:16--8:21

A. Segment One--Jesus’ Choice and Selection of Disciples: Jesus calls His disciples to follow Him and to preach for Him in a context of validation through cures and controversies which authenticate Jesus’ authority and ministry to help men in accordance with the Scriptures, but the religious plot to destroy Him 1:16--3:19

1. Call of the Four Disciples: As Jesus was walking along the Sea of Galilee He saw two sets of brothers who were fishermen (Simon & Andrew; James & John), and urged them to follow Him as disciples, whereupon, they left their work and followed Him 1:16-20

a. Setting: Jesus is walking by the Sea of Galilee 1:16a

b. Jesus saw Simon and Andrew, his brother, fishing and exhorted them to follow Him as disciples in order to fish for people, and they immediately followed Him 1:16b-18

c. Jesus saw James and his brother John, the sons of Zebedee mending their nets, and exhorted them to follow Him as disciples, and they left their work and followed Him 1:19-20

2. Jesus Demonstrates Who He Is Through Cures and a Conflict: Jesus demonstrated his authority over demons, sickness, leprosy and paralysis in order to affirm his message that He had authority over the forgiveness of sins, but he was often prevented from proclaiming that message as the people gathered for the miracles 1:21--2:12

a. Authority Over The Demonic: As Jesus teaches in a synagogue in Capernaum with authority, and then demonstrates His authority over an unclean spirit, the people marvel, question what they are seeing, and recognize His authority thus spreading the word about Him to the surrounding district of Galilee 1:21-28

1) Setting: The disciples and Jesus enter into the town of Capernaum (to the north-west of the Sea of Galilee), and Jesus entered a synagogue on the Sabbath to teach 1:21

2) Response to Jesus’ Teaching: The people were amazed at Jesus’ authoritative teaching which was unlike the scribes 1:22

3) A Demon Cast Out: As the people were amazed with Jesus’ authoritative teaching, He demonstrated His authority by casting an unclean spirit out of a demonized man 1:23-26

a) As the people were being amazed with Jesus’ teaching, a man with an unclean spirit cried out 1:23

b) The unclean spirit asked Jesus whether this was the proper time for Him as God’s representative (Holy One of God; cf. Ps. 106:16; Judges 16:17 in LXX) to destroy them 1:24

c) Jesus rebuked the spirit and ordered the unclean spirit to be quiet and to come out of the man 1:25

d) The unclean spirit violently came out of the man 1:26

4) The Response to Jesus’ Work: The people were amazed over Jesus’ work, debated its nature among themselves, recognized his authority, and spread the news about Him in the surrounding district of Galilee 1:27-18

a) The people were all amazed 1:27a

b) The people debated among themselves about the nature of Jesus’ words and works, and recognized his authority 1:27b

(1) The people wondered what the nature was of Jesus' words and works 1:27c

(2) The people recognized Jesus' new teaching to be with authority as he commanded unclean spirits and they obeyed Him 1:27d

c) The news about Jesus spread out into the surrounding district of Galilee 1:28

b. Authority Over Sickness and Demons: As Jesus demonstrates his authority over sickness and demonization by healing Simon’s mother-in-law, and the people who came to him, the multitude flocked to him, whereupon he chose to move throughout Galilee preaching and casting out demons 1:29-39

1) When Jesus and his disciples left the synagogue at Capernaum, they came to Andrew and Simon’s house where Jesus healed Simon’s ill mother-in-law 1:29-31

a) Setting: Immediately after coming out of the synagogue of Capernaum, Jesus and his disciples (including James and John) came into the house of Simon and Andrew and spoke to Jesus about Simon’s sick mother-in-law 1:29-30

b) Jesus healed Simon’s mother-in-law and she served them 1:31

2) On the evening of the sabbath when it was “legal” for the multitudes, they brought their sick and demonized to Jesus, whereupon He healed many and cast out demons forbidding them to identify Him 1:32-35

a) Setting: On the evening of the sabbath when it was “legal” for the people to move with their ill, the whole city gathered at the door with the sick and demonized 1:32-33

b) Jesus healed many of the sick, and cast out many demons forbidding them to testify to his identity 1:34

3) When the disciples found Jesus praying early the next morning and told him that the people were seeking him, He expressed his desire to go to the nearby towns in order that he may preach where he did preach and cast out demons throughout Galilee as he went to the synagogue 1:35-39

a) On the morning following the sabbath Jesus went out early to pray, and was found by Simon and his companions 1:35-37a

b) When they told Jesus that everyone was looking for Him, He expressed his desire to go elsewhere in Galilee so that He may preach his message as he desired 1:37b-38

c) Jesus preached and cast out demons in the synagogues throughout Galilee 1:39

c. Authority Over Leprosy: Jesus demonstrated his authority over leprosy by willingly healing a man with leprosy, but lost his ability to preach in the cities because the man told all of the people about his healing rather than going to the priests first as Jesus directed him 1:40-45

1) Setting: a leper came to Jesus begging him to make him clean if he was willing 1:40

2) Jesus was filled with compassion, expressed his willingness to cleanse the leper, and cleansed him 1:41-42

3) Jesus warned the leper not to tell others what had occurred to him until he was proclaimed clean by the priest in accordance with the Law of Moses (Lev. 14:2-7) as a testimony to them 1:43-44

4) Because the man did not obey Jesus, but went out proclaiming his healing freely, Jesus could not minister openly among the people, and had to go to the unpopulated areas, but the people kept coming to him from everywhere 1:45

d. Authority Over Sin Leading to Controversy: When Jesus returned to Capernaum and was speaking to a large group, he was interrupted by men lowering a paralytic through the roof, forgave the man’s sins, and then healed him in order to demonstrate to the suspicious scribes who were present that he had the authority to forgive sins 2:1-12

1) Setting: Jesus returned to Capernaum after several days and was speaking the word a large crowed gathered at a house (Simon’s ?) 2:1-2

2) Four men, carrying a paralytic, were not able to enter through the door because of the crowd, so they let him down through the roof to Jesus 2:3-4

3) Seeing the faith of the men, Jesus told the paralytic that his sins were forgiven 2:5

4) Some of the scribes were accusing Jesus in their hearts of blaspheming by proclaiming the forgiveness of the man’s sins since only God could forgive sins 2:6-7

5) Jesus perceived the accusations of the Pharisees and physically healed the paralytic in order to demonstrate that he had spiritual authority on earth to forgive men of their sins 2:8-11

6) When the paralytic arose, took up his bed and went out before all of the people, they were amazed, and glorified God affirming that they had not ever seen anything like what had occurred 2:12

3. Call of Levi: As Jesus was teaching the multitudes by the Sea of Galilee, he saw Levi, the tax collector, and invited him to follow Him, and he did 2:13-14

a. Setting: Jesus is out again by the seashore (where he last called disciples to follow Him; cf. 1:16) and is teaching the multitudes who have come to Him 2:13

b. As Jesus passed by, he saw Levi the son of Alpheus sitting in his tax office, invited him to follow him, and Levi followed 2:14

4. Conflicts and a Cure--Jesus Explains His Ministry: Through a series of controversies (over dining, fasting, the Sabbath) and a cure Jesus demonstrates that He has come to minister to man’s needs in fulfillment of Scripture and against rigid Pharisaic interpretations, whereupon the religious leaders sought to destroy Him 2:15--3:12

a. Conflict Over Company: When the scribes and Pharisees questioned the disciples about the rightness of Jesus’ dining with such people as tax-gatherers and sinners, Jesus proclaimed that he had come to help those who were in need--the sick, sinners 2:15-17

1) Setting: After some time Jesus and his disciples were having dinner at Levi’s house among many sinners and tax-gatherers who were following Jesus 2:15

2) The scribes and Pharisees asked Jesus’ disciples why Jesus was dining with such people3 2:16

3) When Jesus overheard the question of the religious leaders he affirmed that He had come, as a physician, to help those who were sick--who were sinners, and not those who thought that they were “righteous” 2:17

b. Conflict Over Fasting: When those from an old Pharisaic system criticize Jesus’ disciples for not fasting like they and John’s disciples, He explains that His disciples are part of a new, incompatible system that recognizes His presence with them, and will only fast when He is taken away from them 2:18-22

1) Setting: The disciples of John, and the Pharisees were fasting 2:18a

2) The Pharisees came and asked Jesus why it was that John’s disciples fast, but His disciples do not 2:18b

3) Jesus explains to the Pharisees that one cannot combine the new and the old systems of thinking about the Lord in that His disciples are not fasting (like they) because they recognize that He, the bridegroom, is presently with them, but they will fast when he is taken away from them 2:19-22

a) Likening Himself to a bridegroom, and his disciples to attendants, Jesus explains to the Pharisees that his disciples do not fast because He is with them, but will fast when He is taken away from them 2:19-20

(1) Using the imagery of a bridegroom and his attendants, Jesus argues that they do not fast because he is with them 2:19

(2) Jesus note that the attendants will fast when the bridegroom (He) is taken away (ἀπαρθῇ) from them 2:20

b) Using the images of mending, and wineskins, Jesus argues that one cannot place his new message into the form of their old Pharisaic system because it will ruin both systems 2:21-22

(1) Using the imagery of mending Jesus argues that His presence cannot be combined with the older Pharisaic system because it will destroy the old system, and ruin the new 2:21

(2) Using the imagery of wine in wineskins Jesus argues that to try and put his message into the form of the old message will ruin them both; Jesus' message must be placed into a completely new system 2:22

c. Conflict Over the Sabbath/Healing: Through two Sabbath controversies (over grain, and healing) Jesus affirmed that He had come to offer the helpful rest of the Sabbath rather than the rigid limitations of the Pharisees, and the Pharisees plotted to destroy Him 2:23--3:6

1) Over Grain: When Jesus is confronted by the Pharisees that His disciples are breaking the Sabbath law because they are picking grain as they walk, Jesus corrects them by arguing that He was restoring the proper sense of the Sabbath law which the Scriptures affirm as being for the rest of man 2:23-28

a) Setting: On the Sabbath, Jesus and his disciples were passing through grainfields, and his disciples began to pick heads of grain as they walked 2:23

b) The Pharisees asked Jesus why His disciples are breaking the Sabbath law4 2:24

c) Jesus corrected the strict view of the Pharisees by showing how the Scriptures did not hold to such a rigid interpretation of the Sabbath, and by affirming that He as the Lord of restoration was restoring the proper sense of the Sabbath which was to bring about rest for mankind 2:25-27

(1) Jesus affirms through the example of David that the Scripture did not enforce such a rigid interpretation of the Law as the Pharisees because David was not condemned for his actions (cf. 1 Sam. 21:1-6)

(2) Jesus proclaims the essence of the Sabbath law as being for the benefit of man 2:27

(3) In view of the above principle Jesus proclaims Himself as the one who will restore the proper sense of the Sabbath (Son of Man; cf. Dan. 7:13) as he brings about the true Sabbath rest for man 2:28

2) Over Healing: When Jesus healed a man with a withered hand on the Sabbath affirming that it was better according to the law to do good rather than evil, the Pharisees left and took counsel with the Herodians about how they might destroy Jesus 3:1-6

a) Jesus entered a synagogue on the Sabbath where there was a many with a withered hand and the religious leaders were watching to see whether He was going to heal on the sabbath 3:1-2

b) Jesus had the man with the withered hand come forward, and asked the religious leaders whether it was lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do harm--to save a life or to kill 2:3-4a

c) When the religious leaders would not answer, Jesus was angered and grieved at their response, and healed the man with the withered hand 2:4b-5

d) The Pharisees responded by leaving the synagogue and taking counsel with the Herodians about how to destroy Jesus 2:6

5. Choice of the Twelve: As Jesus again withdrew to the Sea of Galilee with His disciples, He is pressed upon by multitudes seeking healing, and summons His followers to a near by mountain where he appoints twelve to preach and have authority over demons 3:7-19

a. Jesus again withdrew to the Sea of Galilee with His disciples (cf. 1:16; 2:13) and greeted by multitudes from all around who sought healing from sickness and demons 3:7-12

1) Setting: Jesus withdrew to the sea with His disciples 3:7a

2) A great multitude of people came to the sea to be healed by Jesus because they had heard of His marvelous work 3:7-12

a) A great multitude of people from Galilee, Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea (N-S), beyond the Jordan , and Tyre and Sidon (NW) heard of all that He was doing and came to Him 3:7b-8

b) Jesus had his disciples prepare a boat for Him to great the people in because of their crowding around Him for healings since they had heard of all that He had done 3:9-10

c) When the unclean spirits (demons) beheld Jesus they would identify Him as Messiah (Son of God), but He would forbid them to speak 3:11-12

b. Leaving the pressing multitude, Jesus summoned those whom He wanted to follow Him, and appoint twelve to go out and preach, and to have authority over demons 3:13-19

1) Setting: Jesus went up the mountain (by the sea?) summoning those whom He wanted to follow Him, and they came 3:13

2) Jesus appointed twelve men among His followers so that they might go out and preach and have authority over demons 3:14-19

a) Jesus appointed twelve among those who followed Him 3:14a

b) Jesus appointed the twelve so that they might go out and preach and have authority over demons 3:14b-15

c) The Twelve whom Jesus appointed were as follows:

(1) Simon (whom he later called Peter) 3:16a

(2) James and his brother John, the sons of Zebedee (whom he later called Boanerges meaning "Sons of Thunder) 3:17

(3) Andrew 3:18a

(4) Philip 3:18b

(5) Bartholomew 3:18c

(6) Matthew 3:18d

(7) Thomas 3:18e

(8) James the son of Thaddaeus 3:18f

(9) Thaddaeus 3:18g

(10) Simon the Zealot 3:18h

(11) Judas Iscariot (who also betrayed Him) 3:19

B. Segment Two--The Disciples Are Part of the True Family of Jesus: Distinguishing between those who appear to be part of Jesus family naturally, and those who are a part of His family by believing and obeying, Jesus instructs his true family members as to the life giving nature of the Kingdom which he is bringing, and confirms His words through expressing His power over forces which threaten life (a storm at sea, demons, and illness) 3:20--6:6

1. The True Family of Jesus: Unlike all of those who would desire to prevent Jesus from His work (be they scribes or physical family), Jesus proclaims that all of those who do the will of God are truly part of His family 3:20-35

a. When Jesus returned home and was not able to eat because of the multitude which was gathering, His family (mother and brothers) came to take Him away because they believed He had lost His senses 3:20-21

1) Setting: Jesus came home, and the multitude gathered to such an extent that they could not even eat a meal 3:20

2) When Jesus’ family (3:31) heard of the situation with the multitude (that he was not eating), they came to take Him away considering Him to be emotionally disturbed 3:21

b. When the scribes from Jerusalem accused Jesus of being possessed by Satan, and casting out demons by the power of Satan, He corrected their faulty logic, and warned them of the sever, eternal consequences of blaspheming against the work of the Holy Spirit which they should have recognized even if they did not fully recognize Him 3:22-30

1) Setting: The scribes who came down to Capernaum from Jerusalem accused Jesus of (1) being possessed by Beelzebul, and (2) casting out demons by the power of this ruler of demons 3:22

2) Speaking to the people through proverbial language, Jesus affirmed that the accusations of the scribes are wrong because Satan is not becoming weaker, but is being defeated by One who is stronger than he 3:23-27

a) Jesus called the people unto him (including the scribes) and spoke to them through proverbial speech (language of comparison) 3:23a

b) Jesus first dealt with the second accusation by affirming that Satan could not be casting out himself because this would lead to weakness, but Satan is strong 3:23-26

(1) Jesus questioned the possibility of Satan casting out Himself 3:23b

(2) Jesus affirmed that Satan could not be casting out himself because logically one knows that the division of a kingdom leads to weakness, (but Satan is strong) 3:24-26

c) Jesus next dealt with the second accusation by affirming that he is not possessed by Satan, but is stronger than Satan (cf. 1:8) as He defeats his domain 3:27

3) Because the scribes were saying that Jesus had an unclean spirit, He warned them that even though all sins shall be forgiven men (including blasphemies), they will not be forgiven of blaspheming against the Holy Spirit 3:28-30

a) Jesus solemnly warns that all sins shall be forgiven men (probably referring to their lack of complete recognition of his veiled Self) 3:28

b) In contrast to the forgiveness of their recognition of Jesus, He warns that they will not be forgiven of the work of the Spirit which was a sign of God’s intrusion of the Kingdom of God 3:29

c) This warning is specifically related to the historical context of those who were continually (imperfect tense) accusing Jesus of having an unclean spirit 3:30

c. When Jesus learned that his natural family was waiting outside for Him, He took the opportunity to teach that those who truly belong to His family are those who obey the word of God 3:31-32

1) Jesus’ mother and brothers arrived standing outside of the house, and sent word to Him 3:31

2) The multitude who were sitting around Jesus told Him that his mother and brothers were outside looking for Him 3:32

3) Jesus responded to the multitude by identifying them (or perhaps the Twelve and any others) as part of His family because they do the will of God 3:33-35

a) Jesus responded to the multitude by asking them who his mother and brothers (family) were 3:33

b) Looking at the multitude Jesus called them his mother and his brothers (family) 3:34

c) The reason Jesus called the multitude sitting around Him his family is because people who do the will of God are part of His family 3:35

2. Teachings of Jesus: Through parables to the multitudes and explanations to his disciples, Jesus taught that although many will not respond to the word, some will; therefore, the disciples should proclaim it knowing that it will bring about (the spiritual form of) the kingdom which will start small, but will expand, under its own power, to be harvested by God 4:1-34

a. Setting: Jesus began to teach in parables a great multitude by the sea of Galilee from a boat 4:1-2

b. A Teaching within a Teaching: Through the parable of the soils, Jesus taught His disciples that the word will fall upon many who will not respond properly (sovereignly fulfilling the hardness of Israel), but it will fall upon those who will accept it and be fruitful (as God has given them the ability to understand) 4:1-20

1) Jesus urged the people to listen 4:1

2) Through the parable of the sower and the soils Jesus proclaimed, for those who wished to hear, that the farmer will sow seed upon many soils where it will die on most, and thrive on some 4:3-9

a) The sower (farmer) went out to sow 4:3

b) In the farmer’s sowing some seed fell beside the road and the birds came and ate it up 4:4

c) Some seed fell on the rocky ground, sprang up quickly (for lack of depth) and withered under the heat because it had no root 4:5-6

d) Some seed fell among the thorns and was chocked out 4:7

e) Some seed fell upon the good soil and yielded a bountiful crop 4:8

f) Exhortation: Jesus urged those who desired to hear to hear these words 4:9

3) When Jesus was alone with His curious followers, He explained to them that God is sovereignly allowing then to understand the mystery of the Kingdom, but is speaking in parables to everyone else in order that they may fulfill the national pattern of hardness spoken of by Isaiah 4:10-12

a) Setting: When Jesus was alone, His followers, along with the Twelve, began to ask Him about the parables 4:10

b) Jesus proclaimed to his disciples that God sovereignly allows for them to understand the mystery of God’s kingdom, but Jesus speaks to the rest in parables in order that they might fulfill the nation’s pattern of hardness 4:11-12

(1) Jesus proclaimed to His disciples that it has been given for them to know the mystery of God's Kingdom, but those outside of this group gets everything in parables 4:11

(2) The reason those who are not disciples receive things in parables is in order to fulfill God's purpose for the nation as it continues in its pattern of hard heartedness just as was written in Isaiah 6:9-10 (4:12)

4) Because the disciples did not understand the parable of the soils, and because this parable was central to one’s ability to understand other parables, Jesus explained that the seed was the word, and the soils represented several negative responses to the word, and one fruitful response to the word 4:13-20

a) After asking His disciples if they understood the parable about the sower, He proclaimed that they would not understand the rest of the parables if they did not understand this one 4:13

b) Jesus explains that the seed that the sower sows is the word 4:14

c) Those on the side of the road are the ones from whom Satan takes away the word which was sown in them 4:15

d) Those identified with the rocky places are the ones who at first joyfully receive the work, but then when persecution arises because of the word, they quickly fall away because the work is not firmly rooted in them 4:16-17

e) Those identified with the thorns are the ones who have heard the word, but concerns of life chock it out making the word unfruitful 4:18-19

f) Those identified with the good soil are the ones who hear the word, accept it, and bountifully bear fruit 4:20

c. Parable of the Lamp: Using the imagery of a lamp, Jesus urges his listeners (who are perhaps still the disciples, “to them”) to understand that He has not been brought forward to be hidden, but to be revealed 4:21-23

1) Through the imagery of a lamp, Jesus proclaims that He has not come to be hidden, but to be manifested 4:21

2) Jesus explains through the practice of men that God has not brought Jesus forth to keep Him forever hidden, but to reveal Him 4:22

3) Jesus urges his listeners to hear this deeper significance 4:23

d. Parable of the Measure: Jesus urges His followers (who perhaps are still the disciples, “to them”) to heed what they hear (about Jesus’ mission) because they will be recompensed by God for their faithfulness or lack there of to it 4:24-25

1) Jesus urges the listeners to take heed to what they hear 4:24a

2) As one gives out (measures) the truth about the Kingdom, so will he receive from God (be measured) and even more at the future revelation of the kingdom 4:24b

3) The reason Jesus warns them to hear well is because there will be a future recompense for faithfulness to what they have heard in that he who has been faithful will receive more, while he who has not been faithful will receive absolute loss 4:25

e. Through the imagery of seed, Jesus describes the Kingdom of God (in its spiritual aspects) as that which will grow under its own power through the scattered word until it will at last be harvested 4:26-29

1) Jesus compared the Kingdom of God to a farmer who casts seed upon the soil, and sees it grow, but does not know how it grows 4:26-27

2) The soil gradually produces crops by itself 4:28

3) When the crop is fully produced, the farmer harvests the crop 4:29

f. Jesus, searching for the best image, describes the Kingdom of God as a mustard seed that begins in insignificance, but eventually expands to a kingdom which will be greater than the rest, and provide protection for those under its reign 4:30-32

1) Jesus compares the Kingdom of God to a mustard seed which is sown upon the soil 4:30-31

2) Although the mustard seed is sown as smaller than other seeds, it grows to an enormous size allowing the birds to nest in it for protection 4:32

g. Jesus spoke the word of God to everyone in parables as they were able to hear it, and privately explained everything to His disciples in private 4:33-34

1) Jesus spoke the word to the people in many parables as they were able to hear it 4:33

2) Although Jesus did not speak to the people without a parable, He explained everything to His own disciples in private 4:34

3. Miracles of Jesus: Through overruling life threatening obstacles of a raging sea, destructive demons, and serious physical illnesses, Jesus demonstrates to His disciples that He is the One who brings the hopes of the kingdom as he revealed Himself to be in the parables 4:35--5:43

a. Jesus Calms the Sea: On the evening of the day that Jesus had spoken to the multitudes in parables, He delivered Himself and the disciples from a severe storm by calming the wind and sea through a rebuke, and then rebuked His disciples for not having faith in Him (as the One whom He had revealed Himself to be in the parables), whereupon, they showed their lack of understanding by questioning who He was since he could do such things 4:35-41

1) Setting: On the evening of the day when Jesus had spoken to the multitudes in parables he suggested that the disciples and He go over to the other side of the Sea of Galilee 4:35

2) The disciples left the multitude and took Jesus along with them and other boats across the Sea of Galilee 4:36

3) When a fierce wind arose and water began to fill the boat, the disciples awoke Jesus and asked Him whether He cared that they were all perishing 4:37-38

4) Jesus arose, rebuked the wind, and commanded that the storm be muzzled, and the wind died down and the sea became perfectly calm 4:39

5) Jesus then rebuked the disciples because they were fearful and did not have faith in who he was (as the parables had revealed) 4:40

6) The disciples then expressed their lack of understanding by being fearful of Jesus and wondering who He was who could rule over creation (cf. Ps. 33:7; 65:7; 77:16; Job 12:15) 4:41

b. Life Threatening Exorcism and Cures by Jesus: On each side of the Sea of Galilee Jesus demonstrates to His apostles His ability to overrule life threatening attacks as He casts demons out of a man, heals a woman with a blood hemorrhage, and raises Jairus’ daughter from the dead 5:1-43

1) The Gerasene Demoniac: As Jesus and His disciples came out of the boat, they met a severely demonized man, and Jesus delivered Him from the destruction of thousands of demons by allowing them to enter and destroy a herd of pigs causing the people in fear to ask Him to leave, yet leaving a witness through the delivered man to the people of the Decapolis 5:1-20

a) Setting: The disciples and Jesus came to the other side of the lake, and to the country of the Gerasenes 5:1

b) A demonized man who dwelt among the tombs and was unrestrainable and self-destructive met Jesus when He came out of the boat 5:2-5

c) When the demonized man saw Jesus from a distance he ran, bowed down and asked Him whether this was the proper time for the exercise of authority over him, begging Jesus not to torment him since Jesus was commanding the demon to come out of him 5:6-8

d) When Jesus asked the man his name, the demons revealed that they were thousands, and were permitted by Jesus to enter a herd of pigs, whereupon they drove them into the sea to drown 5:9-13

(1) When Jesus asked the man his name, he answered that the demons were legion (3,000-6,000), and begged Jesus not to send them out of the country 5:9-10

(2) The demons asked Jesus to send them into the swine feeding on the mountain 5:11-12

(3) Jesus gave the spirits permission to entered the swine, and they did driving about two thousand of them down into the sea to drown 5:13

e) When the herdsmen reported what had happened, the people came out and were fearful asking Jesus to leave, but the man remained under Jesus’ direction to testify to God’s work among his people in Decapolis 5:14-20

(1) The herdsmen of the pigs ran and reported in the city and in the country what Jesus had done, and the people came to see 5:14

(2) The people saw the demonized man under self-control, and heard from those who had seen all what had happened so that they became fearful and asked Jesus to leave 5:15-17

(3) The man who had been delivered from the demons sought to go with Jesus, but was exhorted to go home to his people and testify to that which the Lord had done, and he did in the Decapolis causing the people to marvel 5:18-20

2) When Jesus returned across the Sea of Galilee and was met by a large multitude, He demonstrated His power over life threatening sickness by healing a woman with a severe blood hemorrhage, and by raising Jairus’ daughter from the dead 5:21-43

a) Setting: Jesus passed over the Sea of Galilee again by boat and was met by a great multitude, and he stayed by the sea shore 5:21

b) A synagogue official named Jairus besought Jesus to come and heal his very sick daughter, and Jesus went with him followed and pressed by the crowds 5:22-24

(1) One of the synagogue officials named Jairus came and begged Jesus to come and heal his daughter who was near death 5:22-23

(2) Jesus went with Jairus and was followed and pressed upon by a great multitude 5:24

c) As Jesus was traveling with Jairus, a woman secretly touched Jesus’ cloak and received healing from Him for a hemorrhage of blood, whereupon, He stopped to identify her, and to encourage Her in her faith 5:25-34

(1) As Jesus was going with Jairus, a woman with a severe blood hemorrhage who had not been helped by physicians, touched Jesus' cloak with the hope of getting well, and was immediately healed 5:25-29

(2) Jesus perceived that power had gone out from Him and asked aloud who had touched Him 5:30

(3) The disciples considered Jesus' question to be foolish in view of the multitudes around Him, but the woman came forward and told Him that it was she 5:31-33

(4) Jesus responded by affirming her faith, and urging her to leave in peace and in her healing 5:34

d) Although a report came to Jairus that his daughter had died while Jesus was still speaking to the woman he had just healed, Jesus urged Jairus not to fear, but to believe, and Jesus then went to Jairus house and raised his daughter from the dead with warnings to tell no one of this event 5:35-43

(1) While Jesus was still speaking to the woman a message came to Jairus that his daughter was dead, so he should not bother Jesus any longer but Jesus overheard the messenger and told Jairus not to fear, but to believe 5:35-36

(2) With no one but Peter, James and John, Jesus entered the mourning house of Jairus 5:37-38

(3) When all of the people laughed at Jesus for questioning their commotion since the girl was not dead, but asleep, Jesus put them out, and entered the child's room with His companions and her parents 5:39-40

(4) Jesus took the twelve year old girls hand, and order her to arise, whereupon, she immediately rose up and began to walk 5:41-42a

(5) The people were astounded, and Jesus commanded them to tell no one about what had happened, and to feed the girl 5:42b-43

4. The Supposed Family of Jesus: Jesus is rejected by His closest natural relationships and marvels over the people’s unbelief as He teaches in the villages, and is not free to heal many 6:1-6

a. Setting: Jesus went out from Jairus’ house and returned with his disciples to His home town (Capernaum) 6:1

b. On the Sabbath Jesus began to teach in the synagogue and those who listened to Him were astonished over His wisdom, and His miracles, but took offense at Him because they knew him to be one of them (the carpenter, son of Mary, brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon, with sisters) 6:2-3

c. Jesus responded to the people of Capernaum by affirming that He is being rejected by His own people (including family) even though he is honored by others, and by marveling at their unbelief as He went around teaching and only being free to perform a few miracles of healing 6:4-6

1) Jesus responded by noting that a prophet is honored everywhere except in his home town, and among his own family 6:4

2) Jesus was not able (in the sense that He was not free) to do many miracles in His home town, but heal a few sick people 6:5

3) Jesus wondered at the unbelief of those in Capernaum, as He went around the villages teaching 6:6

C. Segment Three--Jesus urges the disciples to open their Minds: Jesus continues to urge His disciples to unharden their hearts and thus understand who He is rather than being corrupted by the infectious attitude of Herod and the Pharisees against Him 6:7--8:21

1. Herod/Five Thousand: Jesus continued to present His ministry to the nation Israel through His apostles and as the Prophet like Moses even though Herod killed the forerunner of Jesus’ ministry--John the Baptist 6:7-44

a. Jesus’ ministry, which was in line with John the Baptist, continued through His Twelve apostles among the people of Israel even though Herod as a Roman/Jewish ruler beheaded John the Baptist 6:7-33

1) Sending of the Twelve: Jesus sent His Twelve disciples out in pairs to dependently proclaim repentance, and to validate their words through authority over demons and sickness 6:7-13

a) Jesus sent out the Twelve in pairs giving them authority over demons 6:7

b) Jesus instructed His disciples to not make provision for themselves as they go out on this journey 6:8-9

c) Jesus instructed the Twelve to stay with those who invite them in until they leave a town, and visibly separate themselves from those who do not receive them as a testimony of judgment against them 6:10-11

d) The Twelve when out preaching that men should repent, and authenticating their messages through casting out demons and healing many people 6:12-13

2) When Herod heard reports about Jesus and His disciples, He considered Jesus to be John raised from the brutal death which he had inflicted at the whim of his wife, Herodias, and her daughter 6:14-29

a) When the reports about Jesus and His disciples reached Herod, many postulated as to who Jesus was (Elijah, the Prophet like Moses), but Herod believed that He was a risen John the Baptist whom he had beheaded 6:14-16

b) Although Herod was afraid of John as a righteous man, he beheaded him because John had been critical of Herod’s marriage to his brother’s wife, Herodias, and she wanted him dead 6:17-20

c) Herod ordered that John be beheaded in response to a promise to the daughter of Herodias who pleased him at a high ranking banquet, and then sought her mother’s wish when Herod offered her anything up to half of his kingdom 6:21-29

3) When the apostles gathered with Jesus and told Him all that they had done and taught, He urged them to come away from the people to a lonely place by themselves, but as they were going in the boat, the people saw them and ran ahead of them to meet them 6:30-33

a) Setting: The apostles gathered with Jesus and reported all that they had done and taught 6:30

b) Jesus urged the disciples to come away from the needy people to a lonely place where they may find rest 6:31

c) The apostles went away in the boat to a lonely place to be by themselves 6:32

d) The people saw the apostles going and ran to where they were going from all the cities and got there ahead of them 6:33

b. Feeding the Five Thousand: When Jesus came ashore, He saw the people (of Israel) as sheep without a shepherd and began to act as their shepherd as he taught them and feed them through His apostles as the prophet like Moses 6:34-44

1) Setting: When Jesus came ashore with His weary apostles, He saw the multitude, felt compassion for them in their shepherdless state, and began to teach them 6:34

2) When it was getting late, Jesus’ disciples urged Him to disperse the people to the surrounding villages so that they may get some food to eat 6:35-36

3) Jesus responded to the apostles’ suggestion by urging them to feed the multitude 6:37a

4) When the apostles objected that to feed the multitude would cost an enormous amount, Jesus used the apostles to feed more than five thousand with five loaves and two fish 6:37b-44

a) The apostles questioned Jesus’ exhortation to feed the multitude because it would cost so much (two hundred denarii) 6:37b

b) Learning that the multitude had five loaves of bread and two fish among them, Jesus instructed the apostles to have the multitude recline in groups on the grass, and they did--in groups of fifties and hundreds 6:38-40

c) As the Prophet like Moses (Deut. 18:15) Jesus fed the people through the disciples with the five loaves and two fish until they were all satisfied with twelve (like the twelve tribes) baskets (κοφίνων) of bread and fish left over 6:41-43

d) Five thousand men ate the loaves of bread 6:44

2. Jesus On the Sea/Heard Hearts: Sending His disciples ahead of Him to Bathsaida while He dismissed the people and prayed, Jesus later revealed Himself to the disciples as YHWH who rules the sea, but the disciples were greatly astonished because their hearts were hardened, and thus did not understand the significance of His feeding the multitudes 6:45-52

a. Setting: While Jesus remained to send the multitude away and then to pray, He sent His disciples ahead of Him on the Sea of Galilee to Bethsaida 6:45-46

b. When it was evening and Jesus saw from the land the disciples straining on the Sea against the wind, He came walking (at about 3:00 A.M.) on the Sea to them and intending to pass by them (as a theophany; cf. Ex. 33:19,22; 1 Ki. 9:11; Job 9:8,11) 6:47-48

c. When the disciples saw Jesus walking on the water they thought that He was a water ghost and began to cry out 6:49

d. Jesus allayed the fears of His disciples by urging them to take courage because He was not a ghost but God Himself (ἐγώ εἰμι ; cf. Ex. 3:14) 6:50

e. Jesus got into the boat and the wind stopped leaving the disciples greatly astonished because they had not gained any insight from the loaves since they had hard hearts 6:51-52

3. Pharisees/Four Thousand: Through the example of the people, a conflict with the religious leaders, and the ministry of Jesus among Gentiles, uncleanliness is expressed as coming from the heart rather than external causes 6:53--7:37

a. Wherever Jesus went, the people brought out their sick to be healed by Him, but there is no report of a continuation of Jesus’ preaching to these people 6:53-56

1) Setting: The disciples and Jesus (perhaps blown off course from Bethsaida) crossed over the Sea of Galilee to its northwest area at the shore of Gennesaret 6:53

2) When the people recognized Jesus coming out of the boat, they ran and brought their sick to the place where He was 6:54-55

3) Wherever Jesus went people brought their sick and were seeking to simply touch His cloak which led to healing 6:56

b. Uncleanliness/Gentiles: Through a conflict with the Pharisees over “cleanlinees” and several examples where Jesus went to those whom the Jews considered to be unclean (the Syrophoenician woman, the deaf-mute of the Decapolis, and feeding the four thousand of the Decapolis), Jesus demonstrated that the heart makes one unclean and not externals such as Gentiles since Jesus significantly ministered among the Gentiles 7:1--8:9

1) In a conflict with the religious leaders who accused Jesus’ disciples of breaking the “tradition of the elders” Jesus proclaimed, Scripturally supported, and demonstrated through a case study of honoring parents that the leaders use their “traditions” in order to set aside the commandments of God 7:1-13

a) Setting: The Pharisees and some of the scribes from Jerusalem gathered around Jesus when they saw that His disciples ate their food with impure hands as the “tradition of the elders” which they followed required, and they asked Jesus why His disciples did not wash (7:1-5)

b) Jesus answered the religious leaders by affirming that they appear to be honoring God, but their hearts are far from Him as they neglect God’s commandments in order to keep their traditions 5:6-8

(1) Jesus answered the religious leaders by affirming that they were hypocrites as Isaiah prophesied 7:6a

(2) Jesus cited Isaiah 29:13 which affirmed the hypocrisy of the religious leaders because they spoke as those who honored God, but their hearts were far from God as they vainly worship God teaching precepts of Men as doctrines 7:6-7

(3) Jesus accused the religious leaders of using their traditions to break the commandments of God 7:8

c) Jesus illustrated the religious leaders’ use of the oral law (the traditions of men) in order to set aside the written Law through their “legal” provisions for neglecting one’s parents 7:9-13

(1) Statement of Thesis: The religious leaders set aside the commandment of God to keep their own tradition 7:9

(2) Jesus cited a portion of the written Law (Ex. 20:12; Deut. 5:16) commanding all people to honor their parents 7:10

(3) In contrast to the written law Jesus notes one case among many, namely, the religious leaders allow one to neglect the needs of one's parents in order to give to the temple thereby invalidating the word of God 7:11-13

2) In view of Jesus’ discussion concerning the “tradition of the elders” he explained to the multitude and to His disciples that external things (especially food) do not make a person unclean, but internal evil does because it flows from the heart 7:14-23

a) In metaphorical language Jesus proclaimed to the people that it is not that which is without that makes one unclean, but that which is within 7:14-16

(1) Setting: After Jesus' confrontation with the leaders, He called the multitudes to Him urging them to listen and understand 7:14

(2) Jesus explained that a man is not made unclean by that which comes from without, but by that which comes from within 7:15-[16]

b) When the disciples asked Jesus in private about the parable which He had just spoken in public, He rebuked them for not understanding, and then explained that the heart is the central issue in cleanliness and not external matters such as food 7:17-23

(1) Setting: When they Jesus and the disciples were in private, they asked Him about the parable which He had spoken 7:17

(2) Jesus first rebuked the disciples for not understanding what He had said 7:18a

(3) Jesus then explained that physical things which enter a man do not defile him because they do not enter his heart, but his stomach and are then eliminated (thereby intimating that all foods are clean) 7:18b-19

(4) Jesus also explained that those things which come out of a man defile him because they come from the heart (including evil thoughts including (1) evil acts--fornications, thefts, murders, adulteries, deeds of coveting and wickedness--and (2) moral defects-- deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride, and foolishness) 7:20-23

3) In the Gentile land of Tyre Jesus cast out a demon from a Gentile, Syropheonician, woman’s daughter when the woman understood and agreed to receive that portion of His ministry (the kingdom) which Jesus could offer her without interrupting His ministry to the nation Israel 7:24-30

a) Setting: From Galilee, Jesus went in privacy (to teach His disciples [cf. 6:32-34,53-56]?) northwest to the Gentile region of Tyre, but he was recognized, and a Gentile woman who was Syropheonician came continually asking for help for her daughter who had an unclean spirit 7:24-26

b) Jesus responded to the woman by metaphorically proclaiming that the benefits for Israel must first be given to Israel (children), before they are shared with Gentiles (dogs) 7:27

c) Using Jesus’ image, the woman agreed only asking for that which might be provided without interrupting Jesus’ ministry to Israel 7:28

d) Because of the woman’s agreeable understanding Jesus agreed to her request and from afar cast the evil spirit from her daughter as the woman discovered when she returned home 7:29-30

4) When Jesus came from Tyre and Sidon to the Gentile region of the Decapolis, He sensitively healed a deaf man with a speech impediment, and the people, though warned not to tell anyone, proclaimed widely the Messianic work of Jesus 7:31-37

a) Setting: Jesus left the region of Tyre and Sidon, through Galilee to the Gentile region of the Decapolis 7:31

b) The people brought to Jesus a person who was deaf and spoke with difficulty (μογιλάλον; cf. Isa. 35:6 “the dumb) for Him to heal 7:32

c) In a visual manner (for the sake of the deaf man) Jesus demonstrated that He was going to heal the man 7:33-34

(1) Jesus took the man aside from the multitude (to emphasize the privacy for this relationship) 7:33a

(2) Jesus demonstrated that He was going to heal his hearing (fingers in his ears), and his speech (spitting to bring forth the tongue whereupon he touched it with his siliva to emphasize healing) 7:33b

(3) Jesus demonstrated that God was going to do this miracle by looking up into heaven 7:34a

(4) Jesus then said an Aramaic word "Ephphatha" so that the man could read his lips and know that Jesus had commanded the man's ears to be opened 7:34b

d) The mans ears were opened, his speech impediment was gone, and he began to speak plainly 7:35

e) Although Jesus ordered the people not to tell anyone about what He had done, they spread the word widely telling all in astonishment that Jesus is bringing in the Kingdom promises (He makes the deaf to hear and the dumb to speak; cf. Isa. 35:5-6) 7:36-37

5) Feeding the Four Thousand: Out of compassion for the (Gentile?) multitude which had gathered (in the Decapolis) to hear Jesus teach for three days, Jesus fed them to their satisfaction through His disciples with seven loaves and some fish, and before they departed seven large baskets of leftovers were gathered 8:1-9

a) Setting: When Jesus was in the Decapolis (in those days) a great multitude was gathered with nothing to eat 8:1a

b) Jesus called His disciples and exclaimed His compassion toward the multitudes because they had been listening to Him teach for three days, and were now in need of something to eat for their long journey home 8:1b-3

c) Jesus’ disciples asked Jesus about the possibility of finding enough bread for this people in such a desolate place 8:4

d) When Jesus learned from His disciples that they had seven loaves of bread, He directed the people to be seated, blessed the bread, and distributed it through His disciples to serve to the multitude along with some fish that they had 8:5-7

e) When the multitude of about four thousand ate to their satisfaction, they picked up seven large baskets (σπυρίδας) full of leftovers, and Jesus sent the people away 8:8-9

4. Transition: The religious leaders re-affirm their hard heartedness by testing Jesus through the insistence of a sign, but Jesus refuses through a vow not to show them a sign which will lessen their responsibility to exercise faith 8:10-13

a. Setting: After sending the four thousand away, Jesus entered the boat with His disciples, and sailed west to the district of Dalmanutha (which may have been Magdala) 8:10

b. The Pharisees came out and argued with Jesus so as to test Him seeking a sign from heaven (which they could not attribute to Satan; perhaps fire from heaven as with Elijah) from Him 6:11

c. Upset over His generations’ insistence upon a sign, Jesus vowed not to perform a sign (to take away their opportunity to make a decision of faith) and left them to go to the other side of the Sea 6:12-13

5. Closing Scene: As Jesus leaves Dalmanutha with His disciples He warns them of the infectious corruption of the Pharisees and Herod who question Jesus’ identity, and then urges them in their lack of understanding to consider the testimony of the miracle feedings to His identity 8:14-21

a. Setting: As Jesus and the disciples were in the boat leaving the district of Dalmanutha they were with only one loaf of bread among them 8:14

b. Jesus instructed the disciples to watch out for the leaven (infectious sinful attitude, corruption) of the Pharisees and of Herod 8:15

c. The disciples demonstrated that they did not understand what Jesus was saying to them because they responded by quarreling over whose fault it was that they did not have any bread 8:16

d. Jesus responded to their lack of understanding by explaining that

1) Jesus rebuked his disciples for not understanding the meaning of his words by describing them as walking in the hardened pattern of the nation Israel (cf. 4:12; Isa. 6:9; Jer. 5:21; Ezk. 12:2) 8:17-18

2) Reminding the disciples of His miraculous feeding of the five and four thousand, Jesus urged them to understand (the significance about who He was even though the leaders sin against Him) 8:19-21

III. EXPLANATIONS OF THE WAY: Through the literary techniques of bookend-signs around several messages Mark unfolds Jesus’ clarifying instructions to His disciples concerning His suffering Messiahship and its requirements upon them as His followers 8:22--11:10

A. The Blind See/Who is Jesus: Through the literary technique of sign-sermon Mark demonstrates the growth in understanding that Jesus will bring about in that just as the man was physically blind and was brought to gradual clear vision, so is it that Jesus will bring his disciples from spiritual blindness (cf. 8:21) to spiritual insight as the suffering concept of Jesus as Messiah becomes better understood 8:22-30

1. Sign--A Blind Person Sees: Through the image of gradually enabling a physically blind man to see, Mark sets the scene for the increased insight which Jesus’ disciples will obtain through Jesus’ ministry among them 8:22-26

a. Setting: When the disciples came to Bethsaida (NE on The Sea of Galilee) a blind man was brought to Jesus so that He would heal (touch) him 8:22

b. Jesus took the blind man out of the village, placed spit upon his eyes, laid his hands upon the man and asked him if He saw anything 8:23

c. The man told Jesus that he could vaguely see men walking around, but they looked like trees 8:24

d. Jesus again laid his hands upon the man’s eyes, and the man’s sight was completely restored 8:25

e. Jesus sent the man home instructing him to not even enter the village (lest the message of the healing become public and obstruct Jesus’ opportunity to speak to the people for want of more miracles) 8:26

2. Sermon--Who Is Jesus: Through a dialogue with the disciples, they affirm (see?) that Jesus is Messiah, and are then warned not to tell others about His identity 8:27-30

a. Setting: Jesus went north from Bethsaida to Caesarea Philippi with His disciples questioning them concerning Who people say that He is 8:27

b. The disciples answered that the people identify Jesus with several different people: John the Baptist, Elijah, or one of the prophets (e.g., Deut. 18) 8:28

c. Jesus asked the disciples about Who they thought that He was 8:29a

d. Peter answered (for the disciples) by identifying Jesus as Messiah (the Christ) 8:29b

e. Jesus then warned the disciples to not tell anyone about who He was 8:30

B. Prediction-Misunderstanding-Instruction-Elijah: Jesus works to clarify the disciples sight concerning the necessity for Him as Messiah to suffer by predicting His suffering, correcting their resistance to His suffering, affirming through the transfiguration His Messiahship, and rebuking their unbelief through a discussion about Elijah, and the deliverance of a demonized boy 8:31--9:29

1. Prediction: Jesus begins to clarify the concept of Himself as Messiah by predicting that the Son of Man (cf. Dan. 7:13) must suffer, be rejected by the religious leaders, be killed and rise again after three days 8:31

2. Misunderstanding--Peter: As with the blind man who at first could not see clearly, so was it with the disciples who were rebuked through Peter for resisting Jesus’ revelation that He as Messiah must suffer 8:32-33

a. As Jesus was stating the suffering aspects of His Messiahship plainly, Peter (on behalf of the Twelve) took Jesus aside and rebuked Him 8:32

b. As Jesus turned around and looked at his disciples, He then rebuked Peter for being Satan’s tool by emphasizing personal interests over God’s interests 8:33

3. Instruction: As Jesus summoned the multitude along with His disciples, He worked to clarify their insight by teaching them that they must follow Him as the suffering Messiah in order to partake of the Kingdom life which He will certainly bring as He will show some of those who are with Him 8:34--9:1

a. Setting: Jesus then summoned the multitude along with His disciples and taught them 8:34a

b. As Jesus deals with the people’s Messianic concerns He explains that they must follow Him as the suffering Messiah in order to partake of the Kingdom life which He will bring with certainty as He will show some of those who are with Him 8:34b--9:1

1) Jesus urged those who wanted to follow after Him to deny themselves (die to their own desires for Messianic rule as they are in conflict against God’s; cf. 8:33), identify with Jesus as the suffering Messiah (take up his cross), and then to follow 8:34

2) The reason Jesus urges His listeners to follow Him as the suffering Messiah is because kingdom life (saved life) is not available by applied effort, but by following the suffering Messiah 8:35

3) The reason life will only be saved through following the suffering Messiah is because material gain (at the expense of obeying God) has no value when compared to the life (soul) which God will give to those who will follow him in suffering 8:36-37

4) The reason one can loose his life for not following Jesus as the suffering Messiah is because He will reject those who rejected Him when He comes to establish His kingdom in the greatness of the Father and with the holy angels (c.f., 2 Thess. 1:7; Rev. 19:11ff) 8:38

5. Jesus then promised that some of those who were present would not die until they saw the Kingdom of God in its power 9:1

4. Insight: Through the transformation of Jesus into His glorious state along with Moses and Elijah and the Father’s confirmation, Peter, James and John were demonstrated the Messiahship of Jesus, but were exhorted not to tell others of this until after Jesus’ resurrection from the dead which they did not understand 9:2-10

a. Setting: Six days later Jesus brought Peter, James, and John with Him to a high mountain by themselves 9:2a

b. Upon the high mountain Jesus was transfigured in glory before the disciples who also saw Moses and Elijah speaking with Jesus 9:3-4

1) Jesus was than transfigured before them as His garments became exceeding white 9:3

2) Elijah and Moses (representing the Law and the Prophets) appeared to the disciples talking with Jesus 9:4

c. Being terrified and not knowing exactly what to say, Peter spoke for the disciples urging Jesus to celebrate the fulfillment of the feast of tabernacles (the Kingdom) 9:5-6

d. Through a cloud that formed around them the Father identified Jesus as Messiah (beloved Son) whom the disciples should listen to as the prophet like Moses (Deut. 18), whereupon only Jesus was with them (in an un-transfigured state) 9:7-8

e. As they were coming down from the mountain Jesus commanded that they not tell what they had seen until Jesus rose from the dead, but they did not understand what He meant by rising from the dead 9:9-10

5. Elijah: Through discussion about prophecies concerning Elijah and the Elijah like deliverance of a demonized boy, Jesus continues to instruct His disciples on the need for Messiah to suffer, and thus about their unbelief 9:11-29

a. Peter, James, and John question Jesus about His Messiahship in view of the insistence of the scribes that Elijah must come before Messiah comes 9:11

b. As the disciples question Jesus about the Scriptural necessity for Elijah to precede Messiah and the restoration of the Kingdom, Jesus explains that it is true that Elijah must first come in accordance with Scripture, but that Scripture also foretells of Messiah’s suffering which was prefigured in the Elijah figure who preceded Him (John the Baptist; cf. 6:14ff) 9:12--13

1) Jesus agreed with the scribes that Elijah was to first come and restore all things 9:12a

2) In contrast to Elijah’s coming Jesus asks the disciples about what is also written in the Scriptures that Messiah (the Son of Man) must suffer (Ps. 22; Isa. 53) 9:12b

3) Jesus then explained to the disciples that Elijah did already come in accordance with the Scriptures but was rejected (intimating that the same will come of Jesus as He follows John’s pathway) 9:13

c. Through the deliverance of a demonized boy which the disciples were unable to help, Jesus demonstrated to the disciples that they were not dependently trusting in God (cf. Elijah imagery 1 Ki. 17:7-24) 9:14-29

1) Setting: When Jesus, Peter, James and John came back to the disciples there was a large crowd around them, and the scribes were arguing with them, when the crowd saw Jesus and began to run to Him 9:14-15

2) Jesus inquired of the crowd about what their discussion was over (with the disciples/scribes?) 9:16

3) One from the crowd explained to Jesus that he had brought his son who was tormented by demons to Jesus and His disciples were not able to cast the demon out 9:17-18

4) Jesus rebuked the disciples and the crowd for their unbelief and then the man whose son was brought forward for his unbelief, whereupon, the man affirmed his belief in Jesus, and asked for help with His unbelief 9:19-24

a) Jesus rebuked his disciples (and the crowd?) for continually not believing in Him and then urged the demonized boy to be brought to Him 9:19

b) When the boy was brought the demon began to terrorize Him, and the father, explaining that he has been this way since childhood asked Jesus to help them if He was able 9:20-22

c) Jesus picked up on the condition of ability and explained to the man that all was possible for Him, but the man needed to believe in Him 9:23

d) The man immediately affirmed his belief in Jesus and asked Jesus to help him with his unbelief 9:24

5) As a crowd was gathering, Jesus rebuked the deaf and dumb demonic spirit who violently left the man for what the crowd considered to be dead, but Jesus raised him up 9:25-26

6) When the disciples privately inquired of Jesus as to why they were not able to cast this demon out of the boy, Jesus explained that it was because they were not dependent upon God’s work 9:28-29

a) When the disciples where in private with Jesus, they began to ask Him why they could not cast out the demon from the boy 9:28

b) Jesus explained to his disciples that this demon will only come out by expressions of dependence upon God (prayer) 9:29

C. Prediction-Misunderstanding-Instruction-Moses: After Jesus predicted his future suffering, He then had to instruct His disciples about the suffering/serving pathway for them to true greatness before God 9:30--10:31

1. Prediction As Jesus was going with His disciples throughout Caesarea, He predicted His future passion and resurrection, but the disciples did not understand and were afraid to ask Him about it 9:30-32

a. Setting: From the region of Caesarea Philippi Jesus was privately going with His disciples throughout Galilee instructing His disciples 9:30

b. Jesus was teaching His disciples that as Messiah (the Son of Man) He must be delivered into the power of men to be killed and then rise three days later (cf. 8:31) 9:31

c. The disciples did not understand Jesus’ words about the suffering of Messiah, but were afraid to ask Him about them 9:32

The fear may possibly have been due to an Aramaic term which He used for His crucifixion which could have meant exaltation or crucifixion (cf. Lane, p. 337). In view of this they were afraid to ask Jesus about what He had said

2. Misunderstanding--the Twelve: As the party was walking to Capernaum, the disciples demonstrated that they did not understand the significance of suffering upon the greatness of Messiah as they argued over who among them was the greatest 9:33-34

a. Setting: As they came to Capernaum and were in private, Jesus asked the disciples about what they were debating about (διελογίζεσθε) as they were walking 9:33

b. The disciples were quiet because they were arguing over who was the greatest among them 9:34

3. Teaching: In private Jesus taught the Twelve that true greatness will come through serving others because as one receives them in their gospel ministry they will be receiving the Father and the Son 9:35-37

a. Setting: Jesus sat down in the house and called the Twelve to Him to teach them 9:35a

b. Jesus taught that true greatness will come through serving others (Loving Man) because as one receives even the least of them it will be as one is receiving Jesus and the Father 9:35-37

1) Jesus taught that the greatest of all is the one who serves all 9:35

2) Jesus illustrated His instruction about the significance of servanthood through holding a child and affirming that as they are welcomed (received) as the least-esteemed, it is like someone is welcoming Jesus and the Father 9:36-37

4. Insight: Jesus not only disagreed with the exclusivity of the Twelve as they forbade another servant from casting out demons in Jesus’ name, but warned them to take drastic steps to not cause other servants to stumble, but to watch themselves so that they might be at peace with one another 9:38-50

a. Another Servant: When John speaks on behalf of the Twelve about their exclusivity as they rebuked another servant from casting out demons in Christ’s name, Jesus corrected them by describing him a fellow servant 9:38-40

1) John (like Peter before, cf. 8:32; see also James and John in 10:35-37) speaks for all of the disciples by objecting to another servant who was not part of the Twelve, but was casting out demons in Jesus name 9:38

2) Jesus commands the Twelve not to stop this other servant because he is a servant of Christ’s 9:39-40

b. Any Servant: Jesus honors anyone who serves Him in His name and warns the disciples to not do anything which would cause them to stumble, but to preserve themselves and to be at peace with one another 9:41-50

1) Jesus explains that anyone who serves them in the name of Christ will be rewarded by the Lord 9:41

2) Jesus then warns the disciples that if they cause one of these inexperienced members of the community (little ones) to stumble, that God will deal very severely with them 9:42

3) Jesus urges the disciples to take drastic measures not to cause themselves to stumble (probably in relationship to one another) because otherwise they will be severely judged in Hell rather than entering into the Kingdom 9:42-49

4) Jesus urges the disciples to preserve themselves and at be at peace with one another 9:50

5. Moses: Playing off of the writings of Moses (cf. 10:3,19), Jesus teaches His disciples that they should be obedient, humble, and sacrificial 10:1-31

a. In a discussion with Pharisees in the cross-Jordan of Judea Jesus proclaimed Moses’ commands concerning divorce to be a concession due to the hardness of Israel’s heart, and proclaimed God’s design from creation as being toward permanence 10:1-9

1) Setting: When Jesus left Capernaum and entered Judea on the east of the Jordan many crowds gathered around Him, and He began to teach them 10:1

2) Some Pharisees came to Jesus and tested Him concerning whether it was lawful for a man to divorce his wife 10:2

3) Jesus asked them what Moses had commanded them concerning divorce 10:3

4) The Pharisees affirmed that Moses permitted divorce (Deut. 24:1-5) 10:4

5) Lessening the significance of Moses’ command as a toleration due to the sinfulness of Israel, Jesus proclaims that God’s design has been for permanency in marriage 10:5-9

a) Jesus affirmed that the commandment from Moses was because of Israel’s hardness of heart 10:5

b) Jesus affirmed that God’s design was for permanency in marriage, and thus no one should divorce 10:6-9

(1) God's design has always been for one man and one woman in a marriage relationship (He made them male and female, they became one flesh) 10:6-8

(2) Jesus urges no one to separate those whom God has joined together 10:9

b. When Jesus was alone with His disciples He answered their continued questions about divorce by affirming that whoever divorced his partner and remarried another would be committing adultery 10:10-12

1) Setting: In private the disciples began to question Jesus about divorce again 10:10

2) Jesus explained that whoever divorced their partner, and remarried committed adultery 10:11-12

a) Jesus affirmed that whoever divorces his wife, and marries another woman commits adultery against his divorced wife 10:11

b) Jesus also affirmed that if a woman divorced her husband and married another, she would be committing adultery against her divorced husband 10:12

c. Through an incident over children Jesus calls His followers to true discipleship and obedience to the intention of God as He rebukes the disciples for “forbidding” the children from coming to Him as examples of the weak, and dependent who may receive the Kingdom of God 10:14-1610:13-16

1) Setting: The older children (or perhaps fathers [note “them” is masculine, αὐτοῖος ] were bringing the younger children to Jesus so that He might touch them, and the disciples rebuked the children 10:13

2) Jesus called the disciples to alignment with God’s intention by rebuking them for forbidding the weak and helpless (children) from coming to Him since the Kingdom of God belongs to such humble ones who will receive it 10:14-16

a) When Jesus saw the disciples rebuking the children, He became indignant at their behavior 10:14a

b) Jesus sternly instructed the disciples to not hinder the children from coming to Him, but to permit them to come 10:14b

c) The reason Jesus instructed the disciples to allow the children to come to Him was because the Kingdom of God belongs to people like children who had no apparent importance 10:14

d) Jesus then solemnly warned the disciples that whoever did not receive the Kingdom of God as a child (who knows that he is helpless and without claim) shall not enter it 10:15

e) Jesus then demonstrated that the blessings of the Kingdom are freely given as He took the children in His arms and began to bless them 10:16

d. When a wealthy man sought out Jesus to learn how to inherit eternal life, Jesus explained to the man and to His disciples that eternal life is a provision given from God to those who are willing to sacrificially follow Him 10:17-31

1) As a man seeks Jesus to learn how to inherit eternal life, Jesus redirects his focus upon God’s design for goodness and sacrificially following Him as Messiah whereupon the man leaves in sadness because he is not willing to become humble and needy by sacrificing what He has to follow Jesus and thus receive eternal life as a gift 10:17-22

a) Setting: As Jesus was setting out on a journey, He was approached by a man who respectfully inquired about how to inherit eternal life 10:17

b) Jesus responded to the man’s question by emphasizing that the goodness necessary to inherit eternal life is the goodness of God as revealed in the moral law in relationship to man 10:18-19

(1) Jesus inquired as to why the man addressed Him as good since no one except God is good (He is switching the focus from a human evaluation of goodness to a divine evaluation) 10:18

(2) Jesus than cites from the human side of the Decalogue (Ex. 20:12-15; Deut. 5:16-20) to express the necessity for one to be good in alignment with the revealed will of the goodness of God in order to inherit eternal life 10:19

c) The man insisted that he had kept the moral law all of his life 10:20

d) Out of love for the man Jesus exhorted him to sacrificially follow Him 10:21

(1) Jesus responded to the man out of love for him 10:21a

(2) Jesus urged the man to become needy (like children above) by sacrificially following Jesus 10:21b

e) The man responded in disappointment and sorrow because he had many possessions, and was not willing to part with them (thus showing that he was not willing to follow a suffering Messiah [cf. 8:34] 10:22

2) After the man left Jesus explained that a man will not be able to enter the Kingdom of God by his own ability or merit, but by God’s provision as one receives it 10:23-27

a) Looking around at His disciples, Jesus explained that it is difficult for the wealthy to enter the kingdom of God (because they wish to earn it rather than realize that they need to receive it) 10:23

b) When the disciples responded with amazement to Jesus’ words, Jesus proclaimed that it was very difficult (impossible from a human perspective) for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God 10:24-25

c) When the disciples were even more astonished that the rich (who were supposed to be the blessed ones--Deut. 28; Job 1:10; 42:10; Ps. 128:1-2; Isa. 3:10) would find it so difficult to enter into the Kingdom of God, they asked who then could be saved 10:26

d) Jesus explained that salvation will come through the ability of God and not men 10:27

3) When Peter expressed that the Twelve had sacrificially followed Jesus, He affirmed that they would receive from God for all of their sacrifice (along with persecution), and that God would exchange the rank of people in the future 10:28-31

a) Peter, speaking for the Twelve, affirmed to Jesus that they (unlike the rich man) had left everything and followed Jesus 10:28

b) Jesus affirmed that God would supply for those who sacrificially followed Him, and would switch the order of the “great” in the Kingdom 10:29-31

(1) Jesus affirmed to the Twelve that all who have sacrificially chosen to follow Him will receive multiplied relationships now (through believers) along with persecutions and eternal life in the age to come (the Kingdom) 10:29-30

(2) Jesus summarized His message to followers in that those who are first now will be last later, and those who are last now, will be first later (cf. Mark 9:35) 10:31

D. Prediction-Misunderstanding-Instruction-Insight: After Jesus predicted His upcoming suffering and resurrection in Jerusalem, James and John stirred up jealousy among the disciples as they misunderstandingly asked for positions of honor in Jesus’ upcoming kingdom, whereupon, Jesus taught that the greatest among them will be the servant among them after the pattern of Messiah 10:32-45

1. Prediction: When Jesus’ disciples were amazed and fearful of His determination to go up to Jerusalem, He took the Twelve aside and explained to them His upcoming passion at the hands of the religious leaders and the Gentiles, and His resurrection to follow 10:32-34

a. Setting: As Jesus and His disciples were on the road going up to Jerusalem, and the disciples were amazed and fearful at His determination to go to Jerusalem, Jesus took the Twelve aside and again explained what was going to happen to Him 10:32

b. Jesus explained his upcoming passion and resurrection to the Twelve 10:33-34

1) His Passion: Jesus explained that they were going up to Jerusalem where He would be delivered to the religious leaders (chief priests and scribes), who will condemn Him to death and deliver Him to the Gentiles who will mock Him, spit on Him, scourge Him, and kill Him 10:33-34a

2) His Resurrection: Jesus also explained that three days after He was killed He would rise again 10:34b

2. Misunderstanding--James and John: When James and John presumed to request of Jesus that He might give to them the seats of honor in His kingdom, Jesus explained that even though their request would certainly require suffering with Him, those seats were not for Him to promise, but were already determined by God, whereupon, the remaining disciples became angry with James and John over their request 10:35-41

a. Setting: The brothers Zebedee (James and John) requested Jesus to grant their request of Him 10:35

b. When Jesus asked James and John of their requests, they revealed that they desired for Him to grant them seats of honor in His kingdom (being insensitive to his prediction of suffering at Jerusalem) 10:36-37

1) Jesus asked them what they wanted Him to do 10:36

2) They requested that Jesus grant to them the seats of honor beside of Him (who was Messiah) 10:37

c. Jesus told James and John that they did not understand what they were requesting, and agreed with them that they would suffer as He was about to suffer, but could not promise seats of honor because God had already determined those who would sit in them 10:38-40

1) Jesus told them that they did not understand what they were requesting 10:38a

2) Jesus asked them if they were able to enter into the suffering that He is about to enter into (drink the cup, be baptized) 10:38b

3) When they said that they were able, Jesus prophesied that they would indeed suffer with Him (Acts 12:2; Rev. 1:9), but the seats of Honor are for those for whom God has prepared them 10:39-40

d. When the other ten disciples gained news of the request of James and John they became angry with them 10:41

3. Teaching: Jesus corrects the jealousy among the disciples by insisting that they great among them would not be the one who exercises authority over others as in he natural world, but would be the one who serves the others 10:42-44

a. When the ten disciples became angry with James and John, Jesus called the Twelve together to teach them 10:42a

b. Jesus taught that unlike the leaders of the world who exercise authority over their people, the great and first among the disciples will be the one who serves the others 10:42b-44

4. Insight: Jesus gives insight to his principle of service through the model of Messiah (the Son of Man) who did not come to be served by others but to serve others by giving His life for them 10:45

E. The Blind See/Who is Jesus: Through the literary technique of an enclusio Mark proclaims Jesus to more clearly (single restoration of sight) be Messiah who is Lord of the Temple, but is also humble (the suffering servant) 10:46--11:10

1. A Blind Person Sees: When Bartimaeus, a blind man) on the road out of Jericho, identified Jesus as Messiah and requested that He restore his vision, Jesus agreed because of the man’s faith in Him, and the man began to follow Jesus 10:46-51

a. Setting: After Jesus and His disciples came and were going out of Jericho a blind beggar began to repeatedly beseech Jesus as Messiah (Son of David) to have mercy on Him (to heal him) 10:46-48

b. When Jesus stopped and requested of the crowd to call the blind man to Him, they did and he came 10:49-50

c. When the man requested to receive his sight from Jesus, He healed him because of his faith (in Jesus as Messiah; cf. Isa. 29:18-19; 35:4-5; 61:1), and the man began to follow Him 10:51-52

2. Who Is Jesus: Through a veiled entry into Jerusalem Jesus proclaims Himself to be the humble and thus suffering Messiah and Lord of the temple for whom Israel is not ready 11:1-10

a. Setting: Jesus and his disciples approached Jerusalem near the Mount of Olives at Bethphage and Bethany 11:1a

b. Jesus sent two of His disciples to obtain a colt (on which no one had ever ridden [Zech. 9:9] and tied [Gen. 49:11]) in the opposite village in accordance with the preparations which He had already made 11:1b-2

c. The disciples went, found the colt, told those who were around of Jesus’ need, were given leave of the colt, returned with it to Jesus, and placed their garments on it 11:4-7a

d. Jesus sat upon it and many covered the path of the colt with their garments and proclaimed Jesus as the coming Messiah (Psalm 118:26; Gen. 49:10) 11:7b-10

e. Jesus entered Jerusalem and the temple (as its Lord; cf. Mal. 3:1), whereupon, he looked around and departed for Bethany with the Twelve since it was late 11:11

IV. INSTRUCTION IN AND NEAR JERUSALEM: Jesus made final preparations for His upcoming passion through an interchange of exposing revelation (concerning the nation, His authority, the consummation of the Kingdom, and the significance of the His death) and exhortation to His disciples (with regard to prayer, models, spiritual alertness, and spiritual wrestling with God) 11:12--14:52

A. A Parable and Its Outworking: Through the image of the fig tree, the cleansing of the temple, and the withered fig tree, Mark proclaimed Israel’s upcoming judgment because they appeared to be fruitful, but were lacking in righteousness (cf. Jer. 8:13; 19:17; Hos. 9:10,16; Joel 1:7; Micah 7:1-6; Hos. 2:12; Isa. 34:4; cf. Lk. 13:6-9) and urged the disciples to make their requests of God with confidence in Him and a heart of forgiveness 11:12-26

1. After Jesus had left Bethany on the day following His triumphal entry He became hungry, and not finding any fruit on a fig tree whose leaves were full, He cursed it 11:12-14

a. Setting: On the day after Jesus’ triumphal entry, when they had departed from their place of residence in Bethany, Jesus became hungry and went to a fig tree in leaf looking for fruit, but found none 11:12-13

b. While Jesus’ disciples were listening, He pronounced a curse upon the fig tree that no one would ever eat from it again 11:14

2. When Jesus came to the temple, He cleansed the court of the Gentiles in accordance with Scripture (in order to prepare for the Passover) resulting in fearful plotting against Jesus’ life by the religious leaders, whereupon Jesus and his disciples left in the evening 11:15-19

a. Setting: Jesus and His disciples came to Jerusalem 11:15a

b. Jesus began to cleanse the temple for the Passover as the One who will judge the nation for their evil in turning the Gentiles place of worship into a den of thieves 11:15-17

1) Jesus entered the temple and began to cast out those who were defiling the temple with their marketing 11:15-16

2) Jesus proclaimed from Scripture (Isa. 56:7; Zechariah 14:16-21; Jer. 7:11) that the temple was to be a place for all people to pray, but those present had made it a den of thieves to steal from the “Gentiles” 11:17

c. When the religious leaders (chief priests and scribes) heard Jesus’ condemnation of those in the temple, they began to consider how they could destroy Him because they were afraid of Him and the people’s response to Him 11:18

d. Whenever evening came, Jesus and His disciples would go out of the city 11:19

3. On the next morning when Peter pointed out to Jesus that the fig tree was withered as they were passing by, Jesus exhorted the disciples to make their kingdom requests with confidence in God and with hearts that forgive those who have sinned against them 11:20-26

a. Setting: On the next morning when Jesus and His disciples were passing by the fig tree they saw that it had withered and Peter pointed it out to Jesus 11:20-21

b. Jesus taught the disciples about the need for them to pray with confidence in God’s faithfulness to answer their prayer, and with an attitude of forgiveness toward those who have done anything against them 11:22-26

1) Jesus urged the disciples to trust God (who is faithful) 11:22

2) Jesus urges the disciples to pray with confidence in God’s faithfulness to be able to answer your prayer 11:23-24

3) Jesus also urges the disciples to forgive those whom they have anything against before asking God to work His kingdom promises 11:25-26

B. At the Temple--Jesus is Challenged Over Authority and Replies: As Jesus is constantly challenged by the religious leaders as to His authority, He refuses to directly respond (due to their intention to do evil), but indirectly presents Himself as the Father’s Son in fulfillment of a proper understanding of Scripture (unlike that of the religious leaders), and then warns the people to not be like the scribes in their hypocritical evil, but like a poor widow who gives out of her poverty to the Lord 11:27--12:44

1. When Jesus and his disciples entered the temple in Jerusalem, the religious leaders questioned (challenged) Him as to the source of His authority, but Jesus would not answer them directly because of their duplicity, but did through a parable tell them that He (and thus His authority) was from the Father whom they were rebelling against, and they desired to seize Him 11:27--12:12

a. Setting: When Jesus and His disciples entered the temple in Jerusalem, the religious leaders (chief priests, scribes, and elders) came and began to inquire about the authority by which He does the things that He does 11:27-28

b. When the religious leaders refused to answer directly Jesus’ question about the source of John’s authority, He refused to directly tell them the source of His authority 11:29-33

1) Before Jesus answered their question He asked the leaders to tell Him whether John the Baptist’s baptism was from heaven’s authority or from men’s 11:29-30

2) When the leaders decided (for reasons of fear) to tell Jesus that they did not know about the source of John’s authority, He refused to overtly tell them of the source of His authority 11:31-33

c. Jesus then cryptically revealed His authority as being form the Father in Heaven to the religious leaders through the parable of the vineyard owner and the vine-growers who rebelled against the owner’s servants and murdered His son, and through a reference to Psalm 118:22-23, but the leaders sought (in character) to destroy Him but were hindered by their fear of the people 12:1-12

2. On the same day when the religious leaders left, they sent Pharisees and Herodians to trap Jesus, and Jesus exposed their ignorance by responding to their question concerning the legality of giving to Caesar with the instruction that one should give back to Caesar and to God the things which bare their respective images, causing the people to be amazed 12:13-17

a. Setting: On the same day the religious leaders sent some of the Pharisees and the Herodians to Jesus in order to trap Him in a statement 12:13

b. Couching their question in an atmosphere of requiring Jesus to directly face the question they were asking of Him, they asked Him if it was lawful or not to pay a poll tax to Caesar 12:14-15a

c. Knowing that they were not seeking a true answer, but to trick Him, Jesus used a denarius to expose their misunderstandings by teaching that one should render to Caesar and to God those things which bare their respective images upon them 12:15b-17a

1) Jesus knew that they were not truly seeking an answer, and asked them as to why they were testing Him 12:15b-c

2) When they brought Jesus a denarius, at His request, Jesus noted Caesar’s inscription and exhorted them to give to Caesar those things which bare His image, and to God those things which bare His image (one’s self) 12:15-17a

3) The people were amazed at Jesus’ response to the question 12:17b

3. Although the Sadducees tried to stump Jesus concerning the doctrine of the resurrection, He skillfully corrected their ignorance by affirming that the resurrected are not married to one another as they suppose, and by explaining that the resurrection must occur for God to complete His covenant promises to the patriarchs 12:18-27

a. Setting: Some of the Sadducees (who did not believe in the resurrection) came to Jesus and began to question the existence of the resurrection through a hypothetical case of a woman who had been part of seven marriages (in accordance with Moses’ commands in Deut. 25:5), and then died to be “resurrected” along with her seven “husbands” 12:18-23

b. Proclaiming that the Sadducees were mistaken about the resurrection out of ignorance concerning the Scriptures and the power of God, Jesus explained that the resurrected are not married but find communion with God, and that the resurrection is necessary for God to fulfill His covenant promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (the patriarchs of the nation of Israel) 12:24-27

1) Jesus suggested that the Sadducees were mistaken about the resurrection because they neither understood the Scriptures nor the power of God 12:24

2) Jesus explained that they did not understand the Scriptures concerning levirate marriage because these marriages are not binding in heaven since the resurrected are like angels who do not marry (but find life in communion with God) 12:25

3) Jesus then explained the (Mosaic) Scriptures and the power of God through recounting that there must be a resurrection in order for God to fulfill His covenant promises to the patriarchs (Gen. 12; Ex. 3:6) 12:26-27

4. Jesus responded to the sincere searching of a scribe concerning the greatest commandment of the Old Testament by affirming the ethic of the Mosaic Law, and then exhorting him to pursue his search for the Kingdom of God, whereupon, the people stopped asking Him questions 12:28-34

a. Setting: One of the scribes who heard Jesus’ good response to the Sadducees asked Jesus which commandment was the most important of all 12:28

b. Jesus began His response by affirming the uniqueness of YHWH as the One God in all of life (Deut. 6:4-9), and then proclaimed the moral law--to fully Love God--(and then its natural expression to fully love men) as the greatest commandment of the Law 12:29-31

c. The scribe agreed with Jesus’ answer and himself identified love as greater than ceremonial sacrifices 12:32-33

d. When Jesus saw the scribes good response, He stimulated his search by proclaiming that he was not far from the Kingdom of God 12:34a

e. After Jesus’ response with the scribe, no one dared to ask Him any more questions 12:34b

5. To the crowd’s delight Jesus explained through the use of Psalm 110 that Jesus must not only be the “son” of David (as the scribes affirmed), but must also divine because He is also David’s Lord 12:35-37

a. Setting: When no one dared to ask Jesus any more questions, He responded to their initial concern about His authority by asking them a question 12:35a

b. Jesus confronted the simple understanding of the scribes that Messiah was (only) David’s son, since David himself identified Messiah as His Lord 12:35-37

1) Jesus asked what the scribes meant when they identified Messiah with the son of David 12:35b

2) Jesus presented David’s concept of his son as being his Lord when he wrote in Psalm 110 about the enthronement of Messiah 12:36

3) Jesus therefore asked about the sense in which Messiah was David’s son since he called Him Lord 12:37a

c. The crowd enjoyed listening to Jesus 12:37b

6. Through two contrary images Jesus warned those listening to Him to not model their lives after the religious leaders who will be judged for their veiled evil, but to be like the poor widow who sacrificially gave from her poverty to the Lord 12:38-44

a. Jesus warned the people to beware of the scribes who look pious, respected, and honored because they will receive greater judgment for their evil toward the weak (widows), and their hypocrisy 12:38-40

b. Jesus then honored a poor widow who unlike all of the rest in the temple who were giving out of their surplus, sacrificially gave all that she owned out of her poverty 12:41-44

C. Jesus teaches His disciples Concerning the Future: In a conversation with His disciples as they left the temple and sat across from the temple on the Mount of Olives Jesus explained that the temple would be destroyed and the consummation of God’s program would be signaled by the ascension of one who would make an abomination in the temple, but no one knows when the final events will begin; therefore, the disciples should be spiritually alert so that they will not be found spiritually asleep by the Lord upon His return 13:1-37

1. Setting: As Jesus was going out of the temple one of His disciples remarked about the splendor of the temple (beautiful stones, wonderful buildings!) 13:1

2. Jesus responded noting that these great buildings will be destroyed so that not one stone will be left upon another 13:2

3. As Jesus was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple Peter, James, John, and Andrew were questioning Him privately for more information about His prediction: (1) when these things (ταῦτα; plural emphasizing the destruction of the temple and other events) will be, and (2) the sign when all these things (ταῦτα...πάντα) are going to be fulfilled (συντελεῖσθαι ; cf. Zech. 14) 13:3-4

4. Jesus teaches His disciples that even though the appearance of one in the temple who makes an abomination is a sign that marks the coming of the Lord, that no one know when this entire event known as the Day of the Lord will begin, therefore, all believers should be watchful so that they are not found spiritually ineffective when the Lord returns 13:5-37

a. The Second Question--The Sign: Jesus warns His disciples to not be mislead that the end has come by the many difficulties which will come, but explains that the sign of the end will be when the one shows up in the temple who make an abomination, because he will make a great desolation; thus, all should then flee and not be deceived 13:5-27

1) Negatively--False Signs: Jesus warns His disciples to not be misled that the end has come by the many difficulties which will come (false Messiahs, wars and natural disasters, and even suffering) 13:5-13

a) Jesus warns the disciples not to be misled by those who will mislead many others by coming and calling themselves Messiah 13:5-6

(1) Exhortation: Do not let anyone mislead you 13:5

(2) Reason: Many will come and identify themselves as Messiah misleading many 13:6

b) Jesus urges His disciples not to be frightened by wars and natural disasters which will arise because they are not the end, but necessarily precede the end 13:7-8

(1) Exhortation: Do not be frightened when you hear of wars and rumors of wars 13:7a

(2) Reason: The wars and natural disasters which will come are not signs of the end, but precede the end as necessary birth pangs 13:7b-8

c) Jesus exhorts the disciples to be prepared for suffering as they present God’s message which must first be preached to all nations 13:9-13

(1) Exhortation: Be prepared for suffering (Be on guard/watchful) 13:9a

(2) Reason: Persecution will come through the Jews, Gentiles and family as they present God's message world wide, but God will enable them and they are to persevere (remain loyal to Christ) to the end to experience God's ultimate deliverance 13:9b-13

2) Positively--Tribulation and Advent: Jesus explains that the sign of the end will be when the one shows up in the temple who make an abomination, because he will make a great desolation; thus all should flee Jerusalem, and not be deceived by the wonders of false Messiahs and prophets because the Lord’s return will be in full vision resulting in the gathering of believers 13:14-27

a) Jesus positively identified the sign of the coming end (“all these things” 13:4) with the abomination of Desolation standing in the temple in accordance with Scripture5 13:14a

b) Jesus urges those who see the one who makes an abomination in the temple to flee immediately from Jerusalem and pray for good weather during this difficult time 13:14b-18

(1) Those in Judea should flee to the mountains beyond the Jordan river of Perea 13:14b

(2) No one should try to salvage any thing from their private lives, but should flee 13:15-16

(3) It will be a difficult time for those will children 13:17

(4) Pray that it does not come in winter 13:18

c) The reason one should immediately flee is because this tribulation will be the most severe of times 13:19-20

(1) These days will be a time of greater tribulation than has ever or will ever exist 13:19

(2) The tribulation will be so great that it would destroy all life if the Lord had not shortened those days 13:20

d) Jesus exhorts His disciples to not be deceived by false Messiahs whom others point to with miraculous ability because when He (the Son of Man) returns it will be in full vision resulting in the gathering of all the elect by His angels 13:21-27

(1) Exhortation: During the time of the tribulation do not believe those who come along and point to one as Messiah 13:21

(2) Reason One: The reason one should not be deceived is because Jesus is telling in advance that false Messiahs and prophets will arise who will show convincing signs 13:22-23

(3) Reason Two: During the time of cataclysmic chaos (Isa. 13:10; 34:4) Messiah (the Son of Man; Dan. 7:13) will come in full vision of all to gather together His elect (resurrected OT saints and tribulation believers; cf. Dan. 12:2; Rev. 6:9-11) from all over the world 13:24-27

b. The First Question--When?/A Parable--the Fig Tree: Even though the above signs will tell those who are watching that the Lord’s return is near, Jesus affirms that no one knows when the “Day of the Lord” will commence (because of the rapture), and thus the disciples and all believers should be watching for it as faithful servants 13:28-32

1) Just as one can tell that summer is near from the new growth and leaves on a fig tree, so will one be able to tell that the Lord’s return is near when one sees the (above) things (ταῦτα) take place because that generation (with the near/far view equaling the disciples/future generation) will not pass away until all these things (ταῦτα πάντα; cf. 13:4) certainly take place according to Jesus’ certain word 13:28-29

2) The exact time of these things is only known by the Father who will bring them into effect6 13:32

3) Jesus urges His disciples and all people to be faithfully watching for the Lord’s return (cf. Lk. 19:11-27) lest He return as the master of a house and find his servants asleep (spiritually negligent; cf. 1 Thess. 5) 13:33-37

a) Jesus urges the disciples to watch and be on the alert for they do not know when the time is going to be 13:33

b) Using the imagery of a doorkeeper, Jesus commands the disciples to be on the alert lest the master of the house come and find them asleep 13:34-36

(1) Jesus likens the alertness of the disciples to that of a doorkeeper who is commanded to watch while his master is away 13:34

(2) Jesus urges the disciples to watch like the doorkeeper because they do not know when the master is coming and they do not want to be found by Him asleep 13:35-36

c) Jesus’ admonition to be on the alert is not only to the disciples, but to all 13:37

D. Jesus Prepares His disciples for His Passion: During a time when the religious leaders were seeking to secretly abduct and kill Jesus, He prepared His disciples for His upcoming passion by honoring the woman who anointed Him for his upcoming death, by keeping the meeting place for the Passover meal secret so that Judas could not betray Him too soon (before He trained the Twelve), by teaching them of the significance of His death, by demonstrating to them the place of prayer during deeply troubling times, and by being arrested alone in fulfillment of Scriptures and of His words to the Twelve 14:1-52

1. Setting: The feasts of Passover and Unleavened Bread were two days off and the religious leaders were looking for a way to secretly abduct and kill Jesus, but they were afraid to do so during the festival because the people might riot 14:1-2

2. When Jesus received the woman’s deed of honor of anointing Him at the home of Simon the leper in Bethany, Judas decided to turn Him in to the chief priests, and began to look for an opportune time to hand Him over 14:3-11

a. Setting: While Jesus was dinning in Bethany at the home of Simon the leper a woman (Mary, Jn. 12:3) anointed His head with very costly perfume 14:3

b. Some of those present severely rebuked the woman for her extravagant use of such a commodity (worth three hundred days wages) which might have been used to help the poor 14:4-5

c. Jesus corrected the woman’s critics affirming her beautiful work as an expression of love for Him while He was with them and as an anointing for His future burial which will be spoken of wherever the gospel goes in the whole world 14:6-9

d. Judas responded to Jesus’ acceptance of the woman’s deed by going to the chief priests in order to betray Him, and they were glad for his help and offered money, whereupon, Judas looked for an opportune time 14:10-11

3. On the first day of Passover (Thursday, Nisan 14) Jesus sent two of His disciples to find the room for which He had already made secret preparations (because of Judas), and urged them to prepare for the Passover there 14:12

a. Setting: On the first day of Passover when the Passover Lamb was being sacrificed (Thursday, Nisan 14), Jesus’ disciples asked Him where He wanted them to go to prepare for the Passover 14:12

b. Jesus told two of His disciples in a cryptic way (due to Judas, 14:10-11) were the room was to be for the Passover 13:13-15

1) Go into a city 13:13a

2) Follow a man carrying a pitcher of water 13:13b

3) Wherever he enters ask the owner of the house, “The Teacher says, ‘Where is My Guest room in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?’” 13:14

4) When he shows the disciples a large upper room furnished and ready prepare the Passover there 14:15

c. The disciples found all of the preparations to be just as He told them, and they began to prepare for the Passover 14:16

4. At the Passover meal Jesus announced that one in the group would betray Him, and that the elements of the meal were symbolic of His upcoming provision for many proclaiming that He would not feast with them again until in the coming Kingdom 14:17-25

a. As they were eating the Passover meal in the upper room, Jesus announced, to the denial of the group, that one among them was going to betray Him in accordance with Scripture, and that his destiny would be terrible 14:17-21

1) Setting: When it was evening (on Thursday), Jesus came to the upper room with the Twelve 14:17

2) As they were eating, Jesus announced that one of the Twelve who was eating with them would betray Him 14:18

3) They were grieved at Jesus’ announcement and said one by one that it was not them 14:19

4) Jesus again affirms that one who was eating with them would betray Him just as Scripture had written,7 but a terrible destiny awaits the one who betrays Him 14:20-21

b. At the Passover meal Jesus took the bread and proclaimed it to be His body which they were to participate in, and the cup as His blood which was going to inaugurate the New Covenant, then, He announced that He would not feast with them again until He ate with them in the future Kingdom 14:22-25

1) When they were eating Jesus took some bread, blessed it, gave it to the disciples and told them to take it as participation in His body 14:22

2) Jesus also took the cup, gave thanks, gave it to His disciples and they all drank from it as He proclaimed it to represent His sacrificial life (blood) which inaugurates the (New) covenant to be shed instead of many 14:23-24

3) Jesus proclaimed that he would certainly not any more (emphatic) drink wine in a festive way with the disciples until the future time when He would drink it in a new kind of way in the Kingdom 14:25

5. After singing a hymn, Jesus and His disciples went out to the Mount of Olives where He foretold their future defection of Him, unveiled His agony, showed them how to pray, and exposed their unwillingness to fight spiritually before they entered into the physical realm of the struggle 14:26-31

a. Setting: After singing a hymn8 Jesus and the disciples went out to the Mount of Olives 14:26

b. Jesus prophesied in accordance with Scripture of the disciples’ defection from Him when He would be taken, and countered Peter’s insistent resistance with specific prophecy that He would deny Jesus three times before the cock crowed twice 14:27-31

1) Jesus foretold that when He was taken, the disciples would all flee in accordance with Scripture (Zech. 13:7), but that He would rise and go before them into Galilee 14:27-28

2) Peter responded by affirming his loyalty above all others because He would not leave Jesus even if all others did 14:29

3) Jesus then predicted that Peter would in fact deny Jesus three times before a cock crowed twice 14:30

4) Peter kept insisting (along with the others) that he would never deny Jesus even if it cost him his life 14:31

c. When Jesus and his disciples came to Gethsemane, He took James, John, and Peter with Him, expressed His inner agony to them, and their need for vigilance in prayer before the physical battle comes, exposing their unwillingness to fight spiritually before the physical battle arrived 14:32-42

1) Setting: Jesus and the disciples came to Gethsemane and He commanded them to sit there until He had prayed 14:32

2) Taking Peter, James, and John along with Him, Jesus showed them his agony and then exhorted them to remain where they were while He went on by Himself and wrestled with the Father about the path which He must walk 14:33-36

3) Coming back to the small group of disciples, Jesus found them asleep, and rebuked Simon (his old name) for not even watching with Jesus for one hour, thus exhorting them all to watch and pray in order that they might not fall into temptation since the spirit is willing, but their flesh is weak 14:37-38

4) Jesus went again and prayed to the Father, only to return and find the disciples sleepy, and again to pray, whereupon He returned and woke them from their rest and told them that they were now going to be thrust into the physical struggle as Jesus was now going to be betrayed 14:39-42

6. As soon as Jesus had spoken to His disciples, He was hypocritically arrested under the betrayal of Judas, abandoned by Jesus’ own disciples in fulfillment of Scripture, and even abandoned by a committed believer when he escaped from being apprehended 15:43-52

a. As soon as Jesus had spoken, Judas arrived with Roman and Temple guards, identified Jesus with a kiss, and the guards seized Him 14:43-46

b. One of those among Jesus’ disciples (Peter, cf. Jn. 18:10) resisted the arrest by striking the slave of the high priest with a knife and cutting off his ear 14:47

c. Jesus then questioned the procedure of those arresting Him since they did not dare approach Him while He was among the people each day, and then proclaimed that their arrest had fulfilled the Scriptures9 14:48-49

d. When Jesus made it clear that He would not resist His arrest, the disciples’ loyalty and confidence in Him collapsed, and they deserted Him just as Scripture said that they would 14:50

e. Jesus was completely forsaken as not only the Twelve deserted Jesus, but also as a courageous young man (Mark?) fled naked from Jesus when He was seized for following Him 14:51-52

V. TRIALS-CRUCIFIXION-RESURRECTION-ASCENSION: Although Jesus was unjustly condemned, abused, and crucified in fulfillment of the Scriptures, He provided access to God for all men, proclaimed His resurrection to His followers, commissioned them to proclaim the Gospel to all people, and ascended to a position of power and authority at the right hand of God where He confirmed those who proclaimed the gospel with miraculous signs 14:53--16:20

A. The Questionings: While Peter lied (in fulfillment of Jesus’ words) during his inquisition about his knowledge of Him, Jesus told the truth before the Sanhedrin and Pilate, and was unjustly condemned, scourged, and handed over to be crucified, 14:53--15:15

1. Jesus before the Sanhedrin: When Jesus was led to the Sanhedrin, he refused to answer the false accusations brought against Him, but did affirm His Messiahship offering proof when He returned as Judge with God 14:53-65

a. Setting: Literarily, Jesus and Peter are compared (for the later comparisons of their questionings) as Jesus is led to the Sanhedrin, and Peter follows behind to watch from the court of the high priest 14:53-54

1) Jesus was led away to the Sanhedrin (chief priests, elders, scribes) who were gathered together that evening 14:53

2) Peter followed Jesus as a distance into the court of the high priests where he sat with the officers and warmed himself at the fire 14:54

b. Death Sentence Testimony: The Sanhedrin unsuccessfully sought out testimony in order to put Jesus to death, but they were not able because the false testimony was inconsistent, even concerning Jesus’ words about the temple 14:55-59

1) The Sanhedrin kept trying to obtain testimony against Jesus in order to put him to death, but were unsuccessful because many were giving inconsistent, false testimony against Him 14:55-56

2) In particular some gave false testimony that Jesus was against the temple (He would destroy it, and build another in three days), but they were not consistent 14:57-59

c. Even though Jesus would not respond to the false accusations, He did affirm that He was Messiah and the coming judge, whereupon He was condemned to death, and physically abused by many of those present 14:60-65

1) Question: The high priest asked Jesus if he did not have an answer to those who were testifying against Him 14:60

2) No Reply: Jesus kept silent and made no answer (Isa. 53:7) 14:61a

3) Question: The high priest then asked Jesus if He was the Messiah (Christ) and even God10

4) Reply Jesus proclaimed that He was Messiah and that He would one day (at their resurrection) prove that when they saw Him coming as the Judge of the world 14:62-65

a) Jesus proclaimed that He was Messiah (ἐγώ εἰμι) 14:62a

b) Jesus also offered proof of His affirmation when He said that they (the human judges) would see Him coming as Judge from heaven (the Son of Man) at the right hand of God (Power) (cf. Ps. 110:1; Dan. 7:13) 14:62

5) Response: When the Sanhedrin heard Jesus’ affirmation of Messiahship, the high priest rent his robes (cf. Num. 14:6), the council condemned Him to death, and the people, including the officers, spat at Him, mocked Him, and beat Him 14:63-65

a) Considering Jesus’ words to be blasphemy, the high priest tore his clothes and the council responded by condemning Him to death 14:63-64

b) Jesus was then physically abused as some began to spit at Him, mock Him, and beat Him 14:65

2. Peter before Inquisitors: When Peter was in the court yard of the high priest and was recognized three times as being from the party with Jesus, he denied it three times whereupon the cock crowed a second time and Peter, remembering Jesus’ prediction, wept 14:66-72

a. Setting: As Peter was in the courtyard of the high priest, one of the high priest’s servant-girls came and saw Peter warming Himself by the fire 14:66-67a

b. Question: The servant Girl accused Peter of also being with Jesus the Nazarene 14:67b

c. Reply: Peter denied that he was with Jesus and went out to the gateway 14:68

1) Peter denied that he was with Jesus affirming that he neither knew nor understood what she was talking about 14:68a

2) Peter went out to the gateway 14:68b

d. Question: When the servant-girl again saw Peter at the gateway she again began to identify Him as one of those who was with Jesus 14:69

e. No Reply: Although Peter’s words are not given, the narrator tells the readers that He was again denying her charge 14:70a

f. Question: After a little while the bystanders also began to identify Peter as one of those with Jesus because He was clearly from Galilee (due to his dialect; cf. Matt. 26:73) 14:70b

g. Reply: Peter responded by cursing and swearing while he said that he did not even know the man about whom they were talking 14:71-72

h. Response: As the cock crowed a second time and Peter remembered Jesus’ prediction that he would deny Him three times before the cock crowed twice, Peter wept 14:72

1) Immediately a cock crowed a second time just as Jesus had predicted 14:72a

2) Peter remembered Jesus’ prediction that he would deny Him three times before the cock crowed twice (cf. 14:30) 14:72b

3) Peter began to weep 14:72c

3. Jesus before Pilate: When Jesus was delivered early in the morning by the religious leaders to Pilate, He again cryptically identified Himself as Messiah, refused to respond to the false charges of the religious leaders, and was unjustly delivered by Pilate over to be scourged and crucified because of the influence of the chief priests upon the multitude, while Barabbas (a known law breaker) was set free 15:1-15

a. Setting: Early in the morning the Sanhedrin held a council and led Jesus bound to Pilate 15:1

b. Question: Pilate asked Jesus if He was the King of the Jews 15:2a

c. Reply: Jesus told Pilate in a cryptic way that what he had said was so (σὺ λέγεις, “you say”, “the designation is yours) 15:2b

d. Question: As the chief priests began to harshly accuse Jesus, Pilate asked Him if he was not going to defend Himself 15:3-4

1) The chief priests began to harshly accuse Jesus 15:3

2) Pilate asked Jesus if he did not have an answer to all of the charges the chief priests were bringing against Him 15:4

e. No Reply: Once again (cf. 14:61) Jesus did not answer their charges and Pilate was amazed 15:5

f. Response: Pilate graciously delivered an insurrectionist, known as Barabbas (son of the father) and connected with a murder over to the Jews for freedom, and unrighteously delivered Jesus over to be scourged and crucified due to the insistence of the people under the influence of the chief priests 15:6-15

1) Setting: During the time when Pilate usually released a prisoner for the Jews as part of the Passover feast, a man named Barabbas was imprisoned for being part of an insurrection (against Rome?) which involved the murder of someone 15:6-8

a) Pilate used to release one prisoner for the Jews at the feast of the Passover 15:6

b) Barabbas was one who was imprisoned as an insurrectionist when a murder had been committed during an insurrection 15:7

c) The multitude came to Pilate and began to request that they set a prisoner free as was his custom 15:8

2) Death Sentence Given: Even though Pilate did not know of any reason why Jesus should be crucified, he graciously released Barabbas and then scourged and delivered over Jesus to be crucified because of the cry of the people who were influenced by the chief priests 15:9-15

a) Knowing that the chief priests had delivered Jesus up to him because they were envious of Him, Pilate asked the people if they wanted him to release “The King of the Jews” (Jesus) 15:9-10

b) The chief priests stirred up the crowd to ask for the release of Barabbas rather than Jesus 15:11

c) Pilate then asked the multitude about what he should do then with the one called the “King of the Jews” (Jesus) 15:12

d) The people shouted back that Pilate should crucify Him 15:13

e) Even when Pilate asked the people to identify the evil which Jesus had done, they continued to shout out that he should crucify Him 15:14

f) Wishing to satisfy the people, Pilate delivered Barabbas over to them, and had Jesus scourged and delivered to be crucified 15:15f

B. The Crucifixion: Although Jesus was severely mocked, abused, and thus weakened by the Roman soldiers, He completely endured the crucifixion as the Davidite who fulfilled the sufferings mentioned in Scripture, and thus, provided access for men with God; whereupon, He was buried by Joseph of Arimathea while two women watched 15:16-47

1. The Way to Golgotha: After Jesus was severely mocked and abused by a cohort of Roman guards in the Praetorium, He was led in a weakened state to Golgotha, and fully experienced His crucifixion 15:16-24

a. In the Praetorium: When Jesus was delivered over to be crucified, a cohort of Roman soldiers (600?) severely mocked Him by disdaining His kingship through humiliating apparel, and abusive treatment 15:16-19

1) When Jesus was delivered over to be crucified (15:15), the soldiers took Jesus in to the palace (the Praetorium) and called the Roman cohort together 15:16

2) The soldiers severely mocked Jesus by dressing Him in a royal color (purple), putting a woven crown of thorns on His head, hailing Him as “King of the Jews”, beating Him, and then kneeling and bowing before Him 15:17-19

b. Golgotha: Jesus was led to Golgotha in such a weak state that Simon of Cyrene was enlisted to carry His cross bar, but Jesus refused to take anything that would deaden His pain, so He was crucified, and the soldiers cast lots for His possessions (garments) 15:20-24

1) After the soldiers had mocked Jesus, they put His clothes back on and led Him out to crucify Him 15:20

2) As they were going they pressed Simon of Cyrene (of North Africa, father of Alexander and Rufus, cf. Rom. 16:13) into service to bear Jesus’ cross, and brought Jesus to Golgotha (Place of the Skull) 15:21-22

3) Unwilling to take that which would deaden the pain of His crucifixion (suffering for all of mankind) Jesus was crucified and His garments were divided up among the soldiers who cast lots for them (Ps. 22:18) 15:23-24

2. The Final Hours: From 9:00 A.M. until evening Jesus fulfilled the Scriptures by being crucified and separated from God as the Davidite thereby providing access for men into the presence of God, and was buried before evening by Joseph of Arimathea under the witness of two women 15:25-47

a. The Third Hour: When Jesus was crucified at 9:00 A.M., He was being abused in fulfillment of Scripture as He was numbered among transgressors (the robbers on either side, Isa. 53), and as He was mocked in His agony, Ps. 22) 15:25-32

1) Jesus was crucified at the third hour (Jewish time, 9:00 A.M.) with the inscription of the charge above Him-- “THE KING OF THE JEWS” 15:25-26

2) In fulfillment of the scripture from Isaiah 53:12, Jesus was numbered with transgressors as He was crucified with two robbers, one on either side 15:27-28

3) Jesus was mocked by many at his crucifixion: passers by, the chief priests, and the robbers next to Him (Ps. 22:8) 15:29-32

a) Jesus was mocked by the passers-by who jeered that if He could destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, He could surely save Himself 15:29-30

b) Jesus was mocked by the chief priests and the scribes who jeered that He should save Himself as the Christ so that they might see and believe 15:31-32a

c) Jesus was mocked by those being crucified along with Him 15:32b

b. The Sixth to Ninth Hours: From 12:00 to 3:00 Jesus experienced separation from God symbolized by darkness over the land around Him, then, although misunderstood, He proclaimed His separation from God with the words of David, and consciously gave up His life, whereupon, God symbolically demonstrated that a way of access to Him had been provided through the renting of the temple veil, and the words of the centurion, under the witnessing eyes of several faithful women from Galilee 15:33-41

1) From the sixth to ninth hours (12:00 to 3:00 P.M.) darkness fell over the whole land (symbolic of separation) 15:33

2) At the ninth hour (3:00 P.M.), Jesus cried out with the words of David expressing His separation from God (My God, My God, Why have You forsaken Me? cf. Ps. 22:1) 15:34

3) Some bystanders (deliberately) misinterpreted Jesus words (Eloi, Eloi) as a call to Elijah to deliver Him, so they gave Him a drink in hopes of preserving His life a little longer to see if He would be delivered by Elijah 15:35-36

4) Jesus uttered a loud cry (indicating that He was fully conscious), and died 15:37

5) Responses: When Jesus gave up His physical life God symbolically expressed the significance of Jesus’ sacrifice by splitting the veil of the temple in two in order to express the access which all now had to Him through Jesus’ sacrifice, and a Roman soldier experienced that access as He proclaimed Jesus as the Son of God at His death 15:38-39

a) When Jesus gave up His physical life, the veil of the temple was torn in two (by God) from top to bottom indicating that access was now available for all into the presence of God through the superior sacrifice of Jesus 15:38

b) When a Roman soldier (the centurion in charge of the execution squad) saw Jesus’ last breath, he proclaimed that Jesus was the Son of God (a divine man--god) in spite of the mocking that had gone on 15:39

6) There were several women from Galilee who looked on from a distance at the cross as faithful witnesses of Jesus’ crucifixion (Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the younger, Salome, as well as other Galilean women) 15:40-41

c. The Evening: Between the time of Jesus’ death and sunset, Joseph of Arimathea courageously procured Jesus’ body from Pilate’s authority, prepared it for burial, and placed Him in a hewn out tomb with a stone sealing its entrance while two woman intently witnessed His burial 15:42-47

1) Because it was the evening (3:00 P.M.-sunset) before the sabbath, Joseph of Arimathea, a prominent member of the Sanhedrin, and one waiting for the Kingdom of God (a devout Pharisee who regarded Jesus as Messiah, though secretly, cf. Jn. 19:38), courageously went to Pilate to request the body of Jesus 15:42-43

2) Although surprised that Jesus was already dead, Pilate granted His body to Joseph after he learned of His death from the centurion in charge of the execution 15:44-45

3) Joseph took Jesus down from the cross, quickly prepared Jesus’ body for burial with a linen cloth, laid Him in a tomb which had been hewn out of rock, and rolled a stone against the entrance of the tomb 15:46

4) Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses intently witnessed to the burial of Jesus 15:47

C. The Resurrection and Ascension: After an announcement of the resurrection by an angel in the tomb to three woman, personal appearances of the risen Jesus to Mary, to two on a road, and to the eleven, and a commission to proclaim the gospel to all people, Jesus ascended to his position of power and authority at the right hand of the God, and the disciples went out proclaiming the gospel to everyone with the empowering confirmation of signs by the Lord 16:1-20

1. The Resurrection Announced: When the women came to the tomb early on the morning after the Sabbath, they found the stone covering the entrance rolled away, and a man in white inside who explained that Jesus had been raised and they should tell the disciples that He would meet them in Galilee, whereupon they ran in fear from the tomb telling no one anything 16:1-8

a. Setting: When the sabbath was over, three women (Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome) came very early on the first day of the week to the tomb in order to anoint Jesus’ body with spices, but they wondered who would roll away the stone before its entrance for them 16:1-3

b. When the women saw that the large stone had been rolled away, they entered the tomb and learned from an angel that Jesus had been raised and that they should go and tell the disciples to meet Him in Galilee, whereupon, they ran from the tomb, telling no one and full of fear 16:4-8

1) When the women looked up, they saw that the large stone had been rolled away 16:4

2) When the women entered the tomb they saw a man (angel) who explained to them that Jesus was not there because God had raised Him, and that they should now go to the disciples and tell them to go to Galilee where the Lord would meet them just as He promised 16:5-7

a) When the women entered the tomb they saw a young man (angel), wearing a white robe, and sitting to the right (of where the body of Jesus would have been), and they were alarmed 16:5

b) The man in the tomb told the women that Jesus was not there because God had raised Him from the dead, and thus they should go and tell the disciples, and Peter, that Jesus has gone before them into Galilee just as He said, and that they would see Him there 16:6-7

(1) The man told the woman to not be alarmed because even though this is the place were the crucified Jesus was laid, He is not here because He was raised (by God) 16:6

(2) The man then told the women to go tell the disciples and especially Peter that Jesus is going before them into Galilee where they will see Him (1 Cor. 15:5) just as He said to them (14:28) 16:7

3) The women went out of the tomb, and ran, saying nothing to anyone for they were afraid 16:8

2. The Appearances: Through appearances to Mary Magdalene, and two on a road in the country, Jesus gave varied testimony to His resurrection to His disciples, but then appeared to them rebuking them for their unbelief, and commissioning them to proclaim the Gospel to all people 16:9-1811

a. Mary Magdalene: Jesus first appeared in His risen state to Mary Magdalene who went and told the others who were mourning, but they did not believe her 16:9-11

1) The Appearance: After Jesus had risen He first appeared to Mary Magdalene for whom He had provided great deliverance from demons 16:9

2) The Witness: Mary went and told those in their mourning who had been with Jesus (the disciples) about His resurrection and appearance to her, but they refused to believe it 16:10-11

b. Two in the Country: After Jesus appeared in a form which was different than they were accustomed for Him to two who were walking along in the country, they also returned and reported it to the disciples, but they did not believe them either 16:12-13

1) The Appearance: After Jesus’ appearance to Mary, He appeared, in a different form, to two who walking along in the country (cf. Luke 24) 16:12

2) The Witness: The two went and reported to the others (the disciples) Jesus’ appearance to them, but they did not believe them either 16:13

c. The Eleven: When Jesus appeared to the eleven disciples, He rebuked them for their unbelief and commissioned them to proclaim the gospel which would be confirmed through miraculous signs to all people 16:14-18

1) The Appearance: Jesus then appeared to the eleven disciples while they were eating, and reproached them for their unbelief and hardness of heart because they did not believe those who had witnessed to them 16:14

2) The Commission to Witness: Jesus exhorts the disciples to go into all of the world and to proclaim the gospel of faith in Jesus for spiritual salvation, encouraging them that their message will be confirmed by miraculous signs 16:15-18

a) Jesus exhorted the disciples to go into all of the world and to proclaim the good news (cf. 1:1) to all people 16:15

b) Jesus explains that whoever believes and confirms that faith with baptism will be saved, while whoever does not believe (thus not confirming that faith with baptism) will be condemned (in the day of the final judgment, cf. 9:43-48) 16:16

c) Jesus proclaimed that miraculous signs would accompany those who had believed in Jesus as authenticating evidence of the message (cf. 2 Cor. 12:12; Heb. 2:3-4): they will cast out demons, speak with new tongues, pick up serpents and not be hurt by poison (Acts 28:3-5), heal the sick (Acts 28:8) 16:17-18

3. The Ascension: When the Lord completed HIs commission of the disciples, He ascended to heaven taking His place of honor and authority at the right of the father, and the disciples went out witnessing to the world with the confirming work of miraculous signs through the empowering of the Lord 16:19-20

a. When the Lord completed His commission to the disciples, He was received up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God (Ps. 110) 16:19

b. Then the disciples proclaimed the good news everywhere with the confirming work of the Lord through miraculous signs 16:20


1 Goppelt, TYPOS, p. 98. Goppellt relates the angels of Mark 1:13 to a rabbinical understanding that Adam was fed by angels. One wonders concerning this analogy (p. 98 n. 176).

2 Ibid., p. 98.

3 Sinners and taxgathers; cf. Mishnah, Demai II.2; II.3; B. Tal. Berachoth 43b; J. Tal. Sappath 3c.

4 But this was only Halakah. Mishnah Shabbat 7:2 reads as follows: “The main labors [prohibited on the Sabbath] are forty less one: sowing, ploughing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, cleansing [or sifting the coarse dross by hand or by a coarse sieve],” etc.

Talmud Sabbath 70b-71a reads as follows: “Raba said: if one reaped and ground [corn] of the size of a dried fig in unawareness of the Sabbath but awareness in respect of the labors, and then he again reaped and ground [corn] of the size of a dried fig in awareness of the Sabbath but unawareness in respect of the labors, then he was appraised of the reaping and/or grinding [performed] in awareness of the Sabbath but unawareness in respect of the labors: [71a]

5 This was referred to in Daniel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11; cf. Matt. 24:15); it occurs in the second half of the tribulation period

Theologically, other historical events are related to this final conquest of Jerusalem as foretastes of the end (Destruction by Antiochus Epiphanes in 167 B.C.; Destruction by Titus in A.D. 70)

6 This probably does not refer to Jesus’ return to earth, but the initiation of the entire process beginning with the pretribulational rapture (Jesus does not directly discuss this at this point because the “Church” [a necessary prerequisite] is not yet established); the logic is as follows:

“Day” in 13:32 probably refers to the “Day of the Lord”

The Day of the Lord is a broad concept including: (1) the tribulation, the Second Advent, the Millennium (cf. Isa. 2:12-22; Jer. 30:7-9; Joel 2:28-32; Amos 9:11; Zeph. 3:11-20; Zech. 12--14).

The Day of the Lord will begin suddenly and unexpectedly (1 Thess. 5:2), and thus, logically, be preceded by the rapture (1 Thess. 4:13-18; Rev. 3:10); therefore, no one but the Father knows when this moment (the rapture) will begin.

7 Psalm 22; Isaiah 53; 2 Samuel 16:15--17:23; 1 Chronicles 27:33; Psalm 69:20-25.

8 Probably from Psalms 113-118.

9 Isaiah 53:3, 7-9, 12.

10 The Son of the Blessed One; (cf. Mishnah Berachoth 7.3) 14:61b.

11 Note well the textual problem in Verses 9-20:

1. EXTERNAL EVIDENCE favors the verses from the point of the majority of witnesses, and the best geographical distribution. But the earliest texts are without the verses; however, they do leave blank space after verse 8 suggesting that they knew of a longer ending:

The earliest manuscripts do not contain 9-20 ( אand B--both of which are Alexandrian and fourth century. This is, however, poor geographical distribution.

The majority of manuscripts do contain verses 9-20 from the fifth century on: A (5,Byz), C (5, Alex), D (5/6, Western), K (9, Byz), X (?), D (9, Alex), H (9, Caesarean), P (9, Byz), BYZ. This is by far the majority of texts, and the greatest geographical distribution of the text.

Some texts include the shorter (dubious) ending with the longer ending: L (8, Alex), J (8/9, Alex).

Therefore, though not without difficulties, the external evidence does favor the inclusion of verses 9-20

2. INTERNAL EVIDENCE is not determinative even though it does allow for an explanation as to why the shorter view would not be as easy to explain as an addition as the long view would.

Rough transition from verse 8 to verse 9 (women to Jesus). But this is not determinative.

The introduction of Mary is as though she is unknown to the reader even though we have Mk. 15:40, 41; 16:1. But this could be descriptive of the greater ministry the Lord had with her, as she now proclaims his resurrection.

Style is not Marken: One third of the words are not “Marken,” style lacks vividness, He does not mention the appearance of Jesus in Galilee but Jerusalem--this is not expected in view of so much of the book occurring in Galilee. This is conjecture and hard to support in such a few verses

If Mark ended his Gospel abruptly with verse 8, it is easier to see why some early copyist(s) wanted to provide a “suitable” ending for the Gospel from other authoritative sources. However, if verses 9-20 were part of the original, it is difficult to see why the early copyists would have omitted it. This is an important point! It is also true that the abrupt ending would fit with the style of Mark. However, the focus upon the disciples in 9-20 would also be an understandable emphasis. Perhaps it was not included for theological reasons in terms of the difficulty of the final verses.

3. CONCLUSION: Based upon the strong external evidence and the possible explanations for the internal evidence, its seems like 16:9-20 were part of the original text.

Although Grassmick, along with Metzger, reject the text as being from Mark, they feel that the historical evidence is so strong that they include it as canonical based upon the communities’ acceptance of them since the fifth century.

Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines