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An Argument Of The Gospel Of Luke

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Message Statement:

Jesus As The Son Of Man In Humiliation (And Glory) Came In Fulfillment Of The Promises To Israel To Bring The Forgiveness Of Sins To The Nation Of Israel And To All Peoples Who Repent And Follow Him As The Suffering-Messiah

I. THE PROLOGUE: Luke is writing a (theo)logical presentation of Jesus’ acts and teaching which is based upon carefully researched, historical, eyewitness accounts so that Theophilus may have a true knowledge about the nature of his faith (that which he has been taught) 1:1-4

A. Description of Precedent: Luke notes that many have compiled accounts of the life of Jesus 1:1

B. Origin of Precedent: Luke notes that the accounts were handed down from those who were reliable eyewitnesses (probably disciples) in that they served Jesus’ cause (the Lord--”word”) 1:2

C. Luke’s Approach: Having done careful research, Luke wrote it out for Theophilus in logical order (the order of salvation-history) 1:3

D. Luke’s Goal: Luke wrote to Theophilus so that ( ι῞να ) he might know the truth about the things which he had been taught 1:4

1. In view of Luke-Acts Theophilus may well have been taught that God was judging the Church because it had rejected the Jews for a Gentile version of Christianity

2. Luke writes to explain that the Way is in fact an outgrowth of Judaism, but that it was primarily Gentile in nature (Acts) because the Jews had rejected God’s Messiah--Jesus

II. THE BIRTH ANNOUNCEMENTS: Through a literary interchange between “John and Jesus” Luke proclaims that God has come upon His people for the personal, national, and international sake of His people, namely, to deliver them from the evil of sin 1:5--2:52

A. Prophecy of John’s Birth: The announcement of the conception of John (who would prepare the way for the Lord as the Elijah figure) was given by Gabriel, an angel of the Lord, to Zacharias and Elizabeth, two upright saints, and was fulfilled in exact accordance with the word of the prophecy including the confirming sign of muteness because of Zacharias’ unbelief 1:5-25

1. Setting: During the reign of Herod the Great over Judea, Zacharias was a priest, and he and his wife, Elizabeth, were righteous before God, but old and barren 1:5-7

a. When Herod (the Great) was king of Judea, Zacharias was a priest from the division of Abijah (1 Chron. 24:10), and his wife was Elizabeth from the daughters of Aaron 1:5

b. Zacharias and Elizabeth were both righteous and blameless before God, but they were also old and without children because Elizabeth was barren 1:6-7

2. The Announcement: When Zacharias was serving as an appointed priest in the holy place, an angel appeared to him and announced that the Lord had heard his prayers, and thus he would have a son whom he was to name John, who would be separated unto the Lord in order to serve in a great way as the Elijah figure to prepare the nation for the Lord’s coming 1:8-17

a. While Zacharias was serving as a priest in Jerusalem, he was chosen by lot to enter the temple of the Lord in order to burn incense (cf. Ex. 30:6-7; Heb. 9:1-4) while all of the people were praying outside of the temple (perhaps at the time of the evening offering--3:00 PM; cf. Dan. 9:21; Acts 3:1) 1:8-10

b. When an angel of the Lord appeared to Zacharias, he calmed Zacharias’ fear by announcing that he and Elizabeth would have a son who would serve in a great way before the Lord in the role of Elijah to the nation awaiting the Lord 1:11-17

1) An angel of the Lord (Gabriel, 1:19) appeared to Zacharias causing him to be gripped with fear 1:11-12

2) The angel told Zacharias not to be afraid because His prayer (for the nation? for a son?) had been heard by God 1:13a

3) The angel told Zacharias that Elizabeth would also give birth to a son whose name was to be John bringing about rejoicing for them and many others 1:13b-14

4) The reason there will be rejoicing at the birth of John is because of his great, Spirit-filled ministry in the role of Elijah 1:15-17

a) John will be great before the Lord 1:15a

b) John will not drink wine or liquor,1 but be separate unto the Spirit who will fill him will in his mother’s womb 1:15b

c) He will function in the role of Elijah by turning the heart of the nation to the Lord their God (Mal. 4:6), in order to make ready for the coming of the Lord 1:16-17

3. The Sign: When Zacharias expressed unbelief by questioning the certainty of the Angel’s announcement, He was given two assurances: (1) this was a reliable message from Gabriel who stands in God’s presence, and (2) he will be mute until the child is born 1:18-20

a. Zacharias questioned the certainty of the angel’s announcement since both he and Elizabeth were old 1:18

b. The angel assured Zacharias of the certainty of his announcement by affirming his identity as a messenger from God, and by predicting that Zacharias would be mute until the predicted child was born 1:19-20

1) The angel confirmed his announcement by the very essence of who he was: Gabriel, who stands in God’s presence, who was sent to bring to Zacharias this good news 1:19

2) The angel confirmed his announcement by proclaiming that Zacharias would be unable to speak until the birth of his son occurs because of his unbelief 1:20

4. The Fulfillment: The words of Gabriel supernaturally occurred as Zacharias came out of the temple mute, as the people realized that he had seen a vision, as Elizabeth became pregnant, and as she silently identified with Zacharias for five months thankful for the Lord’s work 1:21-25

a. Setting: The people who were waiting for Zacharias outside of the holy place (1:10) began to wonder about his delay 1:21

b. When Zacharias came out of the holy place he was unable to speak (as the angel predicted), and the people knew that he had seen a vision in the temple 1:22

c. After Zacharias completed his priestly duty in Jerusalem, he returned home, and Elizabeth became pregnant 1:23-24a

d. Identifying with Zacharias’ silence, Elizabeth kept her self in seclusion for five months honoring God for taking away her disgrace 1:24b-25

B. Prophecy of Jesus’ Birth: After the angel Gabriel announced to Mary that God was going to cause her to conceive a son whom she would name Jesus, and who would be the eternal, Davidic king over Israel, Mary found the words to be confirmed by her relative Elizabeth and honored the Lord for faithfully exalting the lowly (Mary, Israel) who trust in Him 1:26-56

1. Setting: Gabriel was sent from God to Mary, a virgin engaged to Joseph of the descendants of David, who lived in Nazareth of Galilee during the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy 1:26-27

2. The Announcement: Through a dialogue with Mary, the angel Gabriel announced that the Lord was going to enable her to conceive a son whom she would name Jesus, and who would be the eternal, Davidic king over Israel 1:28-33

a. Gabriel entered into where Mary was and greeted her as one upon whom God is bestowing grace ( κεχαριτωμένη ), and whom God is with (cf. Judges 6:4) 1:28

b. Mary responded to Gabriel’s greeting with great confusion wondering what this meant 1:29

c. Calming Mary’s fear by assuring her of God’s grace towards her, Gabriel announced to Mary that she would conceive a son whom she would name Jesus, and who would be Messiah/God inheriting the Davidic throne, and reigning over Israel forever 1:30-33

1) Gabriel assured her that she should not be afraid because she had received grace (found favor, χάριν) before God (cf. Noah in Gen. 6:8; Moses in Ex. 33:16) 1:30

2) Gabriel then announced that Mary would conceive, bear a son, and name him Jesus (cf. Hagar, Gen. 16:11; Manoah, Judges 13:3; Ahaz, Isa. 7:14) 1:31

3) Gabriel then announced the ministry of this child as being great as Messiah/God who will inherit the Davidic throne and reign forever over Israel 1:32-33

a) The child will be great 1:32a

b) The child will be Messiah/God (the Son of the Most High) 1:32b

c) The Lord God will give the child the Davidic throne upon which He will reign over Israel (the house of Jacob) forever (2 Sam. 7:16) 1:32c-33

3. The Sign: When Mary inquired as to how this could occur, Gabriel explained that it would be through the power of the Holy Spirit, and then confirmed his words through God’s work with Mary’s relative Elizabeth, whereupon Mary humbly submitted to God’s word, and the angel departed 1:34-38

a. Mary questioned how this could occur since she did not know a man ( ἐπεὶ α῎νδρα οὐ γινόσκω ) 1:34

b. Gabriel explained to Mary that her conception would occur through the miraculous power of the Holy Spirit, and then confirmed these certain words by the example of Elizabeth who was now in her sixth month of pregnancy 1:35-36

1. Gabriel explained that Mary would conceive by the power of the Holy Spirit who would come upon her (cf. Acts 1:8) and brightly overshadow her (Ex. 40:35; Lk. 9:34; Matt. 17:5) causing the child to be called the Son of God (deity) 1:35

2. Gabriel then confirms his words in that God has done a similar miracle with her relative Elizabeth who was barren but is now in her sixth month because all words ( πᾶν ῥῆμα ) from God are not impossible 1:36-37

c. Mary then expressed her faith and willingness for God to act upon her by identifying herself as the servant ( δούλη ) of the Lord, and allowing the word ( ῥῆμά ), which is not impossible for God to do, to be done to her 1:38a

d. The Angel then departed from Mary 1:38b

4. The Fulfillment: When Mary immediately came to Elizabeth’s house, the angel’s words to her were confirmed and she exalted the Lord for faithfully exalting the lowly (her and Israel), then after three months (Elizabeth’s delivery?) Mary returned home 1:39-55

a. In search of the confirmation Mary immediately went south to the hill country of Judea to Zacharias’ house in Judah and greeted Elizabeth 1:39-40

b. When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting the baby in her womb leaped (for joy) 1:41a

c. Elizabeth was then enabled by the Holy Spirit and proclaimed that Mary and the child were both blessed, confirmed the words of the angel, and honored Mary for believing God’s word 1:41-45

1) Elizabeth was then filled with (enabled by) the Holy Spirit 1:41b

2) Elizabeth then cried out with a loud voice proclaiming Mary and the child blessed, confirming the words of the angel, and honoring Mary for believing the words of the angel 1:42-45

a) Elizabeth loudly proclaimed both Mary and the child in her womb as blessed ( ἐυλογεω ) 1:42

b) Elizabeth confirmed that words of the angel by identifying Mary’s child as her Lord which her own child responded to by leaping for joy in the womb (gladness, cf. Acts 2:46) 1:43-44

c) Elizabeth then blessed Mary for believing the word of the Lord 1:45

d. Mary responded to the confirmation which she received from Elizabeth by honoring God for faithfully exalting those who trust in Him (Mary, Israel) 1:46-55

1) Mary then responded to Elizabeth’s confirmation by exalting and rejoicing in God her savior 1:46-47

2) The reason Mary exalted the Lord was because He had worked in consistency to make those of little (like her, and the nation Israel) into people of much when they trust in Him and in His interests 1:48-55

a) One reason Mary rejoiced in the Lord was because He had shown regard for her--His bondservant 1:48-50

(1) Mary rejoiced in God because she would always be known to have been blessed by the Lord who had done great things for her and His name 1:48-49

(2) Mary rejoiced in the Lord because He had shown Himself faithful to those like her who feared Him from generation to generation 1:50

b) Another reason Mary rejoiced in the Lord was because He had shown His strength in bringing greatness out of lowliness -- especially for the nation Israel 1:51-55

(1) The Lord has scattered those like rulers who were proud in their heart and exalted those who were humble 1:51-52

(2) The Lord has filled the hungry, and sent away the rich empty handed 1:53

(3) The Lord has fulfilled his promises to the nation Israel 1:54-55

e. Mary stayed with Elizabeth for three more months (until her delivery?), and then returned to her home 1:56

C. The Birth and Growth of John: At the appropriate time a child was born to Zacharias and Elizabeth, he was named John, and Zacharias was enabled to speak by the Holy Spirit prophesying that the Lord had brought salvation from the house of David, and that his son would prepare His way, whereupon, John grew to be spiritually strong, as he lived in the desert (as a prophet) until he publicly appeared before Israel 1:57-80

1. At the appropriate time Elizabeth gave birth to a son and her neighbors and relatives rejoiced with her for the mercy which she had received from the Lord 1:57-58

a. At the appropriate time Elizabeth gave birth to a son 1:57

b. Elizabeth’s neighbors and relatives rejoiced with her because the Lord had been very merciful to her 1:58

2. The Prophecy: When Zacharias chose John as the name for his son against the wishes of the people, his speech was restored and he prophesied under the enablement of the Holy Spirit that God had brought salvation for the nation through His servant from the house of David, and that his son would prepare His way 1:59-66

a. When Zacharias and Elizabeth came to circumcise their child on the eighth day, they refused to name him after Zacharias, as the people desired, whereupon God restored Zacharias’ speech, and the people marveled about what would become of this child since God had been involved with his birth 1:59-66

1) When Zacharias and Elizabeth came on the eighth day to circumcise the child, the people (family?) were going to name him Zacharias, but Elizabeth insisted that he be called John 1:59-60

2) The family objected to Elizabeth’s intention became there was not anyone in their family who was named John, therefore, they appealed, by sign, to Zacharias 1:61-62

3) Zacharias wrote on a tablet that the child’s name would be John, whereupon, the people were astonished, and God loosed his tongue so that he began to speak in praise to God 1:63-64

4) The people there and in the hill country (as the word spread) responded to Zacharias’ speaking in fear and wonder as to what God would do with the child since He had been involved with his birth 1:65-66

b. When Zacharias was enabled by the Holy Spirit, he prophesied that God has brought salvation through His servant from the house of David, and that his son would prepare the way for the Lord by proclaiming salvation through the forgiveness of sins in accordance with God’s tender mercy 1:67-79

1) Then Zacharias was enabled by the Holy Spirit and prophesied 1:67

2) Zacharias blessed the Lord because He has graciously brought about salvation through His servant from the house of David for the nation Israel in accordance with His promise to Abraham 1:67-74

a) Zacharias praises the Lord God 1:68a

b) The reason Zacharias praises God is because he has brought about salvation through His servant from the House of David 1:68b-69

c) God’s salvation is in accordance with His prophetic word to deliver the nation from their enemies (only political? demons in the rest of the book) in accordance with the Abrahamic covenant in order to serve Him 1:70-74

3) Zacharias prophesied that his son would prepare the way for the Lord by proclaiming salvation through the forgiveness of sins in accordance with God’s tender mercy as He sends one who will shine upon those in darkness (the Gentiles), and bring about peace 1:75-79

a) Zacharias prophecies that his son will be the prophet of the Most High 1:76a

b) Zacharias prophecies that his son will go before the Lord in order to prepare His ways (Isa. 40:3) by informing the Lord’s people of salvation through the forgiveness of sins 1:76b-78a

c) The forgiveness of sins will come through the tender mercy of Israel’s God from whom one rising like the sun (Mal. 4:2) will visit His people and give light to those who sit in darkness and guidance leading to peace (Isa. 9:12; 42:1-9; Matt. 4:12-16; Isa. 60) 1:78b-79

3. Zacharias’ son grew to become spiritually strong as he lived in the deserts (as a prophet) until he publicly appeared to Israel 1:80

D. The Birth and Growth of Jesus: Through Jesus’ birth and early childhood he was identified as Messiah, who would save Israel and all peoples as the teacher/revealer of the Father, but this would be painful for many as He also revealed evil 2:1-52

1. The Birth of Jesus: When Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem in order to be counted in Caesar Augustus’ census, Mary gave birth to her first son and named him Jesus in accordance with the announcement by the angel, and the child was confirmed by angels, shepherds, and two prophets to be Messiah who would save all peoples (especially Israel), and who would painfully expose the evil of many 2:1-20

a. The Setting: When Caesar Augustus issued the decree that all in “Rome” should be counted for tax purposes, Joseph, along with the rest of Israel, went to his home city of Bethlehem--the city of David--with his betrothed wife, Mary, who was with child because Joseph was of the line of David 2:1-5

1) Jesus was born during the time which was before the census was issued, while Quirinius was governor of Syria,2 namely, when Caesar Augustus issued a decree that all under Rome should be counted for tax purposes3 2:1-2

2) All the people (of Israel) were going to their own city to register for the census (as Rome complied with Hebrew custom) 2:3

3) Joseph also went up (geographically) from Nazareth of Galilee to Bethlehem, the city of David, because he was from the line of David in order to register for the census along with Mary who was engaged to him, and pregnant 2:4-5

b. The Birth of Jesus While Mary and Joseph were in Bethlehem, Mary gave birth to her first born son who was then confirmed to be Messiah by an angelic announcement given to nearby shepherds who found the family and reported to them what they had heard 2:6-20

1) The Birth: While Mary and Joseph were in Bethlehem, Mary gave birth to her first born son and snugly laid him in a manger (“cattle stall” φάτνῃ ) because there was no room for them in the place of lodging 2:6-7

2) The Angels: While shepherds were watching their flocks in a near-by field that night, an angel appeared to them and announced the birth of Messiah with a description of his whereabouts as a sign, then an army of angels appeared proclaiming God’s greatness and the peace which He is bringing among men 2:8-14

a) Setting: Shepherds were in the region of Bethlehem watching over their flocks in the fields at night 2:8

b) Suddenly an angel appeared and announced that a savior-Messiah for Israel had been born in the city of David and offered them a confirming sign that they would find him snugly wrapped and lying in a manger 2:9-12

(1) Suddenly an angel of the Lord appeared with the glory of the Lord shining around him before the intensely frightened shepherds 2:9

(2) The angel told the shepherds not to be afraid because he had good news (εὐαγγελίζομαι ) for all of Israel ( λαῷ ) because the Messiah-Savior (cf. Lk. 1:68-79) has been born in the city of David (Bethlehem) 2:10-11

(3) The angel then gave a sign to authenticate his words for the shepherds that they would find this child snugly wrapped and lying in a manger 2:12

c) Then, suddenly there appeared with the angel an army ( στρατιᾶς ) of angels praising the greatness of God and proclaiming peace upon men who will benefit from what He has done 2:13-14

3) The Shepherds: After the departure of the angels, the shepherds found Mary, Joseph, and the child, told them of the angelic announcement, causing wonder for many, but understanding for Mary, and returned to their fields honoring God for the confirmation of the announcement 2:15-20

a) When the angels left them into heaven the shepherds decided to go to Bethlehem and to see this thing (word, ῥῆμα) which had been announced to them 2:15

b) When they discovered the way ( ανεῦραν ) to Mary, Joseph and the child, they made known the announcement ( ῥήματος ) which the angel told them 2:17

c) All who heard of the angelic announcement were in wonder, but Mary put these things (ῥήματα) together ( συμ-βάλλουσα ) 2:18-19

d) The shepherds returned to their fields glorifying and praising God because of the confirmation of the angelic announcement to them 2:20

c. Prophetic Proclamations of Jesus’ Ministry by Two Witnesses (male and female): As Mary and Joseph were in the temple with Jesus two witnesses (Simeon and Hanna) proclaimed Jesus to be Messiah who would bring about salvation for all peoples (especially Israel), and who would bring about the painful ministry of rejection, division and judgment for many 2:21-38

1) Setting: Mary and Joseph named the child Jesus on the eighth day before his circumcision in accordance with the word of the angel, and came to the temple when Mary was ceremonially clean in order to dedicate Jesus to the Lord as the first born and to offer sacrifices in accordance with the Law 2:21-24

a) On the eighth day, before the circumcision (Lev. 12:3) the child was named Jesus
( ᾿Ιησοῦς, ישׁוע) in accordance with the name given by the angel before Mary conceived 2:21

b) When the days for their purification4 they brought Jesus to present him as the first born to the Lord in accordance with the Law5 and to offer the sacrifices of the poor (a pair of turtledoves and two young pigeons)6 2:22-23

2) Simeon: While Jesus’ parents are in the temple with him, a man named Simeon with the Spirit upon him, identifies Jesus as the future salvation of all peoples, and prophesies of the rejection, division, and judgment which Jesus will bring about for many 2:24-35

a) While Mary, Joseph and the child Jesus were in the temple to fulfill the Law, an upright man named Simeon who was expecting the encouragement of Israel (Messiah, cf. Isa. 40) due to a revelation, entered the temple under the direction of the Holy Spirit 2:24-27

b) When Simeon saw the parents and the Child Jesus, he held him, blessed God and proclaimed that Jesus was the fulfillment of God’s word ( ῥῆμά ) to him because he was God’s salvation for all peoples--Gentiles and Jews 2:28-32

c) Mary and Joseph marveled at all the things which were being said about Jesus 2:33

d) Simeon then blessed the parents and prophesied that Jesus would bring about the collapse and rise of many in Israel, would be opposed, would bring severe pain to Mary, and would uncover the inner reasonings of many7 2:34-35

3) Hanna: While Simeon was speaking, Hanna, a godly servant of the Lord, came up and also identified Jesus as the one who would bring about the redemption of Israel 2:36-38

a) While Simeon was speaking, Hanna ( ῞Αννα), an older, widowed prophetess, who was the daughter of Phanual of the tribe of Ahser (Gen. 49:20), who spiritually served all of the time in the temple, came up 2:36-38a

b) Giving thanks in an agreeing way (ἀνθωμολογεῖτο ) with Simeon, Hanna continued to speak of Jesus as the one who would bring redemption ( λύτρωσιν ) of Israel 2:38b

d. When Jesus’ parents had performed all that the Law required of them, they returned to their home in Nazareth of Galilee 2:39

2. The Growth: The child Jesus not only grew in physical and spiritual maturity, but he momentarily revealed who he was as the Father’s teacher/revealer when He remained in Jerusalem at the Passover, but then continued in subjection to his parents 2:40-53

a. Summary statement: Jesus grew as a child to become physically and spiritually strong under God’s favor 2:40

b. A Glimpse of Jesus’ Growth: When Jesus remained in Jerusalem after his parents had left the Feast of the Passover, He revealed Himself to be the teacher/revealer of God (as he went about his Father’s business), but his parents did not understand this, even though Mary treasured this in her heart as Jesus continued in subjection to them 2:41-52

1) The Setting: Jesus’ parents went up to the Passover Feast, as was their custom, when Jesus was twelve, and left afterward unaware that Jesus had remained in Jerusalem 2:41-43

a) Just as Jesus’ parents used to go to the Feast of the Passover every year as pious Jews, so did they go when Jesus became twelve years old 1:41-42

b) As Jesus’ parents were returning from the Feast of the Passover, Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem, but his parents were unaware of this 1:43

2) When Jesus’ parents could not find him, they returned to Jerusalem and after the third day, Joseph and Mary were astonished to find Him sitting in the Temple among the teachers listening and asking questions which amazed all who heard him 2:44

a) When Jesus’ parents could not find him in the caravan, they returned to Jerusalem to look for him 1:44-45

b) After three days, Jesus’ parents found him in the temple discussing (the Scriptures) with the teachers of the Law thereby causing all of the people to be amazed at his understanding 1:46-47

c) When Jesus’ parents saw Jesus, they were astonished

3) When Jesus’ mother rebuked Jesus for the anxiety which he had caused them by remaining in Jerusalem, He explained that they should have known that He had to be in the temple, but even though they did not understand, Mary treasured these things in her heart as Jesus returned with them in subjection to them 2:48-51

a) Jesus’ mother rebuked him for the anxiety which he caused them by staying behind 1:48

b) Jesus was puzzled as to why His parents would be looking for him since they should have known that he had (¢£*) to be in his Father’s house--the temple 2:49

c) Jesus’ parents did not understand what Jesus had said, but Mary treasured all of these things ( ῥήματα ) in her heart as Jesus went to Nazareth with them in continued subjection to them 2:50-51

c. Summary Statement: Jesus continued to grow physically and spiritually under God’s and men’s favor 2:52

III. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE SON OF MAN: Jesus is introduced as being the Lord coming with salvation for whom Israel must make spiritual preparation, as being the Messiah-Servant, and as being the second Adam who is victorious over the temptation of the devil 3:1--4:13

A. The Teaching of John: As John was led by God to prepare the way for the coming of the Lord (Messiah) by proclaiming the need for individuals in the nation to repent in their hearts so as to produce works of covenant faithfulness, he received official rejection by being imprisoned by Herod Antipas 3:1-20

1. Setting: At a turbulent time of political and religious division, John the son of Zacharias came from the wilderness under God’s call to proclaim the need for the nation of Israel to prepare their hearts for the Lord who was coming with salvation 3:1-6

a. Politically the time of John’s public ministry was in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar when the land was divided into four parts under the Herods 3:1

1) The broad time of John’s public ministry was during the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea (A.D. 27/28) 3:1a

2) This was the time when Herod the Great’s kingdom was divided into four political units (tetarchs): Herod Antapas over Galilee, Philip over Ituraia and Trachonitus, and Lysanias over Abilene 3:1b

b. Religiously the time of John’s public ministry was when the high priesthood was divided between Annas and Caiaphas 3:2

c. At a turbulent political/religious time John came under God’s direction as a prophet proclaiming the need for the nation to repent as they prepared for the coming of the Lord with salvation 1:2-6

1) At the above political/religious time the word of God (cf. Jer. 1:2) came to John the son of Zacharias while he was in the desert 1:2

2) John came to the area around the Jordan river preaching the need for those in the nation to be baptized as an expression of repentance for the forgiveness of sins 3:3

3) John’s preaching of the need for repentance was in accordance with the exhortation of Isaiah the prophet when he urged the nation to prepare for the coming of the Lord with salvation8 3:4-6

2. John’s Teaching: John proclaimed to those coming out to him that they needed to prepare the way for the coming of One greater than he (Messiah) through repentance of the heart which expresses itself in covenant faithfulness toward one another because He will coming with greater blessing and judgment than John 3:7-17

a. John’s Proclamation: As the multitudes came out to John, he urged them to prepare for the coming of the Lord through a heart-repentance which overflowed into deeds of covenant faithfulness lest they experience the judgment from which they were fleeing 3:7-9

1) Setting: John spoke to the multitudes who were coming out to be baptized by him 3:7a

2) John warned the multitude who were fleeing to him (as from judgment) that God expects them to do works of covenant faithfulness from a repentant heart because He is going to judge those from external Israel who are evil 3:7b-9

a) As to snakes fleeing from a brush fire, John asked them who warned them of the judgment to come9 3:7b

b) John urged the multitude to demonstrate their repentance through their works 3:8a

c) John then warned the multitude not to trust in their external confidence of heritage because it is nothing before God who is going to judge those from physical Israel who do not show forth covenant faithfulness 3:8a-9

b. Responses to Questions: When John was asked by various groups about what they should do to prepare for the coming of the Lord, he urged them all within their respective realms to demonstrate covenant loyalty by caring for those under their influence 3:10-14

1) Multitudes: When the multitudes asked John what they should do to prepare for the coming of the Lord, he urged them to show covenant faithfulness toward those among them with need 3:10-11

a) The multitudes asked John what they should do in order to be prepared for the coming of the Lord 3:10

b) John responded by urging covenant faithfulness (love) from them for those who have need among them by supplying for their need (clothing/food) 3:11

2) The Tax-Gathers: When tax-gathers asked John what they should do in order to prepare for the coming of the Lord he urged them to show covenant faithfulness (love) toward those from whom they collected taxes by not stealing from them 3:12-13

a) When the tax-gathers came to be baptized by John they asked him what they should do to prepare for the coming of the Lord 3:12

b) John exhorted them to show covenant faithfulness (love) by not stealing from those from whom they collect taxes 3:13

3) Soldiers: When soldiers asked John what they should do in order to prepare for the coming of the Lord he urged them to show covenant faithfulness (love) toward those over whom they have authority and power by not abusing them 3:14

a) Soldiers came asking John what they should do in order to prepare for the coming of the Lord 3:14a

b) John responded by urging them to show covenant faithfulness by not using their authority (power) to hurt those under their influence 3:14b

c. John’s Identity: As the people began to wonder as to whether or not John might be Messiah, he explained to them that he was not, but one was following with greater blessing and judgment 3:15-17

1) Setting: The people were in a state of expectation concerning the coming of Messiah as a result of John’s ministry and wondered if he himself was Messiah (the Christ) 3:15

2) Response: John answered the multitudes wonderings by affirming that he is not Messiah, but that Messiah was yet to come who would bring about a greater blessing of the Spirit (New Covenant), and a more severe judgment of the wicked 3:16-17

a) John responded to the wondering of the multitude by affirming that he is not Messiah since his baptism with water is only a symbol of the greater baptism to be administered by the one greater then he--the baptism of the Holy Spirit and of judgment (fire) 3:16

b) The one who is coming after him is coming to bless his own (those repentant), and to judge those who are evil as a thresher with grain 3:17

d. Enclusio: John’s preaching of the gospel ( εὐηγγελίζετο ) was full of many other such exhortations (of repentance, blessing and judgment) 3:18

3. John’s Imprisonment (The Overall Response of the Nation?): When John rebuked Herod the tetrarch (Antipas) for his wicked deeds (cf. John 6:17-20) Herod did even more evil (rather than covenant faithfulness) by locking up John in prison 3:19-20

B. The Baptism of Jesus: At Jesus’ baptism by John he was seen to be anointed for ministry (cf. Lk. 4) and declared to be Messiah (Son/Servant) 3:21-22

1. While all of the people were being baptized by John, Jesus was baptized 3:21a

2. While John was praying Jesus was visually demonstrated to have been anointed by the Holy Spirit as the Spirit descended upon Jesus in bodily form like a dove 3:21a-22b

3. While John was praying Jesus was endorsed by the Father to be Messiah (My beloved [elected] Son--Gen. 22:2; 2 Sam. 7:14; Ps. 2:7), who was also the Suffering Servant of Israel (“well pleased”, Isa. 42:1) 3:22b

C. The Genealogy of Jesus: Jesus is more thoroughly identified as a man: (1) by being thirty years old at the beginning of his ministry, and (2) by being identified with all of mankind through a genealogy which legally traces Jesus through Joseph to the Davidic line and to Adam 3:23-38

1. When Jesus began his public ministry he was about thirty years of age 3:23

2. Jesus is identified with all mankind as the God-Man through Joseph and David back to Adam10 3:23b-38a

D. The Temptation of Jesus: Through the temptation Jesus is demonstrated to be the second Adam who is victorious against the luring of the devil 4:1-13

1. Jesus is placed in a position of great want and need by the Holy Spirit 4:1-2

a. Jesus, being full of the Spirit, was led into the wilderness by the Spirit for forty days being tempted by the devil 4:1-2

b. Jesus was tempted as man’s representative by the devil with respect to his appetite only to surface victorious in each event, whereupon, the devil departed for a more opportune time 4:3-13

1) In Matthew Jesus stands in the place of the nation Israel and therefore his trials match those of the nation in the wilderness

a) Stones to Bread (Duet. 8:3)

b) Throw Yourself Down (Deut. 6:16)

c) Worship me (Deut. 6:13)

This may well have been the chronological order after Peter’s preaching (cf. τότε, “then” in 4:5)

2) In Luke Jesus stands in the place of all men (Adam--the Son of God, the Son of Adam, cf. 3:38)11

a) Stones to Bread (“Don’t eat” Gen. 3)

b) Worship Me (Deny the word of God, “God has not said”, Gen. 3)

c) Throw Yourself Down (God does not care about you, “you will become gods”, Gen. 3)

IV. THE REVELATION OF THE SON OF MAN (IN GALILEE): Jesus presented himself as the Suffering Servant who was bringing the deliverance of the nation, and clarified his ministry through teaching his disciples of his suffering Messiahship so that they might not reject him, but choose to follow his example as suffering-ministers 4:14---9:50

A. The Presentation of Jesus’ ministry: Jesus presents himself (and thus his ministry) as being the Suffering Servant who is bringing the prophesied, yet radically different, deliverance for the nation, facing criticism as he gathers those to follow after him who realize their need for help with their sin 4:14--6:16

1. An Overview of Jesus’ Ministry: As Jesus goes through Galilee and Judea, he proclaims that he has come as the Suffering Servant who is bringing prophesied deliverance for the nation, and authenticates his words through miraculous physical and spiritual healings resulting in a mixed response of wonder and rejection by the people 4:14-44

a. A Summary of Jesus’ Galilean Ministry: As Jesus returned to Galilee under the power of the Holy Spirit and began to teach in their synagogues, his reputation spread as he was praised by all 4:14-15

1) Jesus returned to Galilee empowered by the Holy Spirit 4:14

2) News about Jesus spread throughout all of the surrounding areas of Galilee, and as He began to teach in their synagogues he was praised by all 4:15

b. An Example of Jesus as Teacher: When Jesus taught in the synagogue of his home town (Nazareth) that he was the Suffering Servant who was bringing deliverance in accordance with the Day of Jubilee, he was received by some but overwhelmingly rejected as a prophet because he was Joseph’s son, whereupon, he warned that unbelief would lead to a mission to Gentiles like the ministries of Elijah and Elisha 4:16-30

1) When Jesus came to his childhood home of Nazareth, he entered the synagogue and stood up to read 4:16

2) When Jesus unrolled the scroll, he found the section from Isaiah (61:1; 58:6) wherein he proclaimed that he was fulfilling the sabbath aspects of the day of Jubilee 4:17-21

a) Reading Isaiah 61:1, Jesus proclaimed that He was fulfilling the jubilee promises as the servant of promise 4:18

(1) Jesus read that the Spirit of the Lord was upon Him (his baptism, 3:21-22)

Note that the eras are pulled apart here unlike in Isaiah 61

(2) Jesus has been anointed to proclaim good news to the poor ( πτωχοῖς , the covenant poor [cf. Lk. 1:52-53])

(3) Jesus has been anointed to herald the release of prisoners from debt ( α῎φέσει, a term describing forgiveness [1:77] because all are in debt to God due to sin)

(4) Jesus has been anointed to herald the recovery of sight to the blind (those trapped in darkness, cf. 1:78-79)

(5) Jesus has been anointed to set free those who are downtrodden (spiritually broken)

(6) Jesus has been anointed and sent to herald the year of Jubilee in its spiritual sense as Israel was supposed to do through service (Isa. 58:6; cf. Lev. 25)

b) When Jesus had finished reading, he folded up the book, gave it back to the attendant, sat down, and proclaimed to all who were watching him that this scripture had been fulfilled in their hearing 4:19-21

3) The Response of the Hearers: Although many were full of wonder at Jesus’ gracious words, he experienced rejection by the synagogue as a whole in accordance with the nation’s rejection of prophets of old 4:22-30

a) The people responded to Jesus’ words by being both full of wonder and being critical of him because they knew of his heritage 4:22

(1) Positive: All were speaking well of Jesus as they wondered at the gracious words which he spoke 4:22a

(2) Negative: Some were questioning Jesus' words because he was "just" Joseph's son 4:22b

b) Jesus responded to those who were critical of his prophetic word by foretelling of their future, evil demands of him, and affirming that he was being rejected as a true prophet in line with the rejection of the fathers which led to God’s ministry to the Gentiles 4:23-27

(1) Jesus foretold that those who were critical of him would turn his healing ability upon him in the future, and demand that he perform similar miracles as he did in Capernaum 4:23

(2) Jesus solemnly declared to the critics that he was a prophet who was not welcomed in his home town as was the case traditionally in the past 4:24

(3) Jesus then illustrated the rejection of him as a prophet with the nation's rejection of Elijah and Elisha leading to God's direction of ministry unto the Gentiles (cf. Elijah 1 Ki. 17:8-16; Elisha 2 Ki. 5:1-19) 4:25-28

c) In response to Jesus’ words the people demonstrated their rejection of Jesus in accordance with the nation’s rejection of the prophets of old: the synagogue was filled with rage, cast him out of the city and intended to throw him down a cliff 4:29

d) Jesus passed through the midst of the crowd (miracle?) and went his way 4:30

c. An Example of Jesus’ Ministry: Although Jesus demonstrated his authority in Capernaum over spiritual and demonic forms of evil, he insisted that his mission was to proclaim the Kingdom of God to the Jews, which he continued to do in the synagogues in Judea 4:31-44

1) A Demon: When Jesus came from Nazareth to Capernaum, his teaching on the sabbath was demonstrated to be with authority and power as he cast a demon out (bringing about spiritual freedom, cf. 4:18-19) of a man causing the people to wonder and his reputation to spread in the surrounding district 4:31-37

a) Setting: Jesus came down (geographically) from Nazareth to Capernaum of Galilee and was teaching, to the amazement of all, on the Sabbath 4:31-32

b) A man possessed by a demon cried out loudly the identity of Jesus as the Holy One of God (separated to service as Messiah; cf. Judges 13:7; 16:17 with Nu. 6:5,8), and questioned the timing of his exercise of authority over them 4:33-34

c) Jesus responded to the demon by rebuking him to be quiet and to come out of the man, and the demon, though rebellious, obeyed 4:35

d) The people responded with amazement over Jesus’ authority and power over demons and the report about him spread into the surrounding district 4:36-37

2) Sickness: On the remainder of the Sabbath, Jesus demonstrated his authority over physical and spiritual sickness as he healed Simon’s mother-in-law of a high fever, and healed those who were brought to him 4:38-41

a) When Jesus left the synagogue and arrived at Simon’s home, he healed Simon’s mother-in-law of a high fever, whereupon, she immediately arose and served them 4:38-39

(1) Setting: Jesus then left the synagogue and entered Simon's house where Simon's mother-in-law was suffering from a high fever 4:38a

(2) When the people (Simon and the disciples/family) requested that Jesus help Simon's mother-in-law, he did by causing the fever to leave her whereupon, she immediately got up and served them 4:38b-39

b) When the Sabbath evening arrived, the people “legally” brought their sick to Jesus for healing, and he healed them of physical and spiritual ailments, forbidding the demons to continually identify him as Messiah 4:40-41

(1) Setting: At sunset on the same Sabbath day (cf. 4:31) when it was "legal", the people brought their sick to Jesus 4:40a

(2) Jesus personally healed the people of physical ailments, and cast out demons who continually identified him as Messiah 4:40b-41

3) Although the people of Galilee requested of Jesus to stay among them, he explained that he must because his mission was to preach the kingdom of God to other cities as well, therefore, Jesus preached in the synagogues of Judea (the Jews) 4:42-44

a) Setting: On the next day Jesus went to a private (lonely) place but when the multitude found him they tried to keep him from leaving them 4:42

b) Jesus explained to the multitude that he must leave because he was sent to preach the Kingdom of God to other cities as well 4:43

c) Jesus continued preaching in the synagogues of Judea 4:44

2. The Gathering of Disciples: Interspersed among demonstrations of His authority (over creation, over physical and spiritual realms), Jesus gathered together those with an awareness of their need who would follow His radically distinct presentation of the kingdom (from that of the religious leaders) and become His apostles 5:1--6:16

a. The Call of Peter: Through a mighty demonstration to Peter of Jesus’ authority over creation, Jesus called him to not be fearful, but to follow Him as a fisher of men 5:1-11

1) Setting: As Jesus was teaching the multitudes at the Lake of Gennesaret they crowded him so much that he moved into one of the boats of Simon’s from which to teach the people 5:1-4

a) This is a time when Jesus was at the lake of Gennesaret (Sea of Galilee) teaching the word of God to the multitudes 5:1

b) When Jesus saw two boats by the edge of the lake which were empty because the fisherman were out washing their nets, he entered the one which was Simon’s, asked him to move the boat away from land a bit, and then continued teaching the multitudes from the boat 5:2-3

2) After Jesus had finished teaching the multitude from Simon’s boat, he demonstrated his greatness over creation to Simon Peter by causing a great catch of fish, whereupon, he exhorted the fearful Simon to not be fearful, but to follow as a catcher of men 5:4-11

a) When Jesus had finished teaching the multitudes, he told Simon to put out to deeper water and to fish 5:4

b) Simon reluctantly agreed to do as Jesus instructed 5:5

c) When Simon and those with him began to fish, they caught so many fish that they had to receive help from their partners (James and John) in the other boat, and then both boats were about to sink 5:6-7

d) When Simon-Peter saw the great catch, he in honor (fear?) begged Jesus to depart from him because he was a sinful man 5:8

e) Jesus responded to Simon by encouraging him not to fear, but to follow him as one who catches men alive 5:11

b. Miracles of Authority: Jesus demonstrated that he had authority over physical illnesses (a leper and a paralytic) in order to proclaim to the religious leaders that He had authority over the spiritual realm 5:12-26

1) The Leper: Jesus willingly healed a leper exhorting him to testify to those at the temple in accordance with the command of Moses, and the word about Him spread bringing multitudes to hear and be healed, whereupon, he would go to the wilderness to pray 5:12-16

a) Setting: While Jesus was in one of the cities there was a man full of leprosy who seeing Jesus begged Him to heal him if He desired to 5:12

b) Jesus expressed his willingness to heal the man and did so with a touch of his hand 5:13

c) Jesus commanded the man to tell no one before he went to the temple and made an offering as Moses commanded [thereby demonstrating His authority to the religious leaders, cf. Lev. 14:1-7) 5:14

d) But the news about Jesus began to spread and great multitudes were coming to hear him and to be healed by him, and he slipped away to the wilderness to pray 5:15-16

2) The Paralytic: One day when Jesus was teaching before the religious leader from Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem he demonstrated that he had the spiritual authority to forgive sins by physically healing a paralyzed man causing the people to glorify God at what they saw 5:17-26

a) Setting: One day as Jesus was teaching religious leaders (Pharisees, and teachers of the Law) from Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem God’s power was also present for Jesus to preform miracles 5:17

b) Some men lowered a paralyzed man down through the roof before Jesus since they were not able to reach him otherwise because of the crowd 5:18

c) When Jesus saw their faith, he told the man that his sins were forgiven him 5:20

d) The religious leaders began to reason (within themselves) that Jesus was blaspheming since only God could forgive sins 5:21

e) Knowing their reasoning, Jesus physically healed the man so that they would know that he had the spiritual authority to forgive sins 5:22-25

f) The people responded by being beside themselves, glorifying God and noting that they had seen unusual things that day 5:26

c. The Call of Levi: After Jesus declared his authority through the healing of the paralytic, he went out from the people, called Levi to follow him, and then explained to the religious leaders at a reception held by Levi that he had come to help those who realize their need for help with their sin 5:27-32

1) After Jesus’ presentation of authority by healing the paralytic, he went out from the people and noticed a tax gatherer sitting in his office named Levi 5:27a

2) Jesus exhorted Levi to follow him and he left everything behind and followed 5:27-28

3) At a public reception which Levi held in order to identify with Jesus, He explained to the religious leaders who were critical of His association with sinners, that He has come to help those who are sick in that they are aware of their sin 5:29-32

a) Setting: Levi identified with Jesus by giving a public reception for him in his house with tax gatherers and other sinners (α῎λλων, cf. 5:30) 5:29

b) The religious leaders (Pharisees and their scribes) criticized Jesus’ disciples for having fellowship with tax gathers and sinners 5:30

c) Jesus responded to the criticism of the Pharisees by affirming that he has come as a physician in order to help those who recognize that they are sick (sinners) and cannot be cured without God’s help (unlike the Pharisees who considered themselves to be well [righteous]) 5:31-32

d. The Rise of Opposition: Through three controversies Jesus explained that he was bringing about something completely different from the old perception of the kingdom as he initiates the fulfillment of the Scriptural Sabbath rest 5:33--6:11

1) Fasting: When Jesus is questioned about fasting, he explains that he is offering a message concerning the Kingdom (note the feast imagery) which is different and not to be mixed with old understandings, but the leaders will not receive it because they are satisfied with the old system 5:33-39

a) The religious leaders asked Jesus why his disciples do not fast like those of John and of the Pharisees 5:33

b) Jesus answered the religious leaders by affirming that he had brought something different than the old covenant system 5:34-39

(1) Jesus explained to the religious leaders that his disciples do not fast like those of John and the Pharisees because they are in a different time: now that he is with them they do not fast, but they will fast when he is taken away ( ἀπαρθῇ ) 5:34-35

(2) Jesus explained to the religious leaders that what he is bringing (likened to new material, new wine) is different, and cannot be mixed with that which has been before (likened to an old garment, old wineskins) 5:36-38

(3) Jesus explained to the religious leaders through irony that the religious leaders will not taste Jesus' new proclamations because they are not hollowed by age 5:39

2) Sabbath-Grain: In a controversy which arose as some Pharisees accused the disciples of breaking the law because they were picking grain on the Sabbath, Jesus explained that they were not breaking the sabbath, but were expressing its intent under him as the proper lord of the Sabbath by providing for the needs of men as presented in the Scriptures (David) 6:1-5

a) Setting: This event occurred on a Sabbath when he and his disciples were passing through some grainfields and his disciples were picking and eating heads of grain by rubbing them in their hands 6:1

b) Some of the Pharisees asked the disciples why they are breaking the law (nb--this is oral law) on the Sabbath 6:2

c) Jesus answered the religious leaders’ question to his disciples by affirming that He, as the one properly bringing about the rule of the Sabbath, was allowing for the freedom which resided in the Law (e.g., David) to provide for the need of men 6:3-5

(1) Jesus used David as an example of one under the Law who also did not hold to a rigid interpretation of the ritual law as the Pharisees did because David was not condemned for his actions (cf. 1 Sam. 21; Lev. 24:5-9) 6:3-4

(2) Jesus then affirmed that he was Lord of the Sabbath (in the proper sense of bringing about the true rest of the Sabbath) 6:5

3) Sabbath-Healing: On another Sabbath when Jesus was teaching he again did good on the Sabbath by restoring a man’s withered hand to health, but the religious leaders who were seeking to accuse him became enraged and considered what they might do to him (thus doing evil on the Sabbath) 6:6-11

a) Setting: On another Sabbath Jesus entered a synagogue and was teaching where a man was whose right hand was withered 6:6

b) The religious leaders were watching Jesus closely to see if he would heal on the Sabbath so that they would have some reason to accuse him 6:7

c) Knowing what the religious leaders were thinking, Jesus questioned them about the goal of the Sabbath, and then in their silence healed the man with the goal of doing good on the Sabbath 6:8-10

(1) Knowing what the religious leaders were thinking, Jesus invited the man with the withered hand to come forward in the midst of everyone 6:8

(2) Jesus then asked the religious leaders if it was lawful to do good (save life) or to do evil (destroy life) on the Sabbath 6:9

(3) When no one answered Jesus, he did good by healing the man on the sabbath 6:10

d) The religious leaders responded to Jesus’ good work of healing on the Sabbath by discussing what they might do to Jesus (doing evil on the Sabbath) 6:11

e. The Choosing of the Twelve: After the Sabbath controversies and prayer, Jesus named his twelve apostles from among his disciples 6:12-16

1) After the sabbath controversies Jesus went off to the mountain to spend the whole night in prayer to God 6:12

2) In the morning Jesus called his disciples to Himself and chose twelve of them naming them apostles: Simon, Andrew (his brother), James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James (son of Alphaeus), Simon the Zealot, Judas (son of James), and Judas Iscariot (who became a traitor) 6:13-16

B. The Clarifying of Jesus’ Ministry: Jesus clarified his ministry through teaching his disciples that the ethic of his kingdom is to show love to others, by revealing himself to those who recognize their need of him, and finally by calling his disciples to not reject him in his upcoming passion, but to follow his example through suffering-service 6:17--9:50

1. Jesus’ Teaching--The Sermon on the Plain: In the context of just having chosen his apostles, and being surrounded by those who are with great need, Jesus teaches his disciples that the responsibility and consequences of leadership are inseparably connected urging them to unconditionally love others--even those who cannot (will not) love you back 6:17-49

a. The Setting: After Jesus had chosen his twelve apostles, they descended the mountain to find people from all over Palestine who were seeking Jesus in order to hear him and to be healed by him, then Jesus spoke to his disciples 6:17-20a

1) After Jesus chose his apostles, he and the twelve descended to a level place to find a multitude of people from all of Palestine (Judea, Jerusalem, Tyre and Sidon) 6:17

2) The people came to hear Jesus and to be healed by him because they were physically and spiritually ill, and he was healing them 6:18-19

3) Audience: While all of the needy were pressing against Jesus, he turned his eyes on his disciples and spoke to them 6:20a

b. The Message: Christ taught his disciples against using their power (authority and position) to benefit themselves at the expense of others, but rather to love others by examining themselves and by building others up because it is in this way that they will reflect God and be rewarded with life 6:20b-49

1) Positively: Jesus encouraged his disciples that they are enriched when they are poor, hungry, weep or are hated by men because of their commitment to Jesus for they will receive reward and are then standing in line with the way the prophets of old were treated 6:20b-23

2) Negatively: Jesus warned his disciples that their future will be empty if they are rich, well fed, laughing or spoken well of (because of their resistance to God’s desire for the sake of self-satisfaction) for they are then standing in line with the false prophets of old 6:24-26

3) Rather than using power (position and ability) in an immoral way to provide for their own desires, Jesus exhorts his disciples to love others--especially those who cannot (will not) love you back just as God loves them 6:27-38

a) Jesus urges his disciples to love their enemies 6:27-30

(1) The disciples are to do good to those who hate them 6:27

(2) The disciples are to enrich those who curse them 6:28a

(3) The disciples are to pray for those who mistreat them 6:28b

(4) He illustrates loving one's enemies by exhorting the disciples to be gracious when insulted and to be generous when people take from you 6:29-30

b) Jesus urges his disciples to unconditionally love others because in so doing they will receive reward from God, and best reflect him 6:31-35

(1) The disciples are not to love for profit 6:32

(2) The disciples are not to do good for profit 6:33

(3) The disciples are not to use money to help others for profit 6:34

(4) The disciples are to do what they do for the betterment of others without expecting to receive a profit from their actions because God will reward them and they will reflect God through such activity 6:35

c) Jesus urges the disciples to be merciful just as God their Father is merciful in order for them to receive mercy 6:36-37

(1) Statement: The disciples are to be merciful as God their Father is merciful 6:36

(2) By not being judgmental or condemning, the disciples will not be judged or condemned but pardoned 6:37

4) Jesus urges the disciples that it is necessary for them to always improve upon themselves because they will reproduce themselves 6:39-45

a) Using the image of blind men, Jesus teaches that evil ones leading evil ones will destroy them both 6:39

b) Using the analogy of a pupil and a teacher Jesus teaches that the teacher will only produce more of his kind 6:40

c) Christ exhorts the disciples, therefore, to work on themselves before they correct or help another 6:41-42

d) The reason Jesus exhorts the disciples to correct themselves before leading is because of the fruit they will produce 6:43-45

(1) the fruit a tree produces tells what kind of tree it is 6:43-44a

(2) Proof that fruit reveals the tree is seen in the sources that men go to when they want fruit--they correspond to identify the tree or the vine 6:44b

(3) Therefore, a good man produces good fruit from that which is within him, and an evil man produces evil fruit from that which is within him 6:45

5) Jesus questions those who verbally acknowledge him and yet, do not obey him because obedience will bring life while disobedience will bring destruction 4:46-49

a) Jesus questions those who call him Lord, but do not obey him 6:46

b) Jesus compares the one who comes, hears and acts upon his words to a man who does that which is difficult in laying a house’s foundation upon a rock, but by building well survives the storms it faces 6:47-48

c) Jesus compares the one who had heard and not acted accordingly to a man who avoids the necessary hard work in building a foundation, and has his house destroyed by the storms it faces 6:49

2. The First Expressions of Faith: Jesus continually revealed himself to those who expressed their need, rather than to those who were confident in their self-sufficiency 7:1-50

a. Setting: After completing the Sermon of the Plane (Mount), Jesus went to Capernaum 7:1

b. The Centurion’s Servant: In Capernaum Jesus responded to a centurion’s faith by healing his servant from afar as he marveled that his faith was beyond that in Israel 7:2-10

1) Jesus was asked by Jewish elders to come and save a worthy centurion’s servant because the centurion loved Israel 7:2-5

2) When Jesus was not far off, the centurion sent friends to tell him that because of His greatness and authority, He need not come, but simply command healing and his servant would be healed 7:6-8

3) Jesus marveled saying to the multitudes following him that not even in Israel had he found such great faith 7:9

4) The slave was found to be healthy 7:10

c. The Widow of Nain ( Ναῖν ): Going to the obscure town of Nain, Jesus raised and gave back the widow’s only son to her resulting in God being glorified as the people recognized Jesus and spread the word about him 7:11-17

1) Setting: Jesus and his disciples, followed by a multitude, went southward to Nain soon after the healing of the centurion’s servant 7:12

2) As Jesus approached the city of Nain, he was met by a large funeral procession for a widow’s only son 7:12

3) Jesus stopped the funeral procession, ordered the young man to arise, and gave him back to his mother, alive 7:13-15

4) The people responded positively by glorifying God, recognizing Jesus as a great prophet among them12, seeing God as having visited them (cf. 1:68), and spreading this report 7:16-17

d. John the Baptist: After encouraging John and his followers, Jesus indicted the religious leaders of capricious fickleness by rejecting John and Himself warning that time will expose their evil 7:18-35

1) Setting: The disciples of John reported to him (in prison) about all that Jesus was doing 7:18

2) John and Jesus: When John inquired through two of his disciples whether or not Jesus was the coming Messiah, Jesus authenticated himself as the one bringing that which Isaiah spoke of, and urged John not to stumble over him 7:19-23

a) John summoned two of his disciples to ask Jesus if he was the expected one ( ἐρχομαι ) or if they should look for another ( ἀλλος ) 7:19

b) When they inquired of Jesus, he then did many miracles before them and then told them to report to John what they had seen, namely that he was fulfilling that which was spoken by Isaiah (Isa. 61:1; cf. Lk. 4:18-19), and that he should not stumble (over the resistance which he was receiving) 7:20-23

3) Jesus on John: Jesus identified John as the prophet to introduce him--Messiah--and affirmed that those who enter the kingdom by receiving Him will be greater than John (cf. Lk. 16:16) 7:24-28

4) The Response of the People: Although the people and the tax gatherers who were baptized by John honored God because of Jesus’ words, religious leaders (the Pharisees and lawyers) who were not baptized by John rejected God’s purpose 7:29-30

5) Jesus accused the leaders of child-like fickleness by rejecting both Jesus and John affirming that time will expose the truth 7:31-35

e. A Woman’s Forgiveness: Jesus exposed the heart of a Pharisee by contrasting his cold reception of Christ with the thankful one of a woman who knew the extent of her forgiveness 7:36-50

f. A Picture of Faith--the Women: As Jesus traveled and taught about the kingdom of God, some of the women who were ministered unto by Him also ministered to Him and the twelve from their possessions 8:1-3

3. The Call to Faith: Moving from a general to a specific manner, Jesus exhorted his disciples to respond well to his word, then he demonstrated to them that he was Messiah through showing them his authority over creation, and finally urged them to trust in him even though he must suffer, and to follow his example as suffering-servants 8:4--9:50

a. Exhortation: Jesus encouraged his followers to trust in his word because of the positive and negative consequences to their decision 8:4-25

1) Through a parable and then direct instruction, Jesus explained to those who came from all over to follow him that their further response to His word will determine its effectiveness in their lives 8:4-15

a) Jesus challenged the multitudes who came to him to understand their response to him through a parable about planting seeds which focuses upon the many ways which one may reject him, as opposed to a good response 8:4-8

(1) Jesus spoke in a parable to a great multitude who came from various cities 8:4

(2) Jesus explained that there were many reasons for rejecting his word, but that those who received it would be fruitful 8:5-8

b) When the disciples questioned Jesus about the meaning of the parable, he explained that it was a way of selectively revealing truth which in this case was that the response of people to his word will determine its effectiveness in their lives 8:9-15

(1) Jesus' disciples began to question him about the meaning of the parable 8:9

(2) Jesus explained that he spoke in parables in order to present new truth in a way which may be more clearly explained to those who seek it and concealed from those who do not desire to know as they stand in the pattern of Israel's hardness (Isa. 6:9) 8:10

(3) Jesus then explained the parable as picturing the word of God which is presented to people, but only bears good fruit with those who receive it 8:11-15

2) Jesus encouraged his disciples to obey his word because of the consequences of their choices 7:16-25

a) (The Thorns that Choke) Jesus warned his listeners to not conceal (cover up) what they have heard from him because it is meant to be exposed and because they will loose what they have, rather than receiving more 8:16-18

(1) Jesus described how irrational it was for someone to light a candle and then to conceal the light because it was meant to give light to others, and because all that is hidden will one day be revealed 8:16-17

(2) Jesus urged his listeners to take care as to how they listened because those who do receive his word will receive more, but those who do not will lose what they have 8:18

b) Through an incident where Jesus’ natural family (mother and brothers) tried to reach him (to take Him away), Jesus taught that those who are truly a part of his family are those who hear the word of God and do it 8:19-21

b. Christological Revelation: Jesus demonstrated his authority over all of creation (which in chaos debilitates humans) as he calmed the storm, delivered a severely demonized man, healed a woman of internal bleeding, and raised Jairus’ daughter from the dead 8:22-56

1) The Storm (outside): Jesus expressed his authority over nature by calming the sea which caused the disciples to wonder again about who he might be 8:22-25

a) Setting: One day Jesus and his disciples got into a boat and were going to the other side of the lake 8:22

b) As they crossed the lake, Christ fell asleep, and a fierce storm overcame them placing them in danger 8:23

c) Out of fear that they were going to perish the disciples woke up Jesus 8:24a

d) Jesus then stilled the raging storm by rebuking it 8:24b

e) Jesus then confronted the disciples about their lack of faith 8:25a

f) The disciples responded by wondering about who Jesus really was since nature obeyed him 8:25b

2) Demons (outside): Jesus expressed his authority over demonic, spiritual realms by delivering a man from extremely severe demonization which resulted in the people fearfully requesting him to leave, but he did leave a witness in the delivered man 8:26-39

a) Setting: Jesus and his disciples sailed across the Sea of Galilee to the country of the Gerasenes which is the opposite side of the Sea of Galilee 8:26

b) When Jesus stepped onto the land he was met by a man who was abused by demons which he had 8:27

c) When Jesus, out of compassion for the abused man, commanded the unclean spirit to come out of him, the demon identified Jesus as Messiah and begged him not to torture him with judgment (cf. 2 Macc. 7:13) 8:28-29

d) When Jesus learned that there were six thousand demons (legion) in the man, and that they were begging not to be judged (abyss, cf. Rom. 10:7; Rev. 9:1,11; 20:3), he permitted them to enter swine 8:30-32

e) The demons then came out of the man and entered the swine and drowned them 8:33

f) Those who saw and heard of the miraculous deliverance of the demonized man asked Jesus to leave their land because they were afraid 8:34-37a

(1) When the herdsmen saw what had happened, they ran and reported it to everyone in the city and country 8:34

(2) When the people came out to see what had happened, they became frightened as they saw the demonized man in his right mind and under self-control with Jesus 8:35

(3) When the herdsmen reported how Jesus had made the man well to those who had come out, the people were gripped with fear and asked Jesus to leave 8:36-37a

g) Jesus responded to the people’s fearful request by leaving, but also by providing a testimony to them through the delivered man 8:37b-39

(1) Jesus responded to the people's fearful request by leaving 8:37b

(2) Jesus also sent the delivered man back to the town to be a witness to God's (Jesus') work [note--he is not told to be silent because he is in Gentile territory] 8:38-39

3) Disease (inside): When Jesus returned from the Gerasenes and was met by a waiting multitude and a request to help Jairus’ daughter, He demonstrated his authority over disease by healing a sick woman who out of the multitude reached to Jesus in faith 8:40-48

a) As Jesus returned (to the other side of the Sea of Galilee--Capernaum?), the multitudes, who had been waiting for him, welcomed him 8:40

b) A synagogue official named Jairus ( יארfrom אורmeaning “to enlighten) pleaded with Jesus to come to his house and help his twelve year old daughter who was dying 8:41a-42

c) As Jesus was on his way to the house of Jairus, and as the crowds were pressing upon him, a women with an issue of internal bleeding (cf. Lev. 15:25) touched the fringe of his cloak and was immediately healed 8:42b-44

d) When the woman realized that she had not escaped Jesus’ notice, she confessed before all her need, and the healing that had occurred, and Jesus explained that her faith (in him) had healed her 8:45-48a

4) Death (inside): When Jesus went to Jairus’ house, he demonstrated his authority over death by restoring Jairus’ daughter to life, even in the midst of doubt and derision, and ordered the parents to tell no one 8:48b-56

a) While Jesus was encouraging the woman who was healed by touching him, Jairus learned that his daughter was dead, and Jesus then encouraged him to not be fearful, but to believe (in him) and she will be made well 8:48b-50

b) When Jesus entered the little girl’s home with her parents and Peter, John and James, he experienced derision from the mourners whom he ordered to stop mourning because she was not dead--her body was asleep, 8:51-53

c) When Jesus took the girl’s hand and called her to arise, her spirit returned to her body and she resumed normal life 8:54-55

d) Although her parents were amazed, Jesus instructed them to not tell anyone what had occurred 8:56

c. Exhortations to Follow Jesus in Discipleship: Through an extension of his mission to the twelve, and confirmations of himself as Messiah, Jesus continually warned his disciples to receive him in his passion, and thus to follow him as servant-representatives 9:1-50

1) When the apostles returned from their divinely commanded mission into the villages of Israel, which even raised Herod’s curiosity, they reported to Jesus and withdrew with him to Bethsaida 9:1-10

a) When the disciples received power, authority, and instruction from Jesus to go out and preach, they did went on their mission 9:1-6

(1) When Jesus gave the twelve power and authority over demons and illness (that which he has just demonstrated--see above), he sent them out to proclaim ( κηρύσσειν ) the kingdom and to perform healings 9:1-2

(2) Jesus instructed the twelve to enter into their mission dependent upon God's working through those who receive them (no provisions), and to testify against those who do not accept them 9:3-5

(3) The twelve left and did as Jesus instructed them--preaching and healing 8:6

b) The disciples actions were so effective that Herod heard all kinds of reports and wanted to see Jesus himself 9:7-9

(1) Herod the tetrarch (Antipas) heard of the ministry activity of the twelve 8:7a

(2) Herod was perplexed (cf. Lk. 24:4) about the various reports about the identity of Jesus (John, Elijah, a risen prophet) and was trying to see Jesus himself 9:8-9

c) When Jesus heard of all the twelve had done, he withdrew with them to Bethsaida 9:10

(1) When the apostles returned they gave an account ( διηγήσαντο--to tell narrative stories) of all that they had done 8:10a

(2) Jesus then withdrew with the twelve to a Bethsaida (north on the sea of Galilee) 8:10b

2) After Jesus confirmed his authority to provide for the multitudes through the disciples, he exhorted them, as they grew in their understanding of who he was, to follow him even though it may cost them (due to his passion), because they would regret not doing so when he returns in his glory 10:11-27

a) Feeding the 5,000: Jesus welcomed the multitudes who followed him to Bethsaida by preaching and healing them, and refused to send them away, but provided for them through the twelve 9:11-17

(1) Jesus welcomed the multitude who came to him, proclaimed the kingdom of God, and healed those with need 9:11

(2) Towards the end of the day the twelve asked Jesus to send the multitude away so that they might find food and lodging 9:12

(3) Jesus responded by refusing to send them away, but telling the twelve to feed them 9:13a

(4) The twelve objected to Jesus' advice because of the amount of people (5,000) and their inadequate provisions 9:13b-14a

(5) However, Jesus demonstrated his ability to enable the twelve in ministry by feeding the multitude through the twelve with an excess (12 baskets--one for each tribe) left over 9:14b-17

b) When Jesus heard the disciples clear perception of who he was, he encouraged them to follow him, even though it may cost them (because of his passion), because otherwise, they will regret it when he comes in his glory, which some of them would see before they died 9:18-27

(1) When Jesus was alone with his disciples, he questioned them about the multitude's perception of who he was 9:18

(2) The twelve reported to Jesus that the multitude considered him to be one of several people: John the Baptist, Elijah, or one of the prophets raised to life (just as Herod had been told, cf. 9:7-8) 9:19

(3) Jesus then asked the twelve who they thought that he was 9:20a

(4) Peter then responded (for the twelve) by identifying Jesus as the anointed King of God--Messiah ( τὸν χριστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ) 9:20b

(5) After Jesus warned the twelve to tell no one of their understanding because of the up coming passion (must suffer), he exhorted them to follow him even it if cost them because otherwise they would regret it when he returns in his glory 9:21-26

(6) Jesus then foretold that some of the twelve would not die before they saw the kingdom of God 9:27

3) After strongly confirming his identity as Messiah on the mount to some of his disciples, Jesus reminded them of his passion and exhorted them to follow his example as servants sent by God 9:28-50

a) On a mountain with Peter, John, and James, Jesus was confirmed in a visual and audible way to be God’s Messiah 9:28-36

(1) Eight days after Peter's confession and Jesus' promise, Jesus took Peter, John, and James up a mountain to pray 9:28

(2) While Jesus was praying he began to glow (cf. Lk. 24:4), and spoke with Moses and Elijah (the Law and the Prophets) about his passion ( ε῎ξοδον ) 9:29-31

(3) When the three disciples awoke (from their praying?) they saw it all and recognized it as the coming of the kingdom (thus Peter wishes to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles--but in the wrong order [before the Day of Atonement]13) 9:32-33

(4) God the Father then spoke and identified Jesus as Messiah (Ps. 2; 110), and the prophet like Moses (Deut. 18) 9:35

(5) When all was over and Jesus was seen alone, the three apostles did not tell anyone (until after the resurrection) 9:36

b) Once again when Jesus showed his greatness by casting out a demon, he reminded the twelve of his upcoming passion, and taught them that greatness was in being someone whom God sent as a servant (like a child), and not being of a select group 9:37-50

(1) When Jesus came down from the mountain with the three apostles on the next day, a man begged him to heal his demonized son whom the remaining apostles could not heal 9:37-40

(2) Then (in a way similar to Moses who returned from the mountain) Jesus rebuked the people (including his apostles) for their unbelief, and delivered the demonized boy to the amazement of all 9:41-43a

(3) While everyone was marveling at the greatness of what Jesus had just done, Jesus reminded his disciples of his upcoming passion, but they did not understand (how this fit with him as Messiah) 9:43b-45

(4) When the disciples were arguing about who among them was the greatest, Jesus taught them that greatness was in being someone whom God sent as a servant (like a child), and not being of a select group 9:46-50

V. THE REJECTION OF THE SON OF MAN AND DISCIPLESHIP (JERUSALEM JOURNEY): As Jesus moved toward Jerusalem, he was continually rejected by the religious leaders as Messiah, he exposed the evil of people by emphasizing God’s requirement of loyal love, and he prepared his disciples for service by instructing them in God’s requirements of faithful love, warning them of his upcoming suffering, and proclaiming the upcoming judgment upon the nation 9:51--19:44

A. Rejection of (and by) the Son of Man (and discipleship): As Jesus continually experienced rejection by the leaders of the nation of Israel he taught his disciples about how to serve and urged the multitudes to repent because of the severe judgment which would befall them as they were not part of God’s forming kingdom 9:51--13:35

1. Rejection Leads to Clarification About the Way: When Jesus was rejected on his way to Jerusalem in Samaria, he explained to those who were wishing to follow him the necessity of high commitment because of the danger involved, and then demonstrated to those who did follow the reason as to why he was worthy of such high commitment because they received delegated Messianic authority over Satan 9:51--10:24

a. Rejection at Samaria Leading to Instruction: When Jesus was rejected in Samaria on his way toward Jerusalem, he explained to his disciples that now was not the time for judgment upon those who rejected him, and thus, that following him would be dangerous requiring a high level of commitment 9:51-62

1) As Jesus moved toward providing salvation for men, he was rejected in Samaria, and thus explained to his angry followers that now he desired to save men rather than judge them 9:51-56

a) Setting: as the time came for Jesus to return to the Father, he began to move with purpose toward Jerusalem14 9:51

b) Jesus sent messengers ahead of him to make arrangements for him 9:52

c) Jesus was not received in Samaria because he was gong to Jerusalem (cf. John 4) 9:53

d) Although James and John were so enraged at Samaria’s rejection of Jesus that they wanted the city to be judged (cf. 1 Ki. 18:20ff; 2 Ki. 1:1-15), Jesus rebuked them because he had come at this time to save their lives 9:54-56a

2) Instruction: In view of his rejection in Samaria, Jesus warned those who were choosing to follow him that it was dangerous requiring a high level of commitment 9:56b-62

a) As Jesus was journeying to another village on his way from Samaria, he warned one who boasted of following him anywhere, of the danger involved since unlike animals, there is no place of safety for him 9:57-58

b) When Jesus called another man to follow him and the man requested that he be allowed to bury his dead, Jesus refused and urged the man to proclaim the kingdom of God 9:59-60

c) When another man said that he would follow Jesus after he said goodbye to his family at home (like Eisha, cf. 1 Ki. 19:19-20), Jesus said he was not useful ( ευ῎θετός ) for the kingdom if he returned back (since this is not the time to do what the OT prophets did) 9:61-62

b. The Sending of the Seventy-Two: Jesus demonstrated to those who followed him that he was worthy of their high commitment because he was bringing about through them OT hopes of delegated spiritual authority over Satan 10:1-24

1) After appointing seventy-two to precede him on the way to Jerusalem, Jesus prepared them by describing needs, dangers, God’s provision, and the effect on those who reject them as His witness 1:1-16

a) After presenting the cost of following him, Jesus appointed seventy-two followers, in addition to the twelve, and sent them two by two ahead of him to every place where he was going to come 10:1

b) Preparing his disciples for ministry, Jesus exhorted them to pray for help, warned them of danger, exhorted them to trust God for their provisions, and spoke of the severe rejection they would experience by people, but which was ultimately of him 10:2-16

(1) Jesus exhorted the seventy-two to pray for more laborers to work with them in the rich harvest of lives 10:2

(2) Jesus exhorted the seventy-two to go with the shocking reality that by doing so their lives would be endangered 10:3

(3) Jesus exhorted the seventy-two to not provide for their own needs, but to receive those provisions from those who received them while testifying against those who reject them 10:4-11

(4) Jesus warned the seventy-two that a more severe judgment would come upon the cities (Choraizim, Bethsaida, Capernaum) who, knowing better, reject them, than upon the immoral city of Sodom, or the present Gentile cities of Tyre and Sidon 10:12-15

(5) Jesus explained that the seventy-two represented him, and he represented the Father, therefore, peoples' response to them is also their response to Christ and the Father (cf. 9:46-48) 10:16

2) The seventy-two responded with joy over the ministry of the Holy Spirit among them as God’s authority was expressed over demons in fulfillment of OT hopes 10:17-24

a) The seventy-two returned to Jesus with joy as they reported to him their authority over demons in his name 10:17

b) Jesus agreed with their joy describing Satan as falling under their delegated authority over evil15 10:18-19

c) Jesus clarified the issues for his followers by affirming that their joy should not be in their strength16 but in their place with God 10:20

d) Jesus rejoiced in God’s self-revelation through him to the young and dependent rather than to the wise and intelligent 10:21-22

e) Jesus told the disciples that they were enriched because they have seen and heard what OT prophets and kings longed for 10:23-24

2. Discipleship as a Devotion of Love: Jesus urged his disciples to love by being devoted to those who have needs that they can help, by being devoted to learning God’s work, and by being devoted to express desires to a willing God through prayer 10:25--11:13

a. Devotion to One’s Neighbor--The Good Samaritan: Through a conversation with a lawyer who wished to justify himself under God’s law in order to obtain eternal life, Jesus explained the necessity to love all men--even one’s enemies 10:25-37

1) When Jesus was questioned by a religious lawyer about God’s requirement for eternal life, he confirmed the lawyer’s understanding that the Scriptures demand complete commitment to God and to men, and He encouraged him to do it 10:25-28

a) Jesus was questioned in a testing way by a religious lawyer about what is necessary to inherit eternal life 10:25

b) Jesus responded by asking the lawyer what he understood the Law to say regarding that question 10:26

c) The man correctly described God’s requirement for eternal life as unreserved commitment to God and the need of all men 10:27

d) Jesus affirmed the man’s identification of God’s requirements, and exhorted him to do it and live 10:28

2) When the lawyer wished to justify himself by asking Jesus who his neighbor really was, Jesus identified a neighbor as any one who has a need which you are able to assist, whereupon the lawyer agreed and was urged to be a good neighbor 10:29-37

a) The lawyer wished to justify himself in view of God’s high, moral standard for eternal life, so he asked Jesus who his neighbor really was 9:29

b) Jesus identified one’s neighbor for the lawyer as anyone who is in need, whose need I am able to help through a story about a man who was robbed and beaten, was ignored by two (Jewish) religious leaders, but helped by an enemy (a Samaritan) who felt compassion for him 10:30-35

c) Jesus asked the lawyer which of the three characters in his story was a neighbor to the man hurt by the robbers 10:36

d) The lawyer identified the one who showed mercy as the neighbor 9:37a

e) Jesus exhorted the lawyer to likewise show mercy to all who have need that he is able to help 9:37b

b. Devotion to Jesus--Mary & Martha: Although Martha was devoted to Jesus by doing many things for him and those with him, Mary chose the better measure of devotion by hearing his instruction 10:38-42

1) Setting: As Jesus was traveling in his ministry to the people, he entered a certain village of a woman, named Martha, who welcomed him into her house 10:38

2) While Martha was distracted with all of her preparations, her sister Mary was listening to the Lord speak 10:39-40a

3) Martha complained to Jesus about Mary’s leaving her to do all the serving alone, and entreated him to tell Mary to help 10:40b

4) Jesus corrected Martha about her obsession with “things to do” because listening to him was the better (best) choice 10:41

c. Devotion to God--Prayer: Jesus taught his questioning disciples to pray to Him in a way which displays their dependence upon His goodness for physical and spiritual needs because His is extremely willing to answer them 11:1-13

1) After Jesus had finished praying, his disciples asked him to teach them to pray just as John the Baptist had taught his disciples to pray 11:1

2) Jesus taught his disciples to pray without shame for their physical and spiritual needs because the Father was very willing to answer their prayers 11:2-13

a) Jesus exhorted the disciples to ask, as unto a good Father, that His holy character be known as he comes and establishes his rule (in judgment?) 11:2

b) Jesus exhorted his disciples to ask God for their own physical (food) and spiritual needs (forgiveness) 11:3-4

c) Physical Developed: Jesus emphasized that God was more willing to answer their prayer requests for physical needs than a reluctant friend 11:5-10

d) Spiritual Developed: Jesus emphasized that God was like a good father in that he was willing to give them the Holy Spirit if they asked 11:11

3. Controversy-Warning-Rebuke: When the religious leaders attributed Jesus’ healing of a demoniac to the power of Satan, he exposed the error of their thinking, warned them of the dire consequences of closing their eyes to repentance, and later at a meal with a Pharisee and lawyer exposed the leaders for their self-centered religiosity which missed God and hurt others 11:14-54

a. Controversy Over Healing: When Jesus healed a man of demonic oppression, and witnessed the doubting responses, He explained that their attributions of his work to Satan were illogical, and thus they should understand his work to be by the power of God 11:14-23

1) Jesus enabled a man who was mute to speak by casting out a demon of dumbness 11:14a

2) The response to the miracle was varied from marveling to suspicion, and a need for further confirmation 11:14-16

a) The multitudes responded by marveling 11:14b

b) Some accused Jesus of using demonic power to do the miracle 11:15

Note, Beelzebul (lord of the dung heap/or flies) is a play off of the Hebrew Beelsebub meaning “lord of lofty abode (cf. 2 Ki. 1:2,6). Therefore, Jesus is accused of doing this miracle by the pagan god בעל of inhabitation

c) Some were demanding a sign from heaven in order to authenticate (test) Jesus 11:16

3) Jesus answered their objections logically by affirming that it is illogical to identify his work with the work of Satan since he is overpowering and plundering Satan, therefore, he must be acting by the power of God 11:17-22

a) Jesus argued against the possibility of his performing the works of Satan by the principle that a divided house falls even if it is Satan’s as the leaders’ own children would testify 11:17-19

b) Jesus argued that the only other possible explanation for this miracle was that he was casting out demons by the power (finger) of God, whereupon the kingdom of God has suddenly come upon them17 because the strongman (Eph. 4) is being overpowered and plundered 11:20-22

b. Warnings About Response: Jesus warned those listening (the leaders) about the greater calamity which would occur if they did not receive him, affirming that obedience to his word was how to be in relationship with him, and thus exhorting them to not blind themselves, but to repent of their great evil 11:23-36

1) Jesus warned that the nation (represented by its rejecting leaders, note--”this generation” in Matt. 12:45) was in danger of being further demonized if they did not receive him 11:23-26

2) Jesus corrected a woman who focused on the greatness of being related to Jesus by emphasizing that enrichment would come from obeying his word 11:27-28

3) As more gathered around, Jesus accused his generation of wickedness which surpassed the Gentile nations of old because of their insensitivity to their superior revelation, and exhorted them to be open to his word 11:29-36

a) As more began to gather around Jesus, he accused his generation of being a wicked one 11:29a

b) Jesus identified his generation with the wicked Gentiles of Ninevah affirming that they would receive a sign for repentance through Jesus just as the Ninevites did through Jonah18 11:29b-30

c) Jesus called his generation wicked because they were not as sensitive as pagan Gentiles were when they had lesser revelations through Solomon and Jonah 11:31--32

d) Jesus exhorted those listening to his rebuke (the leaders) to not close their eyes so that they might see the light which he was giving to them (about who he is) 11:33-36

c. Rebuke of Pharisees and Scribes: When Jesus dined with a Pharisee and a lawyer, he exposed (through six woes) their religiosity as personal gain which misses God and hurts others only to have them respond in even greater determination against Him 11:37-54

1) While dining at a Pharisee’s home, Jesus exposed the Pharisee’s wrong thinking as only caring about external praise to the neglect of attitudes of the heart 11:37-44

a) After Jesus accused his generation of wickedness, he was invited by a Pharisee for dinner 11:37a

b) The Pharisee was surprised that Jesus sat down to eat in his house without performing ceremonial washings 11:37b-38

c) Jesus corrected the Pharisees’ wrong thinking by exposing them as externalists who only care about appearances rather than attitudes of the heart 11:39-44

(1) Jesus corrected the Pharisee's external thinking by declaring his need for a clean heart which will make all else clean 11:39-41

(2) Jesus specifically exposed the inner wickedness of the Pharisees who guard the externals while ignoring attitudes of love and justice, who seek public praise and who trap unsuspecting people 11:42-44

2) When a lawyer objected to Jesus’ harsh words as an insult, Jesus also exposed the evil of lawyers who in all of their “religion” hurt others, are against God, and mislead people 11:45-52

a) A lawyer defensively accused Jesus of insulting them as well as the Pharisees with His harsh words 11:45

b) Jesus responded by recounting the evilness of lawyers who also do not help, but weigh others down, who are hurtful to God’s servants as the evil leaders of old, and who lead people astray with them from any knowledge of God 11:46-52

3) When Jesus left the dinner, those present only became more determined against him 11:53-54

4. Discipleship--Trusting in God: In view of the rejection by the religious leaders, Jesus exhorted his disciples to avoid the self-preserving sins of hypocrisy and greed, and to be faithful servants whom God can reward when he returns 12:1-48

a. Avoid Hypocrisy: In view of the rejection of the leaders and the coming of the multitudes Jesus warned his disciples against hypocrisy because God: will reveal private inconsistencies, will provide for your life, will hold everyone accountable for their words, and will enable them to speak the right words under pressure 12:1-12

1) Setting: While the religious leaders were hostile toward Jesus’ direct confrontation (11:54), thousands of people were seeking him out 12:1a

2) Jesus warned his disciples to guard themselves from becoming hypocrites like the Pharisees 12:1b

3) The reason Jesus warned against hypocrisy was because those private inconsistencies will not be private but will be revealed to all 12:2-3

a) Jesus warned that hidden things will be brought into the open 12:2

b) Jesus warned that private conversations will be exposed 12:3

4) Another reason Jesus exhorted the disciples against hypocrisy was because in God’s greatness, He will provide for their needs in life as one who cares for them 12:4-7

a) Jesus explained that men who persecute them can only do limited damage to them 12:4

b) Jesus then explained that God can effect men eternally 12:5

c) Jesus finally assured the disciples that God, who has such great power, cared for their lives 12:6-7

5) Another reason Jesus exhorted his disciples against hypocrisy was because everyone will be held accountable before God and his angels for their words 12:8-10

a) Jesus explained that those who stand for Him will be honored 12:8

b) Jesus explained that those who are hypocrites will be dishonored 12:9

c) Jesus explained that those who dishonor Christ will be forgiven 12:10a

d) Jesus explained that those (like the religious leaders) who completely reject him, even in light of the Spirit’s working through him, will not be forgiven 12:10b

6) Another reason Jesus warns the disciples against hypocrisy was because He will enable them to respond to those who would attack them by supernaturally enabling them to speak 12:11-12

b. Avoid Greed: Ignited by a question on possessions, Jesus exhorted his disciples to not be greedy because of the deception connected with it, but to invest in people for God’s sake knowing that He will provide for them and that their hearts will be drawn toward people 12:13-34

1) Jesus refused to judge a secular will in which one brother was upset over not having the will shared with him 12:13-14

2) Jesus took the question about material possessions as an opportunity to caution against being overtaken by greed 12:15a

3) The reason Jesus warned about greed was because it can be a substitution for truly dealing with one’s worth and with God 12:15b-21

a) Jesus taught that one’s worth is not in one’s many things 12:15b

b) Jesus illustrated his point about greed through the rich man who used his prosperity from God to spend upon himself rather than investing in people because of his relationship with God 12:16-21

4) Jesus exhorted the disciples to pursue God’s rule over things because He will provide for them as One who cares for them 12:22-31

a) Jesus exhorted the disciples not to worry about basic necessities for life since life is more than food and clothing 12:22-23

b) Jesus used birds as an example of those for whom God provides food to emphasize how much He will provide for the disciples who are of much more value 12:24

c) Jesus explained that being anxious was futile since it could not add to life 12:25-26

d) Jesus used lilies as an example of clothes for fields which God provides to emphasize how much He will provide for the disciples who are of much more value 12:27-28

e) Jesus exhorted the disciples to not be obsessed with things as the godless are because the disciples have a caring Father for God, and thus, they should seek his rule and trust Him to provide for them 12:29-31

5) In contrast to being greedy, Jesus exhorted his disciples to fearlessly invest in the lives of people since the Father wants to give them the kingdom, and since their heart will be moved toward where their money is invested 12:32-34

c. Call To Be Ready and Faithful: Jesus ordered his disciples to be ready for the Lord’s coming because they do not know when he will come, and he will hold them accountable when he does return honoring those who are faithful 12:35-48

1) Jesus exhorted his disciples to be alert and watching for Messiah who will bless those who are ready because one does not know when he will come 12:35-40

a) Jesus urged his disciples to be awake, alert, and ready for the Lord who could come at any time just as one would be for a master returning from a wedding feast 12:35-36

b) The reason Jesus urged the disciples to be ready was because those who are will be personally enriched by the Master who will serve them when he comes 12:37-38

c) Jesus exhorted the disciples to not be found off guard by the imminent coming of Messiah which may be when they least expect Him 12:39-40

2) When Peter asked Jesus about whom the master-servant parable applied to, He related it to leaders because the Master will hold leaders over his servants accountable when he returns 12:41-48

a) Peter asked Jesus if he was directing his “exhortation to readiness” to everyone or to the disciples 12:41

b) Jesus applied his exhortation to the disciples when he affirmed that a person’s master will enrich a steward whom he placed in charge of caring for the master’s servants by putting him in charge of all of his possessions 12:42-44

c) Jesus warned that the servant who takes advantage of the master’s slaves and over indulges in the master’s possessions will be overtaken, severely judged, and placed with those who are unbelievers 12:45-46

d) Jesus further explains that the discipline will be proportionate to what the servant understood 12:47-48

(1) Jesus explained that the servant who knew better, but did not obey will experience severe consequences 12:47

(2) Jesus explained that the servant who did not know better, but did wrong will not experience as severe of consequences 12:48a

(3) Jesus explained that each person will be held accountable in proportion to what he has 12:48b

5. Exhortations in View of Rejection: Jesus continually exhorted the people of Israel to choose to follow him in spite of the difficulties which their commitment would bring because the opportunity was not forever and the consequences for rejection were severe leading to personal judgment and a different character for the kingdom than they expected 12:49--13:35

a. Choose in Spite of Division: Realizing the pressure which would come because of the divisions which he would cause, Jesus exhorted the multitudes to judge rightly concerning him because they will pay for their evil otherwise 12:49-59

1) Even though Jesus came to purify the earth from evil with judgment, he acknowledged his difficult task of taking upon him men’s sins 12:49-50

2) Jesus denied that he came to give an evil world peace, but that he came to bring about choices of good which will cause unrest and division in life 12:51-53

3) Jesus accused the multitudes of being selective in their perception of truth as they recognize physical phenomena, but do not analyze the time 12:54-56

4) Jesus exhorted the multitudes to take the initiative to judge what is right because continued passivity and denial will lead to a long penalty of paying for their evil 12:57-59

b. Choose During This Time: Jesus exhorted the people to not deny their need, and thus, to turn to him during this time of grace because this opportunity will not be available forever 13:1-9

1) When the people made attempts to justify themselves by pointing to others19 who had recently died as a supposed judgment from God, Jesus corrected them by identifying their common guilt, and exhorting them to repent lest they too faced judgment 13:1-5

2) Through a parable about a fig tree Jesus taught the people (Israel) that this was an extended time of grace for them to respond to him, or else they will be destroyed20 13:6-9

c. The Kingdom in Light of Rejection: As Jesus continually faced rejection by the leaders of the nation of Israel, he explained that the kingdom would have a surprising character in that it would grow in its impact and would be have different inhabitants than might be expected, then Jesus mourned over the consequences of Israel’s rejection of him 13:10-35

1) When Jesus was resisted for healing a demonized daughter of Abraham on the sabbath, he exposed the religious leaders’ inconsistent use of the word of God to keep the covenant people bound by Satan, and proclaimed that the kingdom of God would begin small, but continually grow in strength and effect 13:10-21

a) Setting: While Jesus was teaching in one of the synagogues, a woman was present with a demonic affliction which had affected her posture for eighteen years 13:10-11

b) Jesus immediately freed the woman from her affliction and she glorified God 13:12-13

c) The synagogue official verbally attacked the multitude telling them that they should come on a day other than the sabbath to be healed 13:14-15

d) Jesus corrected the official’s complaints by accusing the religious leaders of inconsistency with God’s word when they treat an animal better than one of God’s people (daughter of Abraham) 13:16-17

e) When the opponents of Jesus were humiliated and the multitude rejoiced over what Jesus had done, he described the kingdom of God as that which will begin in a small way (seed, leven), but will continually grow in strength (tree) and effect (permeates) 13:18-21

2) Who Will Be Saved: As Jesus passed from town to town preaching on his way to Jerusalem he answered those who wondered about who were going to be saved by exhorting them to enter in to salvation now, and by predicting that there were going to be big surprises about who would be in the kingdom (Gentiles) and who would not (Jews) 13:22-30

a) As Jesus passed from one place to another preaching on his way to Jerusalem, he was asked if many were being saved 13:22-23

b) Jesus answered the question about salvation by exhorting all to enter through Him recognizing that there will be some big surprises about who will be saved (Gentiles) and the loss of some (Jews) 13:22-30

3) Lament Over Jerusalem: When Jesus was side-tracked by the religious leaders whom he was trying to reach, Jesus affirmed his destiny, and mourned for the nation who continues to reject him and will thus suffer for it 13:31-35

a) While Jesus was talking about who would be saved, he was interrupted by Pharisees who exhorted him to leave since Herod desired to kill him 13:31

b) Jesus responded by telling the Pharisees to inform Herod that he cannot be harmed until the appointed time in Jerusalem, and therefore, will continue to work the works of God 10:32-33

c) Jesus then turned his attention back to Israel as he mourned their continual rejection of him which will lead to their own physical desolation as well as their own future, painful recognition of who he is (Ps. 118:26) 10:34-35

B. Discipleship by the Son of Man (and rejection): As Jesus is continually challenged and rejected, he instructs the multitudes, and especially his disciples about the necessity of heart attitudes of loyal love which God looks for, and then finally proclaims the nation’s upcoming destruction for their rejection of Him 14:1--19:44

1. The Attitude of the Heart: Jesus chided the religious leaders and those present with him at the meal in the home of a Pharisee because they had an attitude of personal superiority which excluded “outsiders” (the poor and needy) thereby rejecting the God they claimed to serve, and thus risking to finding themselves excluded from God’s kingdom, and the outsiders included 14:1-24

a. Sabbath Healing: While Jesus was at a meal under the scrutiny of the religious leaders, he healed a man on the sabbath, and then rebuked the leaders of partisan religion because they would say that God approved of their helping their own on the sabbath, but not of Jesus healing a stranger on the sabbath 14:1-6

1) Setting: Jesus was eating in the house of a Pharisee on the sabbath and they were laying in wait for him 14:1

2) When Jesus saw a man who was suffering from dropsy (edema), he asked the leaders present if it was lawful to heal on the sabbath, but received no answer 14:2-3a

3) In view of the silence from the leaders Jesus healed the man, and rebuked the leaders for being hurtfully inconsistent because they use the law to help their own precious people or animals, but not a stranger 14:4b-6

b. Lessons on Humility, Hospitality and Responsiveness: Jesus instructed those present at the dinner to correct their arrogant attitudes, love those with need who cannot love them back, and to respond to God’s invitation because otherwise they will experience surprising loss in the future kingdom 14:7-14

1) Humble One’s Self: Jesus exhorted the guests at the table to not exalt themselves by seeking the seats of honor because this might lead to dishonor, but to humble themselves so that they might be exalted by God 14:7-11

a) Setting: Jesus then turned his attention to the guests who had picked out the places of honor at the table and instructed them 14:7

b) Jesus exhorted the guests to not exalt themselves by taking seats of honor because the seat may be reserved for another, and they may be disgraced when they must go to the last seat 14:8-9

c) Jesus exhorted the guests to seek the last seat so that the host may extrude them to a position of more honor 15:10

d) The reason Jesus gave this advice was because self-exalting will be humbled while humbling shall be exalted (by God) 14:11

2) Hospitality: Jesus exhorted the religious leader who had invited him to diner to provide hospitality for those with need who cannot repay rather than for those who will return the kindness because God will see and reward his outreach at the resurrection of the righteous 14:12-14

a) Jesus turned his attention to the one who had invited him to dine 14:12a

b) Jesus exhorted his host not to only share his food with those who can repay him, but with the needy who cannot return the favor 14:12b-14a

c) The reason Jesus exhorted the host to care for the needy is because God will she his caring and repay him in the kingdom 14:14b

3) Responsiveness: Even though one spoke well about being a part of the kingdom feast, Jesus explained that many who are considered outcasts will be enjoying the kingdom while those with invitations will not be in the kingdom because they would not come 14:15-24

a) Setting: Someone at the table jumped in on Jesus’ word about the resurrection and pronounced an inclusive blessing upon all who would be enjoying the kingdom of God 14:15

b)Jesus then explained that those expected to be in the kingdom feast will not be there because they have refused the finale invitation in order to enjoy their own things--land, work, animals, and family relationships 14:16-20

c) Jesus explained that those who were not expected will actually be the ones who will fill the banquet hall of the kingdom--the socially unaccepted, and the Gentiles 14:21-22

d) Jesus explained that those who were unwilling to partake in the banquet (kingdom) will not be present 14:24

2. Discipleship in the Face of Rejection: Jesus exhorted the great crowds following him to commit themselves to him over all other commitments lest they later default and cause humiliation and loss for Jesus 14:25-35

a. Setting: Large crowds were traveling with Jesus as he continued to make his way to Jerusalem (to die, cf. 9:51) 14:25a

b. When Jesus turned to the large crowds, he challenged them to choose him at the expense of every other commitment to truly be his disciples 14:25b-27

1) Jesus exhorted the crowds to commit to him over their commitments to parents, personal family, siblings, or one’s own life to be a true follower of him21 14:26

2) Jesus taught the crowds that they must be willing to suffer persecution because of him in order to be his disciples 14:27

c. The reason Jesus required such consideration of commitment in order to be a follower of him was because by starting and then backing out they would bring about great criticism and personal loss 14:28-33

1) Jesus explained that one who did not continue to follow him under pressure would be like one who began to build a tower and could not complete it in that outsiders who watched would criticize them for their incomplete efforts 14:28-30

2) Jesus explained that one who did not continue to follow him under pressure would be like a king who is about to go to war, but with only half of the army he needed to win in that there will be great loss and forfeit to the enemy if he must back out of the battle 14:31-32

d. Through the analogy of salt which loses its saltiness, and thus its usefulness, Jesus warned the crowd against losing their commitment to him and thus becoming useless for him 14:34-35

3. The Pursuit of Sinners: Jesus corrected the religious leaders’ attacking accusations that he was indiscriminate to sin by pictorially revealing God’s heart as One which pursues the lost and rejoices when they return to Him 15:1-32

a. Setting: When Jesus was surrounded by tax collectors and sinners, the religious leaders (Pharisees and teachers of the Law) accused Jesus of ignoring sin because he associated with sinners 15:1-2

b. Jesus corrected the religious leaders’ accusations by picturing God as one who also seeks sinners and who, unlike them in their jealousy, rejoices when sinners return to Him 15:3-31

1) The Lost Sheep: Jesus pictured heaven as a place where there is more rejoicing over a lost one who is found (repents) than over the majority who do not need to repent (the ninety-nine) 15:3-7

2) The Lost Coin: Through the image of a woman who searches and rejoices over a lost coin Jesus pictures angles as those who searches and rejoice over a lost person who repents 15:8-10

3) The Lost Son: Through the image of a rebellious son who returns Jesus pictures God to not be like the son/brother who is jealous over the repentance of the lost, but like the Father who rejoices over the repentance of his lost son, and who encourages his jealous brother to accept the son in his repentance 15:11-32

4. Generosity: Through parables and direct instruction Jesus taught his disciples to invest money in people for the Lord’s sake because He knows the heart beyond one’s external appearances and will hold them accountable for their internal attitudes 16:1-31

a. The Crafty Steward: Through the parable of the crafty steward who used his money to gain a place in people’s hearts when he was in need, Jesus exhorted the disciples to choose to not serve money, but to serve him by investing money in people because this will lead to significant consequences when they enter eternity 16:1-13

1) Jesus told his disciples an account about a steward who was caught for squandering his master’s money and then shrewdly used his profits (he only reduced a portion of the bill for each in verses 6-7) to help others so that when he was in need he too might be helped 16:1-8a

2) From the parable Jesus exhorted his disciples to be wise in their use of money by investing in people for eternity because there will be significant results: the people will gratefully receive them into eternity, and what they do today will affect what God entrusts them with in the future 16:8b-12

3) Jesus urged the disciples to select their master whom they would serve because they were not able to live for both money and for God with an undivided loyalty 16:13

b. The Pharisees’ Scoffing: When the Pharisees greedily scoffed at Jesus, He accused them of having an evil heart even though appeared to be upright before men, and sighted their rejection of him and the Law as specific examples 16:14-18

1) The Pharisees, who were lovers of money, scoffed at Jesus 16:14

2) Jesus accused the Pharisees of appearing to be upright before men, but of having hearts which are far from God who sees and detests their hearts 16:15

3) Jesus specifically exposed the Pharisees of insensitivity to God in their rejection of him, and in their refusal to adhere to God’s Law 16:16-18

a) Jesus affirmed that rather than receiving Messiah as King of the kingdom, many (like the Pharisees) were attempting to violently force22 their way into the kingdom through their external obedience to the Law 16:16

b) Jesus affirmed that the kingdom cannot be entered by men, like the Pharisees, because to enter on one’s own requires that one fulfill all of the Law, and the Pharisees were circumventing it for their personal desires--a case in point: divorce 16:17-18

c. Lazarus and the Rich Man: Through the account about the rich man and Lazarus, Jesus demonstrated the external insensitivity of the rich who know the law and that God is aware of heart attitudes and will hold people accountable for them 16:19-31

5. Forgiveness: Jesus warned his disciples to not become stumbling blocks for others by refusing to forgive them of their sin, but to forgive them as faithful servants before God their master 17:1-10

a. As Jesus spoke to his disciples about stumbling blocks, He warned of the awfulness of becoming one and thus exhorted them to guard themselves by having a forgiving spirit 17:1-4

1) Setting: Jesus spoke to his disciples 17:1a

2) Jesus taught that while it was inevitable that stumbling blocks would come, that it would be awful to be one who causes stumbling 17:1b-2

b. Jesus warned the disciples, therefore, to guard themselves against an unforgiving spirit when a brother sinned against them 17:3-4

1) Jesus warned the disciples to be on their guard (so as to not become a stumbling block) 17:3a

2) Jesus instructed the disciples to forgive a brother who sinned against them even if his repentance was not genuine 17:3-4

a) Jesus urges his disciples to forgive a brother who sins against them and repents 17:3

b) Jesus explains that his disciples are to forgive a brother who sins against them even if his repentance is not genuine 17:4

c. When the disciples attempted to excuse themselves from Jesus’ exhortation by needing more faith, Jesus taught them that forgiveness is not an issue of needing superior amounts of faith, but is an issue of obedience motivated by mercy which they have received from God 17:5-10

1) The Apostles responded to Jesus’ difficult exhortation by requesting him to increase their faith 17:5

2) Jesus responded to the disciples by telling them that the issue is not a question of faith, but a question of obedience to their master as is expected of a servant 17:6-10

a) In the form of hyperbole Jesus taught that more faith was not the key to forgiving another because a tiny amount of faith is able to do enormous things 17:6

b) In the form of a story Jesus taught that the key to forgiving another is in a will to obey their master, even when it is difficult, as a servant is expected to obey 17:7-10

6. Kingdom Expectations: In view of Israel’s misperception of themselves as not being in need before God (only the Samaritan returned) Jesus taught the religious leaders that the kingdom was near them, and he taught his disciples that although he must suffer now, he would return suddenly and after the deliverance of God’s own, He would judge those doing evil; therefore, he urged the disciples to continue in faithful prayer to their good God for the kingdom 17:11--18:8

a. The Samaritan Leper’s Faith: When Jesus healed ten lepers, only a foreigner returned to give him thanks, and Jesus affirmed that his faith (in Jesus) had saved him 17:11-19

1) Setting: While Jesus continued on his way to Jerusalem (cf. 9:51), he passed between Samaria and Galilee and entered a certain village where ten leperous men called from a distance to him to have mercy upon them 17:11-13

2) When Jesus saw them he ordered them to go and show themselves to the priest, whereupon they were cleansed as they were going 17:14

3) When one of them, who was a Samaritan, saw that he had been healed, he returned glorifying God, and humbly gave thanks to Jesus 17:15-16

4) Jesus noted that only the foreigner turned back to give thanks to God, and then dismissed the Samaritan explaining that his faith had made him well (saved him, σέσωκέν) 17:17-19

b. Concerning Consummation: When Jesus was questioned about when the kingdom was coming, he responded by affirming its present aspect through his presence and future suffering, and its consummate aspect of deliverance of God’s people before the judgment of evil ones 17:20-37

1) Setting: The Pharisees were questioning Jesus about when the kingdom was coming 17:20a

2) Now Aspect: Jesus corrected the view that the kingdom of God would be coming in a sudden, visible way by affirming that it is already among them23 17:20b-21

3) Suffering Before Glory: Jesus explained that Messiah will come in glory for all to see as Daniel’s Son of Man, but first he must suffer 17:22-25

a) Jesus then spoke to his disciples 17:22a

b) Jesus warned his disciples that a day will come when they will long for the coming of Messiah (the Son of Man, cf. Dan. 7:13), but will not see it 17:22b

c) Jesus warned his disciples to not search after reported messiahs because the coming of the Son of Man will be visible to all 17:23-24

d) Jesus explained to his disciples that the coming of Messiah must first be preceded by his suffering and rejection 17:25

4) Consummation in Judgment: Jesus explained to his disciples that the coming of the Son of Man would be at an unexpected time full of judgment for many but preceded by God’s deliverance of his own 17:26-37

a) Jesus likened the appearance of the Son of Man to the times in history when God rescued his people from his judgment upon others for their evil 17:26-30

(1) Jesus explained that the days of the Son of Man would be like the days of Noah when God delivered him and destroyed the people with a flood 17:26-27

(2) Jesus explained that the days of the Son of Man would be like the days of Lot when God delivered Lot, and destroyed the people with fire and brimstone 17:28-30

(3) Once again Jesus confirmed that the revelation of the Son of Man will be just as it was with the judgment in Noah's and Lot's days 17:30

b) Jesus explained that the coming of the Son of Man will be a time of deathly judgment for those who are not ready 17:31-37

(1) Jesus explained that when the Son of Man comes people should not attempt to go back and recover from their former life because in turning back they will lose their life, just as with Lot's wife 17:31-33

(2) Jesus explained that when the Son of Man comes there will be a judgment which will separate (take away) people who seem to be in identical states in life 17:34-36

(3) Jesus explained that those who are taken away will be taken in judgment where there is death 17:37

c. Prayer and Vindication: Through a negative image of a judge who reluctantly did good for a persistent widow, Jesus urged his disciples to continue to have confidence in God as the good judge who will answer their prayers for vindication 18:1-8

1) Setting: Jesus taught his disciples in a parable in order to encourage them to continually pray to God (for the kingdom) without losing heart 18:1

2) Jesus introduced the characters in his parable as a judge who was without restraint because he did not fear God nor respect man, and a widow who continually sought him out for protection from her opponent 18:2-3

3) Jesus taught that although the evil judge was at first unwilling to help the widow, he decided to because she continually bothered him 18:4-5

4) Jesus used the unrighteous judge as an example as he affirmed that God will certainly bring about justice speedily for those who ask (for the kingdom) 18:6-8a

5) Jesus balanced God’s commitment ( πλὴν ) by questioning whether people will be found faithfully (praying) when he returns to earth 18:8b

7. Humility and Trusting God: Jesus taught the self-righteous (Pharisees, rich) that God requires a humble, trusting, and sacrificing heart (tax-gatherer, children, disciples) from his followers in order for them to partake in the kingdom of God 18:9-30

a. Pharisee and Tax Collector: Through the parable of the Pharisee and the tax-gatherer Jesus taught those who considered themselves to be righteous that externals do not justify a man, but a humble-repentant heart before God 18:9-14

1) Setting: Jesus told a parable to those who considered themselves righteous (through their own ability) and who viewed others with contempt 18:9

2) Jesus taught about two men who externally appeared to righteous and unrighteous (a Pharisee and Tax-gatherer, respectively), but who were in fact just the inverse because of the attitude of their heart 18:10-14

a) Two men went into the temple to pray: one was a Pharisee and the other was a tax-gatherer (for Rome) 18:10

b) Jesus taught that the Pharisee stood boldly before God thanking Him for his superiority to other evil people (especially the tax-gatherer who was present) because he performed the external rites of tithing and fasting 18:11-12

c) Jesus taught that the tax-gatherer humbly stood mourning and begging God to be satisfied24 in His anger with him ( ιλάσθητί --propitiate; cf. Heb. 2:17) because he was a sinner (he repented like the prodigal son) 18:13

d) Jesus thus proclaimed that the tax-gatherer was righteous when he left rather than the Pharisee because he humbled himself (with repentance) 18:14

b. The Faith of Children: When the disciples were preventing children from being brought to Jesus, He corrected them and taught them that those who will receive him as children do will be a part of God’s kingdom 18:15-17

1) Setting: People were bringing ( προσφερω ) their babies to Jesus so that he might touch them (perhaps to heal them, cf. α῎πτηται in 5:13, 6:19; 7:14; 8:44-47; 22:51) 18:15a

2) When the disciples saw what was occurring, they began to rebuke the people for bringing their children to the Lord 18:15b

3) Jesus then exhorted the disciples to not stop the children from coming to him, and promised the kingdom to those who received him as these children did 18:16-17

a) Jesus exhorted the disciples to not stop the children from coming to Him 18:16a

b) Jesus proclaimed that the kingdom belonged to people who received him as these children did 18:16b-17

c. The Rich Man: When a rich ruler inquired of Jesus about how to obtain eternal life, Jesus exposed his unwillingness to fully give up his possessions for the love of his brothers and to follow him, thus teaching that while the rich find it difficult to enter into the kingdom, those who do give up all are, and will be, richly rewarded 18:18-30

1) A certain ruler asked Jesus about what he must do in order to obtain eternal life 18:18

2) After Jesus questioned the ruler’s motive in addressing Him as morally good ( ἀγαθος ), He proclaimed the Laws requirement to love other men as necessary for eternal life 18:19-20

a) Jesus questioned as to why the ruler addressed Jesus as good since only God was characterized by goodness 18:19

b) Jesus cited the second table of the Law (to love your neighbor) as a requirement for everlasting life 18:20

3) The man professed to have guarded against breaking this law since his youth 18:21

4) When Jesus heard the man’s arrogant response, He exposed his breaking of the Law by exhorting him to sell all of his possessions, distribute the proceeds to the poor, and to follow Him 18:22

5) The rich man responded to Jesus’ requirement was that the man became sad because he was very rich 18:23

6) Jesus also became sad when he looked at him and proclaimed that it is very difficult (impossible) for the rich to enter into the kingdom without God 18:24-25

7) Jesus explained to his perplexed disciples who were sure that the rich would enter the kingdom of God (cf. Deut. 27--28) that only with God can anyone enter the kingdom 18:26-27

8) When Peter reminded Jesus of the disciples willingness (unlike the rich ruler) to leave all and follow him, He encouraged them that they, along with others who follow, will not only receive eternal life, but much much more now (in the community) 18:28-30

8. Jesus Turns to Jerusalem: Even though Jesus understood and proclaimed to his disciples that he was going to suffer and be resurrected, he also demonstrated himself to be Messiah by restoring a man’s sight, forgiving Zaccheus of his sin, proclaiming that he will judge all when he returns with his kingdom, approaching Jerusalem as her Messiah, and prophetically weeping for her upcoming judgment because of her hardened rejection of his prophesied visitation 18:31--19:44

a. Passion Prediction: As Jesus turned his face to Jerusalem, He predicted his coming suffering and resurrection to a group of noncomprehending disciples 18:31-34

1) Jesus told his twelve apostles that he was going to Jerusalem where he was about to be abused, killed and rise again just as the prophets wrote about the Son of Man (cf. Dan. 7:13; Ps. 22:6-8,16-18; Isa. 53) 18:31-33

2) The disciples did not seem to comprehend this saying ( ῥῆμα ) at all because it was hidden from them 18:34

b. Physical Demonstration as Messiah: Jesus demonstrated himself to be Messiah by restoring the sight of one who called to him in faith as the Son of David 18:35-43

1) Setting: As Jesus was approaching Jericho, a certain blind man was sitting by the road and begging and heard that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by25 18:35-37

2) Although the people were trying to silence the blind man, he continued to call to Jesus as Messiah (Son of David) to mercifully help him 18:38-39

3) Jesus stopped and had the man brought to him whereupon he asked the man what he wanted Him to do for him 18:40-41a

4) When the man requested Jesus to restore his sight, He did so and told the man that his faith had saved ( σέσωκέν ) him 18:41b-42

5) The man immediately regained his sight, followed Jesus, and glorified God along with the rest of the people 18:43

c. Spiritual Demonstration as Messiah: Jesus demonstrated himself to be Messiah by bringing true deliverance from personal evil to Zaccheus--a son of Abraham 19:1-10

1) Setting: When Jesus entered and was passing through Jericho, a wealthy, chief, tax-gatherer named Zaccheus from זכי meaning pure transparent, clear one--foreshadowing) was in a sycamore tree trying to see Jesus as He passed by 19:1-4

2) When Jesus came by the place where Zaccheus was he called him down insisting that he must ( δεῖ ) stay at his house, whereupon, Zaccheus hurried down and gladly received Jesus 19:5-6

3) When the people saw the interchange between Jesus and Zaccheus, they grumbled against Jesus (cf. 15:2) because he was going to be the guest of a sinner 19:7

4) When Zaccheus told Jesus that he was giving half of his possessions to the poor, and making restitution to those whom he had defrauded, Jesus announced that salvation ( σωτηρία ) had come to his house as a lost son of Abraham whom Jesus had come to seek and to save 19:8-10

d. Parabolic Demonstration as Messiah: Jesus proclaimed himself to be the Messiah who will hold his servants responsible for obedience as well as his enemies for their rebellion against Him when he returns with his Kingdom 19:11-27

1) Setting: As Jesus’ disciples were listening to Jesus’ words to Zaccheus, they were expecting the kingdom to immediately appear when Jesus arrived in Jerusalem, therefore, Jesus told them a parable26 19:11

2) Jesus introduced the main characters of the parable as a nobleman who went away to receive a kingdom, servants whom he commanded to be productive in his absence, and citizens who hated him and sent a delegation after him to prevent Him from ruling over them 19:12-14

a) Jesus taught that a nobleman went away to receive a kingdom and then returned27 19:12

b) Jesus taught that the nobleman called his ten servants, gave them each the same amount-- a mina (just over a week’s wage), and ordered them to multiply it in his absence 19:13

c) Jesus taught that his citizens hated Jesus and sent a delegation after him in order to prevent him from receiving the kingdom 19:14

3) Jesus taught that when the nobleman returned, he evaluated his servants and proportionately rewarding those who had been faithful, and taking reward away from the servant who had not been faithful 19:15-26

4) Jesus then taught that the nobleman slew his enemies who did not want for him to rule over them (cf. 19:14) 19:27

e. Approaching Jerusalem as Messiah: When Jesus approached Jerusalem as Messianic-king under the praise of his disciples, the Pharisees ordered him to rebuke his disciples, but Jesus refused claiming that in their silence creation would cry out 19:28-40

1) Setting: After Jesus had said his parable of explanation to the disciples, he went on to ascend to Jerusalem (cf. 9:51) 19:28

2) When Jesus approached Bethphage and Bethany (near the mount of Olivet) he sent two disciples to find a colt, which he had arranged for, which no one had yet sat upon 19:29-31

3) When the disciples found the colt and brought it back to Jesus, they threw their garments upon it, placed Jesus upon it, and honored him as king as they spread their garments before him on the road (cf. 2 Ki. 9:13) 19:32-36

4) As Jesus approached the descent of the Mount of Olives, the multitude of his disciples began to proclaim Jesus as Messiah by shouting Psalm 118:26 which proclaimed that Jesus was their Messianic king who was coming to save them as he rode into his kingdom 19:37-38

5) When some of the Pharisees told Jesus to rebuke his disciples, he proclaimed that if the disciples were silent, creation itself would proclaim his Messiahship 19:39-40

f. Weeping for Jerusalem: When Jesus came to Jerusalem, he wept for the nation as a prophet about to proclaim its destruction because they had not recognized their day of visitation as prophesied in Daniel, therefore, they were going to be destroyed by their enemies 19:41-44

1) Setting: When Jesus approached Jerusalem, he saw the city and wept for it as a prophet proclaiming its doom (cf. OT imagery for destruction of the nation, cf. Jer. 8:18ff.; 15:5; 2 Ki. 8:11ff) 19:41

2) Jesus then proclaimed that the nation in their hardness had missed their day of Messianic visitation (by not receiving him, cf. 19:39) which would have led to peace, therefore, destruction from their enemies awaited them28 19:42-44

VI. THE CRUCIFIXION, RESURRECTION, AND ASCENSION OF THE SON OF MAN (IN JERUSALEM): After Jesus cryptically revealed his authority as Messiah to those who desired to kill him, foretold of the nations’ upcoming judgment before his return as the Son of Man, taught his disciples that he was the fulfillment of the Passover meal, was betrayed by Judas, was crucified as the faithful substitute for the sin of men, and rose from the dead, then Jesus confirmed his resurrection to his disciples, and commissioned them to wait until the promised Spirit comes upon them and then to proclaim the forgiveness of sins which comes through repentance for all nations, whereupon the disciples faithfully returned to Jerusalem to wait as they glorified God 19:45--24:53

A. Controversy Over Authority: When Jesus did the work of God by cleansing the temple from the corrupt merchants who prohibited Gentiles from worshiping and by teaching in the temple, the religious leaders insincerely questioned the nature of his authority, whereupon, he cryptically revealed his authority as being Messiah, and then warned his disciples against using their authority like the scribes to abuse people, but to sacrificially serve God like the poor widow 19:45--21:4

1. Temple Cleansing: As Jesus cleansed the temple he pronounced the Lord’s rebuke upon the religious leaders’ corruption of his place of worship, and the leaders descried to destroy him, but were afraid of the people 19:45-48

a. (On Monday--the day that they chose the Passover lamb [cf. Ex. 12:3-6]) Jesus entered the temple and began to cast out those who were selling (sacrifices) 19:45

b. Jesus proclaimed that the merchants in the temple had turned the meeting place of all men (the Gentiles) with God (a house of prayer) into a den of thieves (cf. Isa. 56:7; Jer. 7:11) 19:46

c. As Jesus was teaching in the temple each day the religious leaders (chief priests and scribes) were trying to destroy him (chosen as the lamb to die?), but they could not do anything because of his popularity with the people 19:47-48

2. The Question of Authority: When Jesus was questioned about his authority, he refuses to directly reveal the answer because of the insincerity of the religious leaders for truth, but then cryptically revealed it as his being Messiah through a parable, correct teaching, and his own question to the leaders from Psalm 110, whereupon, he warned his disciples to not use their authority like the scribes do in order to abuse people, but to sacrificially serve God 20:1--21:4

a. The Direct Question--Whose Authority: When Jesus was directly asked in the temple about the source of his authority to do that which he did, he exposed the unwillingness of the religious leaders to deal with the truth, and so refused to directly tell them of the source of his authority 20:1-8

1) On one of the days when Jesus was teaching and preaching in the temple the religious leaders (chief priests, scribes, and elders) confronted Jesus asking him about his authority to do that which he was doing (e.g., cleansing the temple) 20:1-2

2) Jesus refused to directly answer the question of the religious leaders until they demonstrated their own sincerity to speak truth by answering His question concerning the origin (authority) of John the Baptist 20:3-4

3) When they leaders reasoned among themselves that there was no way for them to directly answer Jesus’ question (“yes” confirmed Jesus, and “no” stirred the people), they decided to answer deceitfully by affirming that they did not know where John’s authority came from 20:5-7

4) Therefore, Jesus refused to directly tell the religious leaders about his authority to do what he did 20:8

b. An Indirect Answer--The Owner’s Son: Through the parable of wicked vinedressers, Jesus indirectly revealed himself as the Owner’s son whom the nation was about to kill in their rebellion, and urged them to repent and receive Him, lest they enter into judgment, and the Lord go to the Gentiles 20:9-19

1) Setting: Jesus then spoke to the people in the temple in a parable 20:9a

2) Jesus taught about a man who planted a vineyard, and then rented it out to vine-growers while he went on a long journey 20:9b

NB--Israel is often likened to a vineyard (e.g., Isa. 5:1-7)

3) Jesus then taught about the rebellion of the vine-growers who refused to give back to the owner some of the produce of the vineyard, and in fact beat and abused his servants finally killing his son 20:10-15a

4) Jesus then proclaimed that the owner would come and destroy the vine-growers, and give the vineyard to others (Gentiles?) 20:15b-16a

5) The people, understanding the message of judgment upon the nation, begged that it might never be ( μὴ γένοιτο ) 20:16b

6) Jesus then responded that the people need to break themselves upon Jesus (by receiving him) lest they be pulverized by him (the Stone-King) when he returns in judgment 20:17-18

c. Jesus’ Authority is Tested: When the religious leaders became threatened by Jesus’ words of condemnation against them (above), they capture him by discrediting him before the people with spies who would ask questions about taxes and the resurrection, but Jesus answered them so well, that they ceased to question him any further 20:19-40

1) Setting: When Jesus condemned the nation (above), the religious tired to capture Him, but were unable to because of his popularity with the people; therefore, they tried to discredit Jesus before the people by sending spies to capture him in a wrong word, and thus to arrest him 20:19-20

2) The Temple Tax: When spies attempted to discredit Jesus before the people by asking whether it was lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, they were silenced over his balanced answer to give back that which bares it’s owner’s image upon it (money to Caesar/one’s self to God) 20:21-26

a) The spies questioned Jesus, under the camouflage of sincerity, about whether it was lawful to pay taxes to Caesar 20:21-22

b) When Jesus detected their trickery, he wisely answered that they should give back to the one who owned the object with his image upon it (money to Caesar/one’s self to God) 20:23-25

c) The spies were thus silenced since they were unable to catch him in his answers, and since they marveled at his answered 20:26

3) The Resurrection: When some Sadducees tried to discredit Jesus through their understanding of the resurrection, Jesus exposed their misunderstanding through the nature of the future resurrection, and through a Mosaic passage which affirmed the necessity of the resurrection 20:27-40

a) Setting: Some Sadducees, who denied the resurrection, tried to discredit Jesus with a question about the absurdity of the resurrection since a woman involved in levirate marriage (Deut. 25) would have numerous husbands in a resurrection 20:27-33

b) Jesus responded by exposing the Sadducees misunderstanding of the resurrection through affirming that the raised do not marry one another, and by affirming that the patriarchal fathers must be raised in order to experience the fulfillment of God’s promises to them 20:34-38

(1) Jesus exposed the senselessness of the Sadducees' question by affirming that levirate marriage is not a difficulty in the resurrection because those who are raised will not be married to one another, but will be like angels (another doctrine which the Sadducees denied) 20:34-36

(2) Jesus then supported the resurrection from the Pentateuch (that which the Sadducees followed) by affirming that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob must be resurrected for God to fulfill his promises to them 20:37-38

c) Some of the scribes affirmed that Jesus had spoken well, and did not dare to ask him any further questions 20:39-40

d. Jesus Proclaims His Authority--Messiah as Lord: Through an unanswered question Jesus identified himself as David’s Lord (Messiah/God?) in accordance with Psalm 110 20:41-44

1) Setting: After Jesus has been continually interrogated, he then asks the leaders as question 19:41a

2) Jesus asked the leaders how it was that Messiah (Christ) is David’s son since David called him Lord who sits at the right hand of God and rules as God’s equal (Psalm 110) 19:41b-44

e. Jesus instructs His Disciples: After Jesus directly identified himself as Messiah, he warned his disciples to not use their authority like the scribes in order to abuse people, but to give sacrificially of themselves to God as the poor widow did in the treasury 20:45--21:4

1) Negative Example--The Scribes: Jesus warned the disciples not to be like the scribes who use their authority to abuse people because they will receive a greater judgment 20:45-47

a) Jesus then warned his disciples before all of the listening people 20:45a

b) Jesus warned his disciples to not use their authority to abuse people like the scribes because such a use will lead to greater condemnation 20:45b-47

2) Positive Example--The Widow: Jesus commended to his disciples the example of the poor widow who sacrificially gave to the Lord rather than the rich who gave out of their surplus 21:1-4

a) Setting: Jesus looked up from his disciples and saw the rich putting their gifts into the treasury as well as a poor widow putting her two small copper coins into the treasury 21:1-2

b) Jesus commended (as an example to his disciples) the poor widow over the rich because she gave sacrificially to God 21:3-4

B. Prophesy of Judgment: When some of those who were with Jesus commented upon the majesty of the temple, Jesus announced that the temple would one day be destroyed and then described the events which would precede the final judgment of the world before the Son of Man returned to redeem his own and to set up the Kingdom 21:5-38

1. Setting: While some were talking about the beauty of the temple, Jesus proclaimed that all of the temple would one day be destroyed 21:5-6

2. Events Which Precede the End, But Are Not The End (Not even being immediate): When the disciples questioned Jesus about when this judgment would come, he explained that there will be many false prophets, wars, and natural disasters before the judgment comes 21:7-11

a. The disciples then questioned Jesus about when this judgment would occur, and about what the sign would be of this coming judgment 21:7

b. Jesus explained that there will be many false Messiahs, wars, and natural disasters before this judgment occurs 21:8-11

3. Events Which Will Occur Before the Events of 21:8-11 (Persecution): Jesus explained that before the cataclysmic catastrophes occur which he has just described that the disciples will experience sever persecution, but that this persecution will ultimately provide a way for them to testify of Jesus, and will lead to the fullness of live (spiritual, or in the Kingdom) 21:12-19

a. Jesus explained to the disciples that before the above catastrophes occur ( Πρὸ δὲ τούτων ) that the disciples will experience sever persecutions29 21:12

b. Jesus explained to the disciples that the persecutions would provide an opportunity for them to give their testimony before the persecutors therefore, they should be prepared to defend themselves knowing that Jesus will give them the wise words to speak before their persecutors 21:13-15

c. Jesus explained to the disciples30 that even though they will be delivered up to severe persecution leading to death by those who are closest to them (parents, brothers, relatives, friends), that their ultimate life (spiritual) will not be harmed, but will be gained 21:16-19

4. The Destruction of Jerusalem (told with an eye toward the end): Jesus more directly answered the disciples question about the coming judgment by affirming that when Jerusalem is surrounded by armies, then the prophesied judgment will occur bringing great distress upon the inhabitants of the city 21:20-23

a. Jesus more directly answered the disciples question about when this judgment would occur by affirming that it was near when they saw Jerusalem surrounded by armies31 21:20

b. Jesus warned that when Jerusalem was surrounded, everyone should flee because the judgment prophesied about will be fulfilled32 causing great sorrow for those present33 21:21-22

5. The End: Jesus taught that the end will culminate within the generation which witnesses the fall of Jerusalem, cataclysmic signs in the sky and on earth, and the return of the Son of Man in his glory to redeem his people; therefore he urged all to remain spiritually alert 21:24-36

a. Jesus explained that when Jerusalem comes under judgment, that it will fall, its inhabitants will be lead into other nations, and the city will be trampled by the Gentiles until the “times of the Gentiles”34 is fulfilled 21:24

b. Jesus described the cataclysmic signs which would accompany the end times: astral calamities, earthly calamities which disrupt the nations, and men overcome with fear over the disruption of the cosmos 21:25-26

c. Jesus then explained that in the midst of all of the physical chaos, Messiah (the Son of Man) will visibly appear in the sky with all of his glory as was predicted in Daniel 7:13 (21:27)

d. Jesus exhorted his disciples (God’s people of Israel in the future setting) to be comforted and to express their hope when Messiah returns because he will redeem them 21:28

e. Through the parable of the fig tree (and others trees) Jesus instructed his disciples that just as new leaves signal the nearness of summer so is it that when the signs which he has just described occur, the kingdom of God will certainly be within the time of that end-generation 21:29-33

f. Jesus urges those of that coming generation to be physically and, especially, spiritually alert (cf. 1 Thess. 5) so that they might not be surprised by the upcoming judgment, but may escape the time and stand before the Son of Man at his coming 21:34-36

6. The Crowd’s Response: Although Jesus would leave Jerusalem each evening to spend the night on the mount of Olives, the people would rise early in the morning to listen to him teach in the temple 21:37-38

C. The Betrayal and Final Discourse: At the Passover Jesus demonstrated himself to be prepared for his upcoming passion as the Suffering Servant by having already made arrangements for their private celebration of the Passover so that Judas could not betray him there, by proclaiming himself as the fulfillment of the Passover, by foretelling that one would betray him, and by instructing his disciples concerning the future reward which they would receive for their loyalty to him, as well as about the persecution they would experience (from Satan and the world) because of their identification with him 22:1-38

1. At the Passover meal Jesus demonstrated himself to be ready for his passion as Satan created an atmosphere of fear, hatred and deception 22:1-13

a. The Betrayal of Judas: As the feast of Unleavened Bread approached in celebration of the Passover, Satan moved in an atmosphere of fear through Judas to have Jesus destroyed by the religious leaders 22:1-6

1) Setting: The Feast of Unleavened Bread for the Passover was approaching and the religious climate was one of fear and anger as the religious leaders desired to kill Jesus 22:1-2

2) Under the influence of Satan, Judas Iscariot conspired with the religious leaders about how he might hand Jesus over to them in a private place 22:3-6

b. Preparing for the Meal: When the day of the Passover arrived, Jesus demonstrated that he was prepared for everything by sending Peter and John to prepare the meal in a pre-arranged location 22:7-13

1) Setting: The day of the Unleavened Bread arrived on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed 22:7

2) Jesus sent Peter and John to prepare for the Passover meal for the company at a place for which Jesus had already made arrangements35 22:8-13

2. The Last Supper and Discourse: At the Passover Meal Jesus identified Himself as the fulfillment of the Passover, then he expressed his commitment to the twelve by: warning them of future strife, warning them against pride, and encouraging them concerning their future reign with him in view of the persecution they would soon experience 22:14-38

a. At the Passover meal Jesus expressed his desire to eat this final Passover meal with his disciples, and proclaimed that he was the fulfillment of the Passover by making a New Covenant 22:14-20

1) At them Passover meal Jesus expressed his desire to eat with his disciples before he suffered because he would not eat of the feast again until after its consummation in the Kingdom 22:15-16

2) Jesus refused to partake of the first cup of the Passover meal until the kingdom of God came, and then identified himself (through the bread and the cup) with the fulfillment of the Passover for those who were present 22:17-20

a) Jesus did not partake of the first cup, but passed it around proclaiming that he would not partake of it until the kingdom of God came 22:17-18

b) Jesus then identified the Passover Bread as his body given for them and asked them to partake of it in remembrance of Him (what he was about to do for them) 22:19

c) Jesus then identified the cup as the new covenant in his blood for the disciples 22:20

b. The Discourse: After identifying his betrayer from among the twelve, Jesus rebuked their defensive boasting, foretold of Satan’s designs to destroy them but expressed his commitment to his loyal followers by foretelling Peter that he had prayed for his restoration, by promising them future blessing in the kingdom, and by warning of future persecution as his disciples 22:21-30

1) Jesus not only identified the one among them who would betray him, but also the necessity and calamity of the betrayer 22:21-22

2) When the disciples expressed their concern that one of them might be the betrayer by defensively boasting of their greatness, Jesus rebuked their arrogance by instructing them that real greatness would be expressed through serving others just as He had served them 22:23-27

3) Jesus then reassured the disciples of his commitment to them because of their remaining with him during trials by promising that they would eat and rule with him in the Kingdom 22:28-30

4) Jesus foretold Simon that Satan desired to destroy the twelve ( ὑμᾶς ), but he had prayed for Simon (σοῦ, who thought he was so strongly committed) that his faith would not be eclipsed ( ἐκλίπῃ ) in his upcoming denial of him, but that he might be able to support his brethren after his repentance 22:31-34

5) Jesus sovereignly warned his disciples of the future hostility which awaited them because of their identification with Him as a transgressor, as their two swords corroborated 22:35-38

a) Unlike the previous sending out of the disciples, Jesus exhorted the twelve to be prepared for hostilities toward them because He was going to be identified with sinners (ἀνόμων ) as the Scriptures foretold (cf. Isa. 53:12) 22:35-37

b) When the disciples displayed their two swords so as to show that they were hardly the lawless, Jesus affirmed that their two swords were enough for the accusation 22:38

D. The Trial and Death of Jesus: Jesus voluntarily entered into his substitutionary death for mankind in a manner which demonstrated faithfulness to his disciples, exposed the evil of those falsely accusing him, and provided grace for all who would receive him 22:39--23:56

1. Preparation through Prayer: Jesus exhorted his disciples and demonstrated for them the need to wrestle with God in prayer about upcoming struggles in order that they might not fall into temptation 22:39-46

a. As Jesus was (customarily [Judas knew]) going with his disciples to the Mount of Olives, he exhorted them to pray that they might not enter into temptation 22:39-40

b. Jesus then went off by himself and agonized ( ἀγωνίᾳ ) in prayer as he asked the father if it was possible to not have to suffer, but he always was willing to submit to the Father’s will 22:41-44

c. When Jesus returned to his disciples, they were asleep, therefore he exhorted them to wake up and to pray in order that they would not fall into temptation 22:45-46

2. The Betrayal and the Arrest: As the religious leaders accompanied by the temple guard and led by Judas approached Jesus in order to arrest him, Jesus stopped the counter attack of his disciples, and exposed the evil in night arrest 22:47-53

a. While Jesus was speaking to his disciples, he was betrayed by Judas who was leading a multitude and identified Jesus through a kiss (irony) 22:47-48

b. When Jesus’ disciples saw what was occurring, one of them attempted to defend Jesus by cutting off the ear of the slave of the high priest, but Jesus stopped the rebellion, and healed the servant’s ear 22:49-51

c. Jesus exposed the religious leaders and their temple officers of doing evil out of fear as they came at night with force to arrest him 22:52-53

3. Peter’s Denial: Peter learned in a painful way of his vulnerability to be used by Satan for evil against the Lord he loved by denying him three times 22:54-62

a. When Jesus was led away from the Mount of Olives and brought to the house of the high priest, Peter was following at a distance 22:54

b. While Peter was standing in the courtyard of the high priest by a freshly built fire, he denied any knowledge of Jesus three times 22:55-60a

c. While Peter was still speaking his last denial, he was painfully exposed by the crowing of a cock and by the understanding gaze of Jesus that he had been used by Satan (cf. 22:31) for evil just as Jesus had said 22:60b-62

4. Jesus’ Trials: Although Jesus was falsely accused and abused by his religious captors, and was proclaimed to be “not guilty” by both Pilate and Herod, He was sentenced to crucifixion while Barabbas was freed 22:63--23:25

a. Jesus was emotionally and physically abused by the guards who were holding him at the house of the high priest 22:63-65

b. When Jesus was examined by the religious council at day-break, he openly identified himself as being Messiah (who would one day judge these judges), but was explicitly rejected by them as he predicted he would be 22:66-71

c. Although Jesus was taken and accused before Pilate for rebellion against Rome, Pilate declared Jesus innocent 23:1-6

d. When Pilate heard that Jesus was from Galilee, he sent him to Herod (Antipas) who was in Jerusalem for the feast and was the tetrarch over the region which included Galilee 23:7

e. Herod, who had heard about Jesus (cf. 9:9) and desired to see a sign from him (like the Jews, cf. 11:29), rejected Jesus as Messiah and mocked him 23:8-11

f. The political move by Pilate to send Jesus to Herod strengthened the two rulers relationships (and also demonstrated how the Jews and the Gentiles unified against Jesus) 23:12

g. Even though Pilate pronounced Jesus innocent to charges of rebellion, he succumbed to the pressure of the crowd, released Barabbas36 and pronounced the sentence of crucifixion upon Jesus37 23:13-25

5. The Death of Jesus: The Crucifixion and burial of Jesus provided special opportunities for hearts to be revealed (those who railed against him), grace to be received (forgiveness, the other criminal) and commitment to Jesus to be expressed (Joseph and the women) as Jesus became the voluntary substitute for man under the wrath of God 23:26-56

a. The crucifixion of Jesus was a means whereby God exposed the hearts of people, and provided for their need as Jesus voluntarily died for them 23:26-49

1) As Jesus was led to be crucified with two other criminals, and as Simon the Cyrene was forced to carry Jesus’ cross, He rebuked those mourning for him because worse things were going to fall upon them 23:26-32

a) As Jesus was being led to be crucified, Simon of Cyrene was forced to carry His cross behind Him 23:26

b) Jesus rebuked those following him for mourning for Him because worse things were going to fall upon them when he was gone38 23:27-31

c) Two other criminals were also led away with Jesus to be crucified 23:32

2) Even though Jesus was crucified and verbally abused (as the righteous sufferer), he gave grace both to the ignorant and especially to a criminal who asked for it 23:33-43

a) When they arrived at the place called the Skull, they crucified the two criminals and Jesus placing Jesus in the center 23:33

b) Jesus asked the Father to forgive those who crucified him (the Jews) because of their ignorance39 23:34a

c) Jesus was made a spectacle by onlookers who gawked, treated him with contempt, and verbally questioned his greatness because of his present suffering on the cross 23:34b-39

(1) The soldiers cast lost for Jesus' cloths 23:34a

(2) People stood by and watched 23:35a

(3) The religious rulers sneered at Jesus challenging him to save himself if he was able 23:35b

(4) The soldiers mocked Jesus challenging him to save himself if he was the King of the Jews as was inscribed above his head 23:36-38

(5) One of the criminals who was crucified with Jesus verbally attacked him challenging him to save them and himself if he was the Messiah 23:39

d) The other criminal recognized his sin, rebuked the accusing criminal, and asked Jesus for the right to enter into his kingdom with him, and thus received assurance from Jesus 23:40-43

3) The crucifixion climaxed with a picture of the separation which Jesus experienced for men’s sin (the darkness), and a picture of the new access which he provided for men with God (the veil), whereupon, Jesus voluntarily gave up his life 32:44-46

a) For three hours (from noon to three PM) the sun was obscured and darkness was over the land 32:44

b) The veil of the temple which separated men from the holy access to God, was torn in two indicating direct access into God’s presence (and the upcoming judgment upon the temple) 32:45

c) Jesus voluntarily gave up his life unto the Father, and thus died 32:46

4) In response to Jesus’ death, the centurian proclaimed Jesus to be innocent, and the multitudes mourned as his acquaintances women followers observed 23:47-49

b. Joseph, a righteous, religious leader, provided for Jesus’ burial by procuring his body from Pilate, and laying him in a tomb for the sabbath while the women watched and waited with their spices until after the Sabbath as Law abiding (pious) Jews 23:50-56

1) Joseph of Arimathia went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus 23:50-52

a) Joseph was a member of the council who did not consent to their judgment of Jesus, being good and righteous and waiting for God’s kingdom 23:50-51

b) Joseph asked for Jesus’ body from Pilate 23:52

2) Joseph prepared and laid Jesus’ body in a tomb of rock which had not been previously used 23:53

3) Since it was the preparation day for the Passover, and since the Sabbath was about to begin, the women who had followed Jesus out of Galilee saw the tomb as the body was laid, and returned to prepare spices and perfumes, but rested according to the law on the Sabbath 23:54-56

E. The Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus: After Jesus brought his disciples to a genuine comprehension of the truthfulness of his resurrection, He commissioned them to wait in Jerusalem for the promise of the Spirit, and then to proclaim the forgiveness of sins through repentance for all nations, whereupon, he ascended from them, and they returned to Jerusalem glorifying God 24:1-53

1. Comprehension and Commission: Unlike the women who in their openness believed in the resurrection, the men were brought to a point of belief through repeated appearances of Jesus which culminated in his commissioning of them to tell others, once they received the Holy Spirit, of the forgiveness of sins which can come through repentance 24:1-49

a. When the women came to the tomb early in the morning with spices, they not only found it opened with Jesus gone, but were reminded by angels that he had risen as he said, which caused them to tell the eleven apostles and others who were with them 24:1-10

1) When the women came to the tomb early in the morning with spices to prepare Jesus’ body, they found the stone rolled away from the tomb 24:1-2

2) When the women entered the tomb, they did not find the body of Jesus 24:3

3) The women were met by men dressed in dazzling clothes who questioned their presence at the tomb since Jesus had risen as he had said 24:4-7

a) In the women’s concern they were suddenly met by two men in dazzling apparel who caused them to be terrified and to bow to the ground 24:4-5

b) The men questioned the women’s looking for Jesus among the dad since he had risen just as he said he would 24:6-7

4) The women, including Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, remembered Jesus’ words and thus, went to tell the news to the eleven apostles and to the rest 24:8-10

b. Unbelief moved gradually toward belief as Jesus appeared to his followers whereupon, He commissioned them after they receive the enabling Spirit to proclaim forgiveness of sins for all nations through Him 24:11-49

1) The men would not believe the woman because they considered their words ( ῥήματα ) to be nonsense 24:11

2) When Peter ran to the tomb and only saw the linen wrappings, he went away marveling at what had happened 24:12

3) Jesus met Two men who knew much about the crucifixion and resurrection but were discouraged, whereupon he chided them, instructed them, and convinced them of the resurrection when they saw for themselves that he was Jesus 24:13-32

a) Two men who were with the eleven apostles and who had heard of the women’s report were going to the village of Emmaus talking about all that had taken place 24:13-14

b) Jesus joined the two in their journey, but they were prevented from recognizing him 24:15-16

c) Jesus drew the men into recounting all that they understood to have occurred thus far (up through Peter’s and another’s visit to the tomb) about the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus 24:17-24

d) Jesus questioned the slowness of the men to believe in the death and resurrection of Jesus even though he demonstrated how the scriptures spoke of it throughout (see the speeches in Acts 3;4;6-7;13; etc. for Luke’s development of this theme) 24:25-27

e) After the two men approached the village and convinced the man (Christ) to stay with the, they realized it was Jesus when he served them the bread (reminiscent of the last supper emphasizing fellowship) 24:28-31a

f) When the men recognized the traveler as Jesus, he vanished from their presence, and they spoke of how true his words seemed to them before when he explained to them the scriptures 24:31b-32

4) When the eleven apostles and those with them received personal reports of Jesus’ resurrection, He appeared to them in order to confirm the reports 24:33-43

a) The two from Emmaus immediately returned to Jerusalem to find the eleven and those with them 24:33

b) Those in Jerusalem reported that the Lord was risen and that he had appeared to Peter 24:34

c) The two from Emmaus reported about their encounter with the Lord 24:35

d) Jesus appeared in the midst of all of them in order to resolve their doubts and fears 24:36-43

(1) While they were all talking, Jesus appeared in their midst 24:36

(2) Everyone was startled, frightened, and thought that they were seeing a spirit 24:37

(3) Jesus questioned them about their doubts, and went to great lengths to demonstrate that he was physically present as he presented his body to be examined, and ate before them 24:38-43

5) After confirming the reality of his resurrection before those together in the room, Jesus commissioned them in accordance with his former words and in accordance with Scripture to be proclaimers of repentance through Him to all men after they receive the Holy Spirit 24:44-49

a) Jesus reminded those in the room together with him that what had occurred was just as He and Scripture (Moses, Prophets, and Psalms) said it would so that repentance would be proclaimed for forgiveness to all through Him 24:44-47

The Gospel is three-fold here (three infinitives) 24:46-47

(1) To Suffer ( παθεῖν )

(2) To Rise ( ἀναστῆναι )

(3) To Preach ( κηρυχθῆναι ) in his name repentance to all nations ( πάντα τὰ ε῞θνη ) resulting in ( εἰς ) forgiveness of sins

Repentance is emphasized here instead of faith. It is an interchangeable term

b) Jesus proclaimed that they were witness of the fulfillment of Scripture through Him 24:48

c) Jesus commanded them to remain in Jerusalem until they receive the promised power of the Holy Spirit (cf. Acts 2:16f) 24:49

2. The Ascension: When Jesus ascended, the disciples were obedient to his commands by returning to Jerusalem and extolling God’s character to others in the temple 24:50-53

a. Jesus led his followers out as far as Bethany, blessed them, and departed (ascended) from them40 24:50-51

b. Jesus’ followers joyfully returned to Jerusalem, and to the temple of God where they continually praised God (cf. Lk. 1:5) 24:52-53


1 A Nazirite, cf. Judges 13:4; or one like Samuel, cf. 1 Sam. 1:11 LXX.

2 Note well: Quirinius was governor of Syria from 6-4 B.C. The decree was probably issued in 8/7 B.C. and was fulfilled in 6 or 5 B.C. There were usually fourteen years between censuses, and they would take a few years to complete. Therefore, Jesus was probably born in A.D. 5 or 4 (See Hoehner, Chronological, 21-25).

3 He was born during the reign of Caesar Augustus (March 15, 44 B.C. to August 19, A.D. 14). The latest he could have been born was just before Herod the Great’s death in B.C.4. The earliest he could have been born was when the Census of Caesar was given (B.C. 8/7).

4 See Lev. 12:4ff; 7 days, plus 33 days = 40 days.

5 See Numbers 18:15; cf. Ex. 13:1-16.

6 Lev. 12:6-13.

7 These themes become especially developed throughout 9:51--19:27.

8 See Isaiah 40:3-4.

9 This is Day of the Lord language.

10 This genealogy has a different emphasis than the one in Matthew 1: Matthew is tracing Jesus from Abraham through David to emphasize that He is the seed representing Israel and the heir to the throne of David. Luke is tracing Jesus through Adam to emphasize that Jesus is the second Adam representing all mankind.

The Genealogy is tricky--there are three options to understanding it:

(1) Matthew is the legal line through Joseph/Luke is Mary’s line,but Luke 1:27 argues against this view since Joseph is stressed as being of Davidic descent

(2) A view based upon Adoption:Matthew is the legal line (through adoption of Joseph as the closest living heir by his barren uncle Jacob [Matt. 1:16] thereby bringing Joseph and Jesus into the legal line)/Luke is the actual line. But this does not deal with the difficulties when Luke 3:24-25 is compared with Matthew 1:15-16

(3) A View Based Upon Leverite Marriage: Matthew is the physical line through Joseph/Luke is the legal line through Joseph: (a) The disagreements occur from David to Shaeltiel (Lk. 3:27-32) in that Luke traces the Davidic line through Nathan (3:31) in the exilic period, (b) Eli (Lk. 3:23) died without children so Jacob married Eli’s wife (Leverite marriage) and gave birth to Joseph (Matt. 1:15-16) (i) A fuller explanation is as follows: Matthan (Mt. 1:15) married a certain Estha, by whom he had a son, Jacob (Mt. 1:16). When Matthan died, his widow married Malchi (Lk. 3:24). and had a son Eli (Lk. 3:23). [NB Levi and Matthat come between Malchi and Eli in Luke’s list. This is a problem]. The second of these two half-brothers, Eli, married, but died without issue; his half-brother Jacob took his wife in leverite marriage, so that his physical son, Joseph, was regarded as the legal son of Eli. Therefore, Joseph’s line (in Luke) is connected by his mother (who married Malchi after Matthan died in Matthew’s line). Thus Joseph is traced through Jacob [his natural father in Matt.], and through Eli, his Leverite father, in Luke. The problem is the inclusion of the two generations between Melchi and Eli in Luke (Levi, and Matthat) See Marshall, The Gospel of Luke, p. 158. This allows for Jesus to be physically and legally of the line of David through Joseph and for the curse of Jehoiakim (Jer. 22:30; 36:30) to be by-passed

11 See Craig Glickman, Knowing Christ: Life-changing Glimpses of Our Lord (Chicago: Moody Press, 1980), 49-60.

12 See the parallel miracle with Elisha (2 Ki. 4:8-37). They were also in a close location (cf. Nain and Shunem).

13 Leviticus 23:27, 34.

14 Note the geography in Luke from 9:51 on:

Samaria 9:52

(In Bethany) where Jesus is met by Martha and Mary 10:38

He went to other cities and villages on his journey to Jerusalem 13:22

Jesus passed through the region of Samaria and Galilee on his journey to Jerusalem 17:11

Jesus was going up unto Jerusalem 18:31

Jesus was going through Jericho 18:35

Jesus was near Jerusalem 19:11

Jesus was going up to Jerusalem 19:28

Jesus approached Bethpage and Bethany near the Mt. of Olivet 19:29

Jesus was at the bottom of the Mt. of Olivet 19:37

Jesus was coming near to the city 19:41

Jesus entered the Temple in Jerusalem 19:47

15 Note: (1) Verse eighteen is figurative language for Satan’s defeat, (2) Their works expressed his ultimate defeat, (3) The Cross is ultimately his defeat, (4) Jesus expresses this through the use of an imperfect verb ( ἐθεώρουν ), (5) the outworking of Jesus’ defeat is progressive (cf. Rev. 12:9; 20).

16 Delegated, Messianic authority, cf. Gen. 3:14,19,15; Ps. 91:13.

17 “Come upon you” ( ε῞φθασεν ἐφ ᾿ ὑμᾶς ) could have the sense of “drawn near” (cf. Rom. 9:31; Phil. 3:16; 1 Thess. 2:16 [to draw up to], emphasizing that it has not arrived (Toussaint)

Or it could have the sense of actual arrival (especially with the preposition) [Bock].

18 Note: the emphasis here is not on the resurrection (cf. Matthew’s “three days and three nights”) so much as on repentance (cf. v. 32, “repented at the preaching of Jonah”).

19 The reference to Pilate and the Galileans may be to Pilate’s raid of the temple treasury to pay for his aqueduct construction which the temple profited from so much (see Malick, “New Testament History,” p. 10 n. 18.

20 The extended time may well be after the Book of Acts.

21 Cf. “hate”, μισεῖ , in terms of “choosing” in Deut. 33:8-9, cf. Ex. 32:27-29; Mal. 1:2-3; Matt. 6:24.

22 It is possible that “forcing” ( βιάζεται ) has reference to people who make it in with a fight or earnest effort (against those who would resist following Jesus; cf. Thayer, p. 101); it may also mean “urged” to enter in (passive/middle voice, cf. BAGD, p. 140)

Note the distinction in times (dispensations--Law and the Prophets to John / from John is the gospel of the Kingdom)

23 Jesus is not denying the future cataclysmic aspects of the consummation of the kingdom (cf. 17:23-24). Jesus is emphasizing that present aspects of the kingdom in that you do not have to hunt for it since it is right in their presence: (1) The audience of Pharisees does not allow for the sense to be “in you” or “within” you, (2) The sense is that the kingdom is among them, or in their midst in that its king was among them

For those who do not hold to a present sense of the kingdom, it is also possible that ἐντὸς could have the sense of the kingdom suddenly coming--you will not have to look for it, because it will suddenly come among you.

24 Note--Propitiation is the center of soteriology: (1) It is the meaning of Sacrifice, (2) It is the grounds of Reconciliation, (3) It is the price of Redemption, (4) It is the legality of Justification.

25 NB--Luke has flipped the order of Matthew’s account (cf. 19:1):

   (1) Wealthy man -- cannot see (Ruler)

   (2) Blind man -- can see (Jericho)

   (3) Rich man -- can see (Zaccheus)

This healing probably occurred after the Zaccheus event.

26 In order to correct their expectations, and to exhort them towards obedience as faithful servants.

27 Note: This historically paralleled Archelaus who upon the death of his father, Herod the Great, made his way to Rome (followed by a deputation of Jews who resisted his appointment) in order to get the kingship over Judea (of which he only received half and the status of ethnarch) [Josephus, Wars 2.2.1-13; 6.80-100.2].

28 NB: Although this hints at Titus in A.D. 70, the near judgment was only a confirming foreshadow of the greater judgment to come. The “day” that Jesus notes in 19:42 is the day that Daniel’s sixty-ninth week expired (cf. Dan. 9:24-26)--they should have known.

29 Before synagogues, prisons, kings, and governors because of their commitment to him (cf. Acts).

30 NB--The disciples are addressed here in order to demonstrate that they have a part in God’s eschatological plan (now/not yet).

31 Much of this unit sounds like the siege by Titus on Jerusalem in A.D. 70. Even so, it is predictive from the mouth of Jesus. The Jerusalem destruction pictures (or guarantees) the end-time cataclysm; one event mirrors the other so that it is difficult to tell what is being talked about (A.D. 70, the future, both?). The destruction of Jerusalem is typical. Luke especially emphasizes the correlations with A.D. 70. Matthew and Mark focus upon the future cataclysm.

32 Cf. 1 Ki. 9:6-9; Dan. 9:26; Mi. 3:12.

33 The language of fulfillment points the reader beyond A.D. 70. Even the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. was but a taste of the ultimate judgment upon the nation (cf. Zech. 14:1-2) just as the first and second exoduses were but foretastes of the final deliverance at the end of the tribulation.

34 Note: The times of the Gentiles probably began with the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and will continue until Israel is in the land with the nations coming to her (Zech. 14:3,11,16-19) after the tribulation days (cf. Rev. 11:2; Dan. 12:7).

35 Jesus probably did this in secret because of the betrayal designs of Judas.

36 A true insurrectionist and murder--note the theology of substitution.

37 The Likely Order of Jesus’ Trials: (1) Inquiry before Annas [Jn. 18:13 = Lk. 22:54], (2) Evening Meeting--Caiaphas presiding [Mk. 14:55-64; Mt. 26:59-66; may = Luke since the remarks are similar], (3) Morning, official trial--Sanhedrin [Mk. 15:1; Mt. 27:1; thus = Lk. 22:66-71], (4) Initial Meeting with Pilate: [Mk. 15:1b-5; Mt. 27:2; Lk. 23:1-5; Jn. 18:29-38], (5) Meeting with Herod Antipas [Lk. 23:6-12], (6) Second meeting with Pilate [Lk. 23:13-16; Mt. 27:15-23; Mk. 15:6-14; Jn. 18:39-40].

38 This is “Day of the Lord” imagery tied to A.D. 70 as a type of the final judgment to come.

The “green tree” and the “dry” imagery (cf. Isa. 10:16-19; Ezk. 20:47) may well mean that if God has not spared Jesus, How much more will He not spare the Jews.

39 This is answered in the Book of Acts as Peter offers the kingdom again (Acts 3), and repeated by Stephen in Acts 7 to be answered with the conversion of Saul (Acts 9).

40 Some have difficulties with harmonizing the end of Luke with the beginning of Acts, but they actually dovetail with one another. This is another indication that Luke-Acts is a double work.

(1) Two Ascensions: Some feel that there must be two departures (Lk. 24; Acts 1) [Ellis, The Gospel of Luke, p. 280]

(2) One Ascension: It seems better to understand there to have only have been one ascension with Luke 24 and Acts 1:6-11 being one and the same event with Acts describing the gospel event in a fresh new way (Marshall, p. 907-908)

Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines