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An Argument of First and Second Kings

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The covenant rebellion of the kings of the nation in spite of gracious prophetic exhortations and particular acts of faithfulness necessitated the ultimate judgment of the Israel and Judah, but the lord offered a continuing hope of faithfulness to his promise to David in Jehoiachin

I. THE UNITED KINGDOM--AN EVALUATION OF THE REIGN OF SOLOMON:2 Even though Solomon’s succession to the Davidic throne was certain and his rule upon the throne was magnificent in wisdom, wealth and government, his many wives turned his heart from the Lord to idolatry resulting in a prophecy that all but Judah would be taken from him (his son) and given to another (I Kings 1:1--11:43)

A. Solomon’s Throne Succession-Narrative: Although David’s older son, Adonijah attempted to take over the throne in David’s weakness, David appointed Solomon to the throne and exhorted him to obey the Lord and to destroy his enemies, whereupon Solomon established the kingdom under his rule by destroying his enemies and appointing Benniah over his military and Zadok over the Priesthood 1:1--2:46

1. Solomon’s Rise to Position--A Countercoup by Solomon’s Party:3 Even though David’s sons Adonijah attempted to take over the kingdom from David in his old age, Nathan and Bathsheba reminded David of his promise to Solomon, and David had Solomon anointed and placed upon his throne, to the dismay of Adonijah and those with him 1:1-53

a. The Situation--David’s Advancing Debilitude: 1:1-4

b. Adonijah’s Frustrated Coup Attempt: 1:5-10

c. Nathan and Bathsheba’s coup d’état: 1:11-31

d. The Acclimation of Solomon: 1:32-40

e. The Dissolution of Adonijah’s Party: 1:41-53

1) Nullification of Adonijah’s Investiture: 1:41-48

2) The dispersal of Adonijah’s Party: 1:49

3) Adonijah Accepts Conciliation: 1:50-53

a) Adonijah’s Flight to Sanctuary: 1:50

b) Solomon’s Offer of Clemency: 1:51-53

(1) Report and Instructions: 1:51-52

(2) Adonijah Summoned and Dismissed: 1:53

2. Solomon Establishes His Rule: After David’s dying, farewell address wherein he exhorts Solomon to obey God and deal with his enemies, Solomon takes the throne, destroys his enemies, and establishes his kingdom by appointing Benniah over his military and Zadok over his priesthood 2:1-46

a. David’s Farewell Charge to Solomon--Obey the Lord & Deal with Enemies: 2:1-9

b. Transition--The Death of David and the Session of Solomon: 2:10-12

c. The Establishment of the Kingdom: Solomon eliminates his rivals and establishes his military and priestly leaders in the Kingdom: 2:13-46a

1) The Execution of Adonijah: 2:13-25

a) Adonijah’s Unwarranted Initiative for Abishag the Shunammite (David’s Concubine): 2:13-18

b) Solomon’s Vigorous Reaction of Adonijah’s Request and Execution of Adonijah: 2:19-25

2) The Dismissal of Abiathar from the Priesthood: 2:26-27

3) The Execution of Joab: 2:28-34

4) The Elevation of Benaiah (Army) and Zadok (Priesthood): 2:35

5) The Execution of Shimei: 2:36-46a

d. Concluding Summary: The Kingdom was established under Solomon 2:46b

B. An Account of Solomon’s Reign: Even though Solomon’s reign had many positive aspects to it such as being honored and enabled by the Lord, full of wisdom, wealth, and productivity, Solomon’s many wives turned his heart away from the Lord into idolatry resulting in the proclamation that the kingdom (except for Judah) would be taken away from him (after his death) and given to another 3:1--11:43

1. Solomon’s Divine Legitimation at Gibeon: 1 Kings 3:1-15

a. A Foreshadows of Later Disaster: 3:1-3

1) Solomon’s Egyptian Marriage: 3:1

2) Sacrifices Offered in high places: 3:2-3

b. The Divine Offer: 3:4-5

c. Solomon’s Reply: 3:3:6-9

d. The Divine Response: 3:10-14

e. Solomon’s Reaction: 3:15

2. Demonstrations of Solomon’s Wisdom: 3:16--4:38

a. Solomon’s Wise Acts of Justice--Judgment for an Abused Harlot: 3:16-28

1) The Dispute: 3:16-22a

a) Introduction: Approach to the King: 3:16

b) The Speech of the First Woman: 3:17-21

(1) The Situation--Birth of the Two Babies: 3:17-18

(2) Substitution of One Baby for Another: 3:19-20

(3) Apprehension of the Wrong: 3:21

c) The Speech of the Second Woman: 3:22a

2) The Resolution: 3:22b-27

a) The Situation--Indecisive Testimony: 3:22b-23

b) A Threat to Kill the Live Baby: 3:24-26

c) The King’s Decision: 3:27

(1) The King’s Command: 3:24-25

(2) The Replies of the Two Women: 3:26

3) Conclusion--Israel’s Favorable Reaction: 3:28

b. Solomon’s Wise Acts of Administration: 4:1-28

1) Solomon’s High Officials of the Court: 4:1-6

2) Solomon’s Prefects and Their Districts: 4:7-19

3) Solomon’s Kingdom and Its Provisions: 4:20-28

c. Solomon’s Wise Learning: 4:29-34

3. Solomon’s Building and Other Projects: 5:1--9:28

a. Solomon’s Temple and Palace Complex: 5:1--9:14

1) The Preparation of Materials for Solomon’s Temple: 5:1-18

2) The Construction of Solomon’s Temple: 6:1--7:1

a) The External Structure--Walls, Foundation, Supporting Structures, Roof: 6:1-14

b) The Internal Structure--Paneling, Partitioning, Entrances: 6:15-35

c) The Inner Court: 16:36

d) Summary: 17:1

3) The Construction of the Palace Complex: 7:2-12

a) Solomon’s Building Projects: 7:2-8

(1) The House of the Lebanon Forest: 7:2-5

(2) The Hall of Pillars: 7:6

(3) The Throne Hall: 7:7

(4) The Royal Residence: 7:8a

(5) The Queen’s Residence: 7:8b

b) Methods of Construction: 7:9-12

(1) Preparation of the Stones: 7:9

(2) Application of Stones: 7:10-11

(3) Construction of the Court Walls: 7:12

4) Hiram’s Bronze and Gold Furnishings for the Temple: 7:13-51a

a) Hiram’s Credentials: 7:13-14

b) The Pillars before the Temple: 7:15-22

(1) The Casting of the Pillars: 7:15

(2) The Crafting of the Capitals: 7:16-20

(3) The Erection and Dedication of the Pillars: 7:21-22

c) The Reservoir and the Watercarts: 7:23-39

(1) The Reservoir and Its Oxen Pedestal: 7:23-26

(2) The Watercarts: 7:27-37

(3) The Bronze Leavers: 7:38

(4) Positioning of the Watercarts and Reservoir: 7:39

d) Miscellaneous Utensils and Hiram’s Craftwork : 7:40-44

e) The Casting Process: 7:45-50

f) Concluding Summary: 7:51

5) The Dedication Ceremony of the Temple: 8:1--9:9

a) Bringing the Ark into the Temple: 8:1-13

(1) Introduction: 8:1

(2) The Transfer of the Ark: 8:2-11

b) Dedication of the Temple: 8:12-66

(1) Hymn of Introduction: 8:12-14

(2) Solomon’s Dedicatory Recitation: 8:14-61

(3) The Dedication: 8:62-66

c) God’s Second Confirmatory Appearance to Solomon: 9:1-9

(1) The Narrative Setting: 9:1-3a

(2) Promise for the Temple: 9:3b

(3) Conditional Promise for Solomon: 9:6-9

b. Solomon’s Financial, Labour, and Trade Policy: 9:10-28

1) Barter for Galilean Cities--Agreement with Hiram of Tyre: 9:10-14

a) Editorial Introduction: 9:10-11a

b) The Proposition: 9:11b

c) Inspection and Deprecation: 9:12-13

d) Conclusion of the Sale: 9:14

2) Other Buildings and Forced Labor: 9:15-25

a) Building Accomplishments: 9:15-19

b) Personnel: 9:20-23

c) Pharaoh’s Daughter Goes to Her new House: 9:24a

d) The Millo: 9:24b

e) Solomon’s Ritual Devotion: 9:25a

f) Editorial Conclusion: 9:25b

3) Trade at Ezion-geber--Gold from Ophir: 9:26-28

4. A Positive and Negative Assessment of Solomon’s Reign: 10:1--11:43

a. The Glory of Solomon’s Kingdom: 10:1-29

1) Acknowledgement by the Queen of Sheba: 10:1-13

a) The Royal Visit of the Queen of Sheba: 10:1-3

b) Praise of Solomon’s Wisdom: 10:4-9

c) The Mutual Exchange of Gifts: 10:10-13

(1) The Queen’s Gifts to Solomon: 10:10a

(2) Annotation of Solomon’s Wealth and Prosperity: 10:10b-12

(3) Solomon’s Gifts to the Queen of Sheba: 10:13

2) Solomon’s Wealth and Wisdom: 10:14-29

a) The Import of Gold: 10:14-15

b) The Manufacture of Golden Shields: 10:16-17

c) The Ivory Throne: 10:18-20

d) The Drinking Vessels and Source of Gold: 10:21-22

e) The Coming of People with Gifts for Solomon: 10:23-25

f) Solomon’s Chariotry: 10:26

g) The Commonness of Gold, Silver, and Cedar: 10:27

h) Solomon’s Commerce in Horses and Chariots: 10:28-29

b. The Unrest at the End of Solomon’s Reign and its Causes: 11:1-43

1) Solomon’s Numerous Wives and Their Idolatrous Influence: 11:1-13

a) Solomon’s Marriages: 11:1-2

b) Solomon’s Harem: 11:3a

c) Solomon’s Idolatry: 11:3b-8

d) The Threatened Punishment--Loss of Kingship: 11:9-13

2) Three Potential Rivals--Haddad of Edom, Rezon of Damascus, and Jeroboam the son of Nebat: 11:14-40

a) The History of Hadad: 11:14-22

(1) The Israelite Menace to Edom: 11:14-16

(2) Hadad’s Flight to Egypt: 11:17-18

(3) Affiliation with Pharaoh’s Family: 11:19-20

(4) Preparation for Return: 11:21-22

b) History of Rezon: 11:23-28

(1) Formation of a Fugitive Band: 11:23-24a

(2) Seizure of the Capital and the Menace to Israel: 11:24b-25

c) The History Jeroboam: 11:26-40

(1) Introduction: 11:26

(2) Jeroboam Put in Charge of a Large Work-Force: 11:27-28

(3) The Ahijah Story: 11:29-38

(4) Jeroboam Flees from Solomon: 11:40

3) The Conclusion of Solomon’s Reign--Length of Reign, Death, Burial, and Successor (Rehoboam): 11:41-43

II. THE DIVIDED KINGDOM--AN EVALUATION OF THE HISTORY OF THE KINGS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH UNTIL THE DESTRUCTION OF THE NORTHERN KINGDOM OF ISRAEL: After the united monarchy divided into two kingdoms under Rehoboam’s heavy hand upon the people, the leaders of the two kingdoms slipped into evil only to reject the partial, gracious deliverance brought through the prophets (Elijah and Elisha) so that the northern kingdom ultimately, and deservedly fell to the Assyrians under the direction of God (I Kings 12:1--II Kings 17:41)

A. The Division of the Kingdom into Two Kingdoms:4 When Rehoboam refused to treat his subjects with a lighter hand than his father Solomon had treated them, the eleven northern tribes (save Judah) rebelled against the house of David and proclaimed the returned Jeroboam as their King, but Judah was not allowed to fight against them since the Lord had caused this to occur 12:1-24

1. The Rejection of Rehoboam by the Assembly at Shechem: 12:1-19

a. Rehoboam’s Dilemma: 12:1-5

1) Introduction: 12:1

2) Background Information Concerning Jeroboam: 12:2

3) The Concern of the People: 12:3-5

b. Rehoboam’s Response to the Concern of the People: 12:6-15

1) Rehoboam Consults Veteran Counselors--Positive: 12:6-7

2) Rehoboam Consults the Newcomers--Negative: 12:8-11

3) Rehoboam’s Reply--Negative: 12:12-15

a) The People Return: 12:12

b) Rehoboam Ignores the Veteran’s Counsel: 12:12

c) Rehoboam Repeats the Counsel of the Newcomers: 12:14-15

c. All of Israel’s Reaction (Rebellion) to Rehoboam’s Decision: 12:16-20

1) Israel’s Rebellion against Rehoboam: 12:16-19

a) Perception of Rehoboam’s Ill-Will: 12:16a

b) A Defiant Reply--Departure from the House of David: 12:16

c) Rehoboam Reigned Over the Sons of Judah: 12:17

d) Israel’s Continued Rebellion against the House of David: 12:18-19

2) The Adoption of Jeroboam as King by Israel’s Eleven Tribes (all but Judah): 12:20

a) Jeroboam’s Coronation: 12:20a

b) Israel’s Rejection of the House of David: 12:20b

2. Rehoboam’s Reprisals Checked by Prophetic Intervention: 12:21-24

a. Preparation of a Potent Military Force by Rehoboam: 12:21

b. Shemaiah’s Prophetic Prohibition: 12:22-24a

c. The People’s Compliance: 12:24b

B. A Synchronistic Account of the Two Kingdoms up to Ahab: The successive reigns of the northern and southern kingdoms are theologically evaluated up to Ahab I Kings 12:25--16:34

1. Jeroboam’s Evil Reign in the North and the Prophets: 12:25--14:20

a. Significant Religious Innovations: 12:25-32

1) Jeroboam’s Building Activities: 12:25

2) Report Concerning the Golden Calves: 12:26-30a

a) Resolve to prevent travel to Jerusalem: 12:26-27

b) Fabrication and Dedication of the Golden Calves: 12:28-29

c) Concluding Censure: 12:30a

3) Complaints Against Jeroboam’s Religious Innovations: 12:30b-32

a) Procession to Dan: 12:30b

b) New Shrines: 12:31a

c) New Priests: 12:31b

d) A New Festal Calendar: 12:32a

e) Sacrifice to the Bethel Calves: 12:32b

f) New Priests at Bethel: 12:32c

b. The Prophecy by a Man from Judah against the Bethel Altar:5 12:33--13:34

1) Transition--Jeroboam at the Bethel Altar: 12:33

2) The Word against the Bethel Altar: 13:1-10

a) An Oracle Uttered and Substantiated: 13:1-6

(1) A Judahite Man of God Denounces the Altar: 13:1-2

(2) The King’s Reprisal Frustrated: 13:4-6

b) The Communication of Attendant Revelation: 13:7-10

(1) The King’s Invitation: 13:7

(2) The Man of God’s Refusal and Its Explanation: 13:8-9

3) The Testing of the Attendant Revelation: 13:11-25

a) The Violation: 13:11-19

(1) The Bethel Prophet Finds the Man of God: 13:11-14

(2) His Invitation Refused: 13:15-17

(3) His Invitation Accepted: 13:18-19

b) The Punishment: 13:20-25

(1) An Oracle of Imminent Death: 13:20-22

(2) The Oracle’s Fulfillment: 13:23-25

4) Confirmation of the Prophetic Power of the Judahite Man of God: 13:26-32

a) The Bethel Prophet Disposes of the Body: 13:26-30

(1) Interpretive Identification: 13:26

(2) Recovery and Burial of the Man of God’s body: 13:28-30

b) The Bethel Prophet Prepares for His Own Burial: 13:31-32

(1) Instructions to His Sons: 13:31

(2) Explanation: 13:32

5) Further Complaints Against Jeroboam’s Cultic Practices: 13:33-34

c. The Consequences of Jeroboam’s Religion--Death of His Child: 14:1-20

1) Jeroboam Seeks a Revelation of Healing for His Son: 14:1-4a

2) Ahijah Reveals Doom on Jeroboam’s House: 14:4b-18

d. Closing Summary for Jeroboam: 14:19-20

2. Rehoboam’s Evil Reign in the South: 14:21-31

a. Introductory Summary for Rehoboam: 14:21-22a

b. Theological Condemnation of Judah’s Cultic Sins: 14:22b-24

c. Shishak of Egypt Plunders Rehoboam: 14:25-26

d. Rehoboam’s Replacement of Materials--Bronze Shields: 14:27-28

e. Closing Summary for Rehoboam: 14:29-31

3. Abijah’s Evil Reign in the South: 15:1-8

a. Introductory Summary: 15:1-2

b. Theological Assessment: 15:3-5

c. Constant War between Rehoboam and Jeroboam: 15:6

d. Closing Summary: 15:7-8

4. Asa’s Good Reign in the South: 15:9-24

a. Introductory Summary: 15:9-10

b. Cult Reforms and Theological Assessment: 15:11-15

c. Constant War Between Asa and Baasha King of Israel: 15:16

d. Asa’s Alliance with Ben-Hadad of Syria: 15:17-22

1) The Proposal: 15:17-19

a) Baasha’s Threat--A Fort at Ramah: 15:17

b) Asa’s Embassage to Damascus: 15:18-19

(1) The Gift: 15:18

(2) Bribery to Betrayal: 15:19

2) The Compliance: 15:20

a) Preparations for Syrian Aggression: 15:20a

b) The Campaign: 15:20b

3) The Result: 15:21-22

a) Baasha Withdraws: 15:21

b) Asa Builds Counterfortresses: 15:22

e. Closing Summary: 15:23-24

5. Nadab’s Evil Reign in the North: 15:25-31

a. Introductory Summary: 15:25

b. Theological Assessment: 15:26

c. Notice of Baasha’s Conspiracy: 15:27-28

d. Interpretation as Fulfillment of Prophecy against Jeroboam’s House: 15:29-30

e. Closing Summary: 15:31

6. Baasha’s Evil Reign in the North: 15:32--16:7

a. Introductory Summary: 15:33

b. Theological Assessment: 15:34

c. Report of Jehu’s Condemnation: 16:1-4

1) Narrative Introduction: 16:1

2) Invective: 16:2

3) Threat: 16:3-4

d. Closing Summary: 16:5-7

7. Elah’s Evil Reign in the North: 16:8-14

a. Introductory Summary: 16:8

b. Notice of Zimri’s Conspiracy: 16:9-10

c. Interpretation as Fulfillment of Prophecy against Baasha’s House: 16:11-12

d. Theological Interpretation: 16:13

e. Closing Summary: 16:14

8. Zimri’s Evil Reign in the North: 16:15-22

a. Introductory Summary: 16:15a

b. Narrative of Omri’s Rebellion and Zimri’s Death: 16:15b-20

1) Omri Besieges Tirzah: 16:15b-17

a) Encampment before Gibberthon: 16:15b

b) Omri Acclaimed at the Report of Zimri’s Conspiracy: 16:16

c) The March of Tirzah: 16:17

2) Zimri’s Despair and Suicide: 16:18

3) Theological Assessment: 16:19

4) Concluding Summary: 16:20

c. Notice of Rivalry between Tibni and Omri: 16:21-22

1) The People Divided: 16:21

2) Omri’s Ultimate Supremacy: 16:22

9. Omri’s Evil Reign in the North:6 16:23-28

a. Introductory Summary: 16:23

b. Notice of Omri’s Purchase of Samaria: 16:24

c. Theological Assessment: 16:25-26

d. Concluding Summary: 16:27-28

10. Ahab’s Evil Reign in the North: 16:29-34

a. Introductory Summary: 16:29

b. Theological Assessment: 16:30-33

c. Notice of the Rebuilding of Jericho: 16:34

C. An Account of the Two Kingdoms from the Reign of Ahab to the Revolt of Jehu--The Prophetic Ministries of Elijah and Elisha: While the northern kingdom moves towards collapse because of the evil of her rulers, God extends grace through his prophets and through (as well as to) the kings of the south (I Kings 17:1--II Kings 10:36)

1. A Continuation of Ahab’s Evil Reign in the North: 17:1--22:40

a. Elijah’s Call: 17:1-6

b. The Prophetic Ministry of Elijah: 17:1--19:21

1) Elijah and the Widow at Zarephath: 17:7-24

2) Elijah and Obadiah: 18:1-15

3) Elijah’s Spiritual Struggle: 18:16--19:21

a) Elijah and the Prophets of Baal: 18:16-46

b) Elijah and Jezebel: 19:1-9a

c) Elijah and the Lord: 19:9b-18

d) Elijah and the Call of Elisha: 19:19-21

c. Ahab and the Campaign for Samaria: 20:1-43

1) The Aramean Crisis: 20:1-12

2) The Israelite Triumph: 20:13-34

3) The Prophet’s Rebuke: 20:35-43

d. Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard: 21:1-29

1) The Problem of Naboth’s Reticence: 21:1-7

a) The Unsuccessful Negotiation: 21:1-3

(1) The Situation: 21:1

(2) Ahab’s Offer: 21:2

(3) Naboth’s Refusal: 21:3

b) The Prospect of Successful Intervention: 21:4-7

(1) Ahab’s Dejection: 21:4

(2) Jezebel Resolution: 21:5-7

2) The Problem Resolved through the Abuse of Authority: 21:8-16

a) Jezebel Engineers Naboth’s Judicial Murder: 21:8-14

(1) Her Forged Letters: 21:8-10

(2) Narrative of Compliance: 21:11-13

(3) The Report to Jezebel: 21:14

b) Jezebel Disposes of Her Prize: 21:15-16

(1) Her Offer to Ahab: 21:15

(2) Ahab Prepares to Take Possession: 21:16

3) Prophetic Judgment on the Abuse of Authority: 21:17-29

a) Elijah Condemns Ahab: 21:17-26

(1) The Divine Instruction: 21:17-19

(2) The Confrontation: 21:20

(3) The Future of Ahab’s House: 21:21-22

(4) Jezebel’s Death: 21:23

(5) Final Assessment of Ahab’s Sins: 21:24-26

b) Reinterpretation--The Judgment Deferred: 21:27-29

(1) Ahab’s Contrition: 21:27

(2) An Oracle of Reapplication to Ahab’s Son: 21:28-29

e. Ahab and the Campaign for Ramoth Gilead--Two Narratives of Micaiah’s Unfavorable Oracle: 22:1-40

1) Narrative A--An Unfavorable Oracle Supersedes a Favorable Oracle: 22:1-9

a) The Problem--Need for Supporting Revelation: 22:1-9

(1) The Proposal of “holy war” against Syria: 22:1-4

(2) The Search for Divine Approval: 22:5-9

(3) An Arrangement for Confirmation: 22:7-9

2) Narrative B--The Court of Heaven Prevails over the Court at Samaria: 22:10-14

a) The Revelatory Confrontation at Samaria: 22:10-13

(1) The Situation: 22:10

(2) Zedekiah’s Favorable Oracle: 22:11-13

b) The Revelatory Confrontation in Heaven: 22:14

3) Narrative A Continued: 21:15-18

a) The Confrontation: Conflict between a favoring and an Unfavorable Oracle: 21:15-18

(1) The Initial Favoring Oracle: 21:15-16

(2) The Superseding Unfavorable Oracle: 21:17-18

4) Narrative B Continued: 21:19-25

a) Micaiah’s Unfavorable Oracle: 22:19-23

(1) Formal Introduction: 22:19-22

(2) Interpretive Announcement: 22:23

b) Resolution: The Diatribe between Zedekiah and Micaiah: 22:24-25

(1) Zedekiah’s Rebuke: 22:24

(2) Micaiah’s Rejoinder: 22:25

5) Narrative A Continued: 21:26-40

a) The Interpretive Diatribe: 22:26-28

b) Resolution--Fulfillment of the Unfavorable Oracle: 22:29-40

(1) Transition--the Scene Shifted to Ramoth-Gilead: 22:29

(2) A Subterfuge Frustrated: 22:30-34

(3) Denouement--The Battle Ends with the Death of the King of Israel: 22:36

(4) Resumptive Conclusion: 37-38

6) Concluding Summary for Ahab: 22:29-40

2. Jehoshaphat’s Good Reign in the South: 22:41-50

a. Introductory Summary: 22:41-42

b. Theological Assessment: 22:43

c. The Judahite Kings: 22:44-47

d. Notice of Prospective Maritime Ventures: 22:48-49

e. Concluding Summary for Jehoshaphat: 22:50

3. Ahaziah’s (Son of Ahab) Evil Reign in the North: 1 Kings 22:51--2 Kings 1:18

a. Introductory Summary: 22:51

b. Theological Assessment: 22:52-53

c. Elijah’s Denunciation of Ahaziah and the Fatal Attempt to Arrest Elijah: 2.1:1-18

4. The Eras of Jehoram in the North and Jehoram and Ahaziah in the South: 2.2:1--8:29

a. Prophetic Transition--Elijah and Elisha:7 2.2:1-25

1) The Translation of Elijah and the Commission of Elisha: 2:1-18

2) The Restoration of the Spring at Jericho: 2:19-22

3) Elisha and the Rude Boys of Bethel: 2:23-25

b. Jehoram in the North, the Moabite Campaign and the Advent of Elisha in Public Life: 2.3:1-27

1) Moab Revolts: 3:1-12

2) Victory over Moab and Abundant Water Promised: 3:13-19

3) The Defeat of Moab: 3:20-27

c. Stories about Elisha:8 2.4:1--8:15

1) Elisha’s Miracles: 2.4:1--6:7

a) The Replenishing of the Widow’s Oil: 4:1-7

b) The Revivification of the Shunammite’s Son: 4:8-37

c) The Rectification of Dinner Problems: 4:38-44

(1) Death in the Pot: 4:38-41

(2) Feeding a Multitude: 4:42-44

d) The Restoration of Naaman: 5:1-27

e) The Recovery of the Axhead: 6:1-7

2) Elisha’s Ministry: 2.6:8--8:15

a) Prelude to War--The Aramean Incursion--Elisha Deceiving the Syrians: 6:8-23

b) The Siege of Samaria by the Syrians in the lifetime of Elisha: 6:24--7:20

c) Postscript to War--the Restitution of the Shunammite’s Land and the Coup d’état of Hazael: 8:1-15

(1) The Shunammite Regains Her Land: 8:1-6

(2) Elisha and Hazael of Damascus: 8:7-15

d. Jehoram Evil Reign in the South: 8:15-24

e. Ahaziah Evil in the South: 8:25-29

5. Jehu’s Revolt in the North: 9:1--10:36

a. Jehu Anointed King: 9:1-13

b. The Death of the Kings of Israel and Judah: 9:14-29

c. Jezebel Killed: 9:30-37

d. The Massacre of two Royal Families of Israel and Judah and of Baal Worshipers:9 10:1-31

e. Epilogue to the Reign of Jehu and Obituary Notice: 10:32-36

D. A Synchronistic Account of the Two Kingdoms to the The Decline and Fall of the Northern Kingdom of Israel: Although there were some good kings in the south, the kings in the north continued in their evil until Samaria was taken captive by Assyria (2 Kings 11:1--17:41)

1. Athaliah’s Evil Reign in the South and the Conspiracy of Jehoiada: 2.11:1-20

a. Athaliah’s Plot: 11:1-3

b. Jehoiada’s Plan: 11:4-8

c. The Plot as Carried Out: 11:9-12

d. The Death of Athaliah: 11:13-16

e. The Renewal of the Covenant: 11:17-20

2. Joash’s Good Reign in the South: Joash begins his reign in obedience, but ends in apostasy 2.11:21--12:21

a. Summary of Reign: 11:21--12:3

b. Temple Repairs: 12:4-16

c. Annalalistic Details: 12:17-21

3. Jehoahaz’s Evil Reign in the North: 2.13:1-9

a. Jehoahaz was disobedient: 13:1-2

b. Jehoahaz was disciplined by God through Hazael and Ben-Hadad 13:3-9

4. Jehoash’s Evil Reign in the North: 2.13:10-25

a. Summary of Reign: 13:10-13

b. The Closing events of Elisha’s Life: 13:14-21

c. A Note on Israel-Aram Relations: 13:22-25

5. Amaziah’s Good Reign in the South: 2.14:1-22

a. Summary of Reign: 14:1-7

b. Israel Fights Judah: 14:8-16

c. The End of Amaziah: 14:17-22

6. Jeroboam II’s Evil Reign in the North: 2.14:23-29

a. Introductory Summary: 14:23

b. Theological Evaluation: 14:24

c. God’s Provision for Israel: 14:25-27

d. Concluding Summary: 14:28-29

7. Azariah’s (Uzziah’s) Good Reign in the South: 2.15:1-7

a. Introductory Summary: 15:1-2

b. Theological Evaluation: 15:3-5

c. Concluding Summary:10 15:6-7

8. Zechariah’s Evil Reign in the North: 2.15:8-12

a. Introductory Summary: 15:8

b. Theological Evaluation: 15:9

c. Conspiracy of Shallum: 15:10

d. Concluding Summary: 15:11-12

9. Shallum’s Evil Reign in the North: 2.15:13-16

a. Introductory Summary: 15:13

b. Assassination by Menahem: 15:14

c. Concluding Summary: 15:15

d. Menahem’s Evil in Tiphsah: 15:16

10. Menahem’s Evil Reign in Israel: 2.15:17-22

a. Introductory Summary: 15:17

b. Theological Evaluation: 15:18

c. Menahem and Pul, the King of Assyria: 15:19-20

d. Concluding Summary: 15:21-22

11. Pekahiah’s Evil Reign in the North: 2.15:23-26

a. Introductory Summary: 15:23

b. Theological Evaluation: 15:24

c. Conspiracy of Pekah: 15:25

d. Concluding Summary: 15:26

12. Pekah’s Evil Reign in the North: 2.15:27-31

a. Introductory Summary: 15:27

b. Theological Evaluation: 15:28

c. The Threat of Tiglath-pileser, King of Assyria: 15:29

d. Conspiracy of Pekah: 15:30

e. Concluding Summary: 15:31

13. Jotham’s Good Reign in the South: 2.15:32-38

a. Introductory Summary: 15:32-33

b. Theological Evaluation: 15:34-35

c. Concluding Summary: 15:36-38

14. Ahaz’s Evil Reign in Judah: 2.16:1-20

a. Summary of Reign: 16:1-4

b. The Syro-Ephramite Attack:11 16:5-6

c. The Appeal to Assyria: 16:7-9

d. Ahaz Makes Innovations in the Temple: 16:10-18

e. Concluding Formula for Ahaz’ Reign: 16:19-20

15. Hoshea’s Evil Reign in the North, the Fall of the Northern Kingdom, and the Assyrian Resettlement: 2.17:1-41

a. The Reign of Hoshea in the North: 17:1-23

1) Occasion of the Exile:12 17:1-6

2) The Reasons for Israel’s Exile: 17:7-18

3) Sin and Retribution in Judah: 17:19-20

4) A Further Summary of Israel’s Sin: 17:21-23

b. The Repopulation of Samaria: 17:24-41

1) Samaria is Resettled: 17:24-28

2) The Colonists’ Differing Religious Practices: 17:29-41

III. THE SOUTHERN KINGDOM--AN EVALUATION OF THE HISTORY OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH FROM THE FALL OF SAMARIA TO THE FALL OF JERUSALEM:13 Even through Hezekiah and Josiah were good kings who fostered revival in Judah, the other kings were evil and sought their security with the nations around them only to be ultimately judged by God through the Babylonians, but YHWH remained faithful to his promise to David through the living and honoring of Jehoiachin, king of Judah, in Babylon (II Kings 18:1--25:30)

A. Hezekiah’s Good Reign: 2.18:1--20:21

1. Hezekiah’s Accession and Early Deeds: 18:1-12

a. Hezekiah’s Goodness: 18:1-8

b. Samaria’s Capture: 18:9-12

2. The Assyrian Invasion--Opposing Sennacherib’s Threats to Jerusalem: 18:13--19:37

a. The Assyrian Invasion: 18:13-37

1) Sennacherib Campaigns in Judah:14 18:13-16

2) Sennacherib Threatens Jerusalem: 18:17-37

b. Jerusalem’s Deliverance Foretold: 19:1-36

1) The Lord’s Promise: 19:1-7

2) The Lord’s Diversion: 19:8-13

3) Hezekiah’s Prayer: 19:14-19

4) The Lord’s Answer: 19:20-34

5) Sennacherib’s Departure and Death: 19:35-37

3. Hezekiah’s Illness and Miraculous Recovery--Isaiah’s Intervention: 20:1-11

4. Hezekiah and Envoys from Merodach-baladan: 20:12-19

5. Concluding Summary: 20:20-21

B. Manasseh’s Evil Reign: 2.21:1-18

1. Introductory Summary: 21:1-9

2. God’s Word to Manasseh: 21:10-15

3. Further Events and Concluding Summary: 21:16-18

C. Amon’s Evil Reign: 2.21:19-26

1. Introductory Summary: 21:19

2. Theological Evaluation: 21:20-22

3. Conspiracy against Amon: 21:23-24

4. Concluding Summary: 21:25-26

D. Josiah’s Good Reign:15 2.22:1--23:30

1. Introductory Summary: 22:1

2. Theological Evaluation: 22:2

3. Temple Repairs and Discovering the Book of the Law: 22:3--23:3

a. The Temple Repairs: 22:3b-7

b. Hilkiah’s, the High Priest’s Discovery of the Book of the Law: 22:8-13

c. The Prophecy of Huldah the Prophetess: 22:14-20

d. Reforms by Josiah: 23:1-23

1) Josiah Renews the Covenant: 23:1-3

2) The Purification of National Worship: 23:4-20

3) The Celebration of the Passover: 23:21-23

4) Further Reforms and Deferred Judgment: 23:14-17

4. Concluding Summary:16 23:24-27

E. Jehoahaz’s Evil Reign:17 2.23:31-35

1. Introductory Summary: 23:31

2. Theological Evaluation: 23:32

3. Imprisonment and Fine by Pharaoh Neco: 23:32

F. Jehoiakim’s Evil Reign:18 2.23:36--24:7

1. Introductory Summary: 23:36

2. Theological Evaluation: 23:37

3. Servitude to Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon for Three years, Rebellion, and Judgment through the Chaldeans, Arameans, Moabites, Ammonites: 24:1-4

4. Closing Summary: 24:5-7

G. Jehoiachin’s Evil Reign and the First Deportation: 2.24:8-17

1. Introductory Summary: 24:8

2. Theological Evaluation: 24:9

3. Defeat and Leading Away of the King, His Family, and the Best of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar: 24:10-16

4. Nebuchadnezzar Made Mattaniah, the Uncle of Jehoiachin, King in Judah and Renamed Him Zedekiah: 24:17

H. Zedekiah’s Evil Reign and the Fall of Jerusalem: 2.24:18--25:21

1. Introductory Summary: 24:18

2. Theological Evaluation: 24:19

3. Rebellion against the King of Babylon: 24:20

4. Nebuchadnezzar’s Siege of Jerusalem: 25:1-12

a. The Capture of the City: 25:1-3

b. The Capture of Zedekiah: 25:4-7

c. The Destruction of Jerusalem: 25:8-10

d. The Deportation of the People: 25:11-12

e. The Plundering of the Temple: 25:13-17

f. The Deportation and Killing of Leaders from the City: 25:18-21a

5. Summary: Judah was Led Away into Exile from Its Land 25:21a

I. Historical Appendixes--Judah under Babylonian Government: Although the citizens of Judah rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar’s appointed governor, Gedaliah, Evil-merodach released Jehoiachin during the 37th year of the exile and honored him all the days of his life 2.25:22-30

1. Gedaliah, Governor of Judah: Although Gedaliah was appointed governor over the people of Judah and assured them of peace if they obeyed Babylon, Ishmael assassinated Gedaliah and the people fled to Egypt out of fear of the Chaldeans 25:22-26

a. Nebuchadnezzar’s appointment of Gadaliah as Governor over the People left in Judah: 25:22

b. Gedaliah’s Assurance of Peace for Obedience to Babylon: 25:23-25

c. Ishmael’s Assassination of Gedaliah and the People’s Flight to Egypt: 25:16-17

2. Jehoiachin’s Release in Babylon:19 Evil-merodach, King of Babylon, released Jehoiachin, king of Judah, from prison in the 37th year of the exile on the 27 day of 12 month of his reign and honored him by speaking kindly to him, seating him above other kings, changing his clothes, allowing him to dine with him and giving him an allowance 25:27-30

a. The Release of Jehoiachin, King of Judah, from Prison: 25:27

b. Honor of Jehoiachin: 25:28-30

1) Spoke Kindly to Him and Set His Throne above Other Kings: 25:28

2) Change from Prison Clothes and Meals with King: 25:29

3) Giving of an Allowance to Jehoiachin: 25:30

1 This outline is adapted through my own study from the analyses of Brevard S. Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture, 288; Thomas, L. Constable, 1 Kings & 2 Kings, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures by Dallas Seminary Faculty: Old Testament, 485-486, 537; Simon J. DeVries, 1 Kings. Word Biblical Commentary, Vol. 12. (Waco: Word Books, Publisher, 1985); John Gray, I and II Kings: A Commentary. Second Edition, fully revised. Old Testament Library, vii-xi; Andrew E. Hill and John H. Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament,207; Elliott E. Johnson, I Kings, and II Kings, unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II, (Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1981); Gwilym. H. Jones, 1 and 2 Kings, The New Century Bible Commentary,. 2 volumes, 1:82-85; Richard D. Patterson, and Hermann J. Austel, 1, 2 Kings, in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, 4:21-24; Donald J. Wiseman, 1 & 2 Kings: An Introduction & Commentary, 60-66.

2 Solomon seems to be evaluated in three areas: (1) his election of God, (2) his gifts, wisdom, and government from God, and (3) his service from a divided heart. Johnson writes, The negative taste left in the mouths of most readers is the result of compromise in his service. His service reaches it apex in the building of and worship in the Temple and its disastrous contrast in the worship of pagan deities with his wives (Elliott E. Johnson, I Kings, unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II, 18).

3 Within DeVries own structure he summarizes this unit well: The main element of tension within chap. 1 is whether David can summon sufficient power of will in an hour of crisis to assure the accession of Solomon. There are three main subsections, two very short and one remarkably long. The four verses at the beginning tell us all we need to know about the perilous situation: David has become too feeble to respond even to the intimate presence of a lively beauty. The four verses at the end are, as we have seen, proleptic, laying the groundwork for chap. 2. In the long middle section the author needs no more than six verses to tell us all we need to know about Adonijah and those who supported and opposed him. One verse at the end of this middle section (v. 49) states the dispersal of Adonijah's party. The long central section contains the three gripping scenes that we have identified in which (1) David is aroused to action, vv 11-27; (2) David's order for Solomon's investiture is carried out, vv 28-40; and (3) Adonijah's feast is spoiled by news of what has occurred, vv 41-48 (Simon J. DeVries, 1 Kings, 11).

4 Johnson writes, The division in Solomon is reflected in the division in the nation and the attitude of the successive kings. Each king is now evaluated individually. The author uses the voice of the prophets to judge sin which reaches its climax in Elijah. In addition each kings is evaluated according to the standards of Jeroboam in Israel (cf. 13:33, 34; 15:25-26, 33, 34 etc.) and David in Judah (14:21-24; 15:3-5, 11-15; etc.) (I Kings, 18).

5 See DeVries for a fine explanation of this passage (1 Kings, 173-74).

6 For those who divide this material into dynasties in the northern Kingdom, this would mark the era of the third dynasty (after Solomon and Jeroboam) or an emphasis upon the house of Omri (see Wiseman, 1 & 2 Kings, 62; Patterson and Hermann, 1 Kings, in EBC, 4:22).

7 Corl identifies this section with the prophets as providing a minor movement within Kings moving from the unideal state of Ahab & Jezebel upward to the deliverance brought by Jehu. He writes, The story of Elisha actually ends with his death in chapter 13 during the reign of Jehoash. However the cycle completes its movement with the eradication of Baal by Jehu, so that Elisha's last encounter with a king is only a continuation of the movement in chapter 10 (J. Banks Corl, Elijah and Elisha within the Argument of Kings, ThM Thesis, 47, 57 n. 4; see also 48-52). Later he writes, Within this framework, Elijah ministered as a reformer while the nation was under the curse (unideal) of the covenant, whereas Elisha took office just as the nation crossed into a more ideal covenant situation (blessing) in which he could function as God's agent of deliverance (Ibid., 52).

He identifies the message of the book as The choice by the kings and people to reject YHWH's covenant through their persistent disobedience and idolatry, and in spite of the efforts of the prophets, resulted in their exile as a well-deserved judgment (Ibid., 53). Then he writes, Obviously the clause ...and in spite of the efforts of the prophets is of greatest importance in determining how the stories of Elijah and Elisha advanced the argument. The efforts of the prophets refers generally to their ministry of warning the nation of impending judgment for sin ...(2 Kings 17:13).

The ministries of Elijah and Elisha exemplify this effort dramatically and clearly. The shear proportion of the narrative given to them has already been discussed in some detail. Using the principle of proportion, this seems to be the writer's way of highlighting these two prophets in particular as examples of how urgently God tried to forewarn the nation and forestall judgment. It is not just the length, however, but the magnitude of their stories which impresses the reader. As was said, within the whole canon their ministries are one of only four periods of prolific miracles. The abundance of signs, whether the display of power at Carmel, or judgment of fire upon Ahaziah's troops, or miraculous provision for the two widows, or healings or deliverance from an enemy, all underscore the intensity with which YHWH strove to turn the hearts of His people back to Him. In short, Elijah and Elisha show the extent to which God went to prevent exile. The significance of this for the author's audience is that YHWH's working in the nation's history is made crystal clear. None of the exiles reading Kings could have [accused] God of idly standing by (Ibid., 53).

8 It is very probable that Elijah was preparatory for the work that Elisha would carry out (cf. Malachi 4:5, 6; Matthew 17:11-13; J. Banks Corl, Elijah and Elisha within the Argument of Kings, ThM Thesis, 50-51).

9 Corl writes, It must be kept in mind that Kings is focusing primarily on cultic purity in its evaluations. This emphasis explains why the writer of Kings does not make any negative comment on Jehu's slaughter of innocent men in Jezreel, namely Ahaziah of Judah and 42 of his relatives (2 Kings 9:27-28; 10:12-14). Jehu went beyond the command of the Lord in striking the house of David. While their deaths were not actually in Jezreel, they were associated with that place of slaughter. The writer of Kings passes over this act of wrong without comment, and even goes on to commend Jehu for having 'done to the house of Ahab according to all that was in My heart ...' (2 Kings 10:30), making the purge of Ahab's dynasty the basis for blessing. The prophet Hoses, on the other hand, roundly condemns Jehu's brutal act (Hosea 1:4) and makes it the basis for the Assyrian judgment on the northern kingdom. In light of this the interpreter must be careful not to read into the message of kings what was ... revealed in Hosea. The two writers wrote for different purposes, with different messages. The writer of Kings wanted to emphasize the aspect of cultic reform in the north (J. Banks Corl, Elijah and Elisha within the Argument of Kings, ThM Thesis, 57, n. 2).

10 By the date of Uzziah's death, 740 B.C., Tiglath-pileser had conquered all of northern Syria.

11 Judah would not participate in the Syro-Ephraimite coalition. The coalition attempted to overthrow the Davidic dynasty to appoint a king who would join the coalition (cf. Isa 7:1).

12 Israel's king*Hoshea (in the North) paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser in 732 B.C. In 727 B.C. Tiglath-pileser died and Hoshea (who overtook Pekah in Israel) refused (in alliance with So of Egypt) to pay tribute to Shalmaneser V as he had to Tiglath-Pileser (2 Ki 17:4). In 722/21 B.C. Assyria (Shalmaneser and his succesor Sargon II) moved against Israel. After a three year siege, took the capital of Samaria (722/21) and carried the people into captivity. Shalmaneser died in 721 B.C.

13 Johnson writes, As Ahaz is a pivot figure in the book, he introduces the final foreign influence which ultimately destroys Judah. The progressive movement in collapse is traced as the kings first trust the suzerainty of Assyria then Egypt and then Babylon. They flit about as lovers trying to seduce the foreign nation to love and protect them.

The pattern is only interrupted by the two good kings who provide the clearest examples of faith and reformation found in the Davidic line.

Although YHWH allows the sin which ultimately brings judgment, He stands behind His promise to honor the Davidic seed as he lives on as the book closes (Elliott E. Johnson, II Kings, unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II, 17).

14 In 720 B.C. Assyria under Sargon II expanded unto the northern boundary of Judah. Judah was also left alone when many of the city states of Palestine and Syria along with Egypt rebelled against Assyria and were put down in 720 B.C. In 713-11 B.C. Judah (under Hezekiah) joined an uprising along with Egypt, Edom, and Moab against Assyria. Sargon II of Assyria took Ashdod and Gath leaving Judah vulnerable. In 705 Sargon died leading many (including Babylon and Judah under Hezekiah) to revolt. Sennacherib (of Assyria) retaliated in 701 B.C. defeating Sidon, receiving tribute form Ashdod, Ammon, Moab, and Edom, subjugating Ashkelon and Ekron, and surrounding Hezekiah (ANET, 288) and forcing him to pay tribute to Sennacherib (2 Ki 18:13-16).

15 In 622 B.C. Josiah brought the final spiritual revival for Judah. After Assyria fell and Babylon rose (612 B.C.), Josiah removed Judah from Assyria's control and existed as an autonomous state until 609 B.C. when it lost a battle with Egypt on the plain of Megiddo and Josiah died.

16 Judah tried to stop Egypts alliance with Assyria to fight the Babylonians at Haran in the Battle of Megiddo in 609 B.C., but they lost, Josiah died, and Egypt when on to Haran to fight with Assyria.

17 Many mark this point in 2 Kings as The Last Kings of Judah and the Fall of Jerusalem (Patterson and Austel, 1, 2 Kings EBC, 4:34; Donald J. Wiseman, 1 & 2 Kings, 65; G. H. Jones, 1 and 2 Kings, I:85. Obviously, this is because Jehoahaz is the first king who was taken prisoner by Pharaoh Neco to Egypt, Jehoiakim is in servitude to Nebuchadnezzar, Jehoiachin is taken prisoner to Babylon, and Zedekiah is finally taken prisoner to Babylon.

18 In 609 B.C. after Egypt an Assyria lost against Babylon at the Battle of Carchemish, Pharaoh Necho II replaced Josiah's son, Jehoahaz, after three months of rule with Jehoiakim (who was another son of Josiah) as a vassal king (2 Ki 23:34-35). Pharaoh Necho also plundered Judah's treasuries and took Jehoahaz into captivity in Egypt.

19 The last event recorded in 2 Kings 25:27-30 is the release of Jehoiachin from prison during the thirty-seventh year of his imprisonment (560 B.C. [597 B.C. minuse 37 years of captivity = 560 B.C]).

Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines

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