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An Argument of First and Second Chronicles

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MESSAGE STATEMENT:1

Yahweh’s blessing or cursing of the nation of Israel/Judah for its proper or improper worship of him motivates the chosen remnant who has returned under the decree of cyrus to properly worship him as they build a temple for Yahweh

I. The Genealogical Prologue--Ideal Israel’s Table of Organization:2 Unfolding the genealogical line of the nation of Israel the Chronicler identifies those who returned to Jerusalem after the Babylonian Captivity as part of the true (elect) nation of Israel whose king was Davidic and who were to worship through the priests and Levites 1.1:1--9:34

A. The Patriarchal Forefathers of Israel: The Chronicler traces the nation’s roots from the line of Adam through Shem, Ham and Japheth, to Abraham and notes that Esau’s line is Edom 1:1-54

1. The Antediluvian Name List--The Line of Adam: 1:1-4

2. The Descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth: 1:5-27

a. The Line of Japheth: 1:5-7

1) First Generation--Sons of Japheth: 1:5

2) Second Generation: 1:6-7

a) Sons of Gomer: 1:6

b) Sons of Javan: 1:7

b. The Line of Ham: 1:8-16

1) First Generation--Sons of Ham: 1:8

2) Second Generation: 1:9-16

a) Sons of Cush: 1:9-10

(1) Name List: 1:9a

(2) Third Generation: Sons of Raamah: 1:9b

(3) Cush Begins Nimrod: 9:10

b) Sons of Egypt: 1:11-12

c) Sons of Canaan: 1:13-16

c. The Line of Shem: 1:17-27

1) First Generation: Sons of Shem 1:17

2) Sons of Shelah: 1:18a

3) Third Generation--Eber: 1:18b

4) Fourth Generation: 1:19

a) Introduction: 19:a

b) Peleg: 1:19:ba

c) Joktan: 1:19bb

5) Fifth Generation--Sons of Joktan: 19:20-23

6) Postdiluvian Name List: 1:24-27

3. The Line of Abraham: 1:28-37

a. Introduction: 1:28

b. Genealogy of Ishmael: 1:29-31

1) Introduction: 1:29a

2) First Generation--Sons of Ishmael: 1:29b-31a

3) Conclusion: 1:31b

c. Genealogy of the Keturites (from Abraham’s Concubine Keturah): 1:32-33

1) Introduction: 1:32aa

2) First Generation--Sons of Keturah: 1:32ab

3) Second Generation: 1:32b-33a

a) Sons of Joksham 1:32b

b) Sons of Midian: 1:33a

4) Conclusion: 1:33b

d. Genealogy of Isaac: 1:34-37

1) Introduction: 1:34a

2) First Generation--Sons of Isaac: 1:1:34b

3) Second Generation--Sons of Esau: 1:35

4) Third Generation: 1:36-37

a) Sons of Eliphaz: 1:36

b) Sons of Reuel: 1:37

4. The Associated Lists of Edomite Names--(Esau is Edom): 1:38-54

a. Genealogy of Seir: 1:38-42

1) Introduction: 1:38aa

2) First Generation--Sons of Seir: 1:38ab-b

3) Second Generation: 1:39-42

a) Children of Lotan: 1:39

b) Sons of Shobal: 1:40a

c) Sons of Zibeon: 1:40b

d) Sons of Anah: 1:41a

e) Sons of Dishon: 1:41b

f) Sons of Ezer: 1:42a

g) Sons of Disha/on: 1:42b

4) King List--Edomite Reigns: 1:43-51a

a) Introduction: 1:43a

b) Bela: 1:43b

c) Jobab: 1:44

d) Husham: 1:45

e) Hadad: 1:46

f) Samlah: 1:47

g) Shaul: 1:48

h) Baal-hanan; 1:49

i) Hadad/r 1:50-51a

5) List of Edomite Chiefs: 1:50-54

a) Introduction: 1:51ab

b) Name List: 1:51bb-54a

c) Conclusion: 1:54b

B. The Genealogical Lists of Israel’s Royal Tribe--Judah: David is emphasized as the tribe of Judah is traced and the family of David is developed down through the exilic and postexilic periods 2:1--4:23

1. Judahite Records I--With a Focus on David: 2:1-55

a. Editorial Transition--The Sons of Israel: 2:1-2

b. The First Generation--The Sons of Judah: 2:3-4

c. The Second Generation--The Sons of Perez and Zerah: 2:5-8

d. The Line of Hezron: 2:9-41

1) Sons of Hezron: 2:9

2) Genealogy of Ram: 2:10-17

3) Calebite Birth Reports: 2:18-24

4) Genealogy of Jerahmeel: 2:25-33

e. Expansion--Lineage of Sheshan: 2:34-41

f. Expansion--Genealogy of ‘Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel: 2:41-50aa

g. Genealogy of Hur: 2:50ab-55

2. Genealogical Lists of the Davidic Family: 3:1-24

a. David’s Immediate Family: 3:1-9

1) David’s Line Born in Hebron: 3:1-4

2) David’s Line Born in Jerusalem: 3:5-9

b. The Kingly line to Zedekiah:3 3:10-16

c. David’s Line in the exilic and postexilic periods: 3:17-24

1) From Jeconiah to Hananiah: 3:17-20

2) From Hananiah to Anani: 3:21-24

C. Genealogies of the Twelve Tribes: The Chronicler unfolds selected genealogies of the twelve tribes of Israel providing their lineage and their territorial conquests as well as honoring the tribes of Levi and Benjamin with the amount of material offered 4:24--8:40

1. The Line of Judah: 4:1-23

a. Lineage of Hezron: 4:1-20

b. Lineage of Shelah, son of Judah: 4:21-23

2. The Genealogical Records of the Tribe of Simeon: 4:24-43

a. Lists of the Simeonites: 4:24-33

b. Appendix--Reports of Territorial Conquests: 4:34-43

3. The Genealogical Records of the Transjordan Tribes: 5:1-26

a. The Line of Reuben: 5:1-10

1) List of Reubenites: 5:1-8

2) Battle Report--Reubenite Conquest: 5:9-10

b. The Line of Gad: 5:11-17

1) Tribal Chiefs: 5:11-12

2) Muster Roll of the Families: 5:13-15

3) Report of Territorial Claims: 5:16

4) Dates of Mustering: 5:17

c. Transjordan War--The Hagrite Campaign: 5:18-22

1) The Battle: 5:18-20

a) Muster Roll of the Fighting Force: 5:18

b) The Fighting: 5:19-20

2) The Prizes of War: 5:21-22

a) Living Beings: 5:21-22a

b) Occupation of Captured Territory: 5:22b

d. The Line of the Half-Tribe of Manasseh: 5:23-24

1) Statement of Territory: 5:23

2) Muster Roll: 5:24

e. Statement of Common Destiny: 5:25-26

1) Transgression: 5:25

2) Punishment: 5:26

a) Assyrian Invasion: 5:26aa

b) Permanent Exile: 5:26ab-b

4. The Genealogical Records of the Levites and Aaronites:4 6:1-81

a. The Line of the Priests: 6:1-15

b. Non-priestly Levites: 6:16-30

c. The Levitical Musicians: 6:31-48

d. The Ministry of the Priests: 6:49-53

e. The Settlement of the Levites: 6:54-81

1) Kohathite Aaronites: 6:54-65

2) Donor Tribes and City Tallies: 6:66-76

3) Name Lists of the Levitical Cities: 6:77-81

5. The Genealogical Records of Issachar: 7:1-5

a. Family of Tola: 7:1-4

b. Enrollment of the Remaining Issacharites: 7:5

6. The Genealogical Records of Benjamin: 7:6-12

a. Muster Roll of the Benjaminites: 7:6-11

b. Genealogical Fragments: 7:12

7. The Genealogical Records of Naphtali: 7:13

a. Name List--Sons of Naphtali: 7:13a

b. Ethnological Attribution: 7:13b

8. The Genealogical Records of the Other Half-Tribe of Manasseh: 7:14-19

a. Birth Reports: 7:14-17

b. Sundry Notes: 7:18-19

9. The Genealogical Records of Ephraim: 7:20-29

a. Genealogy from Ephraim: 7:20-21aa

b. Report of Beriah’s Birth: 7:21ab-24

c. Genealogy from Rephah to Joshua--Eight Generations: 7:25-27

d. Possessions and Settlements: 7:28-29

10. The Genealogical Record of Asher: 7:30-40

a. Genealogy of Asher: 7:30-33

b. Muster Roll of the Tribal Militia: 7:34-40

11. More Genealogical Records of Benjamin:5 8:1-40

a. Genealogy of Benjamin: 8:1-5

b. Genealogical Fragments for the Jerusalem Fragments for the Jerusalem Garrison: 8:6-28

c. Birth Report for the Militia at Gibeon: 8:29-38

d. Appendix--Lineage of Ner: 8:30-40a

e. Concluding Rubric for Benjamin: 8:40b

D. Lists of Settlers of Postexilic Jerusalem: The Chronicler lists those who returned to Jerusalem after the Babylonian captivity of Judah--those from Israel, the Priests, the Levites, and the Temple Servants 9:1-34

1. Introduction--Captivity of the Southern Kingdom: 9:1

a. Editorial Conclusion to 2:1--8:40: 9:1a

b. The Exile of Judah by Babylon for Unfaithfulness: 9:1b

2. Listing of Important People Inhabiting Jerusalem in the Postexilic Period: 9:2-34

a. The General Population: 9:2-9

1) Four Early Returnees--Israel, Priests, Levites, and Temple Servants: 9:2

2) Representatives of ‘Israel’ in Jerusalem: 9:3-9

b. The Priests: 9:10-13

1) The Main Families: 9:10-12

2) Kinsmen: 9:13

c. The Levites in General: 9:14-16

d. The Temple Servants: 9:17-34

1) Job Description for the Gatekeepers: 9:17-32

2) Statement about the Singers: 9:33

3) Concluding Summary and Final Rubric to the Recital: 9:34

II. Transitional Chapter--The Removal of Saul and the Rise of David:6 Through the repetition of an earlier genealogy which includes the line of Saul, the narrator transitions in the book from genealogies to the death of Saul in his unfaithfulness as God’s ordained pathway for David to become the king 9:35--10:1-14

A. Saul’s Kingship--The Genealogy of Saul: With the reprisal of 8:29-38 Saul’s genealogy is included in order to transition from the genealogical section to the narrative on Saul’s death which follows 9:35-44

1. Genealogy of the Gibeon Militia: 9:35-38

2. Genealogy of Ner: 9:39-43

3. The Family of Azel: 9:44

B. The Death of Saul and Passing of the Kingship to David: Saul’s unfaithful life and resultant death provides God’s ordained pathway for David to become the king of Israel 10:1-14

1. The Saulides die on Gilboa 10:1-7

a. Battle Report--Israel’s Defeat: 10:1-2

1) The Fleeing Army Slain: 10:1

2) Saul’s Sons Slain: 10:2

b. Death Report--Saul’s Death: 10:3-5

1) Saul Wounded by Archers: 10:3

2) A Double Suicide: 10:4-5

c. Summary--The End of Saul’s Dynasty: 10:6

d. Philistines in Abandoned Cities: 10:7

2. Philistine Exploit Report--Jabeshites Honor Saul: 10:8-12

a. Philistines Display Trophies: 10:8-10

b. Heroism of the Jabeshites: 10:11-12

1) Rescue of the Corpses: 10:11-12a

2) Burial and Fasting: 10:12b

3. Theological Appraisal (Accusation) of Saul: 10:13-14a

a. Charge of Saul’s Infidelity: 10:13-14aa

1) Saul’s Disobedience: 13a

2) Saul’s Apostasy: 13b-14aa

a) Consulting a Medium: 13b

b) Neglecting Yahweh: 14aa

b. Yahweh’s Death Penalty:7 10:14ab

4. Conclusion--Opportunity for David’s Succession: Yahweh turned the kingdom to David the son of Jesse 10:14b

III. Narrative Historiography--The Davidic Dynasty:8 The chronicler traces the rise of the nation of “Israel” as its leaders, David and Solomon, honor Yahweh in worship, the division and fall to Babylon of the nation of Judah as David’s and Solomon’s descendants disregard their worship of Yahweh, but the restoration of the people of Israel under Cyrus to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the house of the Lord for the worship of Yahweh 1.11:1--2.36:23

A. The Reign of King David:9 After David was established as king of Israel he demonstrated his concern for the worship of the Lord through the instillation of the ark and a desire to build Him a temple, whereupon the Lord blessed David with a promise that his house would continue forever, with the ability to defeat his enemies resulting in David’s preparation for the future temple as he passed on the kingship to his son Solomon 1.11:1--29:30

1. The Establishment of David in Jerusalem: 11:1--12:40

a. David’s Confirmation as King: 11:1-9

1) David’s Anointing: 11:1-3

a) “All Israel” announces its Loyalty 11:1-2

b) Israel’s Elders Confirm David’s Kingship: 11:3

2) Report of Jerusalem’s Capture: 11:4-9

a) David and “All Israel” March to Jerusalem: 11:4

b) Battle Report--The City’s Capture: 11:5-6

c) Naming Etiology--David’s Stronghold 11:7-8

d) Theological Evaluation: 11:9

b. The Report of David’s Army: 11:10--12:40

1) David’s Chief Warriors: 11:10-47

a) Introduction: 11:10

b) Roster of David’s Warriors: 11:11-47

(1) Among the Three: 11:11-14

(2) Among the Thirty: 11:15-25

(3) Among the Armies: 11:26-47

2) Accessions to David’s Army: 12:1-23

3) Report of Muster at Hebron: 12:23-40

2. David’s Concern for Worship: 13:1--17:27

a. David’s Instillation of the Ark: 13:1--16:43

1) Report of Bringing the Ark to Obed-edom: 13:1-14

2) Report of David’s Growth in Power: 14:1-17

3) The Arrival of the Ark and Its Installation: 15:1--16:43

a) Report of Preparing the Clergy: The priests and Levites are numbered and prepared by David to bring the Ark into the city 15:1-24

b) Report of Ritual--Entrance Ceremony: The Ark is brought into the City 15:25--16:3

c) Report of Ordering the Regular Service: 16:4-43

(1) Levites are appointed to minister before the ark and to praise God 16:4-6

(2) A Song of thanksgiving is sung to praise Yahweh 16:7-36

(3) The appointed people ministered before the ark 16:37-43

b. Transition--David’s Concern for a Temple & The Report of the Dynastic Promise through Nathan: 17:1-27

1) David’s Desire to Build a House for the Lord: 17:1-2

2) God’s Desire for David’s Son to Build a House for Him as the Lord Builds David’s House Forever: 17:3-15

3) David’s Faithful & Thankful Response to the Word of God: 17:16-27

3. Yahweh’s Blessing of David through Conquest: 18:1--20:8

a. Report of Victories and Their Results: 18:1-17

1) The Philistines and Moabites: 18:1-2

2) The Arameans: 18:3-11

3) The Edomites: 18:12-13

4) David’s Administration: 18:14-17

b. Victories over Ammon: 19:1--20:3

c. Philistine Wars: 20:4-8

4. David’s Preparation of the Temple for Worship: After David identified the temple cite as the threshing floor of Ornan where God delivered the nation from His judgment he prepared for the future temple and the worship in it by charging Solomon and the leaders to continue the work, and by making Solomon king, and organizing the Levites, priests, singers, those in charge of the temple, as well as the officers of the people 21:1--27:34

a. Obtaining the Temple Site: When David in his pride (perhaps because of the military victories above) commanded Joab to number the men of Israel and the Lord was displeased bringing a judgment on Israel, David offered an offering on the threshing floor of Ornan which brought an end to the Lord’s judgment, therefore, David decided to build the temple on that threshing floor of Ornan 21:1--22:1

1) Sin and Judgment: David sins by numbering Israel and has to choose a discipline from God 21:1-17

2) Place Where Judgment Is Stopped: When David builds an altar on the threshing floor of Ornan, God hears his prayer and the judgment is stopped 21:18-27

3) Place of the Temple: David Names that spot (the threshing floor of Ornan) as the future place of the temple 21:28--22:1

b. David’s Preparations the Future Temple: After David gathers the materials for the building of the temple, he charges Solomon and the leaders of the nation to continue with the work 22:2-19

1) Materials: David brought together materials: 22:2-5

2) Charge to Solomon: David charges his son Solomon with the work 22:6-16

3) Charge to Leaders: David charges the leaders of the nation to help in the work 22:17-19

c. David’s Preparation for Future Temple Worship: David made preparations for future temple worship by making Solomon king and organizing the Levites, priests, singers, those in charge of the temple, and the officers of the people 23:1--27:34

1) Solomon King: When David was old he made Solomon king over Israel 23:1

2) Levites: David organized the Levites: 23:2-32

3) Priests: David organized the priests 24:1-31

4) Singers: David organized the singers 25:1-31

5) Those In Charge: David organized those in charge of the temple: 26:1-32

6) Officers: David organized the princes (officers) of Israel 27:1-34

a) The Army: 27:1-34

b) Tribal Leaders: 27:16-24

c) Administrators: 27:25-31

d) Counselors: 27:32-34

5. Conclusion--Preparations for the Succession of Solomon: David prepared the people for the change in leadership after his forty years of ruling Israel by reminding them of their covenant responsibilities to their God and to complete the temple whereupon Solomon was made King with great honor 28:1--29:30

a. Solomon’s Investiture: After David prepared the people for his departure as king by reminding them of the promises of God, urging them to keep the covenant, and charging Solomon and people to build the temple all of the people showed their willingness to obey through their giving for the completion of the temple and through their praise whereupon Solomon was made king and all of Israel (including David) honored him 28:1--29:25

1) Promises: David Reminds the people of the promises of God and charges them to keep the covenant 28:1-8

2) Temple: David charges Solomon to build the temple and the people to consecrate themselves to the building of the temple whereupon the people willingly give for the completion of the temple 28:9--29:9

a) Solomon: David charges Solomon with the responsibility of building the temple properly: 28:9-21

b) People: David calls for the people to consecrate themselves to the task of building the temple: 29:1-5

c) Giving: The people willingly give for the completion of the temple 29:6-9

3) Praise: David and the people praise God with their voices, with their sacrifices, and with their feast 29:10-22a

4) Solomon Made King: The people made Solomon as king over Israel the second time and Zadok as priest with all of Israel, including David, honoring him as king 29:22b-25

b. David’s Resumé: David had a full and wonderful reign over Israel for forty years 29:26-30

B. The Reign of King Solomon:10 As Solomon distinguished himself as one who honored Yahweh through personal worship as well as the building and dedication of the temple, God honored and blessed him with wisdom and a prosperous, expanding reign 2.1:1--9:31

1. Report--Solomon Confirmed in His Rule: 1:1-17

a. The Purpose of the Assembly--Worship: 1:1-6

b. The Gift of Wisdom: 1:7-13

c. Solomon’s Prominence and Prosperity: 1:14-17

2. Account--Solomon Builds the Temple: 1:18--7:22

a. Construction of the Temple: 2:1--5:1

1) Report of Preparations: 2:1-18

a) Materials: Solomon contracted with Huram of Tyre to supply materials 2:1-16

b) Laborers: Solomon prepared the laborers for the task 2:17-18

2) Report of the Temple Structure: Building: Solomon made the building itself including the pillars in front of the building 3:1-17

3) Report of the Temple Furniture: 4:1--5:1

a) Utensils: Solomon had all of the utensils for worship in the temple made out of precious materials 4:1-22

b) Move In: When the temple was finished Solomon brought in the things that David his father had dedicated--the silver, the gold, and all the utensils and put them in the treasuries of the Temple 5:1

b. Dedication of the Temple: 5:2--7:22

1) The Ark: When the temple was finished, the ark was brought into the temple 5:2-10

2) Glory of Yahweh: The glory of the Lord filled the temple 5:11-14

3) Dedicatory Prayer: Solomon prayed a dedicatory prayer for the temple 6:1-42

4) Glory of Yahweh: The glory of the Lord filled the temple 7:1-3

5) Dedicatory Feast: Solomon and the people held a dedicatory feast for the temple 7:4-10

6) Blessing: Yahweh promised Solomon to bless the nation if they followed Him, but to punish them if they turned away from Him 7:11-22

3. Report--Solomon in His Glory: 8:1--9:31

a. Political Achievements: 8:1-11

b. Religious Achievements: 8:12-17

c. Economic Achievements: 8:17--9:28

d. A Historical Summation: Solomon had a long and wonderful reign over Israel for forty years 9:29-31

C. The Reign (Failure) of the Davidic Dynasty--The Kings of Judah:11 From the division of the nation into two nations the southern kingdom, Judah, failed to follow Yahweh, except for occasional, short-lived reforms, resulting in judgment from Yahweh 2.10:1--36:21

1. The Failure of the Davidic Kingdom: 2.10:1--13:22

a. The Reign of Rehoboam: 10:1--12:16

1) The Division of the Kingdom: 10:1--11:4

2) Rehoboam’s Rule and Family: 11:5-23

3) God’s Judgment and the Summation of Rehoboam’s Reign: 12:1-16

b. The Reign of Abijah: 13:1--14:1a

1) Introduction: 13:1-2a

2) Quasi-Holy-War Story--Abijah’s Victory over Jeroboam: 13:2b-20

3) Summary of Reign: 13:21--14:1a

c. The Reign of Asa: 14:1b-16:14

1) Asa’s Political and Military Success: 14:2-15

2) Asa’s Religious Successes: 15:1-19

3) Asa’s Troubles and a Summation: 16:1-14

d. The Reign of Jehoshaphat: 17:1--20:37

1) Report of Jehoshaphat’s Auspicious Beginning: 17:1-19

2) Prophetic Battle Story--Jehoshaphat Accompanies Ahab: 18:1--19:3

3) Jehoshaphat’s Judges--Report of Organizing the Land for Justice: 19:4-11

4) Quasi-Holy-War--Jehoshaphat’s Victory over Moab and Ammon in the Desert 20:1-30

5) Summation and Last Years: 20:31-37

e. The Reign of Jehoram: 21:1-20

1) Beginning of an Evil Rule: 21:1-10

2) Judgment on Jehoram’s Unrelieved Apostasy: 21:11-19

3) Summation of Rule: 21:20

f. The Reign of Ahaziah: 22:1-9

1) Affiliation with the Omrides: 22:1-6a

2) Death Report--Ahaziah Slain by Jehu: 22:6b-9

g. The Inter-Regnum of Athaliah--Her Downfall: 22:10--23:21

1) Asylum for Sole Surviving Davidide: 22:10-12

a) Athaliah Wipes out the Royal Seed: 22:10

b) Joash Sequestered Six Years: 22:11-12

2) Year Seven--Joash’s Throne Conspiracy for Investiture: 23:1-11

a) Jehoiada’s Preparations: 23:1-7

b) Jehoiada Presents Joash for Enthronement: 23:8-11

3) Athaliah’s Execution: 23:12-15

a) Her Wrath: 23:12-15

b) Jehoiada’s Instructions: 23:14

c) Her Execution: 23:15

4) A Covenant and Its Execution: 23:16-19

a) Modified Covenant Formula: 23:16

b) Extirpation of Baalism: 23:17

(1) Destruction of Shrine, Altar, Images: 23:17a

(2) Execution of Priest: 23:17b

c) Appointment of Temple Monitors: 23:18

d) Excluding the Unclean: 23:19

5) Joash Installed on His Throne: 23:20

a) Honor Guard Escorts Joash from Temple: 20:a

b) Triumphal March to Palace: 20:b

6) Retrospective Conclusion: 23:21

2. Reform, Degeneracy, and Captivity of the Davidic Kingdom: 2.24:1--36:21

a. The Reign of Joash: 24:1-27

1) Regnal Resumé: 24:1-3

2) Joash and Jehoiada Restore the Temple: 24:4-16

a) Abortive Effort to Gather Money: 24:4-16

b) Repository for Obligatory Contributions: 24:8-11a

c) Repairs and Expansion: 24:11b-14a

d) Continual Burnt Offerings During Jehoiada’s Lifetime: 14b

e) Jehoiada’s Death: 24:15-16

3) Joash’s Apostasy: 24:17-26

a) His Wrongdoing: 27:17-22

(1) Forsakes the Ancestral God: 24:17-18a

(2) A Period of Unrelenting Apostasy: 24:18b-19

(3) Murder of Zechariah: 24:20-22

b) The Penalty: 24:23-26

(1) Battle Report--Syrian Invasion: 24:23-24

(2) Throne Conspiracy and Death: 24:25-26

4) Regnal Resumé: 24:27

b. The Reign of Amaziah: 25:1-28

1) Regnal Resumé: 25:1-2

2) Dealing with His Father’s Assassins: 24:3-4

3) Battle Report--Campaign against Seir: 25:5-13

4) Apostasy and Its Reproof: 25:14-16

5) Battle Report--War with Joash of Israel: 25:17-24

6) Amaziah’s Tragic End: 25:25-28

c. The Reign of Uzziah: 26:1-23

1) Regnal Resumé: 26:1-4

2) Years of Piety and Prosperity: 26:5-15

a) Introductory Summary: 26:5

b) Offensive Campaigns: 26:6-8

c) Public Projects: 26:9-10

d) The Army and Its Armament: 26:11-15a

e) Far-Reaching Fame: 26:15b

3) A Deed of Foolish Pride: 26:16-21

a) Introduction: 26:16a

b) Trespass into Temple: 26:16b-19a

c) Expulsion as Leper: 26:19b-21

4) Regnal Resumé: 26:22-23

d. The Reign of Jotham: 27:1-9

1) Regnal Resumé: 27:1-2

2) Notable Deeds: 27:3-6

a) Building Projects: 27:3-4

b) Battle Report: 27:5-6

3) Regnal Resumé: 27:7-9

e. The Reign of Ahaz: 28:1-27

1) Regnal Resumé: 28:1-4

2) Battle Report--Defeat by Syria and Israel: 28:5-15

3) Battle Report--Further Defeats: 28:16-21

a) Expectation of Assyrian Help: 28:16-19

b) Affliction Rather Than Help: 28:20-21

(1) Tiglath-pilneser Hurts Rather than Helps: 28:20

(2) Tribute to Assyria Ineffectual: 28:21

4) Ahaz Multiplies Evil: 28:22-25

a) Introduction: 28:22

b) Religious Apostasies: 28:23-25

(1) Worship of Syrian Gods: 28:23

(2) Stopping Worship at Yahweh’s Temple: 28:24a

(3) Erecting New Shrines: 28:24b-25

5) Regnal Resumé: 28:26-27

f. The Reign of Hezekiah: 29:1--32:3

1) Report of Hezekiah’s Reforms: 29:1--31:21

a) The Restoration of the Temple: 29:1-36

b) The Great Passover: 30:1--31:1

c) Reorganization of Religious Personnel: 31:2--21

2) The Invasion of Sennacherib--Hezekiah’s Deliverance: 32:1-23

3) Summary and Conclusion of Hezekiah’s Reign: 32:24-33

g. The Reign of Manasseh: 33:1-20

1) Regnal Resumé: 33:1-2

2) Religious Abominations: 33:3-9

a) Fertility and Astral Shrines Restored: 33:3

b) Provocative Offenses: 33:4-6

c) Culmination--An Idol in Yahweh’s Temple: 33:7-8

d) Summary--Manasseh as Seducer: 33:9

3) Punishment, Repentance, Restoration, Repairs, Reform: 33:10-17

a) Punishment: 33:10-11

(1) Yahweh’s Revelation Ignored: 33:10

(2) Yahweh sends Assyrian Forces: 33:11a

(3) Manasseh Goes Bound to Babylon: 33:11b

b) Repentance: 33:12

c) Restoration: 33:13

d) Repairs and Reforms: 33:14-17

4) Regnal Resumé: 33:18-20

h. The Reign of Amon: 33:21-25

1) Regnal Resumé: 33:21-22a

2) Amon’s Wickedness: 33:22b-23

a) Sacrifice to Father’s Idols: 33:22b

b) Rejection of Father’s Humbleness: 33:23a

c) Increase of Guilt: 33:23b

3) Throne Conspiracy and Death Report: 33:24-25

a) Assassination by His Servants: 33:24

b) Common People Take Power: 33:25

i. The Reign of Josiah: 34:1--35:27

1) Josiah’s Reformation: 34:1-33

a) Report of Josiah’s Reform: 34:1-7

b) Report of Finding the Book of the Law: 34:8-33

2) The Josiah’s Great Passover: 35:1-19

3) Battle Report--Josiah’s Death: 35:20-25

4) Concluding Summary: 35:26-27

j. The Reign of Jehoahaz:12 36:1-4

1) Regnal Resumé: 36:1

2) Actions of Neco: 36:3-4

a) Punishment: 36:3

(1) Deposition: 36:3a

(2) Tribute: 36:3b

b) Substitution of Royal Brothers: 36:4

(1) Jehoiakim Installed: 36:4a

(2) Jehoahaz Exiled: 36:4b

k. The Reign of Jehoiakim: 36:5-8

1) Regnal Resumé: 36:5

2) Acts of Nebuchadnezzar: 36:6-7

a) Exiles Jehoiakim to Babylon: 36:6

b) Plunders Temple Vessels: 36:7

3) Regnal Resumé: 36:8

l. The Reign of Jehoiachin: 36:9-10

1) Regnal Resumé: 36:9

2) Acts of Nebuchadnezzar: 36:10

a) Chronological note: 36:10a

b) Exile with Temple Vessels: 36:10b

c) Zedekiah Installed: 36:10c

m. The Reign of Zedekiah 36:11-16

1) Regnal Resumé: 36:11-12a

2) Indictment Speech: 36:12b-16

a) Complaints Against Zedekiah’s Rule: 36:12b-13

b) Complaints against Clergy and Laity: 36:14-16

3) Final Punishment:13 36:17-21

a) Yahweh Brings the Chaldean King: 36:17

(1) Butchery in Yahweh’s Temple: 36:17a

(2) Cruelty to Every Sex and Age: 36:17b

(3) Yahweh Hands Everyone Over: 36:17c

b) Plunder of Jerusalem: 36:18

c) Destruction of Public Buildings: 36:19

d) Exile of the Populace: 36:20

e) Fulfillment of Jeremiah’s Prophecy: 36:21

(1) The Land Enjoys its Sabbaths: 36:21a

(2) Seventy Desolate Years Complete One Sabbath: 36:21b

D. The Return of the Davidic Dynasty:14 As a fulfillment of Jeremiah’s prophecy, the Lord had Cyrus in his first year as king of Babylon issue a decree throughout his kingdoms for Yahweh’s people to return to Jerusalem in Judah and build their Lord a house of worship 2.36:22-23

1. Yahweh Acts to End the Exile: 36:22

a. Chronological Setting--First Year of Cyrus:15 36:22a

b. Purpose--to Complete Jeremiah’s’ Prophecy; 36:22b

c. Yahweh Inspires Cyrus’ Proclamation: 36:22c

2. Cyrus’ Proclamation of Return: 36:23

a. Messenger Formula: 36:23a

b. Royal Protocol: 36:23b

c. Edict of Return with Assistance: 36:23b


1 This outline is adapted through my own study from the analyses of Simon J. De Vries,1 and 2 Chronicles, The Forms of Old Testament Literature (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989); R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament: With a Comprehensive Review of Old Testament Studies and a Special Supplement on the Apocrypha, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1969); Andrew E. Hill, and John H. Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1991); Elliott E. Johnson, Synopsis and Selective Analysis of 1 and 2 Chronicles, unpublished class notes in 327 Seminar in Old Testament Historical Literature, (Dallas Theological Seminary, Spring 1989); John A Martin, Outline of 1 and 2 Chronicles, (unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II, Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1983); Eugene H. Merrill, 1, 2 Chronicles: Bible Study Commentary, (Grand Rapids: Lamplighter Books, 1988); J. Barton Payne, 1, 2 Chronicles, in The Expositor's Bible Commentary 301-562. Vol. 4. (Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library, Zondervan, 1988); H. G. M. Williamson, 1 and 2 Chronicles, New Century Bible Commentary. (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ., Co., 1982).

2 This book seems to be made up of three main sections (1) 1 Chronicles 1--9, (2) 1 Chronicles 9:35--10:14, and (3) 1 Chronicles 11:1--2 Chronicles 36:21. The first and last units are distinguished from each other by both content and genre and the center section seems to be a chapter in transition.

Johnson writes that the first section contains a compilation of various genealogical lists and episodes (1 Chron. 1:1--9:44) which provide a comprehensive but condensed history of Israel from the antediluvian ancestors to the establishment of the monarchy. In its entirety this section parallels the far more detailed history contained in the Pentateuch and the Former Prophets. The genealogy begins with the forefathers of mankind and culminates in the early days of the monarchy: Samuel and his sons (6:29), Saul and his progeny (8:22--9:39), and David and his offspring (3:1-9). Occasionally, however, the records extend into Exilic and post-Exilic times (for example, 3:10-24; 5:23-26; 9:1-34 = Neh. 11).

This genealogical compilation focuses on the tribes of Judah (including Simeon) and Benjamin, which together formed the nucleus of the Persian province of Jehud in the post-Exilic age. Another indication of this orientation is the inclusion of Edomite genealogical records (1:34-54; cf. Gen. 36:1-43), Edom, to all intents and purpose, having been merged with Jehud at that time. Consisting of strings of genealogies interspersed with a few episodic tales, 1 Chronicles 1--9 portrayed history as a series of static pictures, and thus lacks the dynamism in which biblical historiography generally excels and which is apparent in the rest of Chronicles and in Ezra-Nehemiah (Elliott E. Johnson, Synopsis and Selective Analysis of 1 and 2 Chronicles [unpublished class notes in 327 Seminar in Old Testament Historical Literature, Dallas Theological Seminary, Spring 1989], 3).

These chapters identify the people of God and how they relate to God's purpose and their failure. They emphasize God's grace as they experience promise, they fail, and God restores them.

Concerning their emphasis Martin writes, The focus of these nine chapters is on chapter nine. In that chapter the names of the leading families in Jerusalem and its surrounding areas are given. These are people who have come back into the land after the exile and it [is] concerning these people and their descendants that the Chronicler is writing. Chapters one through eight show these people were they came from and how God has dealt with history and with people to bring them to the situation in which they now find themselves (John A. Martin, Outline of 1 and 2 Chronicles, [unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II, Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1983], 3.

3 Note that Athaliah is not included in the line here.

4 Martin seems to be correct when he writes, It is obvious from the amount of room devoted to Levi that this line is extremely important to the Chronicler. This fits in to the other clues gleaned later in the work which have to do with the importance of the temple and of temple worship (John A. Martin, Outline of 1 and 2 Chronicles, [unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II, Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1983], 4).

5 Martin writes, It seems obvious from the amount of material given concerning the tribe of Benjamin that this tribe was of importance to the Chronicler. Only Benjamin along with Judah remained true to the kingly line of David. The city of Jerusalem lies in Benjamite territory (John A. Martin, Outline of 1 and 2 Chronicles, [unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II, Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1983], 4).

6 Concerning this transitionary unit Johnson writes, The two parts of Chronicles are connected by a cluster of notations and brief records concerning King Saul. These commence in 1 Chronicles 9:35-44 with a repetition of Saul's genealogy,already recorded in 8:29-40. There follows a report of Saul's last days, a slightly paraphrased version of the parallel account in 1 Samuel dealing with his defeat at the hands of the Philistines, his death and the death of his sons ( Chron 10:1-7), and the burial of their corpses by the men of Jabesh-Gilead (10:8-12; cf. 1 Sam. 31:8-25), culminating in the divine announcement of the transfer of kingship from Saul to David (1 Chron. 10:14b).

Together these notations form a transition between the genealogical records of the premonarchical era and the extensive account of the history of Judah and the Davidic dynasty. This compositional bridge demonstrates the skillful use of literary techniques and conventions to weld a variety of sources into one coherent framework and thus present 'the chronicle of the whole sacred history' (Elliott E. Johnson, Synopsis and Selective Analysis of 1 and 2 Chronicles [unpublished class notes in 327 Seminar in Old Testament Historical Literature, Dallas Theological Seminary, Spring 1989], 3-4).

De Vries similarly writes, This is not idle; it is not the work of a lazy man. Rather, it is designed as an effective transition from the genealogical section, chs. 1--9, to the narrative section to come. The reprise brings to convergence the Ner genealogy, producing Saul, Israel's first putative claimant to the kingship, and, in repetition, marking him as a man doomed for rejection. The account of Saul's death that follows,10:1ff., is ChrH's very first borrowing from Samuel-Kings, but it is used only to make way for David. We might say, 'The king is dead; long live the king!' Only, for ChrH, Saul is no true king' (Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 117).

7 De Vries discusses the theological/literary value of this section of the narrative which actually begins with Saul's death when he writes,it provides a grand inclusio with 2 Chronicles 36, for Saul's death and the dispersal of his people are a type and model of the death and exile of Judah and its last kings. The Saul story is null-point pointing to the terminal mull-point that comes at the end of the long and dismal history of Judah's kings (Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 98).

8 In each of the following units there is an emphasis upon the blessing (or cursing) which came from God for engaging in proper worship of Him (or not doing so). De Vries labels this unit, the history of ideal Israel's completing its land's sabbaths (Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 14). This is focused upon obedient worship and its consequences.

9 In view of David's whole hearted worship he experienced the expansion of his kingdom.

10 Solomon's establishment of temple worship brought about his experience of an expanding influence.

11 As David's line is faithful in its worship it is blessed and as it is unfaithful it is cursed. This culminates in the ultimate curse of temple destruction, graciously followed by YHWH's initiation of the restoration of the temple.

12 Beginning with 36:1 De Vries identifies this section as Report: Judah Fulfills Its Final Sabbath. His divisions are: I. Provoking Yahweh's Irrevocable Wrath (36:1-21), II. Expansion: Yahweh Lets His People Return (36:22-23) (Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 419-21).

13 This is the ultimate cursing which comes for the unfaithfulness of David's descendants.

14 This is YHWH's initiative in restoring the temple for the faithful to worship Him. De Vries writes, An important difference between this history and that of DtrH is that ChrH does not allow the Babylonian exile to be the end of the story. Whether or not 2 Kgs 25:27-30 hints at a renewal through Jehoiachin and his posterity, the conclusion of DtrH gives the impression of unrelieved gloom; the entire nation is guilty, the entire nation perishes. ChrH has a different plan. He does intend to tell of the nation's downfall, but first he wants to assure that there are three things, that will survive the exile and go on forever: the Davidic kingship, the cultic establishment, and the temple itself (Simon J. De Vries, 1 and 2 Chronicles, 98-99).

15 The first year that Cyrus was ruler of the Babylonian kingdom was 538 B.C. even though he ruled in Persia since 559.

Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines