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An Argument of the Book of Daniel

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MESSAGE STATEMENT:

Even though Israel is experiencing judgment at the hands of the Gentile nations, the Lord encourages her, through numerous circumstances and visions, that he is sovereignly in control of her present situation, he will deliver those who faithfully trust in him, and in the end of time he will ultimately deliver her from the Gentiles by judging the prince to come and resurrecting all saints

I. Prologue--The Setting (Hebrew):1 In the midst of the captivity under Nebuchadnezzar and the deportation of the youths to Babylon in 605 B.C. the Lord enabled Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah in their commitment to Him to follow Him and excel in Nebuchadnezzar's court (with Daniel extending until the rule of the Persians) 1:1-21

A. Setting--605 Captivity and the Introduction of Daniel: In what appeared to be a clear triumph of evil over God's people and with God's permission, four youths who were followers of the true God, stood out as hope in the midst of a conforming despair 1:1-7

1. Captivity: In accordance with the will of God, Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, overtook Jerusalem and took its king, Jehoiakim2 as well as temple vessels back to his land and to his god 1:1-2

a. Defeat of Jerusalem: In the third year of Jehoiakim's reign (605 B.C.) Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem and besieged it 1:1

b. Taking the Temple Vessels: God allowed Nebuchadnezzar to overtake Jehoiakim and to take some of the temple vessels with him back to his land of Shinar and to the treasury of his God 1:2

2. Taking of the Youths: Bringing the promising youths of Judah for training to assimilate them in the king's court, there were four of the true God whom they tried to change 1:3-7

a. Grooming the Youths for Service: Nebuchadnezzar had the youths of Israel who were excellent in mind and body brought to Babylon in order to be groomed and trained for service in the king's court 1:3-5

b. Four Youths in Particular: Among the sons of Judah were four of particular interest whose names were changed from those which honored the true God to those which were to honor the false gods--Daniel ('God is judge') to Belteshazzar ('May Bel protect his life'), Hananiah ('YHWH is gracious') to Shadrach ('Commander of Aku'), Mishael ('Who is what God is?') to Meshach (Who is what Aku is), and Azariah ('Whom YHWH helps') to Abed-nego ('servant of Nebo') 1:6-7

B. Ideal Judean Captives: Out of the seeds of personal commitment to God's word and respectful approaches of those in authority over them, God enabled the four youths and especially Daniel to follow Him faithfully and excel into positions of influence 1:8-21

1. God's Enablement to Excel: Out of a personal commitment to keep God's word and a respectful beseeching of those in authority over him, God enabled Daniel and the other three to follow him: 1:8-14

a. The Choice of Obedience: Daniel, one of the four promising youths, chose within himself to not break the word of God by eating the king's food and wine 11:8a

b. Outworking of the Choice: Daniel implemented his personal choice by respectfully speaking to those in authority over him and receiving God's provision and their agreement 1:8b-14

1) Seeking of Permission: Daniel sought permission from the commander of the officials to be excused from taking the food and drink because of his faith: 1:8b

2) Permission Granted: Through the movement of God and a reasonable test suggested by Daniel, he and the other three youths were permitted to not defile themselves 1:9-14

a) God's Provision: God provided for a receptivity to Daniel's request in the commander 1:9

b) Daniel's Convincing Proposal: Although the commander of the officials was reluctant to agree because of his own personal risk, Daniel was successful in convincing their immediate overseer by proposing a ten day test 1:10-14

2. Conclusion of the Tests: At the conclusion of their tests and training they were found to be superior to all others and were maintained and highly used by the kings of Babylon (with Daniel into the rule of the Persians) 1:15-21

a. State of the Youths: At the conclusion of the ten day test, the four youths were better and healthier than all of the other youths who had partaken of the king's food and drink, and therefore were permitted to remain on the diet 1:15-16

b. Ability of the Youths and Daniel: God also enabled the four youths to have knowledge and intelligence in all literature and wisdom and enabled Daniel to understand visions and dreams 1:17

c. Presentation to Nebuchadnezzar: When the four youths were presented to Nebuchadnezzar they were found to excel all of the other youths; and once placed in the king's service they were found to be ten times better than all the magicians and conjurers in his realm 1:18-20

d. Timing of Daniel: Daniel continued until the first year of Cyrus the king3 in the service of the kings of Babylon 1:21

II. Historical/Prophetic--Times of the Gentiles--The Nations' Relationship to the Most High God (Aramaic):4 Through dreams and personal historical encounters with the God of Israel Daniel (and the Jews) is assured that even though a period of time is present and coming when the Gentiles are ruling over the Jews, that Israel's God is with those who obediently follow Him and will ultimately deliver them from the Gentiles because He is the sovereign ruler of all kingdoms who is working to set up His kingdom on earth for his holy ones 2:1--7:28

A. A--Nebuchadnezzar Dreams of Four Kingdoms and God's Kingdom: Through the prophetic dream of King Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel's enablement by the God of Heaven to interpret the dream, God and Daniel are honored, Daniel's friends are promoted, and God is seen to be the One who is really ruling over history rather than those who appear to be 2:1-49

1. Daniel's Enablement to Interpret the Dream: Unlike the pagan wise men with whom Daniel and his friends had been placed under a deadly decree because they could not give and interpret the kings dream, Daniel was enabled by the God of heaven, who rules and cares, to know the interpretation of the dream 2:1-23

a. The Dream and Decree: When Nebuchadnezzar had a dream which greatly disturbed him, he issued a decree to kill all of the wisemen because they could not proclaim and interpret his dream 2:1-13

1) The Dreams: During Nebuchadnezzar's second year he had dreams which greatly troubled him 2:1

2) Exhortation to Wise Men: The king called his wise men together and ordered them to tell to him his dream and its interpretation whereby they would receive much or loose life if they were right or wrong 2:2-6

3) Response of the Wise Men: The wise men dialogued with the un-trusting king emphasizing how unreasonable he was since only a god could do what he asked 2:7-11

4) The Decree: The king became enraged and issued a decree to destroy all of the wise men including Daniel and his friends 2:12-13

b. God's Provision for Daniel: Learning of the dream and the deadly decree, Daniel received time and the dream's meaning from the God of Heaven who rules the earth and cares for his own 2:14-23

1) Learning of the Decree: Daniel learns of the deadly decree against him and its basis from Arioch his executioner 2:14-15

2) Request for Time: Daniel asked the king for time so that he might interpret the king's dream 2:16

3) Request of God: Daniel informed his friends and asked for God's help in order to be spared 2:18

4) God's Revelation: God revealed the dream to Daniel 2:19a

5) Daniel's Thanksgiving: Daniel enriched God's character and gave thanks because he had revealed His rulership over all and His personal interest and provision for Daniel and his friends 2:19b-23

2. The King's Response to Daniel's Interpretation: Proclaiming the interpretation of the king's dream as the God of Heaven's foretelling of world history which will culminate in His eternal kingdom, the king receives it and honors Daniel, his 'god' and his friends 1:24-49

a. Proclamation of the Dream: When Daniel was presented to the king by his executioner as an exile from Judah, Daniel recounted the dream and interpreted it as the God of Heaven's proclamation of the future for the world which will culminate in His eternal kingdom 2:24-45

1) Daniel Goes to His Executioner: Daniel went to Arioch, his executioner to request he be presented to the king and to request that he spare the wisemen because he will declare the dream and its interpretation 1:24

2) Presentation to the King: Arioch presented Daniel to the king as an exile from Judah who can explain the dream 2:25

3) King's Questions: The king Questioned Daniel 2:26

4) Daniel's Response: Daniel described the king's dream as from God and interpreted its meaning as previewing the future of the world where there will be four kingdoms including Babylon which will all be destroyed by the God of Heaven's kingdom which will endure forever 2:27-45

a) The Source of the Dream: Daniel explained that his ability to interpret the king's dream was due to the God of Heaven who gave the dream and revealed it to Daniel and not due to his own greatness 2:27-30

b) The Dream's Subject Matter: Daniel recounted the king's dream as dealing with the future and that it came about as the king was thinking about the future 2:31a

c) The Dream Described: Daniel described the statue of the dream which was destroyed by the stone which itself became a mountain that filled the earth 2:31b-36a

d) The Dream Interpreted: Daniel interpreted the dream as referring to four kingdoms which will ultimately be destroyed by the God of heaven's kingdom which will last forever 2:36b-45

3. The King's Response: The king's response to Daniel's interpretation of his dream was to overwhelmingly receive it and thus to honor Daniel and his God as well as promote Daniel and his friends 2:46-49

a. Honor to Daniel: The king immediately responded to Daniel as though he were a god with worship, an offering and incense 2:46

b. Recognition of Daniel's God: The king recognized Daniel's God of Heaven as being a ruling God of gods and kings as well as being able to reveal mysteries 2:47

c. Promotion of Daniel: The king promoted Daniel to ruler over the province and chief of the wise men 2:48

d. Promotion of Daniel's Friends: At the request of Daniel the king had his friends promoted to administrators of the province 2:49

B. B--Nebuchadnezzar Sees God's Servants Rescued: In an atmosphere of human rage, pride, power and oppression, God demonstrated Himself to His faithful followers and their godless enemies to be able and willing to deliver and prosper those who will follow Him 3:1-30

1. Worship of the Image: Under royal decree and fear for life, all of the international leaders fell and worshiped the large idol which king Nebuchadnezzar made and dedicated in Babylon 3:1-7

a. Creation of an Image:5 King Nebuchadnezzar made a golden image 90' x 9' and erected it in Babylon 3:1

b. Dedication Ceremony: All of the leaders in Babylon were invited and assembled at the dedication of the image 3:2-3

c. Worship of the Image: Under royal proclamation and fear of being cast into a blazing furnace, all of the international leaders fell and worshiped the image at the sound of their music 3:4-7

2. The Judeans Honor God: Being reported to Nebuchadnezzar by the wise men, Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego refused the king's last offer informing him of their God's ability to deliver and their intention to not profane him regardless of the consequences 3:8-18

a. Report of the Judeans: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego were reported by the magicians as Jewish leaders who would not obey the king's edict to serve his gods or worship the image 3:8-12

b. One More Opportunity Given: Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego were brought, questioned and given one more opportunity to serve and worship the gods and idol before the king at the sound of the music lest they be cast into the furnace where no god could save them 3:13-15

c. Response of the Judeans: Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego informed the king that he was wrong because their God could deliver them, but even if He chose not to deliver them, they would not serve his gods and worship his idol 3:16-18

3. The Crucible of Their Faith: In an angry rage Nebuchadnezzar constrained the three Jewish boys and heated up the furnace only to loose his warriors in the flame and to see the three Jewish boys and their God alive in the furnace 3:19-25

a. The King's Response: In a rage king Nebuchadnezzar had the furnace severely heated up, and Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego tied up, fully clothed, by his most valiant warriors to be thrown in the fire 3:19-21

b. The Disposal of the Judeans: Due to the urgency of the king's request, the valiant warriors were consumed by the flame of the furnace and Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego fell into the furnace all tied up 3:22-24

c. God's Deliverance: Nebuchadnezzar was astounded to see four men loosed and walking in the fire with one seeming to be divine 3:25

4. Nebuchadnezzar's Response: Ordering Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego to come out and seeing the complete deliverance given to them, Nebuchadnezzar enriched the Jewish God's good character to the people and prospered the youths 3:26-30

a. Order to Come Out of the Fire: King Nebuchadnezzar ordered Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego as servants of the Most High God to come out of the fire 3:26

b. Proclamation of Deliverance: All of the rulers who bowed to the image noted how completely the three were protected from the king's hand in that their bodies, hair, clothes, and odors were not touched by the fire 3:27

c. Honor of the God of the Jews: Nebuchadnezzar enriches the character of the Jewish God who delivered his faithful servants and threatens annihilation toward anyone who speaks against this great God of the Jews 3:28-29

d. Honor to Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego: Nebuchadnezzar caused Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego to prosper in the province of Babylon 3:30

C. C--Judgment on Nebuchadnezzar--A Second Dream: Nebuchadnezzar recognized and proclaimed to his people in his realm his position of responsibility under the sovereign rule of the Most High God through experiencing demotion, insanity, and restoration through God's strong and good hand 4:1-37

1. Message of Peace and Exaltation: Nebuchadnezzar sent a message of peace and exaltation of the Most High God to all of the people under his ream 4:1-3

a. Sending of Message: Nebuchadnezzar sent a message of peace to all of the peoples under his realm 4:1

b. Honor of the Most High God: Nebuchadnezzar recounted to the peoples of his kingdom that through dreams and experience, he recognized the greatness and absolute sovereignty of the Most High God 4:2-3

2. Interpretation of a Second Dream: Although Nebuchadnezzar was frustrated by other wise men, he learned from Daniel that the dream which he had referred to him and predicted sever mental impairment unless, or until, he recognized his place under God 4:4-27

a. The Dream: While Nebuchadnezzar was enjoying the privileges of his kingship, he received a dream that greatly disturbed him 4:4-5

b. Seeking Interpreters: Calling all of the wise men of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar was without hope to receive the dream's interpretation until Daniel arrived whom he knew God had spoken through before 4:6-9

c. The Dream Told: Nebuchadnezzar recounted his dream to Daniel as being of prosperity, destruction, preservation, and lesson 4:10-17

1) Prosperity: Nebuchadnezzar first saw prosperity in the picture of a great tree which was honored and gave life to all 4:10-12

2) Destruction: By command of an angel the great tree was destroyed 4:13-14

3) Preservation: The stump of the tree was preserved yet restrained 4:15a

4) A Lesson: The stump was likened to a person who is given the mind of a beast until he recognizes that the Most High is sovereign over all, including him 4:15b-17

d. Exhortation: Daniel was exhorted to interpret the dream 4:18

e. Daniel's Interpretation: Although hesitant, Daniel exclaimed that the tree was Nebuchadnezzar in his power and kingship and that unless he repented of his prideful evil and recognized his position under the Most High God, he would suffer temporary insanity until he did so 4:19-27

1) Daniel's Hesitant Speech: Perceiving that the dream and its interpretation was difficult, Daniel was hesitant to speak to the king but did so with the king's urging 4:19

2) The Identity of the Tree: Daniel explained that the great tree was Nebuchadnezzar in his position of power, kingship and influence over people 4:20-22

3) Future Insanity: Daniel explained that the destructive and insane parts of the dream were predictive of the Most High's hand upon Nebuchadnezzar in the future until he recognized The Most High's complete sovereignty 4:23-26

4) Daniel's Advise: Daniel advised Nebuchadnezzar to repent from his prideful sinfulness as king and to do uprightly under the Most High God in hopes that He will be gracious 4:27

f. The Fulfillment of the Dream: With the return of arrogance, Nebuchadnezzar was subjected to the demotion and insanity foretold to him, whereupon he recognized God's sovereignty and was restored in that perspective 4:28-37

1) Rise of Arrogance: Twelve months following the warning of the dream for Nebuchadnezzar to be humble under the Most High God, Nebuchadnezzar was again exalting himself as the great autonomous ruler 4:28-29

2) Proclamation from Heaven: A voice from heaven proclaimed to Nebuchadnezzar in his arrogance that the vision was now going to take place in his removal from authority and his temporary insanity until he recognized his position under the ruler--God the Most High 4:29-32

3) The Insanity of Nebuchadnezzar: Immediately king Nebuchadnezzar became insane and lived as an animal 4:33

4) Nebuchadnezzar Understanding: At the end of the prescribed period, Nebuchadnezzar recognized his position under the Most High God 4:34-35

5) Restoration of Nebuchadnezzar: Nebuchadnezzar was restored and prospered beyond his former state by the Most High God whom he then praised, exalted, and honored over himself 4:36-37

D. C'-- Judgment on Belshazzar--Handwriting on the Wall: In a great act of hubris toward YHWH Belshazzar learned, through Daniel who alone could interpret the inscription on the wall, that God was going to give Babylon to Medo-Persia, and He does so 5:1-31

1. Writing at the Feast: During a great feast when Belshazzar and his guests were drinking with the vessels from Jerusalem's temple and were praising their gods, the king to his fright saw a hand write on the will 5:1-6

a. Drinking with Temple Vessels: Having a great feast, Belshazzar had the gold and silver vessels from the temple of God in Jerusalem brought so that he and his guests might drink from them 5:1-2

b. Honoring the gods with Temple Vessels: When the vessels from the temple in Jerusalem were brought, Belshazzar and his guests drank and praised the gods of their culture 5:3-4

c. Writing on the Wall: While they were drinking and praising their gods, the king saw a hand appear and begin writing on the wall and this extremely frightened him 5:5-6

2. The Rise of Daniel to Interpret the Writing: With the rising of concern when the wise men were unable to interpret the writing, even with a great offer of reward, Belshazzar learned of Daniel's ability from the Queen 5:7-12

a. Calling The Wise Men: Calling in his wise men to interpret the writing, Belshazzar offered them royalty, a golden necklace, and the authority of bring the third ruler in the kingdom 5:7

b. Failure of the Wise Men: Since none of the wise men could either read or interpret the writing on the wall, the king became even more concerned and the nobles were perplexed 5:8-9

c. The Rise of Daniel: Hearing of the concern at the banquet, the queen mother entered and proclaimed Daniel to the king as the one who could interpret the handwriting just as he had been able to help Nebuchadnezzar 5:10-12

3. Daniel's Interpretation: Identifying himself as Daniel and refusing Belshazzar's gifts, Daniel explained that the inscription predicted the fall of Babylon to Medo-Persia due to hubris on the part of the king toward YHWH 5:13-28

a. Daniel and Belshazzar Meet: Upon meeting Daniel, Belshazzar questioned whether Daniel was from Judah, proclaimed Daniel's reputation as having a spirit of the gods which enables him to be wise, told Daniel of the wise men's inability to interpret and once again offered royalty, riches and authority if he could read and interpret the inscription 5:13-16

b. Daniel's Response: Refusing the gifts, Daniel agreed to read the inscription and to give its interpretation 5:17

c. The Fall of Babylon: In light of Belshazzar's hubris toward YHWH with the temple vessels, and with full knowledge of Nebuchadnezzar's experience, God wrote that Babylon was about to fall to Medo-Persia 5:18-28

1) Belshazzar's Hubris: Knowing how king Nebuchadnezzar had been humbled until he would recognize himself as under the Most High God who rules over mankind, Belshazzar still chose hubris by drinking from the vessels of YHWH and praising their gods 5:18-23

2) YHWH'S Response to Hubris: In response to Belshazzar's hubris, the Most High God sent forth the hand to write out the inscription 5:24

3) The Meaning of the Inscription: The inscription, “MENÉ, MENÉ, TEKÉL, UPHARSIN ” means that Babylon has been numbered, evaluated, divided and handed over to the Medes and Persians 5:25-28

4. Fulfillment of the Writing: As promised, Daniel received the great gifts from Belshazzar and Belshazzar was slain by Darius the Mede who received the kingdom 5:29-31

a. Daniel Rewarded: Belshazzar gave the gifts of royalty, riches, and authority to Daniel as he promised 5:29

b. Defeat of Babylon: That same night Belshazzar was slain and Darius the Mede (Cyrus)6 received the kingdom of Babylon at age sixty-two 5:30-31

E. B'-- Darius the Mede Sees Daniel Rescued -- The Lion's Den: King Darius moved from the position of a thoughtless, arrogant pawn of a corrupt government which persecuted God's people unto an instrument for God who stood for goodness, dealt with evil, and exalted the true God and his messenger 6:1-28

1. The Trapping of Daniel through Darius: Out of jealousy over a promotion which Daniel was about to receive for his abilities, his peers had an arrogant decree issued by Darius which they used to indicate Daniel for praying to YHWH 6:1-13

a. The Rise of Daniel: Appointed as a commissioner over satraps to protect the king's interests, Daniel was about to be re-appointed over all due to his extraordinary ability (spirit) 6:1-3

1) The Promotion: In order to protect his interests, Darius appointed 120 satraps and three commissioners over the satraps, one of whom was Daniel 6:1-2

2) Exaltation: Because Daniel began to distinguish himself as having extraordinary ability, Darius planned to appoint him over the kingdom 6:3

b. An Attack on Daniel: Seeing that the other leaders could not make an accusation against Daniel for his work, they made up a law and had Darius sign it which indicted Daniel for praying to YHWH 6:4-9

1) Search for Weakness: Since the satraps and commissioners could not find anything to accuse Daniel of with his work, they decided to attack him with regard to his faith 6:4-5

2) Establishment of a Law: The governmental leaders encouraged Darius to establish and sign an injunction that forbade anyone to petition any god or man besides the king under penalty of being thrown into the Lions' den for thirty days 6:6-9

c. Daniel Prays In Spite of the Decree: Even though aware of the decree against praying to his God, Daniel continued, was observed, and reported to the king 6:10-13

1) Daniel Prays: Knowing about the document, Daniel continued to pray to YHWH three times daily as he had been 6:10

2) Daniel Found Praying: By agreement Daniel's jealous governmental officials found Daniel petitioning his god 6:11

3) Daniel Reported: The jealous governmental officials reminded Darius of his irrevocable decree and turned in Daniel as its offender 6:12-13

2. The Change of Darius: Through hope in Daniel's God Darius moved from being a hand in the corrupt government which was against Daniel to being a hand of Daniel's God whom he had seen deliver Daniel by punishing Daniel's accusers and publicly exalting Daniel's God as well as Daniel 6:14-28

a. Daniel Placed in the Den: Although distressed, frustrated in attempts to free him, and hopeful that his God might deliver him, Darius had Daniel cast into the lions' den and sealed it 6:14-17

1) Darius' Attempt to Deliver Daniel: When the king heard that Daniel had broken the decree he was distressed and did all that he could to deliver him until sunset 6:14

2) Darius' Placement of Daniel in the Den: Under pressure from Daniel's jealous peers, the king gave orders and had Daniel cast into the lions' den 6:15-16a

3) Sealing of the Den: Expressing confidence in Daniel's God to deliver him, the den was sealed by the king 6:16b-17

b. Daniel's Deliverance and Exaltation: Being personally concerned over Daniel, Darius fasted, rushed to the den, learned of Daniel's deliverance, had Daniel's accusers thrown in the den and exalted his God and Daniel 6:18-28

1) Darius' Interest in Daniel: Spending a restless night fasting and in solitude, Darius rushed to the Den and sheepishly asked if Daniel's God had been able to deliver him 6:18-20

2) God's Deliverance of Daniel Proclaimed: Daniel respectfully proclaimed that his God had delivered him through an angel who shut the lions' mouths because he was innocent before Him and the king having not committed a crime 6:22-21

3) Judgment on Daniel's Accusers: Darius had Daniel delivered in his unharmed state from the den and his accusers, with families, cast in the den only to be overpowered by the lions before they reached the bottom 6:23-24

4) Darius' New Decree: Darius issued a decree of peace to the peoples of his kingdom exhorting men to fear the God of Daniel because he is eternal, living, reigning, and helps his followers as He did Daniel 6:25-27

5) Daniel enjoyed success in the reign of Darius, even (and) Cyrus the Persian 6:28

F. A' -- Daniel Has a Vision of Four Kingdoms and God's Kingdom -- Four Beasts:7 During the first year of Belshazzar's reign Daniel had a night vision which described the rise of four kingdoms, the last of which would be great with a coalition of ten kings, but one would rise from among them overtaking three of the kings and persecute God's people, but in the end God (the Ancient of Days) would judge this last king and give his kingdom to his holy ones through the Son of Man 7:1-28

1. Setting: The setting for the dream is in the first year of Belshazzar (553 B.C.) when in the night Daniel saw a vision and wrote it down 7:1

2. The Vision is Detailed: Although Daniel sees the rising of a series of beasts and horns and especially a little horn with power, he also sees the Ancient of Days who is the mighty, righteous ruler of all take dominion away from the beasts and give His kingdom to the Son of Man, and all of this frightens Daniel 7:2-15

a. Beasts and Horns: Daniel saw a series of Beasts and horns 7:2-8

1) Introduction to the Vision: When in the night Daniel saw a large sea stirred by the four winds, four beasts emerged from the sea 7:2-3

a) The vision was in the night 7:2a

b) Daniel saw a large sea stirred by the four winds of heaven 7:2b

c) Four beasts were seen emerging from the sea 7:3

2) Description of the Vision: Daniel describes the vision of the four beasts which were emerging from the sea 7:4-7

a) First Beast: The first beast was a humanoid lion with wings 7:4

b) Second Beast: The second beast was a bear eating three ribs 7:5

c) Third Beast: The third beast was a leopard with four wings and four heads 7:6

d) Fourth Beast: The fourth beast was terrifying and strong with iron teeth and ten horns 7:7

3) Description of a Little Horn:

a) Rising among Ten: A little horn arose among the ten horns of the fourth beast 7:8a

b) Displacing Three: The little horn displaced three of the original horns 7:8b

c) Human Characteristics: This little horn had eyes like a man and spoke great things 7:8c

b. Ancient of Days: Daniel sees the vision of the Ancient of Days 7:9-10

1) A Description: Daniel gives a description of the Ancient of Days as a great, mighty, and righteous ruler 7:9-10

a) Throne: The Ancient of Days sat on a throne among thrones 7:9a

b) Clothing: His Clothing was white 7:9b

c) Hair: His hair was white 7:9c

d) Throne: His throne was a blazing chariot 7:9b

e) River: A flaming river went out from him 7:10a

f) Attendants: He was attended by many 7:10a

g) Judge: He was acting as Judge 7:10c

2) Defeat of Kingdoms: Daniel notes that the fourth beast has a sentence of death pronounced against it and the other beasts have their dominion taken away after a period of time 7:11-12

3) God's Kingdom: Daniel sees the Son of Man gaining the kingdom from the Ancient of Day 7:13-14

a) The Coming of the Son of Man: One like a Son of Man8 came with the clouds9 7:13a

b) Presented before the Ancient of Days: This one was presented before the Ancient of Days 7:13b

c) Giving of the Kingdom: The kingdom was given10 to this one by the Ancient of Days 7:14

c. Daniel's Response: Daniel reacts to the vision by being alarmed 7:15

3. The Vision is Explained: When Daniel asks for an explanation of the vision, the interpreter explained generally and then with some specificity that four kingdoms will arise on the earth with the fourth being different than the others having a coalition of ten kings, but one will arise who will put down the three of the ten kings and persecute God's people, but God will ultimately judge him and give His kingdom to His people 7:16-28

a. Request: Daniel asks for, and is granted, an explanation of the vision (by an angel) 7:16

b. Summary Explanation: The interpreter explains the summary of the vision as four kingdoms arising on the earth but eventually the holy ones will posses the kingdom of the earth forever 7:17-18

1) Rise of Four Kingdoms: Four kings (kingdoms) will arise and dominate the earth 7:17

2) Holy Kingdom: Eventually the holy ones will possess the kingdom forever 7:18

c. Detailed Explanation of the End of the Vision: At Daniel's request the interpreter goes into some detail concerning the last part of the vision to explain that the fourth beast will be a different kingdom which controls the whole earth with a confederation of ten kings arising out of it, but another king will arise who will subdue three of the original kings and be hostile to God's people; nevertheless, God will destroy him and give the kingdom to His people 7:19-27

1) Request: requests more information concerning the last beast and the horns 7:19-22

2) Answer: The interpreter explains the last part of the vision that the fourth beast will be a different kingdom which controls the whole earth with a confederation of ten kings arising out of it, but another king will arise who will subdue three of the original kings and be hostile to God's people, but God will destroy him and give the kingdom to His people 7:23-27

a) Fourth Beast: The fourth beast is different and will control the whole earth 7:23

b) Ten Kings: Ten kings will arise out of the kingdom of the fourth beast 7:24a

c) Another King: another king will come after them and subdue three of the original kings 7:24b

d) Hostility of the Later King: This king will be against God and his people 7:25

(1) He will speak out against God

(2) He will wear down God's people (remnant)

(3) He will want to change times (calender year?) and laws (universal law? covenant law)

(4) He will be in power for three and a half years (times)

e) Judgment of Later King: God will judge the later king and destroy him 7:26

f) Future Kingdom: The Kingdom will be given to the holy ones 7:27

d. Daniel's Reaction: Daniel reacts to the explanation by being alarmed (because he was part of the first kingdom at this time) 7:28

III. Prophetic -- Israel's Relationship to the Nations (Hebrew): Through visions which describe Israel's relationship to the future nations, the Lord demonstrates that although she will experience sever persecution through the rise of the Greece and Antiochus IV Epiphanies who foreshadows the coming Antichrist during the final seven years of Israel's history, the Lord will ultimately deliver the living of her descendants through the judgment of the prince who is to come and He will also deliver the dead through the resurrection of believing saints at the end time 8:1--12:13

A. The Second and Third Kingdoms Identified--Vision of the Ram and the Goat: Daniel is given the history of the world and of Israel during the Persian and Greek kingdoms with a foreshadow of the Antichrist through the rise and rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanies 8:1-27

1. The Setting: This vision occurred two years following the vision of the four kingdoms during the third year of Belshazzar 8:1

a. Third Year of Belshazzar: This vision occurs two years after the vision in chapter seven during the third year of Belshazzar (551 B.C.) 8:1a

b. Following the Vision of Chapter Seven: This vision followed the one detailed in chapter seven 8:1b

2. The Vision is Detailed: 8:2-14

a. Introduction to the Vision: Daniel sees himself at the citadel of Susa in the province of Elam beside the Ulai Canal11 8:2

b. The Vision of the Ram and Goat: 8:3-8

1) The Ram (Medo-Persia): Daniel saw a ram with two horns one of which was longer and came up later moving west north and south doing whatever it wished to do 8:3-4

a) Two Horns: Daniel sees a ram with two horns 8:3

b) Longer, Later Horn: One of the horns was longer and came up last 8:3

c) Conquering Direction: The ram was moving west, north and south (the direction in which the Persian Empire conquered) 8:4a

d) Sovereign: The Ram did whatever it pleased 8:4b

2) The Male Goat (Greece): Daniel saw a male goat moving quickly from the west without touching the ground with a horn between its eye able to easily defeat the ram because it was great, but its horn broke and four horns came up in its place 8:5-8

a) From the West: Daniel saw a male goat moving from the west quickly without touching the ground 8:5a

b) One Horn: The goat had a horn between his eyes 8:5b

c) Defeat the Ram: The goat was able to easily defeat the ram 8:6-7

d) Great: The male goat was great 8:8a

e) Broken Horn: The single horn was broken and four horns took its place 8:8b

c. The Vision of the Horn (Antiochus IV Epiphanies): Daniel sees that one of the four horns will become great and move to defeat Israel, set itself up as God, stop the sacrificial system and greatly prosper for 2,300 evenings and mornings 8:9-14

1) The Rise of One Horn: Daniel sees that one of the four horns becomes great and moves to defeat Israel, sets itself up as God, stops the sacrificial system and prospered greatly 8:9-12

a) One of the Four: Daniel sees one of the four horns becomes great and moves toward Israel 8:9

b) Defeats Israel: The horn defeats God's people 8:10

c) Honors Itself: The horn set itself up as God and stopped the sacrificial system 8:11-12a

d) Prospered: The horn prospered greatly 8:12b

2) Length of Situation: When an angel asks how long this situation will continue, Daniel was told that it would last for 2,300 evenings and mornings 8:13-14

a) Question: The question is asked (by an angel) how long such a situation will continue 8:13

b) Answer: Daniel was told that it would continue 2,300 evenings and mornings12 8:14

3. The Vision is Explained: Although frightened by the appearance of Gabriel to explain the vision, Gabriel strengthened Daniel and explained that the vision was about the end times with the ram being Media/Persia, the Goat with the horn being Greece under Alexander the Great, the four horns being those rulers of Greece who would arise after Alexander's death, and the little horn being the rise of one of the four rulers who would have extra-ordinary power and overtake God's people, but would be destroyed (by God) at the appointed time; whereupon Daniel became sick for a number of days and then return to work for the king astounded by the vision, but with no one to explain it to him 8:15-26

a. Daniel Is Granted an Explanation: When Daniel sought to understand the vision, Gabriel was sent to explain it to him, causing Daniel to be fearful, but Gabriel strengthened him and proclaimed that the vision is about the appointed time of the end 8:15-19

1) Gabriel Comes to Explain the Vision: When Daniel sought to understand the vision, Gabriel was called upon to explain it to him 8:15-19

2) Daniel's Fear: Daniel was so frightened at Gabriel's presence that he fell down before him 8:17a

3) Gabriel's Announcement: Gabriel announced to Daniel son of man that the vision pertained to the time of the end 8:17b

4) Daniel's Response: Daniel responded by falling into a deep sleep with his face to the ground 8:18a

5) Gabriel's Help: Gabriel raised Daniel so that he might stand and hear the interpretation 8:18b

6) Gabriel's Announcement: Gabriel stated to Daniel that the vision pertains to the appointed time of the end 8:19

b. The Ram and Goat Explained: Gabriel explains that the ram represents Media/Persia, the goat and the horn represent Greece under Alexander the Great, and the four horns represent the power split after the death of Alexander the Great 8:20-22

1) Identity of the Ram: The ram represents Media/Persia 8:20

2) Identity of the Goat and Horn: The goat represents Greece and the horn represents its first king (Alexander) 8:21

3) The Four Horns: The four horns represent the power split after the time of the first king13 8:22

c. The Horn Explained (Antiochus IV Epiphanies / Antichrist): It was explained to Daniel that a king will arise in the later day who will have extra-ordinary power, magnify himself to the point of opposing Messiah, and will be defeated without human agency at the appointed time 8:23-26

1) Rise of a King: A king will arise in the later day which will have extra-ordinary power 8:23-24

2) Self Exulting: He will magnify himself and even oppose the Prince of princes 8:25a

3) Death: He will be broken without human agency 8:25b

4) Appointed Time: The vision of the evening and mornings will come true 8:26a

5) Keep Secret: Daniel was told to keep the vision secret 8:26b

4. Daniel's Response to the Vision: Daniel responded to the vision by being exhausted and sick for days before he got up and went about the king's business, but he was astounded at the vision and no one could explain it to him 8:27

a. Sick: Daniel was exhausted and sick for days 8:27a

b. Continued Life: Daniel got up and went about his normal business 8:27b

c. Astounded: Daniel was astounded at the vision 8:27c

d. Unexplainable: No one could explain the vision to Daniel 8:27d

B. Daniel's Prayer and the Vision of the Seventy Weeks: When Daniel reads and understands Jeremiah's prophecy about the end of the captivity for Israel, Daniel prays for God to fulfill His promise to the nation and learns from Gabriel the future history of Israel in the form of a seventy-week prophecy from the rebuilding of Jerusalem to the destruction of the prince who is to come 9:1-27

1. Setting--Daniel Understands the Prophecy of Jeremiah: In the first year of Darius the Mede, Daniel understood Jeremiah's prophecy that the people would be in captivity for seventy so he began to pray to God 9:1-3

a. Timing: This vision/event occurred during the first year of Darius the Mede (538 B.C.) 9:1

b. Precipitating Event: Daniel understood Jeremiah's prophecy (Jer 29:10) that the people would be in captivity for only seventy years 9:2

Two Possible Explanations

Daniel’s began captivity

605

   

597

 

Jeremiah wrote

Daniel read Jeremiah

538

   

538

 

Daniel read Jeremiah

Years of the 70 year captivity completed

67

   

59

 

Years of the 70 year captivity completed

Years of captivity remaining

3

   

11

 

Years of captivity remaining

c. Prayer: Daniel responded to Jeremiah's prophecy by setting his attention to pray to God 9:3

2. Daniel's Prayer Is Recorded: After Daniel prays to the Lord recognizing the sinfulness of the nation and the justice of their captivity as a fulfillment of God's word, he asks the Lord to be attentive to Israel since the time of her captivity is completed 9:4-19

a. Sinfulness of the Nation: Daniel prays proclaiming that the nation is a sinful nation 9:4-11

b. Justice of the Captivity: Daniel prays proclaiming the justice of the captivity since it is a fulfillment of what God said would happen 9:12-15

c. Attentive to Israel: Daniel prayed that the Lord would not be attentive to Jerusalem because the time of captivity has been completed 9:16-19

3. The Vision of the Seventy Weeks: While Daniel was praying Gabriel came to him and revealed the future of Israel through a vision of seventy weeks of years which takes place from the rebuilding of Jerusalem to the coming of Messiah, to the cutting off of Messiah and the city's destruction, to a covenant with the nation during the seventieth week, to the breaking of the covenant and the following desolation, to the final destruction of the prince who is to come 9:20-27

a. The Appearance of Gabriel: At about the time of the evening offering while Daniel was praying Gabriel arrived before Daniel to give him insight and understanding because Daniel was highly esteemed 9:20-23

1) Time of Appearance: At about the time of the evening offering (3 P.M. cf. Ex 29:39) while Daniel was praying Gabriel arrived to Daniel 9:20-21

2) Announcement: Gabriel announced that he had come to give Daniel insight and understanding 9:22

3) Reason: The reason that Gabriel had come to Daniel was because he was highly esteemed 9:23

b. The Message of the Seventy Weeks to Daniel: Noting that a future history of seventy weeks [of years] is decreed for the Jews and Jerusalem, Gabriel explains that there will be sixty-nine weeks from the rebuilding of the Jerusalem until Messiah, that Messiah will then be cut off and Jerusalem will be destroyed, then in the seventieth week a prince to come will make a covenant with many people, break the covenant by forbidding sacrifice, set up himself as an abomination in the temple, bring desolation in his wake, and then be destroyed at the appointed time by God 9:24-27

1) Seventy Weeks for the Jews and Jerusalem: Gabriel notes that Seventy weeks are decreed for the Jews and for Jerusalem for the following purposes: 9:24

a) to finish the transgression

b) to make an end of sin

c) to make atonement for iniquity

d) to bring in everlasting righteousness

e) to seal up vision and prophecy

f) to anoint the most holy place

2) Sixty-Nine Weeks from the Rebuilding of Jerusalem to Messiah: Gabriel stated that there will be sixty-nine weeks from the rebuilding of Jerusalem until the Messiah 9:25

a) Two Parts: Gabriel noted that the sixty-nine weeks will be divided into two parts: 9:25

(1) Seven weeks (49 years) [from the command to rebuild and restore Jerusalem by Artaxerxes Longimonus in 445/444 B.C.; Neh. 2:5, 12] to the completion of the public square and mote

(2) Sixty-two weeks (434 years) from the completion of this public square and mote to when Messiah comes

b) Rebuilt City: Gabriel assures Daniel that the city will again be rebuilt 9:25

3) Messiah and City Cut Off: Gabriel announces that at that time the Messiah and the city will be cut off and destroyed 9:26

a) Messiah: The Messiah will be cut off 9:26a

b) City: The prince who is to come will destroy the city 9:26b

c) War: There will be war and destruction 9:26c

4) The Seventieth Week: Gabriel proclaims that in the prince who will come will make a covenant with many for one week (7 years), but will break it in the middle putting a stop to sacrifice and setting up himself as an abomination in the temple bringing desolation in his wake, but God will destroy him at the appointed time 9:27

a) Covenant: The prince who will come will make a covenant with many for one week 9:27a

b) Broken Covenant: In the middle of the week the prince will put a stop to the sacrificial system 9:27b

c) Make Desolate: After the prince does an abominable thing in the temple in the middle of the week, he will then bring desolation in his wake 9:27c

d) Destruction: The one who makes desolate will be destroyed [by God] 9:27d

C. Vision of the Heavenly Messenger and His Final Revelation: Daniel received a message from an angel of the future political history of the nations around Israel (Persia, Greece, the Ptolemys and Seleucus) as well as during the Tribulation (the Antichrist) with the assurance that holy ones who are living in the future will be delivered and those who have died will be resurrected to partake in the future kingdom 10:1--12:13

1. Preparation of the Prophet--Daniel's Prayer for Wisdom about the Future and an Answer by an Angel: 10:1--11:1

a. Setting: 10:1-9

1) Earthly Setting: Daniel received a true message of great conflict for Israel in the third year of Cyrus the King of Persia causing him to mourn and fast for three weeks until he received a messenger while he was on the banks of the Tigris river on the twenty-fourth day of the first month 10:1-4

a) Time: The third year of Cyrus the King of Persia (536 B.C)14 10:1a

b) Message: A true message of great conflict was revealed to Daniel through a vision which he understood15 10:1b

c) Mourning and Fasting: Daniel had been mourning and fasting for three entire weeks 10:2-3

d) Time and Place: On the twenty-fourth day of the first month16 (of Cyrus' third year), Daniel was on the bank of the Tigris river when he received a messenger 10:4

2) Heavenly Setting--Appearance of an Angel: When Daniel looked up from the Tigris river he saw a man (angel) in so much glory, he became weak and fell into sleep, while those with him fled 10:5-9

a) Angelic Appearance: When Daniel looked up from the Tigris river he saw a man (angel)17 dressed in white linen with a belt of purist gold around his waist, whose face was bright with glory and whose voice was loud like that of a crowd 10:5-6

b) People Flee: Only Daniel in great weakness saw the vision of the man since those with him fled in dread 10:7-8

c) Daniel Fell: When Daniel heard the man speak, he fell into a deep sleep with is face to the ground 10:9

b. Daniel Is Prepared to Receive the Instruction: 10:10-19

1) The Angel Explains Why He Come to Daniel: After restoring Daniel so that he could understand the vision, and explaining that his three week delay was caused by a demon over Persia, the angel explains that he has come to give Daniel understanding about Israel's future in the latter days 10:10-14

a) Daniel Restored: The angel restored Daniel to his hands and knees and urged him as one regarded of high esteem to stand upright so that he might understand the message the was sent to deliver 10:10-11

b) Reason for Messenger: The angel explained that Daniel should not be afraid because he has come in response to Daniel's humble prayers to God18 10:12

c) Reason for the Delay: The man explained that he was detained by the prince of the kingdom of Persia19 for 21 days (3 weeks), until Michael, one of the chief princes came to help him 10:13

d) Content of the Vision: The angel explains to Daniel that he has come to give Daniel an understanding of what will happen to Israel (your people, cf. 9:24) in the future end days 10:14

2) The Angel Gives Daniel Strength to Understand the Message: Because of the severity of the vision which Daniel saw (the man, or 10:1?), he again fell weak and prostrate to the ground, but the man quieted his fear and touched him on the lips to strengthen him 10:15-19

c. The Angel Begins to Give Daniel the Mystery: The angel agrees to provide for the Daniel the revelation which is already written in God's book of truth even though he has to leave Michael alone (whom he has helped since the first year of Cyrus) to fight the prince/demon of Persia (and the coming prince/demon of Greece) 10:20--11:1

1) Future Kingdoms: The angel explained to Daniel that just as he was going to return to fight against the prince (demon) of Persia, the prince (demon) of Greece is coming20 10:20

2) Agreement to Tell Daniel: The angel agrees to tell Daniel what is written in the writing of truth21 even though only Michael, Israel's prince,22 and he are in this work of fighting these foes 10:21

3) The Angel's Assistance of Michael: The angel came to be a an encouragement and protection to Michael23 (as Michael had just been of assistance to him) in the first year of the reign of Darius the Mede (Cyrus?)24 11:1

2. An Angel Reveals Future Events Concerning Persia, the Maccabean Period and the Last Days--Persia, Greece, and End Times: 11:2-45

a. Persia: After three more kings arise in Persia25 a future king of Persia26 will increase in wealth and attack Greece 11:2

b. Greece & The Maccabean Period (a Time of Tribulation): 11:3-35a

1) The Rise and Fall of Alexander The Great: A king will arise from Greece and have tremendous power but his kingdom will be divided up upon his death 11:3-4

a) The Rise of Alexander: A mighty king (Alexander the Great)27 will arise from Greece and have tremendous power to rule as he pleases28 11:3

b) The Fall of Alexander the Great: Soon after Alexander the Great has arisen, his kingdom will be divided up into four parts upon his death who are not of Alexander's descendants29 11:4

2) Two of the Four Lines of Alexander until Antiochus Epiphanies:30 11:5-20

a) Ptolemy I Soter &
Seleucus I Nicator
: 11:5

(1) Ptolemy I Soter was a general under Alexander

He was given authority over Egypt in 323 B.C. and was proclaimed king in 304

(2) Seleucus I Nicator was also a general under Alexander

He was given authority to rule in Babylon in 321 B.C.

In 316 when Babylon came under attack by another general (Antigonus), Seleucus I Nictor sought help from Ptolemy I Soter

After the defeat of Antigonus in 312 B.C, Seleucus I Nictor returned and ruled over Babylonia, Media, & Syria assuming the title of king in 305

Therefore, Seleucus I Nicator's rule was over far more than was Ptolemy I Soter.

b) Ptolemy II Philadelphus &
Antiochus II Theos
10:6

(1) Ptolemy I Soter died and his son, Ptolemy II Philadelphus ruled in Egypt from 285-246 B.C.

(2) Seleucus I Nicator was murdered in 281, and his son, Antiochus I Soter ruled from his father's death until 262; then his grandson, Antiochus II Theos, ruled Syria from 262-246

(3) Even though Ptolemy II and Antiochus II were bitter enemies (after some years), they entered into an agreement in 250 B.C. through the marriage of Ptolemy II's daughter, Berenice, to Antiochus II.

In order to marry Berenice, Antiochus II had to divorce his wife, Laodice.

In the end when Berenice's father died, Antiochus took back Laodice as his wife and put Berenice away.

Laodice then poisoned her husband, Antiochus II (who sired her), had Berenice killed (she was handed over) and her attendants (those who brought her).

Then Laodice made her son, Seleucus II Callinicus, king of Syria (the North) (246-227)

c) Ptolemy III Euergetes &
Seleucus II Callinicus
: 11:7-8

(1) Berenice's brother (Ptolemy III Euergetes) succeeded (will arise) their father Ptolemy II Philadelphus

(2) Although Ptolemy III set out to avenge the turn of events in Syria, he arrived too late to save his sister, Berenice

(3) With ease he overcame the Syrian army and had Loadice put to death.

Then he took his army east into the heart of the Syrian empire all the way to the Tigris River (fortress) and displayed great strength taking much spoil31 back to Egypt.

By taking the gods of a religious people he would greatly humble them! (11:8)

(4) Ptolemy stood without any defeat from the king of the North (Seleucus II)

d) Seleucus II Callinicus & his sons--
Seleucus III Soter
and
Antiochus III the Great
: 11:9-10

(1) The young Syrian ruler, Seleucus II Callinicus stayed in the interior of Asia Minor and then recovered much of the area lost to Ptolemy III after he left

(2) But after the humiliating defeat, Seleucus II Callinicus, the King of the North, sought to invade Egypt (240 B.C.), but was unsuccessful

(3) After his death (by a fall from a horse) he was succeeded by his son, Seleucus III Soter, but he was killed by conspirators while he was on a military campaign in Asia Minor

(4) Seleucus III Soter was succeeded by Antiochus III the Great

(5) The two sons of Seleucus II (Seleucus III and Antiochus III) tried to restore Syria's prestige through military campaigns:

Seleucus III Soter invaded Asia Minor

Antiochus III attacked Egypt which controlled all of the territory north to the borders of Syria

Antiochus III drove the Egyptians back to the southern boarders of Israel in his campaign in 219-217 B.C.

e) Ptolemy IV Philopator &
Antiochus III the Great
: 11:11-13

(1) Here the king of the south is Ptolemy IV Philopator son of Ptolemy III Philopator

(2) Ptolemy IV was the one who was driven back by Antiochus III in verse 10

(3) Although Ptolemy IV was at first successful at delaying the invasion of Antiochus III at the southern boarders of Israel, Antiochus the III returned (14 years later in 201 B.C.)32 with another, larger army and turned back the king of the South (Ptolemy IV)

f) Antiochus III the Great &
Ptolemy V Epiphanies
: 11:14-17

(1) Philip V of Macedonia and many of the Jews (your own people) joined with Antiochus III against Egypt. By doing this they paved the way for their own future disaster (and thus fulfill the vision, and they will fall down) 11:14

(2) Antiochus III captures Sidon (the fortified city) in 203 B.C. and by 199 established himself in Israel (the beautiful land) 11:15-16

(3) Antiochus III sought to bring peace between Syria and Egypt (under duress by Rome) by giving his daughter, Cleopatra (daughter of women),33 to marry Ptolemy V Epiphanies of Egypt.

Although Antiochus III hoped to destroy the land of Egypt through his daughter, it did not succeed since she always sided with her husband Ptolemy V 11:17

g) Antiochus III the Great &
Seleucus IV Philopator
: 11:18-19

(1) Antiochus III turned his attention to Asia Minor in 197 B.C. and Greece in 192 B.C. He was rather successful. Then Rome stepped in and had their commander Lucius Cornelius Scipio turn Antiochus III back in 189 B.C. with the humiliation upon him that he intended to inflict upon Greece.

(2) Antiochus III died a year latter in his own country in 188 B.C.

Although he carried on the greatest military campaigns of any of Alexander's commanders, he never was able to re-unite Alexander's Empire

h) Seleucus IV Philopator: 11:20

(1) Antiochus III's son, Seleucus IV Philopator, heavily taxed his people to pay Rome 1,000 talents a year for his father's aborted wars.

He sent his prime minister, Heliodorus, to seize the funds of the temple treasury in Jerusalem (the Jewel of his kingdom);

This was thwarted by the appearance at the Temple of a divine apparition (cf. 2 Macc. 3)

(2) Seleucus IV was then poisoned (destroyed ... not in ... battle) by his treasurer Heliodorus34

3) The Work of Antiochus IV Epiphanes:35 11:21-35

a) Antiochus IV Epiphanes --
Rise to Power
: 11:21-22

(1) In the place of Antiochus III the Great came his son Antiochus IV

(2) He was a despicable person.

Although he took on the name Epiphanies meaning the Illustrious One he was nicknamed Epimanes or the Madman.

(3) Antiochus Epiphanes did not have the throne conferred upon him, but seized it from his brother, Demetrius Soter, who had been taken hostage to Rome

He proclaimed himself as king and was accepted because he turned aside an invading army--perhaps the Egyptians

(4) He also deposed (killed) Onias III, the orthodox high priest (the prince of a covenant) and gave high priesthood to Jason who was a liberal Hellenist and bought it.

b) Antiochus IV Epiphanes --
Expansion of Power
: 11:23-24

(1) It seems that Antiochus made some sort of informal alliance with Egypt (where his sister, Cleopatra, was still queen mother even though her husband, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, was dead)

(2) Antiochus seemed to offer Coele-Syria and Palestine to Egypt (as his father had with Cleopatra), but he rescinded this promise five years after coming to power in 170 B.C.

(3) Although Antiochus' nation was small, he increased in power through his deception

(4) Antiochus built favor with the poorer people of his country by taking things from the richer areas and giving them to the poorer areas

(5) Antiochus would also protect himself against being opposed by his own people by devising plans against the strong fortified communities of his kingdom

(6) He was only allowed (by God) to do this for a short time since his reign ended with his life after twelve years in 164 B.C.

c) Antiochus IV Epiphanes &
Ptolemy VI Philometer
: 11:25-27

(1) After his initial military victories, Antiochus Ephiphanes moved against the king of the South (Ptolemy VI Philometer) in 170 A.D.

Antiochus was able to move his army from his homeland to the border of Egypt before he was met by the Egyptian army at Pelusium near the Nile Delta

Although the Egyptians had a large army, they were defeated because Ptolemy's own trusted counselors and supporters conspired against him

(2) Then Antiochus and Ptolemy VI sat at a table together professing friendship, but the goal to establish peace was never accomplished since both were deceptive36

(3) The goals of the two kings were not realized because they did not coincide with the end God had in mind

d) Antiochus IV Epiphanes --
A First Persecution of the Jews: 11:28

(1) Antiochus carried great wealth back to his homeland from his conquest of Egypt

(2) On his way back he passed through the land of Israel, and being disappointed over not taking all of Egypt, he took his frustrations out on Israel

He desecrated the temple in Jerusalem

He opposed the entire Mosaic covenantal system (cf. 1 Macc. 1:15)37

(3) Then he returned to his home country

e) Antiochus IV Epiphanes --
Future Southern Campaign: 11:29-30a

(1) At a time which was appointed by God (two years later in 168 B.C.) Antiochus made another southern campaign against Egypt having learned of a coalition formed by Ptolemy Philometer and his brother and sister in Egypt

(2) But in this southern campaign he was opposed by the Romans who had come to Egypt from the western coastlands (Kittim or Cyprus)38

f) Antiochus IV Epiphanes --
A Second Persecution of the Jews: 11:30b-32

(1) For a second time, Antiochus took out his frustration on the Jews, the city of Jerusalem and their temple

(2) He vented his anger against the entire Mosaic system (cf. v. 28)39

(3) He favored any renegade Jews who turned to help him (cf. v. 32; 1 Macc. 2:18)

(4) He desecrated the temple (offered a sow on the alter and erected an idol in the holy place; cf. 1 Macc. 44-54) and abolished the daily sacrifice40

(5) Although Antiochus promised apostate Jews a great reward if they would put aside the God of Israel and worship Zeus (Olympius), the god of Greece, and although many were persuaded, believing Jews reacted to the persecution and fought! 11:32

g) Persecution of Those Jews who Refused to Submit to Antiochus: 11:33-35

(1) Those Jews with understanding would teach to know how to think and act under the great distress 11:33a

(2) But The Jews who refused to submit to Antiochus' false religious system were persecuted and martyred41 11:33b

(3) This would go on for many days, or a few years (Daniel was told 1,150 days in 8:14)42 11:33c

(4) Some help would be given to those who stood against Antiochus (perhaps through the Maccabees or through small groups of people who came to give help to the Maccabees)43 11:34a

(5) Many will join with those who help the Maccabees, not because they believe in their cause, but because it was popular to do so, or out of fear of what would happen when the Maccabees came to power 11:34b

(6) Some will refine the people of God through suffering during the Maccabean time and the afflictions of Antiochus 11:35a

(7) until the end time begins to move the thought from the historical Antiochus to the fullest expression of his evil in the Antichrist (11:36-45). The end-time regularly signifies the final period of time (vv. 40; 12:4, 9). The time of Antiochus was not the end of time since no time or age ended then.

Wood writes, The meaning of the statement, in respect to the true end-time, is that refinement would continue among God's people until and through that climactic period, namely, the period of Great Tribulation (cf. 9:27)44

(8) The appointed time for both Antiochus and Antichrist are in God's hand and are thus yet to come

c. The Last Days (the time of Tribulation)--The Antichrist--The 70th Week:45 11:36-45

1) He Will Set Himself Over Every God: 11:36-37

a) He (the king)46 will be independent of any authority apart from himself (do as he pleases)47 11:36a

b) He will exalt himself above all gods48 11:36b

c) The duration of his rule has been determined by God49 11:36c

d) He will not have respect for his religious heritage50 11:37a

e) He will not desire Messiah51 because he will magnify himself up above all gods 11:37b

2) One Religion of Military Might: 11:38-39

a) Instead of honoring a god, he will honor militarism, or military strength as his god whom he will honor with riches52 11:38

b) He will use his strength to expand his dominion over other powers 11:39a

c) He will be supported by a foreign god (Satan?) 11:39b

d) He will honor those who submit to him 11:39c

e) His parceling out the land at a [reduced?] price will gain him a great following53 11:39d

3) Conflict with the Kings of the South and North: 11:40

a) NB--The events of 11:40-45 will happen at the end of time (during the 2nd half of the 70th sevens of years. This is the end of time as God has decreed it!

b) The Antichrist (Israel)54 will be attacked with great might from the kings of the south and of the north (Egypt & Russia?)55 11:40a

c) When the Antichrist hears of the invasion, he will move his army from Europe into the Middle East sweeping through many countries like a flood 11:40b

4) Invasion and Tribute from Israel and the Surrounding Countries: 11:41-43

a) As the Antichrist moves into the Middle East he will enter Israel (the Beautiful Land)56 to defend it and take many countries like Edom, Moab and Ammon (present Jordan), but these countries will be delivered from him 11:41

b) The Antichrist will attack Egypt and her Arab allies and be victorious: 11:42-43

5) Rumors, Jerusalem, and Destruction: 11:44-45

a) Rumors: The Antichrist will hear alarming reports of a massive attack from the east57and the north58 11:44a

b) These Rumors of attack will enrage the Antichrist and move him to destroy many of the invaders 11:44b

c) Posing as Messiah, the Antichrist will set up his headquarters in Jerusalem59 11:45a

d) The Antichrist will be destroyed (Dan 7:11, 26) with the advent of Christ (Rev. 19:19-20)60 11:45b

3. The Climax of the Vision--The Great Tribulation and the Resurrection:61 12:1-13

a. The Great Tribulation Rescue: At the end time when Michael the great protective angel of Israel arises and when Israel is experiencing the greatest trouble of her history everyone whose name is written in the book of life will be rescued 12:1

1) At the end time62 Michael the great prince/angel over the sons of Israel63 will arise [to protect them?] 12:1a

2) At that end time when Michael arises there will be a time of trouble for the nation Israel which has never been so great 12:1b

3) At that end time when Michael arises and there is great trouble for the nation of Israel there will be a rescue of everyone whose name is found written in the book [of life]64 12:1b

b. The Resurrection and Reward: At this end time when living Israel will be rescued many of those who have died will be resurrected to everlasting life and be rewarded for personal faithfulness and leading others to faithfulness (while at another time others of Israel who have died will be raised to disgrace and everlasting contempt) 12:2-3

1) The Resurrection of the Dead:65 At this end time when living Israel will be rescued (12:1) many of those who have died will be resurrected to everlasting life and others who have died will be resurrected to disgrace and everlasting contempt [at a later time] 12:2

a) Many of those who have died will be resurrected to everlasting life66 12:2a

b) Others who have died will be resurrected to disgrace and everlasting contempt [at a later time] 12:2b

2) The Reward: At the time of this future deliverance and resurrection those who have been faithful personally and in leading others to faithfulness will be rewarded67 with the imperishable glory of heaven 12:3

c. Epilogue--Time Elements at the End of Time: 12:4-13

1) Close Up the Revelation until the End Time: Daniel is told to seal up68 the revelation because it will have primary application to those who live in the end-time 12:4a

2) Futile Search for Understanding until Later: Although many will search to understand the prophecies in Daniel's time, their understanding will increase with time69 12:4b

3) The Time of the End of Time: Through the witness of the angels Daniel learns that at the end of time the Lord will deliver his people Israel and that the vision is not going to be fully understandable until that time, but that many will respond in faith, although some will not, and be blessed if they endure through the great tribulation until the kingdom, but Daniel is to live his life, die, enter into his rest, be resurrected, and then partake in his reward at the end of time 12:5-13

a) Witness of the Angels: When Daniel saw two angels (witnesses) standing on the two banks of the Tigris river (picturing the deliverance of the people as YHWH had delivered Israel through the Reed Sea), the one who had given the vision asked when the end-time would occur70 and then answered by swearing with both hands71 to heaven that it will occur after the last 3 1/2 years of the Great Tribulation 12:5-7

b) Daniel Questions: Although Daniel heard the prophecy he could not understand it so he asked what the outcome of the events would be72 12:8

c) The Angel's Concluding Explanation: Although the angel reminds Daniel that he should not be concerned about when this will happen because the revelation is for the end of time, he assures him that some will respond properly to the revelation at the end and by some will not; then he identifies the time of the great tribulation and proclaims that those who live through it unto the kingdom will be blessed; finally he urges Daniel to live his life, die, enter into his rest, and then be resurrected to receive his reward at the end of time 12:9-13

(1) Reminder of the Time of Understanding: Daniel is again reminded that he should not be concerned because this revelation will not be fully understood until the end of time 12:9

(2) Response at the End of Time:73 Daniel is told that [at the end of time] many will understand this prophecy and to be purified and refined by it, but the wicked will not understand it and act wickedly 12:10

(3) The Time of the Great Tribulation: From the mid-point of the tribulation [the time when regular sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up]74 to the end of time will be 1,290 days75 12:11

(4) The Time from the Great Tribulation to the Kingdom: The angel proclaims that the one who endures during the great tribulation until the time of the kingdom, 1,335 days, will be blessed 12:12

(5) Daniel is exhorted to not worry about the revelation but to live his life until his death whereupon he will enter into rest and then be resurrected at the end time for his reward at the end of time 12:13


1 Goldingay sees a chiastic structure for the entire book (John E. Goldingay, Daniel, 325).

1 Exile and the questions it raises: story

2 A vision of four empires

3 A Trial of faithfulness and a marvelous deliverance

4 An omen interpreted and a king challenged and chastised

5 An omen interpreted and a king challenged and deposed

6 A trial of faithfulness and a marvelous deliverance

7 A vision of four empires

8 Aspects of this vision developed

9 Exile and the questions it raises: vision

10--12 Aspects of this vision developed

2 Waltke writes, But how can one square the statement in Daniel 1:1 that Nebuchadnezzar in his first year as king besieged Jerusalem in the third year of Jehoiakim with the statement in Jeremiah 25:1, 9; 46:1 that Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaoh Necho in the fourth year of Jehoiakim? Edwin Thiele harmonizes this conflicting date by proposing that Daniel is using the Babylonian system of dating the king's reign whereas Jeremiah is using the Palestinian system of dating [The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 163, 165]. In Babylonia the year in which the king ascended the throne was designated specifically as 'the year of accession to the kingdom,' and this was followed by the first, second, and subsequent years of rule. In Palestine, on the other hand, there was no accession year as such, so that the length of rule was computed differently, with the year of accession being regarded as the first year of the king's reign. If this plausible explanation is correct, the alleged contradiction actually supports a sixth century date for the book. Had the author Daniel been an unknown Jew of the second century B.C., it is unlikely that he would have followed the obsolete Babylonian chronological system of computation in preference to his own Palestinian method, which had the sanction of so important a personage as the prophet Jeremiah (Bruce K. Waltke, The Date of the Book of Daniel. Bibliotheca Sacra 133 (1976): 325-36).

3 This does not mean that Daniel died in the first year of Cyrus the king. The point is that he continued serving though the Persian take over of Babylon (cf. 10:1; 12:9, 13).

4 Baldwin sees the structure as Chiastic (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 75).

A. Nebuchadrezzar dreams of four Kingdoms and God's Kingdom (2)

B. Nebuchadrezzer sees God's Servants Rescued (3)

C. Judgment on Nebuchadrezzar (4)

C' Judgment on Belshazzar (5)

B' Darius the Mede sees Daniel Rescued (6)

A' Daniel has a vision of four kingdoms and God's Kingdom (7)

5 This was probably inspired from the dream reported in chapter two.

6 Considerable question exists around the identity of this Darius the Mede (cf. 6:1a; 9:1).

(1) He may have been a governor under Cyrus whose name was also Gubaru. It may be the Gubaru was another spelling for Ugbaru. If so then he first conquered the city on October 12, 539 and was followed by Cyrus on October 29. Then He may have been appointed as ruler by Cyrus for a short time after the conquest (until his death eight days after Cyrus' entry into the city; cf. Dan 6:28). Pentecost writes, If Darius the Mede is another name for Ugbaru, as is entirely possible, the problem is solved. Since Darius the Mede was 62 years old when he took over Babylon (5:31), his death a few weeks later would not be unusual. This would also align with Daniel 9:1 where Darius was made ruler over the Babylonian Kingdom. See Robert Dick Wilson, Studies in the Book of Daniel, 128ff); William H. Shea, Darius the Mede: An Update, Andrews University Seminary Studies 20 (1982): 229-47);

(2) He may have been someone distinct from Ugbaru, the governor of Gutium, who was appointed by Cyrus to rule over Israel (John C. Witcome, Jr. Darius the Mede (Nutley, N.J.: Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing Co., 1974);

(3) This may have been Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, who served as the ruler of Babylon;

(4) Or this may have been an alternate name for Cyrus himself (D. J. Wiseman, Some Historical Problems in the Book of Daniel, Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel, 9-16; see the Aramaic in 6:28 which could read Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, even the reign of Cyrus the Persian). Baldwin argues that Darius was an enthronement name: The name Darius is used only in connection with the first year (5:31; 9:1; 11:1). Tiglath Pileser II (745-727 BC) ruled as king of Babylon from 729 as Pul; his son Shalmaneser V ruled in Babylon under the name Ululai. It was far from uncommon to adopt more than one name (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary,127, n. 5; cf. also 26-28). Daniel 6:28 could be translated, So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, that is, in the reign of Cyrus the Persian. See also the LXX of 11:1 where Cyrus is used instead of Darius.

Any of these views are possible. This writer is torn between views one and four and leans towards four.

7 This unit forms an Enclusio with the vision that began this section of the book in chapter two. Here Daniel has a dream, there it was Nebuchadnezzar. The kingdoms which are being described are the same even though the images are different. Even though one might want to place this vision with the later visions of the book, the text is still in Aramaic, therefore, it is probably best to identify this vision with Daniel 2--6.

The following outline is adapted from John A. Martin's, Outline of Daniel, unpublished class notes in 304 Preexilic and Exilic Prophets, (Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1983), 9-10.

8 A human person.

9 This speaks of God's glory like the smoke in the temple or the cloud in the desert (cf. Mt. 24:30; 26:64; Mk. 13:26; Rev. 1:7).

10 See 2 Samuel 7; Psalm 2:6-9.

11 Through a vision Daniel is projected forward to the prophetic future of the Persian and Grecian Empires as he is at Susa, the later capital of the Persian Empire where Esther would live, and from which Nehemiah would return to Jerusalem (John F. Walvoord, Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation, 180-181).

12 Pentecost writes, Antiochus' desecration of the temple was to last 2,300 evenings and mornings before its cleansing (8:14). Some take the 2,300 evenings and mornings to mean 2,300 days, that is, a little more than six years. In this interpretation, the six years were from Antiochus' first incursion into Jerusalem (170 B.C.) to the refurbishing and restoring of the temple by Judas Maccabeus in late 164. A second interpretation seems preferable. Rather than each evening and each morning representing a day, the reference may be to evening and morning sacrifices, which were interrupted by Antiochus' desecration (cf. the daily sacrifice, vv. 11-21). With two sacrifices made daily, the 2,300 offerings would cover 1,150 days or three years (of 360 days each) plus 70 days. This is the time from Antiochus' desecration of the temple (December 16, 167) to the refurbishing and restoring of the temple by Judas Maccabeaus in late 164 and on into 163 B.C. when all the Jewish sacrifices were fully restored and religious independence gained for Judah (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1358-59).

13 Alexander died in 323 B.C. at the age of 32 from malaria and alcoholism. Then his kingdom was divided among four generals:

(1) Seleucus [with Syria and Mesopotamia],

(2) Ptolemy [with Egypt],

(3) Lysimacus [over Thrace and portions of Asia Minor] and

(4) Cassander [over Macedonia and Greece].

This fourfold division was anticipated through the four heads of the leopard (7:6), the four prominent horns on the goat (8:8) and the four points of the compass in 11:4. With no dynasty of rulers the kingdom was marked with weakness and division (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1368).

14 This is counted from when Cyrus overtook Babylon (539 B.C.). Pentecost writes, The final vision given to Daniel came in the third year of the reign of Cyrus which was 536 B.C. Exiles had returned from Babylon [538] and had begun rebuilding the temple. (Perhaps Daniel had not returned with the exiles because of his age). Israel's captivity had ended. Jerusalem was being reoccupied, and the nation seemed to be at peace. (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1365; see also Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 178).This was also when the construction of the temple began in Jerusalem under Zerubbabel’s return beginning in 538 B.C. (Ezra 1--6).

15 Baldwin understands the conflict to be in understanding the vision (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 179), but Pentecost understand the great conflict to refer to a war with Israel as in Isaiah 40:2 when he writes, The Revelation in the vision given to Daniel on this occasion shattered any hope the prophet might have had that Israel would enjoy her new freedom and peace for long. For God revealed that the nation would be involved in many conflicts (a great war) (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1365).

16 When Passover would be remembered and the people would reflect upon their deliverance from Egypt (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 179).

17 Some understand this man to be the preincarnate Christ (cf. Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 178; John F. Walvoord, Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation, 242-43; cf. Rev. 1:12-16), but others understand this man to be an angel--even Gabriel.

Pentecost writes, Some Bible students say that the man was the preincarnate Christ because of (a) the similarity of the description here to that of Christ in Revelation 1:13-16, (b) the response of Daniel and his friends (Dan. 10:7-8), and (c) the fact that this 'Man' may be the same as the 'Son of Man' in 7:13, and the 'Man' in 8:16. On the other hand, in favor of this messenger being an angel is the improbability of Christ being hindered by a prince (demon) of Persia (10:13) and needing the help of the angel Michael, and the fact that the person is giving a message from heaven (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1365-66).

18 This prayer was implied in 10:2, Daniel, had been mourning for three entire weeks.

19 This was probably a Satanic adversary, or angel (cf. the use of prince in the same verse for Michael; cf. also Ephesians 1:21). Pentecost writes, Gabriel and Michael have been assigned authority over angels who administer God's affairs for the nation Israel (cf. Michael in Dan. 10:21; 12:1; Jude 9). In imitation Satan has also apparently assigned high-ranking demons to positions of authority over each kingdom. The prince of the Persian kingdom was a satanic representative assigned to Persia (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1366).

20 Pentecost writes, These princes, as stated earlier ..., were demons, Satan's representatives assigned to nations to oppose godly forces. Persia and Greece were two major nations discussed in detail in chapter 11 (Persia, vv. 2-4; Greece, vv. 5-35) (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1367). Therefore, this statement is a preview of what is coming in the next chapter.

21 This writing of truth is ( tm#a$ bt*k!B! ) may well be God's record of truth in general, or which the Bible is one expression. The facts to be revealed are already in God's record and are not to become part of the Holy Scriptures. The plan of God is obviously greater than that which is revealed in the Bible itself (John F. Walvoord, Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation, 250). See also Deuteronomy 32:4; Psalm 139:60; Revelation 1:1

22 See 9:24 where Daniel's people are Israel (cf. 10:14). Here Daniel's prince would no doubt also be the prince of Israel.

Walvoord writes, In regard to the coming revelation and the spiritual struggle it records, the angelic messenger has been given unusual responsibility which is exceeded only by Michael, described as 'your prince.' Daniel in this way is reminded of the special angelic ministry which God had provided him all through life and especially in this present period of detailed divine revelation. The entire experience of Daniel in this chapter is on the one hand a reminder of human weakness and insufficiency, and on the other, a divine enablement which will strengthen Daniel for his responsible task of recording this great revelation. The fact that an entire chapter is devoted to this preparation makes clear that the revelation to follow is important in the consummation of God's purpose in the world (John F. Walvoord, Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation, 251).

23 It is not all that clear what the referent of him is. It could be Michael as in the outline, or it could be Darius the Mede. If Darius the Mede is in view, then it seems that the angel supported him in some way. This may be unlikely since that would be the same desire of the prince of Persia. If they are both trying to support Darius, then there would be no need for a conflict. Therefore, Michael may be the better referent.

Walvoord writes, The story of chapter 6 demonstrates that efforts were made in the first year of Darius to make him hostile toward Israel. But God sent his angel on that occasion and shut the lions' mouths (Dan 6:22). The miraculous deliverance by the angel caused Darius the Mede to refuse his policies to favor Israel (6:24-27). The beginning of the second great empire with the fall of Babylon in chapter 5 was, then, more than a military conquest or triumph of the armies of the Medes and Persians. It was a new chapter in the divine drama of angelic warfare behind the scenes, and the change was by divine appointment (John F. Walvoord, Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation, 255).

24 Considerable question exists around the identity of this Darius the Mede (cf. 6:1a; 9:1).

(1) He may have been a governor under Cyrus whose name was also Gubaru. It may be the Gubaru was another spelling for Ugbaru. If so then he first conquered the city on October 12 539 and was followed by Cyrus on October 29. Then He may have been appointed as ruler by Cyrus for a short time after the conquest (until his death eight days after Cyrus' entry into the city; cf. Dan 6:28). Pentecost writes, If Darius the Mede is another name for Ugbaru, as is entirely possible, the problem is solved. Since Darius the Mede was 62 years old when he took over Babylon (5:31), his death a few weeks later would not be unusual. This would also align with Daniel 9:1 where Darius was made ruler over the Babylonian Kingdom. See Robert Dick Wilson, Studies in the Book of Daniel, 128ff); William H. Shea, Darius the Mede: An Update, Andrews University Seminary Studies 20 (1982): 229-47);

(2) He may have been someone distinct from Ugbaru, the governor of Gutium, who was appointed by Cyrus to rule over Israel (John C. Witcome, Jr. Darius the Mede (Nutley, N.J.: Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing Co., 1974);

(3) This may have been Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, who served as the ruler of Babylon;

(4) Or this may have been an alternate name for Cyrus himself (D. J. Wiseman, Some Historical Problems in the Book of Daniel, Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel, 9-16; see the Aramaic in 6:28 which could read Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, even the reign of Cyrus the Persian). Baldwin argues that Darius was an enthronement name: The name Darius is used only in connection with the first year (5:31; 9:1; 11:1). Tiglath Pileser II (745-727 BC) ruled as king of Babylon from 729 as Pul; his son Shalmaneser V ruled in Babylon under the name Ululai. It was far from uncommon to adopt more than one name (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary,127, n. 5; cf. also 26-28). Daniel 6:28 could be translated, So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, that is, in the reign of Cyrus the Persian. See also the LXX of 11:1 where Cyrus is used instead of Darius.

Any of these views are possible. This writer is torn between views one and four and leans towards four.

25 (1) Cambyses II, Cyrus' son (529-522), (2) Pseudo-Smerdis or Gaumata (522-521), and (3) Darius I Hystaspes (521-486).

Wood writes, Because the fourth king of the following phrase must be Xerxes (486-465 B.C.), as will be seen, these three must be his predecessors. Actually four kings preceded him (Cyrus, ...; Cambyses, ..., Smerdis, ..., Darius, Hystaspes ...), which means that one is omitted. It could be Cyrus, since he was already ruling when the angel spoke, and the angel did say yet ...; or it could be Smerdis, because he ruled less than one year and was probably an impostor in doing so (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 281).

26 Baldwin believes that a Hebraism of three ... and a fourth is being employed here as in Prov. 30:15, 18, 21, 29; Amos 1:3, 6 et cetera to summarize the entire Persian reign of over two hundred years, and that the lure to Greece is not Xerxes so much as the wealth of the entire empire (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary,185). This is possible, but Xerxes may be a better choice since this is not wisdom literature.

This is probably Xerxes (486-465). He is known in the book of Esther as Ahasuerus. Wood writes, It should be realized that several other kings ruled Persia besides the four mentioned, namely, Artaxerxes Longimanus, ...; Xerxes II, ...; Darius II Nothus, ...; Artaxerxes II Mnemon, ...; Artaxexes III Ochus, ...; Arses, ...; and Darius III Codomannus, .... The thought here is that a total of three ruled before the one arose who attacked Greece, an attack which gave reason for the counterattack of Alexander, soon to be mentioned, years later. None of the Persian successors of Xerxes provided a similar reason (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 281).

27 Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) was foreshadowed by the bronze belly and thighs of Nebuchadnezzar's image in Daniel 2:32, 39b, the winged leopard (7:6) and the prominent horn of the Goat (8:5-8).

28 From 334-330 B.C. “Alexander conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and the land of the Medo-Persian Empire. His conquests extended as far as India” (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1367-68).

29 Alexander died in 323 B.C. at the age of 32 from malaria and alcoholism. Then his kingdom was divided among four generals:

(1) Seleucus [with Syria and Mesopotamia],

(2) Ptolemy [with Egypt],

(3) Lysimacus [over Thrace and portions of Asia Minor] and

(4) Cassander [over Macedonia and Greece].

This fourfold division was anticipated through the four heads of the leopard (7:6), the four prominent horns on the goat (8:8) and the four points of the compass in 11:4. With no dynasty of rulers the kingdom was marked with weakness and division (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1368).

30 Pentecost writes, The Ptolemies who ruled over Egypt, were called the kings ‘of the South.’ The Seleucids, ruling over Syria, north of Israel, were called the kings ‘of the North.’ This section (vv. 5-20) gives many details of the continuous conflict between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids during which the land of Israel was invaded first by one power and then by the other (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1368).

Wood writes, The significance of the angel's speaking further only of these two is that Palestine, where God's people dwelt, lay exactly between them and was continually involved in their later history. Especially important is the fact that the Syrian division would eventually see Antiochus Epiphanes, the 'little horn' of chapter eight, come to power, as noted. The angel's message was to concern this one particularly, as he would foreshadow still another--the Antichrist of the far distant future. Before the rise of Antiochus, however, more than a century would elapse, and the angel first set forth this history (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 283).

31 The name Euergates means benefactor.

32 He sought to recover the eastern areas of his country and then from 212-204 B.C. he successfully campaigned as far as the Caspian Sea and the boarder of India (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 288).

33 This has the idea of first among women. Cleopatra was the first among women of the day, since she was the royal princess (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 292).

34 Wood writes, His only son, Demetrius Soter, had been taken as hostage to Rome, when Heliodorus, his prime minister, evidently sought for the throne himself by committing the act (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 294).

35 Wood writes, Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.), the 'little horn' of chapter eight and type of the Antichrist, is now presented. He was the son and successor of Antiochus the Great. The text concerns him for the following fifteen verses. The reason for so much attention is that, as in chapter eight, he prefigured the Antichrist, and there was a need for telling more about him in this capacity. This is an anticipation of speaking of the Antichrist himself in the last portion of the chapter (vv. 36-45). The reason for the detailed history just considered is really to give background for the presentation now of this eighth Seleucid ruler. The first seven, as well as their Ptolemanic counterparts, were not of sufficient significance in themselves for mention--thought their combined history has had the importance of showing the ravages of warfare that flowed back and forth over Palestine--but the record given of them, briefly stated, has prepared for the introduction now of this one who was indeed of major significance. The matter to keep in mind, as the text describes him, is that his life and activities are predictive of the life and activities of the Antichrist to come (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 294).

36 Wood writes, Antiochus hoped to seize all Egypt as he combined with the one brother against the other; and Ptolemy Philometor, it may be assumed, hoped to take back all Egypt for himelf (sic.) (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 298).

37 Wood writes, The occasion of the action involved the Jewish reaction against the high priest Menelaus, who had catered to the favor of Antiochus in the past days (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 299). Menelaus had now replaced Jason (in 172 B.C.) as high priest because he had promised a higher bribe to Antiochus.

38 Pentecost writes, From the Roman senate Popillus Leanas took to Antiochus a letter forbidding him to engage in war with Egypt. When Antiochus asked for time to consider, the emissary drew a circle in the sand around Antiochus and demanded that he give his answer before he stepped out of the circle. Antiochus submitted to Rome's demand for to resist would be to declare war on Rome. This was a humiliating defeat for Antiochus Epiphanes ... but he had no alternative but to return to his own land (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1369-70).

39 Pentecost writes, Antiochus sent his general Apollonius with 22,000 soldiers into Jerusalem on what was purported to be a peace mission. But they attacked Jerusalem on the Sabbath, killed many people, took many women and children as slaves, and plundered and burned the city.

In seeking to exterminate Judaism and to Hellenize the Jews, he forbade the Jews to follow their religious practices (including their festivals and circumcision) and commanded that copies of the Law be burned (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1370).

40 Pentecost writes, In this culminating act he erected on December 16, 167 B.C. an altar to Zeus on the alter of burnt offering outside the temple, and had a pig offered on the altar. The Jews were compelled to offer a pig on the 25th of each month to celebrate Antiochus Ephphanes' birthday (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1370).

41 1 Maccabees 2:31-38 reports that on one instance when the soldiers of Antiochus realized that the Jews would not fight on the sabbath, they deliberately attacked them on the sabbath and slaughtered many of them.

42 Pentecost writes, Antiochus' desecration of the temple was to last 2,300 evenings and mornings before its cleansing (8:14). Some take the 2,300 evenings and mornings to mean 2,300 days, that is, a little more than six years. In this interpretation, the six years were from Antiochus' first incursion into Jerusalem (170 B.C.) to the refurbishing and restoring of the temple by Judas Maccabeus in late 164. A second interpretation seems preferable. Rather than each evening and each morning representing a day, the reference may be to evening and morning sacrifices, which were interrupted by Antiochus' desecration (cf. the daily sacrifice, vv. 11-21). With two sacrifices made daily, the 2,300 offerings would cover 1,150 days or three years (of 360 days each) plus 70 days. This is the time from Antiochus' desecration of the temple (December 16, 167) to the refurbishing and restoring of the temple by Judas Maccabeaus in late 164 and on into 163 B.C. when all the Jewish sacrifices were fully restored and religious independence gained for Judah (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1358-59).

43 Pentecost writes, “This has in view the rise of the Maccabean revolt. Mattathias, a priest, was the father of five sons. (One of them, Judas, became well known for refurbishing and restoring the temple in late 164 B. C. He was called Judas Maccabeus, ‘the Hammerer.’) In 166, Mettathias refused to submit to this false religious system. He and his sons fled from Jerusalem to the mountains and began the Maccabean revolt” (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1370).

44 Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 304. Heater writes, From this point on, the correspondence to Maccabean history ceases. Consequently, this section is assumed to point to the future. It must have reference to the Antichrist. Antiochus IV was typical of the great persecutor to come. This section speaks of the actual Antichrist (Homer, Heater, Jr., Notes on the Book of Daniel, unpublished class notes in 375 Seminar in Old Testament Historical Literature, [(Dallas Theological Seminary, Spring 1990)], 226).

45 Wood states particular reasons why this section should be seen as describing someone beyond Antiochus IV Epiphanes: (1) In the ensuing verses there are statements regarding the character of this king which were not true of Antiochus, but do agree with descriptions given elsewhere of the Antichrist, ... (2) In verses thirty-six to thirty-nine, policies of this person are reviewed, as if to introduce him for the first time. This would be strange if reference were to Antiochus, whose policies and actual life-history have already been given. (3) Numerous historical matters from the life of this king are set forth in verses forty to forty-five; and these do not accord with historical events experienced by Antiochus, but do fit into the life-pattern of all that is stated elsewhere of the Antichrist. (4) Any further treatment regarding Antiochus should not be expected, for his story, as to his oppression of the Jews (the purpose for his mention) has been completed. (5) The form of reference used in verse thirty-six to introduce this person suggests a change of identity from Antiochus, because Antiochus has not been designated at any time as the king (the form used here, with the article) and Antiochus' predecessors have always been referred to by the designation 'king of the North.' (6) In verse forty this king is actually distinguished from another ruler called 'king of the North,' thus setting him quite apart from a line of kings so called. (7) Involved with this person's rule will be a time of trouble for Israel worse than any other period in history, as indicated in 12:1; and this corresponds to Matthew 24:21 (cf. Jer. 30:7) where the Great Tribulation is clearly in view, a time existing when the Antichrist rules. (8) Since the Antichrist has been presented in the three prior revelational times of Daniel, one should not be surprised to have him set forth in this fourth time as well (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 304-305).

Pentecost writes, “In verses 36-45 a leader is described who is introduced simply as ‘the king.’ Some suggest that this is Antiochus IV Epiphanes and that the verses describe additional incursions of his into Israel. However, the details given in these verses were not fulfilled by Antiochus. True, Antiochus was a foreshadowing of a king who will come .... But the two are not the same. One is past and the other is future. The coming king (the little ‘horn’ of 7:8 and ‘the ruler’ of 9:26) will be the final ruler in the Roman world. His rise to prominence by satanic power is described in Revelation 13:1-8 where he is called a ‘beast.’ According to John (Rev. 17:12-13), he will gain authority not by military conquest but by the consent of the 10 kings who will submit to him. Starting with Daniel 11:36 the prophecy moves from the ‘near’ to the ‘far.’ The events recorded in verses 36-45 will occur during the final seven years of the 70 sevens (9:24)” (J. Dwight Pentecost, “Daniel,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1370-71).

46 Wood writes, As noted, neither Antiochus Epiphanes nor his predecessor are called by this term. In fact, Antiochus is not named by any definite term, being called a 'king' only one time, and that jointly with Ptolemy (v. 27). Since his predecessors are called regularly by the designation 'king of the North,' the implication is that he could have been similarly identified had the context called for it. That this king, if he is the Antichrist, should be designated as 'the king' (using the article) is reasonable, because the Antichrist has been clearly set forth in Daniel's previous times of revelation: first as 'little horn' (7:8, 24), then as 'a king fierce of countenance' (8:23) and further as the prince that shall come' (9:26) (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 305).

47 See also Daniel 7:25; 8:24; cf. Revelation 13:7; 17:3.

48 Pentecost writes, “Midway during his seven-year reign he will exercise the political power given him by the 10 kings who will have elected him (Rev. 17:12-13). He will also take to himself absolute power in the religious realm, magnifying himself above all gods and defying and speaking blasphemously against the God of gods. ‘He opposes and exalts himself over everything that is called God or is worshiped, and even sets himself up in God's temple, proclaiming himself to be God’ (2 Thess. 2:4). ‘He will speak against the Most High’ (Dan 7:25). The world will be persuaded to worship him as god by the miracles the false prophet will perform in his name (Rev. 13:11-15). He will succeed in spreading his influence around the world, but politically and religiously (Rev. 13:7-8)” (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1371).

49 This will be the three and one-half years of the Great Tribulation. God will provide the judgment at the end of that period (Dan. 7:11, 26; 9:27; Rev. 19:19-20).

50 Heater writes, This phrase leads some to believe that this ruler is an apostate Jew in the latter days. It probably means only that he ignores all deities, cf. 2 Thes. 2; Rev. 13:1-10; Daniel 7 (little horn) (Homer, Heater, Jr., Notes on the Book of Daniel, unpublished class notes in 375 Seminar in Old Testament Historical Literature, (Dallas Theological Seminary, Spring 1990), 226).

Pentecost writes, “Because of the reference to the gods (or God,’elohim) of his fathers, some have concluded that this ruler will be a Jew, since the Old Testament frequently uses the phrase 'the God of your fathers' to refer to the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (e.g., Ex. 3:15). However, since this individual will be the final ruler in the Roman world, the little horn of the fourth beast (Dan. 7:8, 24b) he must be a Gentile. His showing no regard for the gods of his fathers means that in order to gain absolute power in the religious realm, this king will have no respect for his religious heritage. He will set aside all organized religion (nor will he regard any god) and will set himself up (exalt himself) as the sole object of worship. Instead of depending on gods, he will depend on his own power (received from Satan, Rev. 13:2) and by that power he will demand worship of himself” (J. Dwight Pentecost, “Daniel,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1371).

51 Wood believes that the desire of women speaks about desires which are normally characteristic of women such as mercy, gentleness, and kindness and that the Antichrist will have little place for such graces (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 306).

Heater writes, Either a deity (Tammuz/Adonis) or (Jewish) women's desire, viz., the Messiah. Pentecost adds, Perhaps many an Israelite woman had longingly wondered if she would become the mother of the coming Messiah, the nation's Savior and King (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1371). See Luke 1--2.

52 Perhaps the god whom his fathers did no know is a reference to his military strength or Satan who is behind that strength (Rev. 13:2).

Wood writes, the thought is that he will find his goal in fortresses, strongholds, and military programs, in place of such religious belief .... From earliest days, Rome has been religious, but this future ruler will be different, denying all deity and pursuing warfare instead. Military activity will take the place of god for him (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 307).

Rather than turning riches into the form of a god, he will use him to support his military strength.

53 Wood writes, The thought is that the amount of land over which any subruler would be given authority would be granted as a reward, and that it would vary with the degree of obeisance rendered and the sub-ruler's potential as an aid to the Antichrist (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 307).

54 Pentecost writes, “Him refers back to the king introduced in verse 36. In verses 40-45 every occurrence of ‘he’ (seven times), ‘him’ (four times), and ‘his’ (three times) refers to this coming king. He will have entered into a covenant with the people of Israel binding that nation as a part of his domain (9:27). Any attack, then, against the land of Israel will be an attack against him with whom Israel will be joined by covenant” (J. Dwight Pentecost, “Daniel,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1371).

55 Pentecost writes, “Some suggest that this will occur at the middle of the 70th ‘seven’ of years; more likely it will take place toward the end of the second half of that seven-year period. Since ‘the king of the South’ in 11:5-35 referred to a king of Egypt, there seems to be no reason to relate this king of the South (v. 40) to some other nation. In fact Egypt is mentioned twice in verses 42-43. In this invasion Egypt will not come alone but will be joined by the Libyans and Nubians (v. 43). These nations, referred to elsewhere as Put and Cush, may be nations in Africa. However, it is more likely that Put refers to Arab nations in the Sinai area and Cush to nations in the Persian Gulf region (cf. Gen. 2:13 ...).

Simultaneous with the invasion of Israel by the king of the South (Egypt) will be an invasion by the king of the North. Some Bible scholars equate this invasion with the one by Gog and Magog, for Gog will ‘come from ... the far north’ (Ezek. 38:15). Others say the battle of Gog and Magog will occur in the first half of the 70th ‘seven’ and thus before this two-pronged invasion in Daniel 11:40. They suggest that the battle of Gog and Magog will occur when Israel is at peace (Ezek. 38:11, 14). According to that view, a difference is made between Gog who will come from ‘the far north’ (Ezek. 38:15) and a later invasion which will be headed by ‘the king of the North’ (Dan. 11:40). Either way the king of the North in verse 40 is certainly not one of the Seleucid kings of the North in verses 5-35. This invasion has no correspondence to historical facts; it is yet future” (J. Dwight Pentecost, “Daniel,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1371-72).

56 Cf. 11:16; 8:9.

57 200 million soldiers from east of the Euphrates River (Rev. 9:16).

58 Perhaps this will be another attack by the king of the North (cf. Dan 11:40).

59 Jerusalem is between the Mediterranean and Dead Seas on the beautiful Holy Mountain (Mt. Zion). This is the same city from which Christ will rule the world in the Millennium (Zech. 14:4, 17).

60 Wood writes, According to Zechariah 13:8, 9, he will by this time have brought either death or captivity to two-thirds of the inhabitants of the land, indicating an appalling destruction. He shall come to his end: Having reached his zenith of power and with Israel prostrate at his feet, the Antichrist will come to his end, both as to power and life. Before this, he will have brought Israel to a state of complete humiliation, with both army and the government fully crushed, which will make the Jews of a mind to receive their great Deliverer when He comes to save them. At this time, the Antichrist will experience his doom. Only the fact is here stated, but the matter is portrayed else-where, especially in Revelation 10:11-21. Christ will come in power against the Antichrist and his army, as his forces are spread through the valley of Jehoshaphat (Joel 3:2, 21), east of Jerusalem. The Antichrist, along with his chief helper, the False Prophet, will be cast directly into the Lake of Fire, and then his army will be slain by the 'sword' that proceeds from Christ's 'mouth.' No one will help the Antichrist, for none will exist who can help him. He, Satan's counterfeit world ruler, who will have been so self-sufficient until this moment, will suddenly find himself totally incapable to help himself, as he meets God's true King (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 314).

61 Walvoord writes, Chapter 11 had dealt primarily with the political and religious aspects of the time of the end. Chapter 12 relates this now to the people of Israel (John F. Walvoord, Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation, 282).

Likewise Pentecost writes, “No doubt when the revelation contained in chapter 12 was given Daniel, he was concerned about his people's destiny. Now at the conclusion of this vision, the angel consoled Daniel by revealing two facts (vv. 1-3). First, the people of Israel (your people; cf. 9:24; 10:14) will be delivered by the intervention of Michael the angelic prince (cf. 10:13, 21) who is Israel's defender. In the Great Tribulation Satan will attempt to exterminate every descendant of Abraham .... This will be a time of great unprecedented distress for Israel (cf. Matt. 24:1). Satan's attack against the people of the kingdom will be part of his effort to prevent the return and reign of Christ” (J. Dwight Pentecost, “Daniel,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1372). Continuing he writes, “The second fact that consoled Daniel is the promise that those who sleep will be resurrected” (Ibid.).

62 This is no doubt the same period that was just described above in 11:40.

63 See Daniel 10:1-2, 20.

64 Pentecost writes, “The deliverance of Israel, Daniel’s ‘people,’ refers not to individual salvation, though a remnant will be saved, but rather to national deliverance from subjugation to the Gentiles” (J. Dwight Pentecost, “Daniel,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1372; cf. Romans 11:26).

65 There are those such as Baldwin who believe that the resurrection mentioned in this verse is of a general revelation of the good and of the evil. This is especially because of the term for many ( <B!r^w+ ) which they affirm does not bear its English meaning of some but means all (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 204). While this is a possible meaning of the term, it is not always the meaning of the term as an adjective or a noun without an article (as it is here in Daniel; cf. J. Jeremias, TDNT, s.v., polloiv, VI:536-40; cf. also Edward J. Young, The Prophecy of Daniel [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949], 256).

This particular passage is not meant to be a full statement about the doctrine of the resurrection. One needs to look forward to later revelation to clarify the issue. Yes, a resurrection of two kinds of people are in view here, but the timing of each revelation is not explicit. Revelation 20:4-15 clarifies the matter greatly. There will be a resurrection of the righteous at the end of the tribulation period (Rev. 20:4) so that they might share with living saints in the consummation of God's promises--the Kingdom. But in accordance with Revelation 20:5, 12-13 there will also be a resurrection at the end of the thousand year reign of Christ on earth when the unrighteous will be judged (see also John 5:28-29).

Glodingay is helpful when he writes, But the revival is to 'lasting life,' which suggests more than that, as does the reference to the destiny of 'others.' These whose destiny is rather 'utter shame' and 'lasting abhorrence' are presumably the apostate, the persecutors, and the blasphemers of 11:30-45. The promise of vv 1-2, then, corresponds to motifs from the Psalms (e.g., 6; 69; 79). There supplicants may pray for their own vindication and rescue from the realm of death, and for the exposure and punishment of people who have attacked them; the response to such a double prayer is a double promise. So here the seer promises renewal of life and the exposure of the wicked (John E. Goldingay, Daniel, 307).

Concerning the significance of this verse Wood is correct when he writes, The preceding verse, in speaking of the deliverance of those still alive at the close of the Tribulation week, has left the question open as to the status of righteous Jews, who will have died under the crushing hand of the Antichrist. Will they be omitted from all benefit resulting when Christ comes to bring this deliverance and to set up the millennial reign? This verse answers that question by saying that they will not be omitted but will be raised again and made to share in all blessings with the living. The thought is parallel to that in Revelation 20:4-6 where, at the beginning of the millennial reign (which ensues immediately after the defeat of the Antichrist), those who have been 'beheaded for the witness of Jesus,' because of resisting the Antichrist, are pictured as now resurrected and participating in this glorious time (Leon Wood, A Commentary on Daniel, 318; cf. J. Dwight Pentecost, “Daniel,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1372).

This interpretation may explain Paul's words to the Thessalonians when he writes about the Rapture. Perhaps the Thessalonians were worried that the dead would not be raised until the end of the Tribulation with Jewish saints and thus would not be present at the rapture of living saints (cf. 1 Thess. 4:13-18).

66 Although this is a very overt statement of a resurrection to everlasting life, the concept was not new to Judaism (cf. Gen 22:5 with Heb 11:9; Job 19:25-26; Is 26:19; Hos 13:14; Ps 16:9-10).

67 Another very possible means of interpreting this verse is not reward but as Baldwin says, The idea behind the simile like the stars is that these faithful believers radiate light and thus help others to see ... (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 206).

68 It seems that the exhortation to Seal up the words has the sense of authenticating and of preserving it intact (cf. Is. 8:16; Jer. 32:11, 14). Baldwin is helpful here: The Jeremiah reference is especially helpful, for it shows that the tablet on which the deed of purchase was written was enclosed in a sealed 'envelope' of clay, on which was summarized the contents. This summary was open and so could be tampered with; if it should be questioned, then the clay covering could be broken to verify the facts [ANEP, p. 75]. If we think in terms of a papyrus roll, then two copies were prepared, one open and the other sealed. A further implication of sealing a document is that it was kept from general knowledge, just as Isaiah kept his teaching within the confines of his own circle of disciples (Is. 8:16). The reason why Daniel was to keep his last two visions sealed was that they were not yet relevant (8:26; 12:9), at least not in all their detail (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary,206).

Continuing she writes, This is no indication that any part of the prophecy of Isaiah was kept secret in the sense that no-one was permitted to read it, nor that the last four chapters of Daniel were treated differently from the rest of the book. God had revealed the purpose of history, but it was not placarded for all to see (Ibid., 207).

69 Baldwin holds to an alternate interpretation which is also possible, Indeed men would look for it everywhere but in the word of God (Am. 8:12) and therefore would not find it, though knowledge shall increase. But those who look in the right place and go steadily on believing and enduring will understand, ... (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 207).

Probably it is best to understand this verse to describe the increased understanding which will ultimately come to those in the time of the Tribulation (cf. 11:40 where this is the sense of the end of time).

70 Or How long shall it be to the end?

71 Baldwin writes, Whereas it was usual to lift one's hand (singular) in taking an oath (Gen. 14:22; Ex. 6:8; Ezk. 20:5), here the heavenly messenger raised both his right hand and his left hand toward heaven, 'as the ore complete guarantee of the truth of what is about to be affirmed' (Joyce G. Baldwin, Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary, 207).

72 Pentecost understands this question to be “what will be the program for Israel beyond the Tribulation period” (J. Dwight Pentecost, “Daniel,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1374). Although Daniel knew of a coming kingdom (2:44; 7:14, 22, 27), he did not know the particulars surrounding it.

73 Baldwin writes, The purpose is clearly shown to keep in the faith those who will be severely tempted to give up in the face of opposition. The suffering is neither accidental nor meaningless, but serves the positive goal of purifying, cleansing and refining God's people (cf. 11:35).

74 See Daniel 9:27 (cf. also Dan 7:7; Rev. 11:2; 12:6, 14; 13:5).

75 Usually the number of days given for this period is 1,260 (cf. Rev. 12:6). Perhaps this figure represents a transitionary period of 30 days after the Tribulation to complete the time of judgment, and the figure in the next verse of 1,335 represents an additional transition period of 45 days to set up the kingdom.

Walvoord writes, Although Daniel does not explain these varying durations, it is obvious that the second coming of Christ and the establishment of His millennial kingdom requires time. The 1,260 day period or precisely forty-two months of thirty days each, can be regarded as culminating with the second advent itself. This is followed by several divine judgments such as the judgment of the nations (Mt 25:31-46), and the regathering and judgment of Israel (Eze 20:34-38). These great judgments beginning with the living on earth and purging out of unbelievers who have worshiped the beast, although handled quickly, will require time. By the 1,335 days, or seventy-five days after the second advent, these great judgments will have been accomplished and the millennial kingdom formally launched (John F. Walvoord, Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation, 295-96).

Pentecost offers another plausible solution, namely, The 1,290 days could begin with an announcement (about the abomination) made 30 days before the abomination is introduced. This abomination, as stated earlier, will be an image of himself (Rev. 13:14-15) and will be the symbol of this religious system (J. Dwight Pentecost, Daniel, in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, 1374). Concerning the 1,335 days he writes, Forty-five days after the end of the Tribulation Israel's long-awaited blessings will be realized. This may mark the blessing of the Millennium; or it may be when Christ, who will have appeared in the heavens (Matt. 24:30) 45 days earlier, will actually descend to the earth, His feet touching down on the Mount of Olives (cf. Acts 1:11) (Ibid.).

Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines