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An Argument Of The Book Of 2 Timothy

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Message Statement:

Paul Writes As A Man Whose Life And Ministry Is Nearly At An End To Not Only Request That Timothy Join Him In Rome, But To Encourage Timothy To Be Loyal To The Lord, Paul And Especially The Gospel Ministry Under Any And All Circumstances As He Gently, But Firmly Resists The False Teachers In Ephesus Knowing That The Lord Will Reward Him For Faithfulness Just As He Is About To Reward Paul

I. INTRODUCTION: As a chosen apostle with an eye to his future life Paul writes to his dear son Timothy, prays that he might receive grace, mercy and peace from God, and thanks God for the faith which is within him 1:1-5

A. Salutation: As a chosen apostle with an eye to the future Paul writes to his dear son Timothy and prays for grace, mercy and peace from the father and Christ Jesus their Lord 1:1-2

1. The Writer: Paul writes as an apostle1 of Christ Jesus by the will of God2 according to the promise of life in Christ Jesus3 1:1

2. The Reader: Paul writes to Timothy his dear son4 1:2a

3. The Greeting: Paul prays for Timothy to receive grace mercy and peace from the Father and Christ Jesus their Lord 1:2b

B. Thanksgiving:5 In a spirit of continuity in the faith and with a longing to see him again Paul regularly gives thanks to God for Timothy because of his genuine faith(fulness) 1:3-5

1. Paul Gives Thanks for Timothy: Paul, as one who serves God with a clear conscience as his forefathers did,6 gives thanks to God for Timothy as he constantly remembers him in his regular times (day and night) of prayer 1:3

2. Paul Longs to See Timothy:7 As Paul remembers their tearful parting,8 he longs to see Timothy so that he might be filled with joy 1:4

3. Reason for Thanksgiving--Timothy’s Faith: The reason Paul gives thanks for Timothy is because he knows of the genuine faith9 within him which was first10 in his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice11 1:5

II. APPEALS TO LOYALTY (STEADFASTNESS) IN THE MINISTRY: Paul urges Timothy to not be like many in Asia who are disloyal, but to be loyal to the Lord, Paul, and especially the gospel ministry, which has been given to him by investing it in faithful men who will teach it to others because the Lord will certainly reward him (and all faithful believers) in the eschatological future for his willingness to endure suffering 1:6--2:13

A. An Appeal to Loyalty Despite Hardship: Paul urges Timothy to fan into flame the Spiritual gift of his ministry of the gospel and to thus join Paul in suffering for the gospel without personal shame because it is the message of salvation which they are already partakers of through Christ Jesus and Paul is certain that God will guard their lives until that End day 1:6-14

1. Empowering of the Holy Spirit: Because of the genuine faith that Paul is persuaded that Timothy has, he urges him to kindle afresh (fan into flame) the Spiritual gift which is in him through the laying on of Paul’s hands because that gift will enable him to stand against the false teachers with power, love, and soundmindedness 1:6-7

a. Exhortation: Because (Δι ᾿) of the genuine faith that Paul is persuaded that Timothy has, he urges him to kindle afresh the gift12 of God which is in him through the laying on of Paul’s hands 1:6

b. Reason: The reason (γὰρ) Paul urges Timothy to kindle afresh the gift of God which is in him is because God has not given to them a spirit13 of timidity, but a spirit of power,14 love,15 and discipline (or soundmindeness)16 1:7

2. Appeal--Do Not Be Ashamed But Join in Suffering: Because the Spirit has given to them power, love and soundmindness Paul concludes that Timothy should not be ashamed of the testimony of their Lord, or of Paul, the Lord’s prisoner, but that Timothy should join Paul in suffering for the gospel according to the power of God 1:8

a. Do Not Be Ashamed: Because the Spirit has given to them power, love and soundmindnesses Paul concludes, therefore (ου῏ν), that Timothy should not be ashamed of the testimony of their Lord, or of Paul, the Lord’s prisoner 1:8a

b. Join in Suffering: In contrast to being ashamed of their Lord, or of Paul, Timothy is exhorted to join Paul in suffering for the gospel17 according to the power of God 1:8b

3. Basis of Appeal--The Gospel [First Loyalty]: Paul urges Timothy to join him in suffering for the gospel because it is the message of God’s salvation and calling of believers to holiness in accordance with God’s own purpose and grace which were hidden in eternity past but are now revealed in Christ Jesus who is their savior and has overcome death with life of which they are presently a part (to light) 1:9-10

a. Salvation and Calling: God has saved believers (leaders, Paul and Timothy specifically) and called them with a holy life18 1:9

b. Not According to Works, But God’s Purpose and Grace: God has saved and called believers not according to their (good) works, but according to His own purpose and grace granted in Christ Jesus from all eternity (past)19 1:9b

c. The Revealed Christ: God’s salvation and calling are realized through the appearing of the savior of believers, Christ Jesus, who abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light20 through the gospel 1:10

4. Paul’s Example [Second Loyalty]: Paul affirms that the gospel is that for which he was appointed a preacher/apostle/teacher and that he suffers as a fulfillment of his commission resulting in no personal shame, but confidence in God’s ability to guard his life until the End 1:11-12

a. Appointed for the Gospel: Paul affirms that the gospel (described above) is that for which he was appointed a preacher, an apostle and a teacher 1:11

b. Suffers Because of the Gospel: Paul affirms that it is because he fulfills his commission (as a preacher/apostle/teacher) for the gospel that he suffers21 and is not suffering personal shame because he knows Christ in whom he has trusted, and is convinced that His is able to guard what he has entrusted to Him (his life)22 until that day23 1:12

5. Timothy’s Ministry [Third Loyalty]: Paul urges Timothy to retain and guard by the help of the Holy Spirit the standard of sound teaching which he has heard from Paul with the modeling of faithfulness and love which are in Christ Jesus 1:13-14

a. Retain Sound Teaching: Paul urges Timothy to retain the standard of sound teaching (words) which he has heard from Paul in the (modeling of) faith(fulness) and love which are in Christ Jesus 1:13

b. Guard the Treasure: Paul urges Timothy to guard the treasure which has been entrusted in him24 through the Holy Spirit who dwells in them both25 1:14

B. Examples of Disloyalty and Loyalty: Paul encourages Timothy not to be ashamed of Paul’s imprisonment and to seek to share in his sufferings for the gospel by describing those who from Asia who have been disloyal to Paul, especially mentioning Phygelus and Hermogenes, and by praying that the Lord would be merciful to Onesiphorus who shared in Paul’s suffering by seeking Paul out in Rome and refreshing him while he was in prison 1:15-18

1. Disloyalty--Phygelus and Hermogenes: Paul reminds Timothy of that which he knows, namely, that all who are in Asia turned away from Paul among whom are Phygelus and Hermogenes26 1:15

2. Loyalty--Onesiphorus: Paul prays that the Lord would grant mercy to the house of Onesiphorus because of his loyal ministry to Paul in Rome as well as his services in Ephesus 1:16-18

a. May God Grant Present Mercy:27 Paul prays that the Lord would grant present mercy to the house of Onesiphorus 1:16a

b. Reasons: The reason that Paul prays that the Lord would grant mercy to the house of Onesiphorus is because he not only refreshed Paul, but eagerly searched for Paul and found him not being ashamed of Paul’s chains 1:16b-17

1) Refreshed Paul: The reason that Paul prays that the Lord would grant mercy to the house of Onesiphorus is because he refreshed28 Paul 1:16b

2) Searched For and Found Paul: The reason that Paul prays that the Lord would grant mercy to the house of Onesiphorus is because he was not afraid of Paul’s chains29 but eagerly searched him out and found him 1:16c-17

c. May God Grant Future Mercy: Paul prays that Onesiphorus would find mercy from the Lord at the future judgment (on that day)30 emphasizing that Timothy knows the services (ministries) Onesiphorus rendered at Ephesus 1:18

C. The Appeal Renewed:31 In contrast to those in Asia who have deserted Paul and in congruence with Onesiphorus who was loyal to Paul, Timothy is urged to fulfill his ministry by passing the gospel on to faithful men who can teach others, and by suffering hardship through perseverance which will yield future reward 2:1-7

1. Fulfill Your Ministry: In contrast to those in Asia who have deserted Paul and in congruence with Onesiphorus who was loyal to Paul Timothy is urged to be strong in the gospel and to pass it on to faithful men who will be able to teach others 2:1-2

a. Be Strong in the Gospel: In contrast to those in Asia who have deserted Paul and in congruence with Onesiphorus who was loyal to Paul Timothy is urged32 to be strong in the gospel (the grace that is in Christ Jesus) 2:1

b. Pass the Gospel On to Faithful Men: Paul urges Timothy to entrust33 the gospel (the things which he has heard from Paul34 through [the attestation of] many witnesses35) to faithful men who will also be able to teach others 2:2

2. Suffer Hardship:36 Paul urges Timothy to carefully consider his exhortation to suffer hardship as a good soldier of Christ who needs to persevere, as an athlete who follows the rules (of suffering) to receive a victor’s crown, and as a hardworking farmer who will receive reward for his labor 2:3-7

a. As a Soldier Who Needs to Persevere: Paul urges Timothy to suffer hardship as a good soldier of Christ Jesus in that he perseveres by not entangling himself in the affairs of everyday life37 so that he may please the one who enlisted him 2:3-4

1) Exhortation: Paul urges Timothy to suffer hardship as a good soldier of Christ Jesus 2:3

2) Illustration: Paul urges Timothy to suffer hardship as a good soldier of Christ in that he perseveres by not entangling himself in the affairs of everyday life so that he may please the one who enlisted him as a soldier (e.g., the Lord) 2:4

b. As an Athlete Who Perseveres for Reward:38 Paul urges Timothy to suffer hardship as an athlete in that he wins the prize by competing according to the rules39 2:5

c. As a Farmer Who Receives Reward for His Labor: Paul urges Timothy to suffer hardship as a good farmer in that he ought to be the first to receive his share of the crops 2:6

d. Paul urges Timothy to reflect on what he is saying (in the above three metaphors) because the Lord will give him understanding in everything40 2:7

D. The Theological Basis for the Appeal to Loyalty:41 Through the examples of Jesus who received eschatological reward for his endurance, and Paul who presently endures hardship for the sake of the saints, Paul exhorts Timothy (and all believers) to endure suffering knowing that eschatological reward awaits them for faithfulness, there will be negative consequences for not enduring, and that Jesus is faithful to bring about the future even if they are not faithful 2:8-13

1. Remember Jesus Christ--the Gospel: Paul encourages Timothy to remember Jesus Christ who is the prime example of eschatological victory after death in that he is risen from the dead42 and is an example of God fulfilling his promises since he is of David’s seed43 according to Paul’s gospel44 2:8

2. Remember Paul’s Imprisonment: Paul affirms that he suffered hardship, even to the point of imprisonment as a criminal for the gospel, but God’s word is not imprisoned, therefore, he endures for the salvation of those who are chosen 2:9-10

a. Suffered Hardship: Paul affirms that he suffered hardship even to the point of imprisonment as a criminal for the gospel entrusted to him 2:9a

b. God’s Word is Not Imprisoned: Paul affirms that even though he suffered imprisonment for the gospel, God’s word is not imprisoned 2:9b

c. Conclusion--Paul Endures for the Sake of Others: Since God’s word is not imprisoned Paul affirms that he endures all things for the sake of those who are chosen, namely, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus and eternal glory 2:10

3. A Faithful Saying Which Encourages Endurance:45 Paul writes a trustworthy statement encouraging Timothy (and all believers) to endurance, warning all against the lack of endurance, and affirming God’s faithfulness to the future even if believers are unfaithful 2:11-13

a. A Trustworthy Statement: Paul affirms that what follows is a trustworthy statement46 2:11a

b. An Encouragement to Endurance: Paul encourages Timothy (and all believers) to endurance by affirming that if believers suffer (die, endure) with Jesus they will also find eschatological reward (live, reign) with Jesus 2:11b-12a

1) Conversion--Death and Resurrection: Paul affirms that if believers (we) die with Jesus they will also live with Jesus47 2:11b

2) Perseverance--Endurance and Reigning: Paul affirms that if believers endure with Jesus they shall also reign with Jesus 2:12a

c. A Warning Against the Lack of Endurance: Paul affirms that if believers deny Jesus,48 he will also deny them 2:12b

d. Hope--God’s Faithfulness: Paul affirms that if believers are faithless Jesus remains faithful (to his eschatological promises)49 because he cannot deny Himself50 2:13

III. EXHORTATIONS IN VIEW OF FALSE TEACHERS: Paul exhorts Timothy to correct the false teachers in their error, yet with a spirit of kindness so that they may repent and be saved all of the while being sure to keep himself separate from them and their teachings, as an honorable vessel, because they are a part of the difficulties connected with the last days in that they are religious charlatans who subvert weak women and oppose the truth even though they will not ultimately triumph 2:14--3:9

A. Exhortation to Resist False Teachers: Paul exhorts Timothy as one who is to do his best to present himself approved to God to remind and charge the false teachers as though they are in the presence of the Lord not to dispute about words because this infectious talk overturns some in their faith even though the church overall will not capitulate because it is known by God and will abstain from the teaching of the false teachers 2:14-19

1. Exposure of the False Teachers and Teaching: Paul exhorts Timothy to remind and charge false teachers as before the presence of the Lord not to dispute about words because this only ruins its hearers 2:14

a. Exhortation: Paul exhorts Timothy to remind false teachers before the Lord not to dispute about words51 2:14a

b. Reason: The reason the false teachers should not dispute about words is because rather than doing good, this only ruins the hearers 2:14b

2. An Appeal to Resist: Paul exhorts Timothy to do his best to present himself to God as one approved by avoiding the infectious talk of the false teachers which overturns some in their faith 2:15-18

a. Present Oneself Approved: Paul exhorts Timothy to do his best to present himself to God as one approved--a workman who has no need to be ashamed rightly handling the word of truth 2:15

b. Avoid The Infection Talk of the False Teachers: Paul urges Timothy to avoid the infectious talk of the false teachers like Hymenaeus and Philetus whose false teaching about the resurrection is overturning the faith of some 2:16-18

1) Avoid Godless Chatter:52 Paul exhorts Timothy to avoid godless chatter because it will lead to further ungodliness and the teaching (ὁ λογος) of the false teachers will spread (or eat away) like infectious gangrene 2:16-17a

2) The Talk of the False Teachers: Paul identifies Hymenaeus53 and Philetus as men among the false teachers who have gone astray from the truth saying that the resurrection has already taken place,54 thus, upsetting (overturning) the faith of some 2:17b-18

3. The Church Will Not Capitulate: Even though there are some defections, nevertheless (μέντοι), Paul affirms that the church (the firm foundation of God)55 stands as those who are recognized (having this seal)56 by the Lord knowing them57 and who abstain from wickedness58 (of the false teachers) 2:19

B. A Supporting Analogy from Household Vessels:59 As a large house has expensive vessels meant for honorable use and inexpensive vessels meant for dishonorable use, so is it that if a person cleanses himself from the false teachings of the false teachers then he will be a vessel for honor which is useful for the Master 2:20-21

1. The Facts of the Analogy: Paul affirms that in a large house60 there are not only expensive vessels (gold and silver), but also inexpensive vessels (wood and pottery), and that the more expensive ones were used for honor (public functions and meals) and the less expensive ones were used for dishonor (garbage or excrement)61 2:20

2. The Application of the Analogy: Paul concludes (ου῏ν) from this analogy of two kinds of vessels that if a man cleanses himself from the teachings62 of the false teachers (cf. 2:19), then he will be a vessel for honor,63 sanctified, and useful for the Master (τῳ δεσπότῃ) being prepared for every good deed 2:21

C. Timothy’s Responsibilities in Light of the False Teachers:64 Paul urges Timothy to flee from those youthful desires and to pursue what is upright as all of God’s people do, thereby resisting foolish and ignorant speculations yet without a quarreling spirit, but with a spirit of kindness so that the false teachers who are captives of Satan used for his will might be saved 2:22-26

1. Flee Youthful Desires: Paul urges Timothy to flee from youthful passions65 of the false teachers 2:22a

2. Pursue Righteousness, Faith, Love and Peace: Rather than pursuing youthful desires, Paul urges Timothy to pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace66 along with all of those who call on the Lord from a pure heart67 2:22b

3. Resist Foolish and Ignorant Speculations: Paul urges Timothy not to have anything to do with foolish and ignorant speculations68 knowing that they produce quarrels 2:23

4. Dealing with False Teachers: Paul urges Timothy as the Lord’s bondservant to not be quarrelsome in his correction of error, but to be kind to all, and able to teach with a good spirit those who are in opposition to him with the hope that the Lord might grant them repentance leading to salvation 2:24-26

a. Do Not Be Quarrelsome: Paul exhorts Timothy as the Lord’s bondservant to not be quarrelsome69 2:24a

b. Be Kind to All: Paul exhorts Timothy as the Lord’s bondservant70 to be kind to all (even opponents), able to teach, patient when wronged and correcting with gentleness those who are in opposition71 2:24b-25a

c. Purpose--Salvation: Paul exhorts Timothy to be kind to all when correcting in order that the Lord might grant them repentance leading to the knowledge of the truth72 and they may come to their senses and escape from the snare of the devil who has held them captive to do his will73 2:25b-26

D. Final Indictment of the False Teachers:74 Even though Paul exhorts Timothy to be kind when he corrects the false teachers with the hope that they will repent, Paul also exhorts Timothy to have nothing to do with them because they are a part of the difficulties connected with the last days in that they are religious charlatans who subvert weak women and oppose the truth even though they will not ultimately triumph 3:1-9

1. Avoid the False Teachers Who Are a Part of the Last Days: Even though Paul exhorts Timothy to be kind when he corrects the false teachers with the hope that they will repent, Paul also exhorts Timothy to realize that the false teachers are a part of the last days because they partake in many evil vices, therefore, Timothy should have nothing to do with them 3:1-5

a. Statement--The Last Days Will Be Difficult: Even though Paul exhorts Timothy to be kind when he corrects the false teachers with the hope that they will repent, Paul also exhorts Timothy to realize that the false teachers are a part of the last days75 in which difficult times will come 3:1

b. Reason: The reason (γὰρ) Paul affirms that the false teachers are a part of the last days in which difficult times will come is because they partake in many evil vices 3:2-4

1) Lovers of Self and Money: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be lovers of self and lovers of money 3:2a

2) Boastful and Proud: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be boastful and arrogant 3:2b

3) Revilers: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be revilers (or abusive, βλάσφημοι) 3:2c

4) Disobedient to Parents: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be disobedient to Parents76 3:2d

5) Ungrateful, Unholy, Unloving, Unforgiving:77 The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be ungrateful, unholy, unloving, and unforgiving 3:2e-3a

6) Malicious Gossips: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be slanderous 3:3b

7) Without Self-Control: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be without self-control 3:3c

8) Brutal: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be brutal 3:3d

9) Haters of Good: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be those who hate what is good 3:3e

10) Treacherous and Reckless: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will stop at nothing to gain their ends (e.g., treacherous and rash) 3:4a

11) Conceited: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be conceited78 3:4b

12) Lovers of Pleasure: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be misdirected in their love (lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God) 3:4c

13) Holding to Form of Godliness Without Power: The characteristics of men in the last days include that they will be holding to a form of godliness79 although they have denied its power80 3:5a

c. Avoid Such Men: Paul exhorts Timothy to have nothing to do with such men81 as those described above 3:5

2. Religious Charlatans: The reason Paul urges Timothy to have nothing to do with such men is because (γὰρ) they are religious charlatans who subvert weak women and oppose the truth as the Egyptian magicians did Moses, but who will not ultimately triumph 3:6-9

a. Subverting Weak Women:82 Paul exhorts Timothy to have nothing to do with the false teachers because there are those among them who creep into homes83 and captivate84 weak women85 weighed down with sins,86 lead on by various desires (ἐπιθυμίαις) who are always learning but never coming to the knowledge of the truth 3:6-7

b. Opposing the Truth--Like Egyptian Magicians: Paul exhorts Timothy to have nothing to do with false teachers who lack clear mindedness (depraved) and are rejected as far as the faith is concerned because they oppose the truth with deceptions like the Egyptian magicians Jannes and Jambres87 opposed Moses88 3:8

c. Will Not Ultimately Triumph: In contrast to the progress that the false teachers appear to be making with weak women and their deceptions, Paul affirms to the contrary (ἀλλα) that they will not advance very far because (γὰρ) their folly will be obvious to all89 as was that of Jannes and Jambres came to be90 3:9

IV. A FINAL APPEAL TO LOYALTY IN THE MINISTRY: Even though persecution will come, Paul exhorts Timothy to keep to his ministry of the apostolic gospel under any and all circumstances because Paul senses that his own life and ministry are about to end 3:10--4:5

A. Another Appeal to Loyalty and Endurance91 Paul urges Timothy to follow Paul’s example in teaching and conduct by keeping the apostolic gospel knowing that godly living will lead to persecution, and that the Scriptures are reliable since they come from reliable sources, lead to Salvation in Christ Jesus, and are profitable as God’s revelation for all matters of ministry 3:10-17

1. Recall the Past--Paul’s Teaching and Example: Paul urges Timothy to follow his example in teaching and conduct realizing that he will experience persecution as all will who desire to live a Christian life, but that the false teachers, who appear to be triumphing, will actually move from bad to worse--even future destruction 3:10-13

a. Follow Paul’s Example:92 In contrast to the false teachers (Σὺ δὲ) Paul urges Timothy to follow Paul’s teaching, conduct,93 purpose,94 faith,95 patience, love,96 perseverance,97 persecutions, and sufferings which happened to him at Antioch,98 Iconium99 and at Lystra100 which he endured and out of which the Lord delivered him101 3:10-11

b. All the Godly Will Be Persecuted: Paul affirms that all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will be persecuted102 3:12

c. Evil Men Will Proceed From Bad to Worse: Paul affirms that evil men and impostors (charlatans, who appear to be succeeding) will proceed from bad to worse (future destruction) both deceiving and being deceived 3:13

2. Give Heed to the Scriptures: In contrast to the false teachers, Paul exhorts Timothy to continue in the things which he has learned and become convinced because he learned them from reliable people, they made him wise unto salvation through faith in Christ Jesus, and they are from God and thus are profitable for instruction 3:14-17

a. Continue in the Things You Have Learned: In contrast to the false teachers (Σὺ δὲ) Paul exhorts Timothy to continue in the things which he has learned and become convinced (the Apostolic Gospel) 3:14a

b. Reasons To Continue in the Scriptures: The reasons that Paul urges Timothy to continue in the things that he has learned is because he learned them from reliable people, they made him wise unto salvation through faith in Christ Jesus, and because they are profitable for instruction 3:14b-17

1) Learned from Reliable People: The reason Paul urges Timothy to continue in the things that he has learned is because he knows the reliable people103 from whom he has learned these things 3:14b

2) Provide Wisdom Which Led to Salvation: The reason Paul urges Timothy to continue in the things that he has learned is because from childhood he has known the sacred writings which were able to give him the wisdom that leads to salvation through faith in Christ Jesus104 3:15

3) Provide Instruction: The reason Paul urges Timothy to continue in the things which he has learned is because All Scripture is of divine origin--God-breathed (inspired by God)105--and profitable for tasks of ministry--teaching,106 reproof,107 correction,108 and training in righteousness109 in order that the man of God may be adequate (to meet all demands), equipped for every good work110 3:16-17

B. The Final Charge to Timothy:111 Paul solemnly charges Timothy before God to stay by his ministry under any and all circumstances even through many believers will not endure sound teaching, but will turn from the truth toward teachers who will satisfy their curiosity with myths 4:1-5

1. The Charge--Stay By Your Ministry Under Any and All Circumstances: Paul solemnly charges Timothy in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus112 who is the judge of the living and the dead,113 and by his appearing and His kingdom114 to preach the word,115 to be ready (stand by it, keep at it) in season and out of season, to reprove (those in error), rebuke (or warn those who do not heed the correction), and exhort (them all) with great patience and instruction 4:1-2

2. Reason for the Charge: The reason Paul exhorts Timothy to stay by his Ministry under any and all circumstances is because (γὰρ) believers will not endure sound teaching, but will turn from the truth toward teachers who will satisfy their curiosity with myths 4:3-4

a. Believers Will Not Endure Sound Teaching: The reason Paul exhorts Timothy to stay by his ministry under any and all circumstances is because (γὰρ) the time will come (and is)116 when believers117 will not endure sound teaching but will accumulate teachers in accordance to their own desires desiring to have their ears tickled118 4:3

b. Believers Will Turn From the Truth: The reason Paul exhorts Timothy to stay by his Ministry under any and all circumstances is because (γὰρ) believers will turn away from hearing (their ears) the truth119 and to myths120 4:4

3. The Charge Renewed: In contrast (Σὺ δὲ)121 to the response of believers to the truth Timothy is to be sober in all things,122 endure hardship,123 do the work of an evangelist,124 and fulfill his ministry 4:5

C. The Reason for the Charge--Paul’s Final Testimony:125 The reason Paul solemnly charged Timothy to stay by his ministry under any and all circumstances is because he senses that the time of his death has come, his ministry is over, and the eschatological prize awaits him and all of those who have loved his appearing 4:6-8

1. The Time of Paul’s Death Has Come: The reason Paul solemnly charged Timothy to stay by his ministry under any and all circumstances is because (γὰρ) Paul senses that the time of his death has come (he is already being poured out as a drink offering,126 and the time of his departure127 has come) 4:6

2. Paul’s Ministry is Over: The reason Paul solemnly charged Timothy to stay by his ministry under any and all circumstances is because (γὰρ) Paul’s knows that his ministry is over (he has fought the good fight,128 he has finished the course,129 he has kept the faith130) 4:7

3. The Eschatological Prize Awaits Paul: The reason Paul solemnly charged Timothy to stay by his ministry under any and all circumstances is because (γὰρ) he knows that his eschatological prize awaits him (in the future there is laid up for him the crown of righteousness,131 which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to him on that day) as it awaits all of those who have loved His appearing132 4:8

V. CONCLUSION:133 Paul closes his letter by exhorting Timothy to come to him by Winter because he is without all of his co-workers except for Luke, and then sends personal greetings to those in Ephesus and from those in Rome before he closes with a prayer for Timothy and those in Ephesus 4:9-22

A. Personal Words and Instructions: Paul exhorts Timothy to make every effort to come to him soon because he is without all of his co-workers except Luke, and desires for Timothy to bring along Mark as well as his cloak and books all the while watching out for Alexander and informing him that God has delivered from his preliminary hearing as he will ultimately deliver him from all evil 4:9-18

1. Exhortation to Come: Paul urges Timothy to make every effort to come to him soon134 4:9

2. Reason He Wants Timothy to Come--He is Alone: The reason why Paul desires for Timothy to make every effort to come to him soon is because (γὰρ) he all of his co-workers are gone except for Luke who is with him (Demas135 deserted him and has gone to Thessalonica136 out of a love for this present world, Crescen has gone to Galatia, and Titus has gone to Dalmatia)137 4:10-11a

3. Who and What to Bring: Paul urges Timothy to pick up Mark and bring him along because he is useful for service, reminding Timothy that he has sent Tychicus to Ephesus, and urges him to bring the cloak, books and parchments 4:11b-13

a. Who--Mark: Paul urges Timothy to pick up Mark138 and bring him along because he is useful to Paul for service,139 also noting that he sent Tychicus to Ephesus 4:11b-12

b. What--The Cloak, Books, and Parchments: Paul urges Timothy to bring the cloak which he left at Troas140 with Carpus, the books and especially the parchments when he comes141 4:13

4. Whom to Watch Out For: Paul warns Timothy to watch out for Alexander142 the coopersmith who did him much harm for he vigorously opposed their teaching, re-affirming that the Lord will repay him according to his deeds 4:14-15

5. Information As To How Things Are Going: Paul informs Timothy that at his first defense everyone abandoned him except the Lord who stood with him, strengthened him in order that the gospel might be fully accomplished by him, and delivered him as he will deliver him and bring him safely to his heavenly kingdom, to Whom belongs the glory for ever and ever 4:16-19

a. First Defense--Abandoned Except for the Lord: Paul informs Timothy that no one supported him during his first defense143 (all deserted him, nevertheless, he prays that it might not be held against them144) but the Lord who stood with him and strengthened him in order that the gospel (proclamation) might be fully accomplished through him, namely that all the Gentiles might hear 4:16-17a

b. First Defense--Delivered by the Lord: Paul informs Timothy that he was delivered, during the first defense, as from the mouth of a lion145 by the Lord who will deliver him from every evil deed, and bring him safely to his heavenly kingdom146 to Whom belongs the glory forever and ever147 4:17b-19

B. Final Greetings: Paul closes his letter with greetings to Prisca & Aquilla and the household of Onesiphorus, reports personal news about Erastus and Trophimus, requests that Timothy make every effort to come to him before winter, sends greetings from Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia and all the brethren, and closes with a prayer for the Lord to be with Timothy’s spirit, and grace to be with all of those in Ephesus 4:19-22

1. Greetings To Certain People: Paul urges Timothy to greet Prisca & Aquila,148 and the household of Onesiphorus149 4:19

2. Personal News of Friends: Paul reports that Erastus150 remained at Corinth, but that Paul left Trophimus sick at Miletus 4:20

3. A Final Request: Paul urges Timothy to make every effort to come to him before winter151 4:21a

4. Greetings from Specific Persons: Paul sends greetings from Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia152 and all the brethren 4:21b

5. A Final Benediction: Paul prays that the Lord will be with Timothy’s spirit153 and that God’s grace would be with them all154 4:22


1 This may be to make Paul’s readers more sympathetic to him and his Gospel. Also, Paul is writing so that his gospel ministry could be continued by Timothy.

2 Paul did not choose to suffer as an apostle, but was made an apostle by God’s will.

3 Paul probably has his own future in view since he is about to lose his earthly life.

4 Here Paul calls Timothy “beloved” rather than true and faithful. This may be because 2 Timothy is more of a letter to Timothy than first Timothy which affirms Timothy to the congregation.

5 As with Paul’s other letters, this thanksgiving is in keeping with the major theme of this letter--loyalty to God, Paul, and the gospel message. This major theme is woven throughout this thanksgiving and naturally moves toward the first major section of the letter after the greeting.

6 Paul is emphasizing continuity with the Old Testament. The false teachers did the same, no doubt. Here Paul is affirming his continuity against that which was proclaimed by the false teachers (cf. 1:9-10; 2:8, 19; 3:8, 14-17). This also relates to the large exhortation to remain loyal to the ministry.

7 Although this is a kind of aside from the main logic of the thanksgiving given in verses 3 and 5, it is no doubt another reason for the letter. This is an expression of “Paul’s loneliness in his final vigil and his desire for Timothy to join him, despite the unfinished work in Ephesus ...” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 222-223).

8 This may be that which was referred to in 1 Timothy 1:3 when he left Ephesus to Macedonia (“As I urged you upon my departure from Macedonia, remain in Ephesus ...”).

9 This may carry the idea of “faithfulness” too. Paul constantly thanks God for the faithfulness of others (1 Thess. 1:3; 3:6-7; 2 Thess. 1:3; Rom. 1:8; Col. 1:4; Philemon 5; Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 223).

10 Note that the theme of continuity comes through again. Paul desires for Timothy to carry on this faithfulness (to God, Paul, and the ministry of the gospel) which has been passed on by others. As Fee writes, “That is ‘Don’t lose heart, because just as my ministry has continuity with my forebears (v. 3), so does yours. Don’t forget your roots; they go way back, and your own faith is like that of your mother and grandmother’ “(1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p.223).

11 Perhaps Paul emphasizes the female lineage not only because they became Christians, but because Timothy’s mother was Jewish and his father was a Gentile. Therefore, Paul is emphasizing that Jewish continuity of Timothy’s faith (cf. Acts 16:1).

12 His gift as pastor-teacher (?) through which he is to overcome the false teachers. The term is χάρισμα--the grace gift. See 1 Timothy 1:18; 4:14. Unlike 4:14 where the emphasis is upon the laying on of hands by the elders to authenticate Timothy before the church, here the emphasis is upon Paul alone--it is much more personal.

13 Commentators are split on the meaning of “spirit” in this verse. Is it descriptive of one’s inner qualities or “spirit” brought about in one by the Holy Spirit (D. Edmond Hiebert, Second Timothy, EBC, p. 36) or is it the Holy Spirit Himself (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, pp. 226-227)? While there is a difference in meaning, there may not be any difference in result. Even if it is descriptive of the Holy Spirit, the point is that Timothy should let the Holy Spirit work these qualities in his life. As Fee finally paraphrases this verse he writes, “For when God gave us his Spirit, it was not timidity that we received, but power, love, and self-discipline” (p. 227).

Paul begins by reminding Timothy of his gift in the ministry which gives him the necessary power, love and wisdom to carry out that ministry.

14 See Acts 1:8; Romans 15:13, 19; 1 Corinthians 2:4 (δυνάμεως).

15 Galatians 5:22; Romans 5:5.

16 The term is σωφρονισμοῦ. One needs to be wise in the face of the false teachers and the coming persecution from Rome.

17 See the following passages for a history of suffering for the gospel (2:9; 3:12; 1 Thess. 1:6; 2:14; 3:4; 2 Cor. 4:7-15; Rom. 8:17; Col. 1:24; Phil. 1:12, 29).

There was humiliation with being associated with Christ (a state “criminal”) and Paul His “political prisoner”). Timothy is urged to join with Paul in suffering that will be by his association with the gospel and by his own activities in its behalf (1:6). Therefore there are three loyalties (1) Christ (and His gospel), (2) Paul, and (2) his own ministry. These three loyalties will be developed below: (1) the gospel in verses 9-10, (2) Paul in verses 11-12, and (3) his ministry (“the deposit”) in verses 13-14 (cf. 1 Tim. 6:20).

18 While “a holy calling” could be a dative of means describing the kind of calling which God made, it may better be understood to be a dative of interest, “to a holy life,” or to be a “holy people” (cf. 1 Thess. 4:7; 1 Cor. 1:2).

19 Titus 1:2.

20 As Fee writes, “So his word to Timothy is plain: ‘Be steadfast; rekindle your gift; take your part in the suffering; for we are already among those who have overcome death through Christ’” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 230).

21 Paul is no doubt speaking of his imprisonment (2:9).

22 While many understand this deposit to be the sound teaching of verse 13 which God entrusted to Paul (v. 12) and Paul entrusted to Timothy (v. 14; cf. 1 Tim. 6:20) who was to entrust it to others (2:2), it is more probable that the deposit was Paul’s own life, or his commitment to Christ and his gospel which God will guard until the End.

23 Paul has a sense of his personal vindication (Pss. 31:1-5; 69:9).

24 See 1 Timothy 6:20. This is probably the “sound teaching” of the gospel.

25 The Holy Spirit is to be the One who aids Timothy in his responsibilities.

26 There are two basic views to understanding what Paul is saying here: “Either this means that some Asians, including Onesiphorus, had come to Rome, and all but Onesiphorus had deserted him and returned home (so Bernard), or else (more likely) it means that the defections in Asia have been so staggering (Kelly, ‘the exaggeration [of] depression’) that even friends (presumably) from whom he would have expected more--including [perhaps led by] Phygelus and Hermogenes--have deserted him.

If this is how we are to understand ‘who’ and ‘where,’ then ‘when’ probably has to do with events since the writing of 1 Timothy, perhaps a general ‘abandoning ship’ at the news of Paul’s arrest (cf. Kelly). Paul himself would have been informed of it by Onesiphorus” (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 235-236).

27 Fee writes with insight, “This sudden bursting out in a wish-prayer (hardly intercession, as Kelly, but an expression of Paul’s desires for them; cf. 2 Thess. 3:16; Rom. 15:5) for the household of Onesiphorus (cf. 4:19) means that he is not now with them (otherwise Paul would have said ‘to Onesiphorus and his household’). The fact that Paul should begin his reminder about Onesiphorus in this way, by asking for present mercy for his household, and that at the end (v. 18a) he should ask for future mercy (on that Day) for Onesiphorus himself, suggests very strongly that Onesiphorus had died in the meantime. If so, it could only have increased Paul’s present pain and loneliness” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 236).

28 This may have included food and cheering up.

29 Paul was a state prisoner and soon to die.

30 No doubt this refers to the second advent of the Lord (begun at the Rapture--John 14). This may not be an intercessory prayer for the dead so much as a recognition that even Onesiphorus only has God’s mercy to appeal to.

31 Fee writes, “After a brief ‘digression’ in 1:15-18 that reminded Timothy of the disloyalty of ‘everyone in Asia,’ with the noteworthy exception of Onesiphorus, Paul resumes the appeal to Timothy. With an emphatic, you then, in contrast to those in verse 15, Paul repeats the urgencies of 1:6-14: that he fulfill his trust and ministry (reflecting 1:6-7 and 13-14), in this instance by entrusting it to others (v. 2), and that he be ready to endure hardship (v. 3, reflecting the main concern of 1:8-12)” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 239).

32 Note the emphatic position of the Greek, “Σὺ ου῏ν.” The “therefore” probably goes back to the imperatives of 1:13-14.

33 This may be emphasized because Timothy is being asked to leave Ephesus to join Paul in Rome (cf. 4:9, 21).

34 See 1:13.

35 The Greek is διὰ πολλῶν μαρτύρων. While this could mean, “in the presence of” it could also mean “though many witnesses”--not in that Paul’s teachings were mediated to Timothy through many witnesses, but in that Paul’s teaching was attested to by many witnesses (cf. 3:14).

36 As Barrett writes, “Beyond warfare is victory, beyond athletic effort a prize, and beyond agricultural labour a crop” (The Pastoral Epistles, p. 102).

37 As Fee writes, “The analogy does not negate ‘civilian affairs;’ rather, it disallows ‘looking back’ (cf. Luke 9:61-62) or hankering for an easier path (in this case defecting, as have so many others)” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 242).

38 See 1 Corinthians 9:24-27.

39 The rules in this case seem to involve suffering for the gospel (cf. 1 Tim. 6:12; 1:18).

40 That is the strength to stand in grace and to share in suffering.

41 Fee writes, “the basic themes of the whole section are reiterated: Christ and his gospel, Paul’s present suffering, and an appeal with a warning, for Timothy himself (and now including God’s people) to endure despite the suffering” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 245).

42 This reflects on 2:5-6 and thus encourages one who is suffering (see also 2:11-12a). Fee writes, “(i.e. he who conquered death through resurrection will ‘strengthen you’ for your task and endurance). Furthermore, it also anticipates the exposure of the false teachers in verses 14-18, who, by arguing that the ‘resurrection [of believers] has already taken place,’ are in effect denying the eschatological future that Paul is affirming (vv. 5-6, 10)” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 246).

43 The point here is that Jesus is the fulfillment of God’s promises providing continuity with the past. This too has been a them which Paul has been stating in 2 Timothy to encourage Timothy to endure with the ministry (cf. 1:3, 5; 3:14-17).

44 This is the gospel which was entrusted to Paul (cf. 1 Tim. 1:11; Rom. 2:16; 16:25) to which Timothy is to be steadfast.

45 This was probably a four line hymn or poem which was written by Paul or those very close to him. The “for” (γὰρ) in verse 11 probably refers to all of 2:1-10 where Paul has urged Timothy to endure in suffering and to keep their risen Lord in mind.

46 See 1 Timothy 1:15; 3:1; 4:10; Titus 3:8.

47 This may well be the same sense as in Romans 8.

48 Contextually, this is probably best understood in terms of one’s response when placed under trial by those who are hostel to Jesus (cf. 1:15; Matthew 10:33).

49 There are two disparate views as to the meaning of this verse: (1) if one is faithless in that one commits apostasy (cf. 1:15), then God must be faithful to Himself and mete out judgment. This is possible, but could have been plainly said; also, there is no future verb but the present tense (ἐκεῖνος πιστὸς μένει), (2) if one is faithless this will not affect God’s faithfulness to his people meaning that he will either override one’s infidelity with His grace or that he will overcome faithlessness with his gift of eschatological salvation for his people. Perhaps the latter is the better choice contextually. Even though some have been unfaithful, God’s faithfulness has not been diminished. This is an exposition which focuses upon Salvation.

50 For Paul his future salvation is rooted in the character of God.

51 See 1 Timothy 2:8; 6:4-5; cf. Titus 3:8-9.

52 Now Paul moves back to those who are not approved because they do not correctly handle the word of truth.

53 See 1 Timothy 1:20 where Paul delivered him over to Satan.

54 See 2 Thessalonians 2:2 which is similar, e.g., “the Day of the Lord has come.” See also 1 Timothy 4:3. There is some from of over-realized eschatology in that the fullness of the resurrection has already been realized in a believers spiritual dying and rising with Christ (cf. v. 11; Rom. 6:1-11; Col. 2:20--3:4). There is a dualism which denies the value of the body, and exalts the value of the spiritual. By contrast see Paul’s discussion in 2:10-13.

55 It is difficult to be certain about this building metaphor. It could be referring to Christ or the apostles as the foundation of the church (1 Cor. 3:10-12; Eph. 3:20), but Fee writes, “it is altogether likely that he does not ‘intend’ some specific point of reference. The emphasis, as the rest of the verse shows, is on God’s proprietary ownership, on the certainty of eschatological triumph for those who are his. Since the metaphor stands in sharp contrast to the fact that the faith of some is being overturned, Paul clearly intends it to affirm the opposite: what God is doing in Ephesus, saving a people of his own (cf. Titus 2:14) for eternal glory, cannot be thwarted by the activity of the false teachers. In that sense, of course, the implied ‘building’ refers to the church in Ephesus, his chosen people (v. 10) [1 and 2 Timothy, p. 257].

56 As in the seal inscribed on the foundation stone of a building which would indicate the architect or the owner.

57 See the LXX of Numbers 16:5 from Korah’s rebellion.

58 See the following passages for portions of this verse (LXX of Lev. 24:16; Isa 26:13; Ps. 34:14; Prov. 3:7).

59 This analogy further elaborates the second portion of the inscription in 2:19 (“Let everyone who names the name of the Lord abstain from wickedness”) and leads in to the next imperatives to Timothy about his own personal responsibilities toward false teachers and teachings (2:22-26).

60 As belonged to the wealthy.

61 See other passages that play on this imagery such as Jeremiah 18:1-11; Wisdom of Solomon 15:7; Romans 9:19-24. With insight Fee writes, “as verse 21 and the context make clear, Paul’s point is neither that of 1 Corinthians 12:21-24 (though of differing kinds and uses, both vessels are useful to the master of the house) nor that of the parable of the wheat and tares (Matt. 13:24-30, 36-43, where the church is pictured as containing both the elect and false teachers, who will be separated at the End), interpretations that are often given to this passage” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 261).

62 See 2:14, 16, 19b.

63 “In applying this imagery, Paul has thus moved from the house that contains all sorts of vessels to the good vessels themselves and argues that only these, with their ‘honorable’ purposes, count (although it is not the value of the vessels, but their contents, i.e., purpose, that is the reason for ‘cleansing oneself’ of the others). In particular Paul is anticipating what he will say to Timothy in verses 22-26, in light of verses 14-19, so he must therefore cleanse himself from all such false teachings and behavior” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 261).

64 Fee unfolds the argument well, “The commands introducing this section flow directly from the application of the analogy of verses 20-21, but all the time in the context of the concerns that began in verse 14. In ‘cleansing himself from these things’ (v. 21), Timothy is again urged to avoid the foolish arguments of the false teachers, which only lead to quarrels. On the contrary--and this is a new theme--he is to try to rescue people from their entrapment by error.

The entire paragraph is directed toward Timothy and his responsibilities in view of the presence of the false teaching. The dominating theme is peace. The false teachers revel in arguments that breed quarrels (cf. 1 Tim. 6:4); Timothy, by contrast, should pursue peace. He must not quarrel but be kind toward all, and he must gently correct, with the desire that his correction and gentleness may lead some to repentance” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 263).

65 Rather than thinking of sexual passions, Paul probably has in mind youthful desires (νεωτερικὰς ἐπιθυμίας) such as a love for novelties, foolish discussions, and arguments that all too often lead to quarrels.

66 See 1 Timothy 6:11.

67 See 2:10; Titus 2:14 for these OT descriptions of God’s people.

68 See 1 Timothy 1:7 where these terms describe the false teachers.

69 See the qualifications for overseers/elders in 1 Timothy 3:3; Titus 1:7. This may not mean that Timothy is to let error go without addressing it, but that he must be kind in his confrontations rather than quarrelsome.

70 See 2:21.

71 This may include those who have been ensnared by the false teachers and even the false teachers themselves.

72 Could this be salvation (cf. 1 Timothy 2:4; 4:3)?

73 See 1 Timothy 4:1-2.

74 Even though Paul hopes that the false teachers might come to repentance, he also knows that they are truly captives of Satan to do his will; therefore, he enters into a final indictment of them in 3:1-9. This final indictment is placed in the context of eschatological fulfillment which began with the coming of Christ.

75 See 1 Corinthians 7:26; 1 John 2:18; 2 Peter 3:3; Jude 17-18; Acts 2:16-21; Hebrews 1:2.

76 Perhaps this describes not caring for parents (cf. Mark 4; 1 Timothy 5:8).

77 These next four words all begin with the negative prefix a (ἀχάριστοι, ἀνόσιοι, α῎στοργοι, α῎σπονδοι).

78 See 1 Timothy 3:6; 6:4.

79 The term is εὐσεβείας. This is probably descriptive of their external expressions of religion (e.g., ascetic practices, endless discussions of religious trivia). As Fee writes, “thinking themselves to be obviously righteous because they were obviously religious” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 270).

80 Evidence that they denied the power of godliness is in the vice-catelogue above--they practiced “irreligious” attitudes and actions that characterized the pagan world. See also Titus 1:6 for the opposite.

81 This imperative demonstrates that Paul did not only have the future in mind with the above list.

82 This verse may provide background for many of the passages in the Pastoral Epistles (cf. 1 Timothy 2:9-15; 3:11; 4:7; 5:3-16). As Fee writes, “the false teachers and these women feed on one another. The women are given ‘religious training’ --of the worst kind, destined to feed their curiosity but not bring them to the freedom of the gospel--and they in turn undoubtedly pay the false teachers handsomely (1 Tim. 6:3-10). No wonder that Paul forbade the women to teach, encouraged submission to their husbands (1 Tim. 2:9-15), and wanted the younger widows, who had given themselves to pleasure (5:6) and had already turned away to follow Satan (5:15), to marry (5:14).

83 The Greek is τὰς οἰκίας, “the houses” implying that Timothy already knows about which households they have entered. This may have been more possible with respect to younger widows than with wives of ordinary tradesmen; thus, 1 Tim. 5:3-16?

84 As through misleading or deceiving (cf. Judith 16:9; Ignatius Philadelphians 2:2).

85 The term is actually descriptive of little women, women who are “easy prey” (γυνναικάρια).

86 Either present or from a sinful past.

87 See B. M. Metzger, “Names for the Nameless in the New Testament: a Study in the Growth of Christian Tradition,” in New Testament Studies: Philological, Versional, and Patristic (Leiden: Brill, 1980), pp. 23-43; Damascus Document 5:18; Targum Ps-Jonathan 1.3 (on Exod. 1:15) and 7.2 (on Exod. 7:11); Menahoth 85a; Midrash Rabbah Exodus 9:7; Pliny, Natural History 30.1.11.

88 Exodus 7:11-12, 22; 8:7.

89 In other words truth will win out. Truth and time walk hand and hand together.

90 Perhaps Exodus 9:11.

91 Here Paul renews his appeal to Timothy to “continue in what you have learned” (3:14), but in full view of what has been said about the false teachers and Timothy’s responsibilities regarding them, thereby bringing together the first two sections of the letter (e.g., 1:6--2:13; 2:14--3:9). This paragraph also serves as a preparation for the final charge in 4:1-5 (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 275). Both of the subunits of this paragraph begin with “but you” (Σὺ δὲ; 3:10, 14).

92 Paul’s examples of suffering go back to before the time that Timothy was a partner with Paul in the ministry. This is curious because one would have expected Paul to cite his more recent experiences at Philippi (Acts 16:19-34), or Ephesus (2 Cor. 1:1-11), or even Rome (Phil. 1:1, 12-18). Fee offers a good suggestion for the reasoning when he writes, “The answer to this lies in what we noted as early as the thanksgiving (1:3-5), namely, that part of the appeal to loyalty made in this letter is to remind Timothy of his origins. It is Paul’s way of saying: ‘Look, you were there in Lystra when I was stoned. You recall that such sufferings were visible to you from the time you began your Christian walk. So don’t bail out now in the midst of the present--and coming-distress’” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 277).

93 These first two are foundational.

94 Paul’s resolve, his single-minded commitment to Christ.

95 Toward God.

96 Both patience and love are to be towards others.

97 To the End especially in view of the sufferings that did follow for Paul and will follow for Timothy and all who seek to live a godly life.

98 Persecution and driven out (Acts 13:50).

99 Jews and Gentiles attempted to mistreat and to stone Paul so he fled (Acts 14:2-6).

100 This was Timothy’s hometown (16:1-2). Here Paul was stoned and left for dead (Acts 14:19-20).

101 See Psalm 34:19 which may be alluded to.

102 Suffering is the lot of righteousness (cf. Mark 8:34; Matt. 5:11-12; 1 Thess. 3:4; 2 Cor. 12:9-10; Rom. 8:17; Phil. 1:29).

103 This may refer to the many witnesses of 2:2, Paul (3:10-11), and Timothy’s own mother and grandmother (1:5).

104 Salvation is not in the Scriptures themselves, but in the One to Whom they point (cf. Jn. 5:39).

105 The Greek says, “πᾶσα γραφὴ θεόπνευστος.” As Fee writes, “he is not offering a theory of inspiration; he is rather, reflecting the common tradition of Judaism (cf. 2 Pet. 1:21) [1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 279].

106 Sound instruction.

107 Exposing the errors of the false teachers and their teachings.

108 This is tied to reproving and emphasizes the behavioral, ethical side of things (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 280).

109 This is the positive side of correcting.

110 This may especially look forward to 4:1-5.

111 This appeal was begun in 1:6, was picked up in 3:10, and now is given as a solemn charge in 4:1 to be followed by nine imperatives--five in verse 2 and four in verse 5.

In addition Fee sees the grammatical connection of 4:1-5 with 4:6-8 (γὰρ) and thus writes, “This charge, therefore, though made against the backdrop of the situation in Ephesus, looks far beyond that. Here we have a kind of changing of the guard, the work of a dying man to his heir apparent. To use the athletic metaphor of verses 7-8, it is the passing of the baton. The whole paragraph needs to be read with this reality in view” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 283). Continuing he says, “This set of imperatives, in serving as an introduction to verses 6-8, ‘draws a contrast between Timothy, still in the thick of the fight, and Paul who has fought the grand fight’” (Fee,1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p.287 citing Hendriksen, Exposition of the Pastoral Epistles, NTC (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1965), p. 312).

112 This is emphasizing the present reality of one’s relationship with God. One lives one’s life in the very presence of God. See also 1 Timothy 5:21.

113 He who appeared once to save will appear again to judge (see Acts 10:42; 17:31; 2 Cor. 5:10 1 Peter 4:5). The first part of this appearing will be to gather his own where they will be judged at the Judgment Seat of Christ (Jn. 14:1; 1 Cor. 3; 1 Thess. 4).

114 These are eschatological realities which are presented as a motivation to Timothy.

115 The Greek reads, “κήρυξον τὸν λόγον.” This word probably has reference to the gospel message (cf. 1 Tim. 4:5) not only in its evangelistic sense, but in its full sense (e.g., the Scriptures above in 3:14-15).

116 This future tense does not negate the present reality as Paul writes (cf. 3:1-5, esp. v. 5; 1 Tim. 4:1-2). The present mirrors the future. The future will only be even more intense.

117 Even though believers are described as deceived elsewhere (1 Tim. 4:1-2; 5:15; 6:5; 2 Tim. 3:6-7, 13), here they shoulder some of the blame.

118 That is they cannot receive enough bits of interesting and spicy information.

119 That is the gospel.

120 See 1 Timothy 1:4; 4:7; Titus 1:14.

121 See 2:1; 3:10, 14; 1 Timothy 6:11.

122 In other words do not be taken in by the false teachers and their false teachings.

123 See 1:8; 2:2; 3:12. This is especially in relationship to the gospel.

124 This term, εὐαγγελιστοῦ recalls the original charge in 4:2, “Κηρυζον τὸν λόγον,” “preach the message.

125 Fee writes with insight when he says, “This final testimony, then, with its announcement of his impending death, serves first of all as a the primary reason for the foregoing charge (vv. 1-5). At the same time, as before, it serves as one more model for Timothy to follow. (See 1:11-12; 2:9-10; 3:10-11)” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 288).

126 This metaphor was already used in Philippians 2:17. Both pagan and Jewish sacrifices were usually accompanied and completed by a libation of wine poured out either on top of the sacrifice or at the foot of the altar to honor the deity (cf. Numbers 15:5, 7, 10; 28:7; 2 Kings 16:13; Jer. 7:18; Hos. 9:4). The wine probably replaced the blood libations of pagans (Ps. 16:4). Paul sees his life as being part of a sacrifice for God (cf. Rom. 12:1-2). See Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, pp. 288-289, Hawthorne, Philippians, p. 105).

127 This term, ἀναλύσεώς, means to let loose from as one might break up a camp or loose a ship from its moorings.

128 Contested the noble contest (τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα ἠγώνισμαι) with the sense of a race rather than a boxing match.

129 Not only is Paul’s live over, but his ministry, which he likens to a race, is over.

130 This statement either means that he has kept the “faith” (e.g., the sound doctrine) in tact, or he has been loyal to his trust. The latter seems to be more close to the sense here.

131 This statement picks up the race metaphor again in that he is going to win the overcomers crown (στέφανος).

132 Perhaps Demas is an example of one who loved this present age rather than the coming of Christ (4:10).

133 This is now Paul’s second reason for writing 2 Timothy--he is lonely in his imprisonment and desires for Timothy to join him (cf. 1:4). Tychicus who carried the letter will probably replace Timothy in Ephesus. The whole paragraph is full of personal, private concerns--each verse has a first person pronoun in it.

134 Or before winter (cf. 4:21).

135 See Colossians 4:14; Philemon 24.

136 Perhaps his home town?

137 These latter two have probably gone out of ministry obligations. Fee writes, “That means, since Erastus stayed in Corinth, Trophimus had been left in Miletus (v. 20), and Tychicus was dispatched to Ephesus (v. 12), that of his co-workers only Luke (cf. Col. 4:14; Philem. 24) is with me” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 294).

138 Implying that he is not in Ephesus, but stating where he is.

139 See Acts 13:13; 15:36-41. This service, διακονίαν, may be personal service or have the broader sense of ministry. Perhaps Mark will fulfill the role of Tychicus with Paul.

140 As Fee writes, “The most likely reconstruction (understanding, of course, the hypothetical nature of much that is said) is that on his way back to Ephesus, Paul had been arrested, either in Miletus (v. 20, en route from Nicopolis through Corinth?) or Troas itself. There, at the house of Carpus (presumably a believer in that city), he had left his cloak, the heavy woolen garment used by travelers in cold or rainy weather. Now he wants Timothy to bring it (apparently in anticipation of winter; v. 21) and my scrolls” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 295).

141 This could mean that Paul desires for Timothy to bring him two things (e.g., the books [OT?] and parchments (documents of various kinds), or the books--I mean by that the parchments notebooks [OT?]).

142 This may have been: (1) Alexander who, with Hymenaeus, had been excommunicated by Paul in 1 Timothy 1:19-20, (2) the Jew by that name who tried to quiet the riot at Ephesus (Acts 19:33-34), (3) one and the same person with 1 and 2 above, or (4) someone whom we do not know. If it was the first one, he may have gone after Paul when he was excommunicated from the church due to Paul’s exhortations (note the change of partnership with Hymenaeus and Philetus in 2 Tim. 2:17).

143 This is probably not Paul’s first Roman imprisonment (e.g., Acts 28; Colossians, Philemon, Philippians), but to the Roman juridical practice of a preliminary hearing before the emperor or a magistrate to be followed by an actual trial during Paul’s second Roman imprisonment.

144 See Luke 23:34; Acts 7:60.

145 Could this be an allusion to Psalm 22?

146 What the Lord has begun he will complete.

147 See Philippians 4:20.

148 Having been in Rome with a house church (Romans 16:3-4), they are now back in Ephesus.

149 Again, if Onesiphorus had died (1:16-18) than this personal greeting makes sense.

150 Romans 16:23 or Acts 19:22?

151 Not only because Paul would need his coat, but because the Mediterranean was closed to shipping from November to March.

152 These are all Latin names, therefore, they are probably Roman believers. If they are not only acquaintances of Timothy’s they may be leaders. It is of interest that a woman’s name is included among them. Later Irenaeus identified Linus as the bishop of Rome (Against Heresies 3.3).

153 The “your” is singular here (cf. 1 Timothy 6:21), and thus is very personal.

154 Here the “you” is plural once again. Paul is concerned with the Ephesian church. As Fee writes, “It is altogether fitting that the very last words from Paul should be a benediction, a desire for God’s grace to be with all his people” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 302).

Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines