An Argument Of The Book Of 1 TimothyRelated Media
In View Of The Corrupting Influence Of The False Teachers Paul Exhorts Timothy To Fulfill His Designated Ministry To The Church At Ephesus By Correcting False Teachers, Protecting The Church From Their Influence, Appealing To Those Who Are In Sin, And Pursuing Godliness With An Attitude Of Contentment Rather Than With A Desire For Personal Gain
I. INTRODUCTORY GREETING: Paul greets his spiritual child, Timothy, with the authority of an apostle who is called by God, and with a prayer for Timothy’s experience of grace, mercy, and peace from Christ their Lord 1:1-2
II. A CHARGE TO INSTRUCT FALSE TEACHERS: Paul charges Timothy to remain in Ephesus in order that the might exhort false teachers in the church not to teach false doctrines which lead to speculations rather than God’s saving plan through faith, and cites himself as an example of how God’s grace can reach a false teacher 1:3-20
A. The Charge: Paul urges Timothy to remain in Ephesus in order that he might charge certain persons not to teach false doctrines which promote speculations rather than God’s saving plan through faith because they do not teach love, but righteousness through the code of the Law which is not a lawful use of the Law for the righteous 1:3-11
1. The Charge: Paul urges Timothy to remain in Ephesus9 just as he requested when he was going to Macedonia 1:3a
2. The Purpose of the Charge: Timothy is to remain in Ephesus in order that he10 might charge certain persons not to teach false doctrines such as interminable fables and genealogies which promote speculations rather than God’s saving plan which is through faith 1:3b-4
b. Specific Statement: Timothy is to instruct certain persons to not give their minds to relentless fables (legends) and genealogies14 which promote speculations15 rather than God’s (saving) plan16 which works through faith 1:4
3. The Reason for the Charge: Unlike the object of the instruction from Paul and his co-workers which is love, the false teachers are teaching the Law without understanding by making the code of the Law necessary for the righteous rather than the ethic of the Law necessary for the evil 1:5-11
b. Negative Concern--Teachers of Law: Paul affirms that some20 have turned away from “a pure heart, clear conscience, and genuine faith” and have lost their way in foolish discussions by desiring to be ‘teachers of the Law’ even though they do not understand what they are saying or the matters about which they are being so dogmatic 1:6-7
1) Statement: Paul affirms that some have turned away from “love” and have lost their way in foolish discussions 1:6
2) Examples: Those who have turned away from “a pure heart, clear conscience, and genuine faith” desire to be ‘teachers of the Law’21 even though they do not understand that which they are saying or the matters about which they are speaking so confidently 1:7
c. Proper Instruction Concerning the Law:22 Paul affirms that the Law is good if it is used as it should be--not for the righteous, but for lawbreakers who are opposed to the sound teaching in the Gospel 1:8-11
1) Law is Good: Paul affirms that the Law is good if one uses it as it should be used (lawfully, “νομίμως”) 1:8
2) Not for the Righteous: Paul affirms that law is not made for righteous people (δικαίῳ)23 1:9a
3) For Lawbreakers:24 Paul affirms that Law is for lawbreakers--for those who are: 1:9b-11
THE FIRST TABLE OF THE DECALOGUE
(THE LAWLESS AND INSUBORDINATE)
a) Lawless (ἀνόμοις)
b) Rebellious (ἀνυποτάκτοις)
(THE IMPIOUS, SINFUL, AND PROFANE)
c) Ungodly (ἀσεβέσι)
d) Sinners (ἁρμαρτωλοῖς )
e) Unholy (ἀνοσίοις)
f) Profane (βεβήλοις)
THE SECOND TABLE OF THE DECALOGUE
g) Who kill their fathers or mothers (πατρολῴαις καὶ μητρολῴλοῖς )
h) Murders (ἀνδροφόνοις)
i) Immoral men (πόρνοις)
j) Homosexuals (ἀρσενοκοίταις)
k) Kidnappers (ἀνδραποδισταῖς )
(SINS OF SPEECH)27
l) Liars (ψεύσταις)
m) Perjurers (ἐπιόρκοις)
CONTRARY to OLD TESTAMENT / GOSPEL28
n) And whatever else is contrary to sound teaching which is also found in the gospel29 that was entrusted to Paul to announce--the Good News from the glorious and blessed God 1:10b-11
B. The Reason for Hope: Paul cites himself as a prime example of how God in his grace can deliver a false teacher by giving thanks to Christ for His gracious work with him, and by affirming that God works in such a way with all men who believe in Him to the glory of God 1:12-17
1. Paul Gives Thanks: Paul gives thanks to Christ Jesus their Lord who has given him strength for his work 1:12a
2. The Significance of Paul’s Thanksgiving: Paul gives thanks to the Lord for graciously considering him in his rebellion to be worthy and appointing him to serve Him affirming that God’s grace with him is a model of His work with all men who believe in Him to the glory of God 1:12-17
b. Context From Which Paul was Chosen: Paul gives thanks to the Lord for choosing to use him even though in the past he spoke evil of Him, persecuted, and insulted Him32 1:13a
c. God’s Gracious Work: Paul proclaims God’s gracious work with him in his rebellion and affirms that it as an illustration of God’s gracious work to all men who believe in Him to the glory of God 1:13b-17
1) God’s Gracious Work with Paul: In Paul’s rebellious state God was merciful to him as one without faith and in ignorance,33 by pouring out His abundant grace upon him and giving him faith and love34 which belong to all believers in union with Christ Jesus35 1:13b-14
2) Paul Displays God’s Gracious Work for All: Paul affirms the saying as true that “Christ came into the world to save sinners” and affirms that he is an example par excellence of God’s mercy in order that Christ might show His full patience in dealing with him, the worst of sinners36 as an example for all who would later believer in Him and receive eternal37 life 1:15-16
3) Doxology to God: Paul concludes his discussion of God’s gracious work with a doxology which ascribes honor and glory forever and ever to the King of ages,38 immortal,39 invisible,40 the only God41 1:17
C. The Charge Restated: Paul entrusts the command to resist the false teachers to Timothy in accordance with his own calling from God and in order that he might faithfully complete it against the false teachers 1:18-20
1. The Command to Timothy: Paul entrusts this command to Timothy, his son, in accordance with the previous prophecies made concerning Timothy42 1:18a
2. The Purpose of the Command: Paul entrusts this command to Timothy in order that he may fight the good fight43 keeping faith and a good conscience with some like Hymenaeus and Alexander who have rejected and suffered shipwreck in regard to the faith (τὴν πίστιν),44 and whom Paul has delivered over to Satan45 in order that they might be taught not to blaspheme 1:18b-20
III. THE MEANS OF PROTECTING AGAINST FALSE TEACHERS:46 In view of the corrupting influence of false teachers upon the church Paul offers specific exhortations concerning prayer, church leadership, and personal example to Timothy and the church (at Ephesus) in order for the church to continue its ministry of the truth with effectiveness 2:1-13
A. The Proper Objects of Prayer--All Men:47 Paul urges that prayers be made on behalf of all men including those in authority over men because God sees this as good and acceptable since He desires for all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth in accordance with the mediation made by Christ between God and man concerning which Paul was appointed a preacher and an apostle 2:1-7
1. Prayers for All Men: As a conclusion (ου῎ν) to Paul’s exhortation for Timothy to remain in Ephesus to stop false teachers48 he urges of most urgency49 that entreaties, prayers, petitions and thanksgivings be made on behalf of all men50 2:1
2. Specific Examples:51 Paul specifically urges that prayers be made on behalf of governing authorities in order that the church may live an upright life 2:2
a. Prayers for Rulers: Paul urges that prayers be made on behalf of kings and all who are in authority52 2:2a
b. Purpose: Paul urges that prayers be made on behalf of rulers in order that the church may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and dignity53 2:2b
3. Reason for Prayers for All Men: Paul urges that the church pray for all men because God sees this as good and acceptable since He desires for all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth in accordance with the mediation made by Christ between God and man concerning which Paul was appointed a preacher and an apostle 2:3-7
a. God’s Sees Prayer for All as Good: Paul urges for prayers for all men (“this”) because God our Savior54 sees this as good and acceptable 2:3
b. God Desires all to Be Saved: Paul affirms that God views prayer for all men as good because he desires for all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth in accordance with the mediation between God and man made by Christ Jesus concerning which Paul was appointed a preacher and apostle as a teacher of the Gentiles 2:4-7
2) The Evidence--Christ Jesus: The evidence that God desires for all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth is the Man57 Christ Jesus who gave His life as a ransom for all58 and thus became the one mediator between God and men at the right time in history (at the proper time) 2:5-6
B. The Proper Demeanor for Prayer:61 As a conclusion to Paul’s discussion of prayer on behalf of all mankind, he exhorts men in every church to pray without the dissensions of the false teachers, and women to do likewise as is reflected in their dress and submission to the instruction of men 2:8-15
1. Men--Pray without Strife: As a conclusion to Paul’s discussion of prayer on behalf of all mankind (ου῎ν),62 Paul exhorts for the men in every place (ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ)63 to pray lifting up holy hands,64 without anger (ὀργῆς) and arguing (διαλογισμοῦ)65 2:8
2. Women’s Role in the Church: Paul exhorts women to adorn themselves in a modest, Godly manner, and not to exercise authority over a man against the design of creation, but to find deliverance through child bearing in faith, love, sanctity, and self-restraint 2:9-15
a. Exhortations Concerning Adornment--Modesty & Godliness: Just as Paul exhorts men, so does he exhort women to adorn themselves in a modest, discrete way with proper clothing and good works as befit a godly woman 2:9-10
b. Exhortations Concerning Leadership--Not Over Men: Paul exhorts women to quietly receive instruction and not to exercise authority over men in accordance with the order of creation, but to find the salvation of sanctification through bearing children in faith, love, sanctity, and self-restraint 2:11-15
2) Do Not Exercise Authority Over Men: Paul does not allow a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man, but to remain quiet because of the created order and because of the effect of the reversal of the created order when she was deceived and initiated the fall 2:12-14
b) Reason One--Created Order: The reason Paul does not allow a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man is because (γὰρ) the order of creation in Genesis 2 supports (or is in harmony with) the female submission to male authority (for it was Adam who was first created, then Eve)76 2:13
c) Reason Two--The Initiator in the Garden: The reason Paul does not allow a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man is also because (καὶ) it was the woman who was deceived77 and thus led the fall into transgression78 2:14
3) In contrast to women exercising authority over men (δὲ), they are preserved through the bearing of children, if they remain in faith, love, and sanctity with self-restraint79 2:15
C. Qualifications for Church Leadership:80 Paul affirms that church leadership is an excellent work, and that it is thus necessary for overseers and deacons to be above reproach so that the gospel ministry might not be hindered and so that their own faith may be strengthened 3:1-13
1. Qualifications for Overseers (ἐπίσκοπος):81 Paul affirms that church leadership is an excellent work, and that it is necessary, therefore, for church leaders to be those who are considered to be above reproach so that the gospel ministry of the church among unbelievers might not be hindered by the devil 3:1-7
a. An Affirmation of Church Leadership: Paul affirms that if anyone desires to be a church leader, he desires to do an excellent work82 3:1
b. Characteristics of Church Leaders: Because church leadership is an excellent work, Paul therefore (ου῎ν) affirms that it is necessary (δεῖ ) for a church leader to be above reproach (ἀνεπίλημπτον ει῎ναι)83 by being the husband of one wife, temperate, prudent, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not addicted to wine, or pugnacious, but gentle, uncontentious, free from the love of money, one who manages his household well, one who is not a new convert, and one who has a good reputation with unbelievers 3:2a
1) Overall Characteristic--Above Reproach: An overseer must be (δεῖ ) above reproach (ἀνεπίλημπτον ει῎ναι)84 3:2a
2) Husband of One Wife: In order to be above reproach one must be the husband of one wife (μεᾶς γυναικὸς α῎νδρα)85 3:2b
3) Temperate: In order to be above reproach one must be temperate/or sober (νηφάλιον)86 3:2c
4) Prudent: In order to be above reproach one must be prudent (σώφρονα)87 3:2d
5) Respectable: In order to be above reproach one must be respectable (κόσμιον)88 3:2e
6) Hospitable: In order to be above reproach one must be hospitable (φιλόξενον)89 3:2f
7) Able to Teach: In order to be above reproach one must be able to teach (διδακτικόν)90 3:2g
8) Not Addicted to Wine: In order to be above reproach one must not be addicted to wine (μή πάροινον)91 3:3a
9) Not Pugnacious: In order to be above reproach one must not be pugnacious (μὴ πλήκτην), but gentle, and uncontentious (ἀλλὰ ἐπιεικῆ α῎μαχον)92 3:3b
10) Free from the Love of Money: In order to be above reproach one must be free from the love a money (ἀφιλάργυρον)93 3:3c
11) Manage Household Well: In order to be above reproach one must manage94 his own household well by keeping his children under control with all dignity95 because otherwise it does not seem probable that he will be able to manage the church of God well 3:4-5
12) Not a New Convert: In order to be above reproach one must not be a new convert (and thus be mature in one’s faith)96 in order that (ι῞να) he may not become conceited and fall into judgment as the devil did97 3:6
2. Qualifications for Deacons (διάκονος):100 As with overseers, so is it that Paul sees the Christian leadership as a good work, and thus affirms that deacons are to be men of respect and dignity because they will obtain for themselves a high standing (in the Christian community) and great confidence in their Christian faith 3:8-13
a. Overall Characteristic--Respect: Because church leadership is an excellent work, Paul likewise (ὡσαύτως) affirms that deacons are to be men of respect/or dignity (σεμνοίς)101 3:8a
b. Negatively: In order to be a person of respect one is not to be characterized by false speech, drinking, or greed 3:8b-d
1) False Speech: In order to be a person of respect one is not be double tongued (μὴ διλόγους)102 3:8b
2) Drinking: In order to be a person of respect one is not to be addicted to much wine (μὴ οι῎νῳ πολλῷ προσέχοντας)103 3:8c
3) Greed: In order to be a person of respect one is not to pursue dishonest gain (μὴ αἰσχροκερδεῖς ) 3:8d
c. Positively: In order to be a person of respect a deacon is to hold to the revealed truth of the faith with a clear conscience, to have been demonstrated to be beyond reproach, to have women helpers who are of good character, to be the husband of one wife, and to manage their own household well 3:9-10
2) First Tested: In order to be a person of respect one is first to be tested to be seen as “beyond reproach before they serve as deacons 3:10
4) Husbands of One Wife: In order to be a person of respect a deacon is to the husband of one wife (διάκονοι ε῎στωσαν μιᾶς γυναικὸς α῎νδρες)108 3:12a
5) Mangers of Their Households: In order to be a person of respect one is to be a good manager of one’s children and their own household109 3:12a
d. Reason: The reason (γὰρ) deacons are to be men of respect/or dignity is because they will obtain for themselves a high standing (in the Christian community, if not with God) and great confidence in their Christian faith 3:13
D. Purpose of The Letter:110 Although Paul hopes to come soon to Timothy, he is writing the things in this letter in order that Timothy might know how to conduct himself in the church which protects the truth of Christ’s earthly and continuing ministry 3:14-16
1. How to Conduct Oneself in the Church--the Guardian of Truth: Although Paul hopes to come soon to Timothy, he is writing the things in this letter in order that Timothy might know how to conduct himself in the household of God111--the church of the living God which is to be the pillar and support112 of the truth113 3:14-15
2. The Truth Is Summarized--A Hymn: Paul unfolds the essence of the truth which the church is to protect as the mystery of religion, namely, the earthly and continuing ministry of Jesus Christ 3:16
a. Affirmation--The Truth is Great: Paul affirms that the revealed truth (mystery) of religion is great 3:16a
b. Demonstration--Jesus Christ: Paul demonstrates that the revealed truth of religion is great as he proclaims Christ in his earthly ministry and his continuing ministry 3:16b-f
1) Christ’s Earthly Ministry--Humiliation, Exaltation, and Glorification: Jesus was manifested in the flesh, vindicated in the Spirit at His resurrection and then glorified at his ascension by angels 3:16b-d
a) Incarnation: Jesus was manifested in the flesh114 3:16b
b) Resurrection: Jesus was justified (ἐδικαιώθη) in the Spirit115 3:16c
c) Glorification: Jesus was beheld by angels116 3:16d
2) Christ’s Continuing Ministry--Gospel Proclaimed and Glorification: Jesus was preached among the Gentiles and believed in throughout the world leading to glory 3:16d-f
a) Preached: Jesus was preached among the nations (Gentiles)117 3:16d
b) Believed In: Jesus was believed in throughout the world 3:16e
c) Taken: Jesus was taken up in glory118 3:16f
E. False Doctrine Censured: In view of the corrupting consequences of demon-influenced false-teachers upon those in the church, Paul urges Timothy to be a good servant of God by developing godliness through personal discipline, by prescribing and teaching the truth about godliness, and by paying close attention to his personal life in the realms of his spiritual gift, his personal progress, and his teaching because this will provide present aspects of salvation for him and those who hear him 4:1-16
1. The Influence of False Teachers: In contrast to the church which is the defender of the faith, Paul affirms that the Spirit explicitly says that in latter times some will fall away from the faith by means of paying attention to deceitful spirits with their demonic doctrines and by means of hypocritical men who claim that they know the truth, but restrict believers from enjoying aspects of God’s good creation through a legalism 4:1-5
a. Statement--The Spirit’s Prediction: In contrast (δὲ) to the church which is the defender of the faith (3:16), Paul affirms that the Spirit explicitly says119that in latter times120 some will fall away from the faith 4:1a
b. The Means of Falling Away--Demonic Work Through False Teachers: Paul affirms that some will fall away from the truth by means of paying attention to deceitful spirits with their demonic doctrines and by means of hypocritical men who claim that they know the truth, but restrict believers from enjoying aspects of God’s good creation through a legalism 4:1b-5
2) Sourced in Hypocritical Men: Paul affirms that some will fall away from the truth by means of the hypocrisy of liars who they claim that they know the truth, but restrict believers from enjoying aspects of God’s good creation through a legalism 4:2
a) Speakers of Falsehood: The hypocrisy comes from men who speak falsehoods123 4:2
b) Seared in Their Conscience: The hypocrisy comes from men who are seared (branded) in their own conscience as with a branding iron124 4:2b
c) Forbid Marriage: The hypocrisy comes from men who forbid marriage125 4:3a
d) Abstain from Foods: The hypocrisy comes from men who advocate abstaining from foods which God has created to be gratefully shared in by those who believe and know the truth
2. Timothy’s Personal Responsibilities in Light of the False Teachers:130 In view of the corruption of the false teachers, Paul urges Timothy to be a good servant of God by developing godliness through personal discipline, by prescribing and teaching the truth about godliness, and by paying close attention to his personal life in the realms of his spiritual gift, his personal progress, and his teaching because this will provide present aspects of salvation for him and those who hear him 4:6-16
a. Be a Good Servant of God: Paul urges Timothy to be a good servant of Christ by exposing the errors of the false teachers, not becoming involved with their “worldly fables,” and by developing godliness through the personal discipline of word of God because of godliness’ comprehensive value 4:6-8
1) Point Out the Errors of False Teachers: Paul affirms that Timothy will be a good servant131 of Christ by pointing out the errors of the false teachers which he has just described132 to the brethren133 4:6a
2) Be Nourished on the Word through Personal Discipline: Paul urges Timothy not to be caught up in “worldly fables” but to be nourished on the word through personal discipline leading to godliness since is offers hope for one’s present life and for one’s future life as a motivation for one’s labor 4:6b-10
a) Nourished on the Word: Paul affirms that Timothy will be a good servant of Christ as he is nourished134 on the words of faith and on excellent teaching (διδασκαλίας) which he has been following 4:6b
b) Rejecting Worldly Fables: In contrast to being nourished on faith and sound doctrine Paul warns Timothy not to have anything to do with worldly fables135 only fit for old women 4:7a
c) Being Disciplined for Godliness: Paul exhorts Timothy to discipline himself136 for the greater value of godliness137 since it holds promise for one’s present life and for one’s future life thereby motivating ministers to labor with their hope of salvation fixed upon God 4:7b-10
(1) Discipline Yourself: In contrast to being enmeshed in “worldly fables” Paul urges Timothy to discipline himself for the purpose of godliness 4:7b
(2) Godliness vs. Physical Discipline: Paul affirms that although physical discipline138 has some value,139 it is a trust worthy statement that godliness has a surpassing value since it holds promise for one’s present life and for one’s future life 4:8-9
(3) Fix Your Hope: Because godliness holds the promise of life Paul affirms that He and those like him in ministry140 labor141 and strive with a fixed hope on the living God who is the savior of all men--especially believers142 4:10
b. Prescribe and Teach Truth: Paul urges Timothy to prescribe and teach the truth about godliness in such a way that he does not give others an opportunity to discredit him, but in fact becomes an example of a true believer 4:11-13
1) Statement: Paul urges Timothy to prescribe and to teach the above truths about godliness (as opposed to those errors taught by the false teachers) 4:11
2) Personal Integrity:143 Paul urges Timothy not to provide an opportunity for people to look down upon him because he is young, but to be an example to those who believe through his speech, conduct, love, faith, and purity144 4:12
3) Prescriptive Ministry: Paul urges Timothy to give attention to (public) reading of the Scripture, to exhortation, and to teaching145 until Paul comes to him 4:13
c. Pay Attention to Yourself: Paul urges Timothy to pay close attention to himself in terms of his spiritual gift, his personal progress at godliness, and his teaching because this work will provide present salvation for both himself and those who hear him 4:14-16
1) Do Not Neglect Your Gift: Paul urges Timothy not to neglect his spiritual gift146 which was bestowed upon him through the prophetic utterance (prophecies) with the laying on of hands by the elders147 4:14
2) Work at Your Progress: Paul urges to take pains at developing godliness so that his progress148 may be evident to all 4:15
3) Pay Attention: Paul urges Timothy to pay close attention to himself and to his teaching by persevering because this work will provide (present experiences of) salvation for himself and for those who hear him149 4:16
IV. INSTRUCTIONS REGARDING VARIOUS GROUPS: After a general charge to Timothy concerning how to appeal to believing men and women who are sinning, Paul exhorts Timothy to care for true widows but not to place younger ones on the list, to care for elders but to reprove and replace those who are sinning, and to instruct slaves to honor their masters 5:1--6:2
A. Instructions Regarding Relating to Men and Women as Believers:150Paul exhorts Timothy not to sharply rebuke a man or a woman, but is to appeal to them as one would to one’s own father/mother or brother/sister with all purity151 5:1-2
1. Men: Paul exhorts that no one is to sharply rebuke a man, but to appeal to him as one would to a father or to brothers 5:1
a. An Older Man: Paul exhorts Timothy not to sharply rebuke (ἐπιπλήξῃς) an older man,152 but to appeal to (or come along side of, παρακάλει) him as one would appeal to a father 5:1a
b. Younger Man: Paul exhorts Timothy not to sharply rebuke a younger man, but to appeal to him as one would to brothers 5:1b
2. Women: Paul exhorts Timothy not to sharply rebuke a women, but is to appeal to her as one would to a mother or to a sister, namely, in all purity 5:2
a. Older Women: Paul exhorts Timothy not to rebuke an older woman, but to appeal to her as one would to a mother153 5:2a
b. Younger Women: Paul exhorts Timothy not to rebuke a younger woman, but is to appeal to her as one would to a sister, by which he means, in all purity154 5:2b
B. Instructions Regarding Widows:155 Paul urges Timothy to care for true widows by placing them upon a list--if they have no living family to care for them and have certain qualifications of age and good works--and not to put younger widows on the list since they may not model the qualities of the older widows; Paul also urges those women in the church who are caring for true widows to continue so that the church may be free to care for other true widows 5:3-16
2. General Qualities for Identifying True Widows:158 In view of the fact that a widow who has living family should be cared for by that family lest they be perceived as being worse than unbelievers in their behavior, Paul identifies real widows as those who have no one to care for them and are dependent upon God rather than being self-indulgent and thus spiritually dead 5:4-8
a. Words to Relatives--They Should Care for Their Widows: Paul urges children or grandchildren of widows to practice piety and to make some return to their family because this pleases God 5:4
1) Practice Piety: Paul exhorts children or grandchildren of widows to practice piety in regard to their own family 5:4a
2) Make Some Return: Paul exhorts children or grandchildren of widows to make some return to their parents 5:4b
3) This Pleases God: The reason Paul exhorts children or grandchildren of widows to practice piety and make some return to their parents is because such activity please God159 5:4c
b. Words to Widows--Be of Godly Character: Hope in God’s Care: Paul identifies a true widow as one who has been left without family to care for her, so is fixed in her hope upon God which is expressed through continued prayers to Him for care 5:5
1) Fixed Her Hope on God: Paul identifies a true widow as one who has been left alone and has fixed her hope on God 5:5a
2) Prays: Paul identifies a true widow as one who continues in entreaties and prayers all of the time (night and day)160 5:5b
c. Words to Disobedient Widows--Judgment for Being Disobedient: Paul exhorts Timothy to instruct widows to place their hope in God and against being self-indulgent because this latter state describes spiritual deadness even though they are physically alive 5:6-7
1) Self-indulgent: In contrast to a widow whose hope is in God is one who is self-indulgent (given to wanton pleasure)161 because she is spiritually dead even through she is physically alive 5:6
2) Prescribe these Things: Paul urges Timothy to give the instructions of verses 5-6 to the self-indulgent widows so that they might be blameless (above reproach)162 5:7
d. Words to Relatives--Judgment for Disobedience:163Paul warns that if anyone does not provide for his own, and especially for those of his household164 that he has denied the faith and is worth than an unbeliever165 8:8
3. Specific Qualities for Identifying and Prescribing Direction for Widows: Paul urges widows to be placed upon a list by the church if they meet certain qualifications of age and good works, but not to put younger widows on the list since they may not model the qualities of the older widows, and urges those women in the church who are caring for true widows to continue so that the church may be free to care for other widows 5:9-16
a. Qualified to Be Put on a List: A widow is to be placed upon a list166 by the church if she meets the following qualification--she is sixty or older, not divorced and remarried, and known for good works: 5:9-10
1) Sixty or Older: A widow is to be placed upon a list by the church if she is not less than sixty years old167 5:9a
2) Not Divorced and Remarried: A widow is to be placed upon a list by the church if she is the husband of one man168 5:9b
3) Is Known for Good Works:169 A widow is to be placed upon a list by the church if she known for good works such as raising up her children, showing hospitality, being spiritually active in believers’ lives, assisting those in distress, and in general being devoted to good works 5:10
a) Affirmation: Paul affirms that a widow is to be placed upon a list by the church is she is known for good works 5:10a
b) Examples of Good Works: Paul then lists some specific examples of good works which a widow is to be known for such as raising up her children, showing hospitality, being spiritually active in believers’ lives, assisting those in distress, and in general being devoted to good works 5:10b-f
(1) Brought Up Her Children: A widow is to be placed upon a list by the church if she has brought up her children 5:10b
(2) Shown Hospitality: A widow is to be placed upon a list by the church if she has shown hospitality to strangers 5:10c
(3) Been Spiritually Active in Believers’ Lives: A widow is to be placed upon a list by the church if she been spiritually active in believers’ lives (e.g., washed their feet)170 5:10d
(4) Assisted Those in Distress: A widow is to be placed upon a list by the church if she has assisted those in distress 5:10e
(5) Summary--Devoted to Good Works: A widow is to be placed upon a list by the church if she has devoted herself to every good work 5:10f
b. Detailed “Exposure of” and “Instruction for” The Self-Indulgent: Paul exhorts Timothy to refuse to put younger widows on the widows’ list because they become self-indulgent and do not model godliness, therefore, Paul exhorts them to re-invest themselves in family ministries 5:11-15
1) Younger Widows Not to Be On List: Paul exhorts Timothy to refuse to put younger widows on the list 5:11a
2) Reasons Younger Widows Are Not On List: Because younger widows become self-indulgent and do not model godliness Paul does not permit them to be placed upon the widows’ list, but exhorts them to re-invest their lives in family ministries once again 5:11-15
a) Reasons Stated: The Reasons Paul does not desire for younger widows to be placed upon the list is because they become self-indulgent and do not model godliness 5:11-13
(1) They Become Self-Indulgent--They Break Their Commitment: The reason why younger widows should not be place on the list is because they become moved by their sensual desires in disregard to their commitment to Christ and desire to get married incurring condemnation because they have set aside their previous faith171 5:11-12
(2) They Do Not Model Godliness--They Become Idle Speakers of Nonsense: The second reason172 why younger widows should not be place on the list is because they learn to be idle speakers of nonsense and busybodies as they go from house to house (church?) talking about things not proper to mention173 5:13
b) Conclusion Drawn: Paul concludes in view of the above reasons that younger widows should invest their lives in family ministry again (e.g., emulate the good work of the older widows)--get married, bear children, keep house and give the enemy no occasion for reproach as some have by turning aside to follow Satan174 5:14-15
c. Genuine Concern for Widows: Paul urges any believing woman175 who has dependent widows to continue in their assistance of them so that the church may be free to assist true widows 5:16
C. Instructions Regarding Elders:176 Paul urges Timothy to care for the financial needs and the reputation of those elders who work in the church, to reprove those elders who are sinning, and to be careful in the reappointment of other elders who are to replace those who are sinning 5:17-25
1. The Care of Elders: Paul urges Timothy (and thus they church) to care for those elders who work among them in the community by providing for their needs financially and by protecting them against false accusations which have no confirmation 5:17-19
a. Double Honor: Paul urges Timothy (and thus the church) to honor those elders177 who rule well with double honor178--especially those who work hard at giving instruction (preaching and teaching) 5:17
b. The Reasoning for Provision: The reason (γὰρ) the church should provide for those elders who work hard among them is because Scripture confirms179 that they should care for those in their community (as an ox should be allowed to eat while he is threshing, so is the one who works worthy of receiving wages) 5:18
c. Protections Against Accusations: Paul urges Timothy (and thus the church) not to receive an accusation against an elder unless it is confirmed with two or three witnesses180 5:19
2. The Impartial Reproof of Sinning Elders: Paul urges Timothy with a solemn charge before all of heaven to impartially reprove those elders who continue in sin in order that the remaining elders may be fearful of sinning 5:20-21
b. A Solemn Charge to Impartiality: Paul solemnly charges Timothy before all of heaven (in the presence of God, Christ Jesus, and chosen angels)184 to maintain these principles of reproof without bias or partiality 5:21
3. The Replacements for Sinning Elders: Paul urges Timothy (and thus the church) to keep themselves from true sin (and not the false definitions imposed by the false teachers) by not appointing replacement elders too quickly because their sinfulness is not always easy to detect even though it will eventually show itself 5:22-25
a. Their Selection: Paul urges Timothy (and thus the church) to keep themselves free from sin by not appointing (replacement) elders too hastily since this would cause them to share responsibility for the elder’s sins 5:22
b. The Reasons for Careful Selection: After Paul is sure that Timothy can distinguish between what would be a true entanglement with sin (5:22) and a false accusation of sin by the false teachers (e.g., partaking of wine, 4:3), Paul supports his affirmation that Timothy should be careful when choosing replacement elders because their sinfulness, which will eventually be revealed, is not always immediately evident 5:23
1) Related Digression: Paul urges Timothy against a total asceticism as taught by the false teachers (4:3) by urging him to no longer drink water exclusively,185 but to take a little wine when necessary for medicinal reasons (your stomach and your frequent ailments)186 5:23
2) Negative Reason: Paul reasons that Timothy should be careful in his selection of replacement elders because not all men’s sins are immediately manifest (e.g., some men’s sins go before them to judgment,187 while other men’s sins follow after them188) 5:24
3) Positive Affirmation: In a positive contrast with verse 24 Paul also affirms that the good deeds of men are very evident and the evil deeds of men will not be able to be concealed 5:25
D. Instructions Regarding Slaves:189 Paul urges Timothy to preach and teach to believers who are slaves to regard their masters of worthy honor and especially if they are Christians to be respectful of them so that God may be honored because believing Masters are their beloved brothers 6:1-2
1. Attitudes Towards Pagan Masters: Paul urges believers who are slaves190 to regard their masters as worthy of honor191 in order that (ι῞να) the character of God and Christian teaching may not be spoken against192 6:1
2. Attitudes Towards Christian Masters:193 Paul urges believers who are slaves not to be disrespectful194 to them, but to serve them all the more because they are believers who are loved (by God and us) 6:2a
3. Exhortation to Teach: Paul urges Timothy to teach and preach these principles about how slaves should treat their masters 6:2b
V. INSTRUCTIONS REGARDING GODLINESS: In view of the false teachers who have abandoned the gospel and perverted godliness for personal gain leading to many sorrows Paul urges Timothy to remain faithful to his ministry until the Lord returns, and exhorts those who are wealthy to not focus their hope upon their riches but upon God thereby generously investing their riches in good deeds and thus laying up for themselves reward for their future life 6:3-19
A. Final Exposure and Indictment of the False Teachers--A Warning Against the Love of Money:195 Paul exposes the false teachers as those who abandoned the Gospel and perverted godliness for personal gain, affirms the value of godliness when it is accompanied by contentment with one’s financial state, and indicted the false teachers as being those whose greed has resulted in a downward spiral, spiritually, piercing them with many sorrows 6:3-10
1. A Final Exposure of Prideful Self-interest: Paul affirms that because the false teachers have abandoned the gospel from Christ, they have a morbid interest in disruptive controversy leading to depraved minds which desire to achieve financial gain through religion. 6:3-5
a. Abandonment of the Gospel: Paul affirms196 that the false teachers advocate a different teaching which does not agree with the gospel which comes from our Lord Jesus Christ Himself which leads to godliness 6:3
b. Morbid Interests in Controversy and Financial Gain: The results of the false teachers’ abandonment of the gospel is that they have a morbid, prideful craving for controversy (questions, word battles resulting in division in the community197) leading to depraved minds which are deprived of the truth and thus desire to achieve financial gain (εὐσέβειαν) through godliness (religion)198 6:4-5
2. A Contrasting Attitude Toward Godliness: In contrast to the false teachers’ perversion of godliness for financial gain, Paul affirms that godliness (religion) in itself is of great value when one is content in one’s financial circumstances because a discontentment out of greed is illogical since one can not take things with one, and since the essentials of life (food and clothing) are all that are truly necessary in this life for contentment 6:6-10
a. The Gain of Godliness: In contrast to the false teachers’ perversion of godliness Paul affirms that godliness (religion) does provide great gain (μέγας ἡ εὐσέβεια)199 when it is accompanied by contentment200 6:6
b. Reason I--the Future: The first reason that godliness brings great gain when it is accompanied by contentment is because material things are finite having no continuity with life beyond this world201 6:7
c. Reason II--the Present: The second reason that godliness brings great gain when it is accompanied by contentment is because provisions for our present needs (food and clothing) should be enough to make one content (ἀρκεσθησόμεθα)202 6:8
3. A Contrasting Look at the False Teachers Who Want to Get Rich: In contrast to the value of godliness (religion) when it is accompanied by contentment Paul affirms that those who desire to get rich enter into a downward spiral, spiritually, and cites the false teachers as specific examples of those who have pierced themselves with many sorrows 6:9-10
a. In General--The Downward Effect of Loving Money: In contrast (δὲ) to being content Paul affirms that those who out of greed desire to get rich fall into a downward spiral of being tempted, followed by being trapped with many foolish and harmful desires which pull people down (plunge them) into ruin and destruction 6:9
b. In Specific--The False Teachers: In accordance with the proverb that the love of money is the source of all sorts of evil Paul affirms that some (the false teachers) have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many sorrows because of their love for money 6:10
1) A Proverbial Support: Paul supports (γὰρ) his contention that loving money leads to a downward spiritual effect by affirming the proverb that “the love of money is the source of all sorts of evil” 6:10a
2) A Historical Illustration: Paul affirms that by longing for money some (the false teachers) have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves (as with a sword) with many sorrows 6:10
B. Final Exhortation to Timothy--Remain Faithful:203 Through specific imperatives and a solemn charge Paul exhorts Timothy to remain faithful to his ministry in the face of false teachers until the sovereign Lord Jesus Christ returns who is unique in his lordship 6:11-16
1. Four Imperatives: Paul exhorts Timothy to flee form the patterns of the false teachers, strive for virtues and behavior which reflect the gospel, and to persevere in the contest until he receives the prize of eternal life 6:11-12
b. Strive for Virtues: In contrast (δὲ) to the patterns of the false teachers Paul urges Timothy to strive for virtues and behavior which reflect the gospel (e.g., uprightness in conduct [righteousness], godliness, faith, love, steadfastness, and gentleness) 6:11b
c. Keep the Athletic Contest: Paul urges Timothy to keep contending in the athletic contest of the faith206 6:12a
d. Take Hold of Eternal Life: Paul urges Timothy to take hold of the eternal life to which he was called by God when he publicly confessed the Lord before many witnesses207 6:12b
2. A Solemn Charge: In the solemn setting of God who maintains all life, and Christ Jesus who made a good profession before Pontius Pilate Paul charges Timothy to remain faithful to his ministry in all purity until the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ 6:13-14
a. The Sacredness of Paul’s Charge: Paul sets the scene for his summary charge to Timothy as being in the presence of God who maintains all life, and in the presence of Christ Jesus who made a good confession before Pontius Pilate 6:13
b. The Charge to Obey Orders: Paul charges Timothy to keep the commandments208 in a way which is unstained and free from reproach until the coming (appearing) of our Lord Jesus Christ 6:14
3. A Doxology: After mentioning Christ’s return, Paul confirms that this will occur at the proper time when the Lord determines it to occur, and then praises the Lord through a series of character qualities which describe Him as unique in his sovereignty 6:15-16
a. A Certain/Sovereign Second Advent: In view of the mention of Christ’s return Paul affirms that this will occur at the proper time when the sovereign God decides for it to occur209 6:15a
b. Praise to the Lord: Paul praises the Lord through a series of epithets about His uniqueness as Ruler: 6:15b-16
1) He is the only Sovereign One210
2) He is the King of kings and Lord of lords211
3) He is the only one having immortality212
4) He lives in light which is unapproachable213
5) He is invisible214
6) He is the recipient of honor and eternal dominion, Amen215
C. Instruction to the Rich:216 Paul commands Timothy to charge the rich in this world not to be proud or to set their hopes on uncertain riches, but to hope in God and to use their money in generous, liberal ways to do good so that they may lay up reward for themselves in the future 6:17-19
1. One’s Focus for Hope: Paul commands Timothy to charge the rich217 in this world not to be proud or to set their hopes on uncertain riches,218 but on God who richly furnishes us with everything to enjoy219 6:17
2. One’s Use of Money: Paul charges the rich to use their money in a generous way for doing what is good because by doing so they will lay for themselves a good foundation for the future 6:18-19
a. Use Money for Good: Paul charges the rich to use their money in a generous, liberal way for doing what is good 6:18
1) Paul charges the rich to do what is good 6:18a
2) Paul charges the rich to be rich in good deeds220 6:18b
3) Paul charges the rich to be liberal 6:18c
4) Paul charges the rich to be generous 6:18d
b. An Eschatological Motivation: The reason Paul charges the rich to use their money for what is good is because by doing so they will lay for themselves a good foundation for the future so that they may participate (take hold of) the life which is truly life221 6:19
VI. CONCLUSION--A FINAL CHARGE:222 In a final charge Paul urges Timothy to guard his ministry against the false teachers and to avoid their false-knowledge because it has led many away from the faith, whereupon he prays for them all to receive God’s grace 6:20-21
A. Admonition to Timothy: In a final charge Paul urges Timothy to guard his ministry against the false teachers which has been deposited with him and to avoid their false knowledge because it has led many away from the faith 6:20-21a
1. Guard Your Ministry: Paul once again exhorts Timothy to guard his ministry (e.g., that which has been entrusted to him)223 6:20a
3. Reason: The reason Paul exhorts Timothy to avoid the false-knowledge of the false teachers is because some who have professed it have missed the mark (lost the way)226 with regard to the faith227 6:21a
B. Prayer for Grace: Paul prays that God’s grace might be with Timothy and all who are with him in Ephesus228 6:21b
1 Paul is emphasizing his authority with this title. This was probably not for Timothy so much as for “ill-wishers” who would hear this in the congregation when it was read aloud (see J. N. D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, p. 39).
2 Paul is a man under orders from God (cf. Acts 9:15-16). As Fee says, “in this letter is going to charge Timothy to ‘order’ the church, or the errorists, to do or refrain from doing certain things. Thus he who gives orders is himself under orders” (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, pp. 1-2).
3 See 1 Timothy 2:3; 4:10; Titus 1:3; 2:10; 3:4,6; Philemon 3:20; Ephesians 5:23; 2 Timothy 1:10). The reference need not be an allusion to emperor worship since it has roots in the OT (cf. Deut. 32:15; Psalm 24:5; 25:5; 27:1; 9; 42:5; Habakkuk 3:18; Isaiah 12:2; Luke 1:47; Jude 25).
4 As “Savior” Christ has inaugurated a redemptive process which he will consummate when he returns for believers (cf. 1 Tim. 6:14), therefore, he is also their “Hope” of redemption (cf. Titus 2:13).
5 The emphasis upon “true” (γνσίῳ τέκνῳ) may also reflect an authority motif. Perhaps Paul is assuring that the church does not reject Timothy (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 2).
6 The phrase “in the faith” actually does not have an article (ἑν πίστει) and thus may well refer to Timothy as being faithful.
7 Even in this greeting there is an emphasis upon Timothy as that half-way house between Judaism and the Greeks. Grace and peace were typical elements of Paul’s letters, but when he adds in mercy he is emphasizing Jewish roots. As Fee writes, “Thus in the final letters the salutation has become complete” (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 3).
8 This combination of names almost becomes like a full proper name for the Lord in the Pastorals.
9 This implies that the church is an actor in this event (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 4).
10 Timothy is not the pastor but Paul’s representative authorized to oppose the deceivers and their followers (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 5).
11 Paul seems to omit his usual section of thanksgiving before jumping into the heart of this letter. Oddly enough, the only other letter where he does this is Galatians where he was also concerned with false teachers. This may well be another indication that this letter is for the church more than for Timothy.
12 The meaning for “charge” is “to give strict orders” (παραγγείλῃς ).
13 The term is ἑτεροδιδασκαλεῖν which literally means “other teachings” or “teachings of a different kind” (cf. 2 Cor. 11:4; Gal. 1:6). These are clear perversions of the pure gospel which Timothy is to clear up.
14 These have been understood in different ways: (1) the “myths” were ways which the Gnostic thinkers sought to solve the the problem of evil (J. N. D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, p. 44); the genealogies were “speculative cosmologies of the later Gnostics with their systems of aeons (spiritual beings) that emanate from God (the Father of All), such as one finds in Valentinus” (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 6; C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 40; see the paraphrase of the Living Bible, “Their idea of being saved by finding favor with an endless chain of angels leading up to God”). However, the Gnostic system of aeons were never called genealogies, the genealogies are lumped in with the Law in 3:9, and the “fables” were explicitly labeled Jewish (cf. Titus 1:14)
(2) They were descriptions which appeared in Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism to refer to traditions about peoples’ origins. “Μύθοις” was used in a pejorative sense to contrast the legendary character of the stories to historical truth. They were some kind of Jewish (v. 7) discussions about origins. It is not possible to be specific beyond this (Ibid., pp. 6-7). Perhaps, they were an attempt by the Jews to emphasize physical heritage (e.g., pedigrees of the patriarchs) or “far-fetched minutiae of rabbinical exegesis to the detriment of the gospel” (cf. Book of Jubilees, or Philo’s Questions and Answers on Genesis, or Pseudo-Philo’s Book of Biblical Antiquities; J. N. D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, pp. 44-45; Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 7).
15 “Tis a tale full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.” Shakespeare, Macbeth. Kelly writes that Paul is concerned about, “the condemning the mass of pseudo-problems which the heretics’ exegesis engenders. The end of Bible study should be an apprehension of god’s saving plan” (J. N. D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, p. 45).
16 See Ephesians 1:10; 3:2,9; cf. 1 Corinthians 9:17; Colossians 1:25.
17 The sense of “command” or “charge” here is probably wider in meaning than that implied in verse 3. It is descriptive of the requirement disclosed in the Gospel (C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 41).
18 Kelly writes, “The ultimate object of Paul’s charge, as of all Christian moral preaching, is not merely negative. If its initial purpose is to check error, it has the further and more positive aim of establishing love in the Ephesian congregation in place of the spirit of contentiousness which the errorists have sown there” (J. N. D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, p. 46).
Fee relates this to the context even more when he writes, “This is probably not a general statement about the gospel, in contrast to the errors; rather, Paul is specifically giving the reason for Timothy’s involvement, namely, to arouse the love that comes from a pure heart (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p 7).
19 These characteristics are to be contrasted with those of the false teachers who are deceived and deceitful (4:1-2; 5:24; 2 Tim. 2:26; 3:13; cf. 1 Tim. 2:14; 5:15; 2 Tim. 3:5-7), have “branded” consciences (4:2) and “have made a ruin of their faith” (1:19) [Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 8).
20 These may well have been elders in the church. Remember Paul’s prophetic warning to the elders of Ephesus in Acts 20:28-30! Other support that elders are in view is that Paul also discusses the responsibility of the elders (5:17; cf. 3:2), the naming and excommunicating of two by Paul (1:19-20, Hymenaeus and PHiletus), qualifications for elders (3:1-7), as well as disciplining and the apparent replacement of elders (5:19-25) [Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, pp. 5-6; C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 40].
21 An honorable title in the OT (cf. Luke 5:17, Gamaliel in Acts 5:34). Paul throws it back upon them in irony.
22 It seems that the false teachers may have been imposing the code of the Law rather than the ethic of the Law. The code was the negative aspect of the Law which the false teachers were insisting was necessary for believers to be pleasing to God. Here Paul affirms that the ethic of the Law should be the negative aspect which is imposed because it constrains people from doing evil to one another. Barrett writes, “Love is repeatedly praised...no doubt also because he was aware of perversions of Christianity which made a show of piety, but were loveless” (C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 42).
23 An imposition of code of the Law for the righteous to be accepted by God. Kelly does not see the issue as being similar to the Judaizers in Galatians who impose the full ceremonial law upon Christians because of the discussions of myths and genealogies above and the ascetic descriptions in 4:5 (J. N. D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, p. 48). Likewise, Barrett understands the teachers to spin out of the Law allegorical meanings which bear no relation to the original sense, and to make it the basis of an ascetic system of morals (C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 43), but these emphases do not necessarily negate Judaizers.
24 An imposition of the ethic of the Law which exposes evil (see Jesus’ use of the Law in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5--7; Luke 6). Even Kelly notes that, “What is interesting in the present list is that it is largely based on the Decalogue” (J. N. D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, pp. 49-50; see also Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, pp. 10-11).
25 The sixth commandment
26 The seventh and eigth commandments.
27 The ninth commendment.
28 See Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:21.
29 This is an affirmation that the ethic of the Law is found in the Gospel.
30 The point is not that God appointed Paul because he thought so highly of him, but that it is amazing that He considered him at all trustworthy.
31 Paul is not appointed here as an apostle, but as a servant (διακονίαν).
32 This certainly speaks of Paul’s persecution of the church (cf. Acts 8:3; 9:1-2; 22:4-5; 26:9-11; cf. Gal. 1:13).
33 Paul is not saying that his state made him less culpable, but that his ignorance is why God was gracious to him. His sin was not highhanded (cf. Num. 15:22-31). This was true for those who crucified the Lord as well (1 Cor. 2:8; Luke 23:34). God’s grace in Israel’s ignorance is why Peter could remake an offer of the Kingdom in Acts 3. Likewise, Stephen’s grace in the ignorance of those who stoned him (in Paul’s presence) is why Paul later became the recipient of grace on the road to Damascus (Acts 9).
34 Faith is the response of grace, and faith acts then in love.
35 The particulars of this verse are to be contrasted with Paul’s earlier discussion of the gospel in contrast with the teaching of the false teachers (1:8-10; cf. 1:5). God’s grace brings with it “faith” and “love” and “eternal life” (see Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, pp. 15, 17-20).
36 Paul does not use the past tense, but the present tense, “ω῞ν πρῶτός εἰμι ἐγώ !” Paul always recognizes that he has the status of a sinner redeemed (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 18).
37 Eternal life is not only life with an endless longevity, but life in the coming age with Him (cf. 6:12-15; 2 Tim. 4:6-8; Titus 2:11-14).
38 The eternal King (βασιλεῖ τῶν αἰώνων ) picks up the theme of eternal life in verse 16.
39 God is “incorruptible”. This may be a term from Hellenistic Judaism.
40 This may be an OT theme (cf. Rom. 1:20; Col. 1:15).
41 This is the essence of the OT view of God (Deut. 6).
42 Paul’s seems to have Timothy’s commission or ordination in view when he was recognized to have received the gift of the Spirit for ministry and there was a clarification made through some words of prophecy (cf. 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6). Therefore, Paul is entrusting this command to him in accordance with Timothy’s divine commission. The exhortation is one higher than from Paul--it’s from the Spirit of God.
43 Paul uses a military metaphor as one engages against the enemies of the gospel (cf. 2 Tim. 2:3-4; 2 Cor. 10:1-6; Philemon 1 [Col. 4:17]; Eph. 6:10-17).
44 By rejecting their complete trust in God’s grace they are at the same time bringing the faith to ruin.
45 See 1 Corinthians 5:5. Paul seems to be placing these men outside of the protective umbrella of the church and its fellowship into Satan’s sphere.
46 Some see chapters two and three as an early church manual such as was needed for setting a church in order (although Paul has already done this in Acts 19--20). Barrett writes in this vein when he says, “After the opening chapter, which strikes a personal note, the Epistle turns to more general regulations for the ordering of the Christian life, with special reference to the life of the community” (C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 48). The connections between chapters 1 and 2 & 3 are lost because there is not specific reference to false teachers in the latter.
However, there is a logical connection made between chapter one and what follows with the textual marker, “Therefore” (ου῞ν) implying a result or inference from what has preceded it. As Fee writes, “That means that these instructions are best understood as responses to the presence of the wayward elders, who were disrupting the church by the errors and controversies. In fact, Paul does not suggest at any point that Timothy is to set the church in order, as for the first time. In each case the activities seem already to be present. What Paul is doing, rather is correcting abuses of various kinds. For example, it may be assumed that men pray, and do so with raised hands (v. 8). The instruction here is that they do so with ‘holy’ hands, not ‘soiled’ by anger or argument” (see Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 25).
47 This paragraph is not so much about prayers for rulers or a Christian attitude for the state so much as about the gospel that is for all people (cf. 2:1, 4-6,7). Verse two is a sort of a meaningful digression to the central point. Fee discusses this emphasis when he writes, “The best explanation for this emphasis lies with the false teachers, who either through the esoteric highly speculative nature of their teaching (1:4-6) or through its ‘Jewishness’ (1:7) or ascetic character (4:3) are promoting an elitist or exclusivist mentality among their followers. The whole paragraph attacks that narrowness” (Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 26).
48 See 1:3, 18-20.
49 The phrase “first of all” (πρῶτον πάντων) is describing that which is of most urgency rather that the first thing to be discussed. It is urgent that prays be made for all people.
50 These are to be prayers of all kinds are to be made for all people.
51 While some such as Barrett see these verse as the center of this discussion and verses 4-7 as a digression (C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 49), it is probably just the opposite. These verse are the digression by way of example.
52 This would include the emperor, provincial officials, and local magistrates. There is a long history of this in Judaism (Ezra 6:9-10; 1 Macc. 7:33; Letter of Aristeas 44-45; Pirke Aboth 3.2; Josephus Wars 2.196; Philo In Flaccum, 49; see Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 31; C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 49). See also Romans 13:1-5 for a passage with a similar attitude toward the state.
53 Paul’s concern does not seem to be so much that the church not have any kind of turmoil or unrest (cf. 2 Tim. 1:8; 3:12) as that it not come under oppression due to the evil affects of false teachers (cf. 6:1). As Fee writes, “it probably reflects the activities of the false teachers, who are not only disrupting (‘disquieting’) the church(es) but apparently are also bringing the gospel and the church into disrepute on the outside (see esp. 3:7; 5:14; 6:1; cf. Titus 2:5, 8; 3:1-3)” (Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 27).
54 This is God the Father who is the originator of our salvation (Phil. 1:28; 1 Thess. 5:9).
55 Paul does not say that God “wills” but that God desires (θέλει σωθῆναι). The point is not that God’s desire is frustrated since all will not be saved but to emphasize the, “universal scope of the gospel over against some from of heretical exclusivism or narrowness” (Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 28).
56 Perhaps this is the cognitive side in response to the error of the false teachers.
57 Paul uses the term for mankind (α῎νθροπος Χριστὸς ᾿Ιησοῦς) to emphasize that Jesus is the one human being of which this can be said. He is the second Adam (see Mark’s temptation account, Paul’s discussion in Romans 5).
58 Literally it reads “in behalf of,” “in the place of” (ὑπὲρ πάντων) all. There does not seem to be any indication that Jesus only died for the elect in this context (limited atonement).
59 This again emphasizes the universal scope of the gospel. Paul emphasizes this with “I am telling the truth, I am not lying!”). This suggest some form of Jewish exclusivism lying at the heart of the problem (cf. Titus 1:10-16).
60 This is a combination of “faith” and “truth” as a kind of nominal hendiadys. The true faith is over against the exclusivism of the false teachers.
61 If in 2:1-7 Paul has been describing the objects of prayer, namely all men, in 2:8-15 he now discusses the proper demeanor on the part of those who pray.
The false teachers are again central to this section. The mention of men (2:7) no doubt relates to those who were raising controversies and strife (1:4). It seems that the emphasis upon women (2:8-15) may well relate to them as those upon whom the false teachers are finding their most fruitful hearing (cf. 5:3-16; and especially 2 Tim. 3:5-9). It is also possible that some of the discussion could relate to women who were in the Artemis cult.
62 See 2:1-7 above.
63 This could refer to every church service, or to any place where the believers gathered (e.g., perhaps the house churches; see Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 34,39).
The identification of this phrase gains significance as one attempts to identify the limitations upon the exhortations given to women in the next unit (2:9, “I also want women ...”). If it refers to the church service, than it has specific application to the local church. If it refers to the “everywhere” (NIV), than it may have application to any gathering of believers beyond the confines of the local assembly. The phrase is more generic than specific, and thus may well refer to the latter meaning--e.g., any place where believers are gathered together. Nevertheless, Fee does have a point when he affirms that Paul usually identifies the sense of “the churches universally” when he means for this broader sense as in 1 Corinthians 11:26; 14:33 (Ibid., 39). The more narrow sense would also match the particular problem with the false teachers in the Ephesian church. Therefore, it may be best to understand Paul’s sense to be in the local church.
In support of this conclusion Barrett writes, “this is no mere literlism for in Jewish usage ‘place’ meant ‘meeting-place’, ‘place of prayer’, and there is evidence (especially 1 Cor. 1:2; 1 Thess. 1:8) that is become Christian usage too. The author means ‘in every Christian meeting-place’. Cp. also Mal. 1:10f.” (C. K. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, p. 54).
64 This seems to have been a common practice in Judaism (cf. 1 Ki. 8:54; Pss. 63:4; 141:2; 2 Macc. 14:32; Philo, Flaccus 121; Jos. Antiquities 4.40; and in early Christianity see Tertullian, On Prayer 17).
65 The imagery is that of ritual purity through hands which are cleansed before praying. Here the sense is that they are not soiled by anger or arguing which are the specific sins of the false teachers (Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 34).
66 Although the term for “women” (γυναῖκας) could be understood to refer to “wives” when placed alongside of the term used for men (ἀνηρ), it does not have an article before it so it probably has reference to a broader group than “wives.”
67 With “good judgment,” or “decency” (σωφροσύνης) (BAG, p. 802).
68 It may be that they act of “dressing up” was understood to be an attempt to be provocative for the sake of attaining a husband, or an expression of wifely insubordination, or even unfaithfulness. Some support is in the following:
“Juvenal’s Satire 6: “There is nothing that a woman will not permit herself to do, nothing that she deems shameful, when she encircles her neck with green emeralds and fastens huge pearls to her elongated ears.... So important is the business of beautification; so numerous are the tiers and storeys piled one upon another on her head!... Meantime she pays no attention to her husband” (Loeb, pp. 121ff).
1 Enoch 8:1-2: “And Azaz’el taught the people (the art of) making swords and knives, and shields, and breastplates; and he showed to their chosen ones bracelets, decorations, (shadowing of the eye) with antimony, ornamentation, the beautifying of the eyelids, all kinds of precious stones, and all coloring tinctures and alchemy. And there were many wicked ones and they committed adultery and erred, and all their conduct became corrupt” (Charlesworth, 1:16).
Fee also notes Testament of Rueben 5:1-5; Ps-Phintys 84-86; Perictione 135;l Seneca, To Helvia 16:3-4; Plutarch 26.30-32; Sentences of Sextus 235 and writes, “the words fancy hair styles and gold ornaments or pearls may go together and have to do with tiered hair decorated with gold and pearls. See J. B. Hurley, Man and Woman in Biblical Perspective, pp. 198-199” (Gordon D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 39, n. 2:9-10).
In view of the above descriptions, it may be that Paul was dealing with some women who were acting out in this cultural framework (cf. 2 Tim. 3:6-7 which reads, “For among them are those who enter into households and captivate weak women weighed down with sins, led on by various impulses, always learning and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth” NASB). See also 1 Peter 3:3.
69 Some examples of such good works in 1 Timothy 5:10 are: bring up her children well, showing hospitality to strangers, washing the saints’ feet, and assisting those in distress.
70 Fee suggests that the women were, “being ‘up front,’ talking foolishness, or being a ‘busybody’ (5:13)” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 35). Perhaps they were doing this in response to false teaching which they were receiving.
71 The term is ἡσυχίᾳ meaning in a “quiet demeanor,” and not necessarily “in silence” or “without speaking” (cf. 2:2 “quiet life”). There is a sort of inclusio involved with this word since it is the first thing said here and the last thing mentioned in 2:12 (“ἐν ᾿῾συχίᾳ”).
72 To be “submissive in every way” (ἐν πάσῃ ὑποταγῇ). While this may have reference to their husbands, the implication of Πάσῃ suggests a larger realm which may include the conduct of younger widows and their going from house to house (house-churches) and talking about things that they should not (5:13).
73 This may correspond to “receive instruction” above in verse 11. It seems that teaching was where the problem lay in the church in Ephesus (1:3; 6:3; in contrast see 2:7; 5:17). It seems that this teaching had to most likely do with instruction in the Scriptures including the gospel (cf. 2 Tim. 3:15-17).
74 This may correspond with “entire submissiveness” above in verse 11. The term has the sense of “to domineer” (αὐθεντεῖν ἀνδρός). Perhaps the women were advancing the errors which they were receiving from the false teachers.
75 This is the same term that was used above in verse 11. The women are not to be domineering, or boisterous in the affirmations of the heresies of the false teachers, but are to receive instruction in a quiet manner.
76 Allen P. Ross writes, “What the apostle is doing in this section, it seems to me, is making an analogical application from the text. At creation God had an order, the man was created first and then the woman. The implication is that this order of creation should be preserved in the church, the new creation as it were, especially now when there is so much need for order. He is not saying that Genesis is teaching the superiority of the male over the female, nor that his instruction on women not teaching is in Genesis. It is an application by analogy. His ruling would stand as authoritative whether he connected it to creation or not” (“The Ministry of Women in the Seminary”, unpublished paper presented to the faculty of DTS, Faculty Retreat, 1990), p. 16.
77 This is based upon Eve’s statement in Genesis 3:13, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.” In Romans 5:12, 19 the man (Adam) is the representative one through whom the fall of the race came, here it is the woman. In the case of 1 Timothy, there seems to have been a parallel with the Genesis account in that the deceptions of false teachers who had the “doctrines of demons” (4:1) were influencing some of the women to turn away from the truth and “to follow Satan” (5:15).
78 Ross writes, “Again it seems to me that Paul is connecting Genesis by an analogy to make an application. He uses the word “deceived” as the link between the contexts, but such usages of the Old Testament are from broader than prooftexting--they draw the entire context into the discussion. In Genesis the woman was tempted by the serpent in to a discussion about the word of God. When it appeared that she did not know the wording precisely, he deceived her by setting aside the penalty of death. Consequently, she ate of the fruit and gave some to her husband. The sum of it all is that she was beguiled, and that beguiling caused her to lead the man into sin rather than remain as a spiritual equal. Because of that the oracle gives the man domination over the woman. Paul is saying that that scene must not be worked out in the Church. A woman must not take the lead and have the man obey--that is how we got into this mess in the first place. Rather, Paul maintains the order laid out in the oracle, only without the sting of the curse. When teaching the word of God in the assembly is to be done, the qualified overseer or elders are to do it. The analogy is a good one, and certainly applies to the Pauline instruction--do not relive the temptation and the fall” (“The Ministry of Women in the Seminary”, p. 17).
79 Ross writes, “In Genesis God created male and female, the male first, and then the female. He place them together as His image, to form a complementary union. But in the temptation the woman was beguiled and sinned, and then prompted the man to sin. The oracle of God announced the curse for the man’s sin, and in talionic justice the woman would have pain and domination by the man. And yet under the announcement of death, Adam and Eve by faith see the blessing of the LORD--they interpret childbirth as evidence of redemptive blessing. They cannot do anything about the oracle--that is the way life will be. But they can take what God gives them and serve Him with it, for it is a token of His favor. So too do we find the steps in Paul’s analogy. By analogy with creation and the fall, the ruling is that the woman must not teach or have authority. Nevertheless (I take this verse to be almost a parenthesis or an aside in the discussion before he gets to the bishop) she shall be saved in childbearing. The work σωθήσεται, I am sure we would all agree, cannot mean “she shall be saved” in the sense of conversion. It must refer to Christian levels of the meaning of σωζω, sanctification, deliverance, blessing, glorification, or the like. The apostle might be saying--especially in that culture when bearing and rearing children was the primary and constant activity of women--that even though there is this prohibition on the woman, she should not think that there is no service or reward for her in the faith. She, like Eve, can see God’s provision of children as a token of blessing and an avenue of service that will be equally rewarding and rewarded” (“The Ministry of Women in the Seminary”, p. 18).
80 Paul has addressed concerns related to worship and corrected abuses by erring elders. Now he turns to the qualifications for the office of elders. This may well be motivated out of providing a safe-guard against the influx of false teachers into the leadership of the church.
In 1 Timothy Paul is not charging Timothy to appoint elders as in Titus 1:5 because there were probably already elders appointed (cf. Acts 20). Paul’s concern is that those who are elders (or will be becoming elders) live according to their appointment.
Fee offers the following reasons as to why these qualifications have false teachers in view: “First, most of the items in the list stand in sharp contrast to what is said elsewhere in the letter about the false teachers. Second, the list itself has three notable features: It gives qualifications, not duties; most of the items reflect outward, observable behavior; and none of the items is distinctively Christian (e.g., live, faith, purity, endurance; cf. 4:12; 6:12); rather, they reflect the highest ideals of Hellenistic moral philosophy. Since the whole passage points toward and concludes with verse 7, that is, concern for the overseer’s (and the church’s) reputation with outsiders, this suggests that the false teachers were, by their behavior, bringing the gospel into disrepute. Therefore, Paul is concerned not only that the elders have Christian virtues (there are assumed) but that they reflect the highest ideals of the culture as well” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 42).
81 Acts 20:17, 28 and Titus 1:5 and 7 indicate that the terms for “overseers” (ἐπισκοποι--Acts 20:28; Titus 1:7) and “elders” (πρεσβυτεροι--Acts 20:17; Titus 1:5) are interchangeable. Therefore, these church leaders are probably also church elders.
82 Paul is affirming that being a church leader is a good task to which one might aspire. He is probably emphasizing the task more than the aspiration of the person.
83 See also this character quality with widows (5:7) and with Timothy himself (6:14). This is probably the overall, general category under which the rest are to be subsumed. One is to be irreproachable in his observable conduct (BAG, p. 65). An example of this in the Koine period is where this description is given as a condition of a decree of amnesty for offenses τὰς παρακειμένας ὑπ᾿ αὑτοῦ συγγραφὰς ἀνεπιλήπτους ει῎ναι (P Tor I. i.vii.15 (M. & M. p. 41).
84 This term refers to “irreproachable observable conduct” (cf. 5:7; 6:14). This leader is to be “not apprehended,” “not laid hold of,” “not open to censure,” or irreproachable” (Thayer, s.v. “ἀν-επ-ληπτος,” p. 44).
85 There are several views as to the meaning of this character quality: (1) a church leader must be married, (2) a prohibition against polygamy, (3) a prohibition against all second marriages (especially in the case of widowhood), (4) an exhortation to marital fidelity to one’s wife, and (5) a prohibition against divorce and remarriage (e.g., a one-woman man).
Meanings 1-3 above are unlikely: (1) 1 Corinthians 7:25-38 argues against the suggestion that Paul would be insisting that one must be married. It is possible that Timothy himself was not married, (2) the use of the same phrase in 1 Timothy 5:9 for widows argues against the probability that Paul is addressing polygamy since widows were not known to have multiple husbands, and (3) Romans 7:1-2 and Paul’s exhortations to widows in 1 Timothy 5:14ff make it unlikely that Paul would restrict marriage for widowers.
Therefore meanings 4 and 5 above are the most likely interpretations of the options. Also meaning four may be inclusive of meaning 5 since one’s divorce and remarriage would not demonstrate one to be a one-woman man. Our culture seems to want to work the conclusion in just the opposite direction (e.g., all one needs to be is a “one-woman” man in the relationship which one is presently engaged). Such an understanding seems to miss the overall characteristic of “above reproach.”
In any case Paul’s concern is for church leaders to lead an exemplary life in the realms of their marriage--espceially in view of the low view of marriage which the false teachers are affirming (4:3 “men who forbid marriage”).
86 This term describes one who is “temperate in the use of alocholic beverages”--sober (1 Tim. 3:2,11; Tit. 2:2; BAGD, p. 538). Figuratively, it may have the sense of being free from spiritual drunkenness, excess, passion, rashness, or confusion (e.g., well balanced; cf. νήφω; 2 Tim. 4:5).
87 This is descriptive of one who is thoughtful and self-controlled.
88 This describes one as respectable and honorable.
89 This is one who loves strangers and thus welcomes them into his home.
90 This is a characteristic which implies duties. It describes one who is able to teach the truth and refute error (cf. 2 Tim. 2:24; Titus 1:9).
91 Paul is not affirming that the church leader is to necessarily to be a total abstainer (cf. 5:23), but that he is not to be addicted to wine or a drunkard (cf. 3:8; Titus 1:7). Jesus himself turned the water into true wine at the Wedding in Cana (John 2). Reasons for abstaining from alcoholic beverages relate more to one’s love for others than to a biblical prohibition (Romans 12:10;14; 1 Cor. 8). Nevertheless, one is not to be addicted to strong drink, or to be drunk (cf. M. & M. p. 496).
92 These three qualities may well go together in order to contrast the church leader’s treatment of others with that of the false teachers’ (cf. 6:3-5; 2 Tim. 2:22-26; Titus 3:9). One is not to be bully (BAGD, p. 699) a violent, or fierce man (cf. L. & S. p. 1418), but gentle (or kind) and peaceful (“not quarrelsome”).
93 Greed is one severe sin of the false teachers (6:5-10).
94 The term for manage (προῖστημι) has the sense of “directing,” “conducting,” “guiding,” or “ruling” (as with church elders in 5:17; 1 Thess. 5:12), and “being concerned about,” “caring for,” “giving aid” (as with Titus 3:8; Rom. 12:8). Insight in to the sense here is with the verb for taking care of the church in 3:5 (ἐπιμελέομαι). This latter term implies both leadership (guidance) and caring concern. This is how one is to “manage” the home and the church--with guidance and concern.
95 Literally it reads, “τέκνα ε῎χοντα ἐν ὑποταγῇ, μετὰ πάσης σεμνότητος). It does not say that he is to make his children obey him but that he has children in submissiveness (cf. 2:11). The phrase, “with all dignity” may not be descriptive of the way in which they will express their submissiveness. The sense of submissiveness is in itself descriptive of a voluntary act by the one doing the submission. Rather, it probably describes their generally good behavior for which they would be known.
As Fee writes, “There is a fine line between demanding obedience and gaining it. The church leader, who must indeed exhort people to obedience, does not thereby ‘rule’ God’s family. He takes care of it in such a way that its ‘children’ will be known for their obedience and good behavior” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 44).
96 He is not to be “newly planted” (μὴ νεόφυτον; cf. 5:22).
97 This is the exact description of the false teachers in 6:4 (cf. 2 Tim. 3:4). Perhaps they were recent converts whose “sins followed them” (5:4). It was through arrogance that the Devil also fell in to condemnation.
98 Fee writes, “this concern is what puts the foregoing list into perspective. That list has to do with observable behavior of a kind that will be a witness to the people outside the church” (1 and 2 Timoty, Titus, p. 46).
99 For the church leaders to fall into a bad reputation with those outside of the church would be for their gospel message to also become closed to the world. This fits all to well with the schemes of the devil. When the character of church leaders becomes a scandal, the enemy has laid a trap to prevent the progress of the gospel.
100 Although “elders” and “deacons” are certainly distinguished from one another through two lists of qualifications, it is difficult to clearly identify the differences. In the list for deacons the qualification of “able to teach” is not included. But if one looks to Acts 6:1-6 where some where chosen to assist the Apostles with the serving of tables (διακονεῖν ; 6:2), their “serving” was no less ministry than that of the apostles whose ministry was also described as “serving” (τῇ διακονίᾳ λόγου προσκαρτερήσομεν). Actually those chosen in Acts 6 included significant ministers such as Stephen (Acts 7) and Philip (Acts 8), and they became known as the “Seven” (Acts 21:8; cf. also Paul’s usage of the term in 1 Cor. 3:5-2; Rom. 16:1; Col. 1:23; 4:7; 1 Tim. 4:6). Both elders and deacons were involved in significant ministry in the church. The elders may have been responsible for the broader oversight of the church, and the deacons the more specific care of the church, but their responsibilities may have at times overlapped. Likewise, many of their qualifications are similar.
Although the term for deacons may at times refer to the function of certain people (cf. Rom. 16:1; Acts 6), it may at times also refer to the position as in Philippians 1:1. Here it probably refers to those who are in the position of deacon.
101 This is also probably a summary description for what follows with the sense of proper conduct and respect (cf. 2:2; 3:4).
102 The sense is that one does not have two sets of words, or truth, or accounts--one for one group, and another for the other group--a kind of “double-talk.” One is not to “say something twice” or in “two ways” (BAGD, p. 198). One is to be genuine, truthful, sincere (e.g., not full of wax).
103 More literally it means, not “paying attention to” or “giving heed to,” “caring for” much wine (BAGD, p. 714). Again this does not demand abstinence, but focuses upon abuse, addiction, obsession (cf. 3:3).
104 For the mystery as revealed truth about the church see 1 Cor. 2:1,7; 4:1; Eph. 3:3-9). This is a truth which was once hidden in God, but is now revealed by the Holy Spirit. The mystery does not seem to be the existence of the church so much as the nature of the church (e.g., equality of Jews and Gentiles). Perhaps this was an issue with the false teachers in their wrangling over the Law (1:4,7; cf. Titus 1:14).
105 See the descriptions of the false teachers in view of their “conscience” (1:5-6, 19-20). These men were to be those who were “approved” (cf. 1 Cor. 16:3; 2 Cor. 13:5. This is similar to 3:6. As Fee writes, “Paul is saying, therefore, that when you find men ‘who hold to the revealed truth of the faith with a clear conscience,” that is, people whose behavior is above reproach, then let such ‘approved’ men serve ....” (1 and 2 Timoty, Titus, p. 50).
106 There is some question as to whether this is a description of the wives of deacons or of women who assist deacons in the ministry of the church. The latter seems to be the better choice: (1) If this is to be “wives” of deacons, one wonders why there is no mention of ‘wives of elders’, (2) γυναῖκας does not just mean “wives”; it can mean widow, bride, or any adult woman, (3) ὡσαύτως usually displays a distinction from one class to another, (4) there is no possessive linking γυναῖκαις with διακόνους; (5) it would limit those who could help deacons to deacons wives, (6) if it is a deacon’s wife, then they are to “both” be elected to office, and (7) Romans 16:2 describes Phoebe as one who has served the church [διάκονον] and specifically as a “helper” [προστάτις]. Therefore, these women are probably unmarried women who assist the deacons in the functions of the church (see Robert M. Lewis, “The ‘Women’ of 1 Timothy 3:11,” Bib Sac 136 (April-June 1979): 167-170).
107 The term is σεμνάς, the feminine form of the same term which heads up the description of deacons in 3:8 σεμνούς.
108 See 3:2 above.
109 See 3:4 above for specifics.
110 After Paul has exhorted Timothy to remain in Ephesus in order to combat false teachers, and given some specific prescriptions for dealing with the infiltration of false teachers, he then concludes this section of the letter with a further statement of its purpose.
111 As in 3:4-5 this image suggests the family of God where the Lord is Father, believers are brothers and sisters, and the apostles were “stewards” or house managers.
112 This description suggests the image of the church as a temple (1 Cor. 3:16-17; 2 Cor. 6:6; Eph. 2:21).
113 The false teachers have abandoned the truth (cf. 6:5; 2 Tim. 2:18; 3:8; 4:4). As Fee writes, “It is extremely important that Timothy not only stop the false teachers (1:3-11) but get people back in touch with the truth” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 54).
114 This probably refers to Jesus incarnation; cf. John 1:14; Rom. 1:3. The verb “manifested” implies pre-existence (ἐφανερώθη).
115 See Romans 1:3-4; cf. 1 Peter 3:18.
116 This may well refer to the worship which angels gave to Jesus at his resurrection (cf. 1 Peter 1:12).
117 This probably refers to the early apostolic preaching (Acts).
118 Although Fee understands this to be a reference to be descriptive of Jesus’ exaltation (e.g., glorious, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 56), Barrett seems to offer a better suggestion that this refers to Christ’s final enthronement when all his foes have been defeated (1 Cor. 15:23). This is eschatological of the final victory of Christ which will come after this time of preaching is concluded (The Pastoral Epistles, p. 66). Nevertheless, the past tense may argue against a future orientation.
119 One does not know how the Spirit has said this. Was it a revelation spoken in the church (Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles, pp. 66-67), or one spoken to Paul as in Acts 20? Fee affirms that this formula was never used by Paul to refer to the OT (1 Timothy and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 60). It is difficult to be certain how this was known.
120 This time period (ἐν ὑστέροις καιροῖς ) seems to refer to the time from the advent of Christ and especially the Holy Spirit onward. It was, and is, inclusive of the present time of the church (2 Tim. 3:1; Matt. 24:12 (?); Jude 17-18; 2 Pet. 3:3-7). It not only speaks of imminence, but of the now aspect of the end times (e.g., the inauguration of the Kingdom through the ministry of the Holy Spirit. The consummation of the Kingdom is yet to occur.
121 These are probably believers--those who are presently part of the “household of faith.”
122 See 2 Corinthians 4:4; 11:3,13-14.
123 The term is ψευδολόγων --false words.
124 This may mean that they have the seat of their moral judgments seared (δεδαυστησιασμένων), or it may describe the false teachers as having been branded in their conscience with Satan’s brand (e.g., “to burn in as with a branding iron” [Thayer, s.v., “καυστηριάζω” , p. 342]).
125 This may have been a form of Jewish or Gentile asceticism wherein there was a dim view of sex (cf. 1 Corinthians 7:1-7; Matt. 22:30; cf. Col. 2:16-20). In terms of Jewish asceticism this may be related to the mergabah mysticism which consisted of “religious exercises designed to facilitate entry into the vision of the heavenly chariot ( מֶרְכָּבָה) with God visibly enthroned above it--the vision granted to Ezekiel when he was called to his prophetic ministry (Ezek. 1:15-28)” [F. F. Bruce, “The Colossian Heresy,” Bib.Sac. 141 (1984): 201-202]. See my introductory notes on Colossians p. 9.
126 Romans 14:14.
127 See Mark 7:19; Acts 10; 1 Corinthians 10:23-33; Romans 14:1-23; Colossians 2:16,21.
128 The truth of the Gospel message which affirms that there are not food laws, or perhaps an allusion to Genesis 1 where all of God’s creation is declared to be “good.”
129 As Fee rightly says, “Implied in this is not that the prayer in itself makes it acceptable to God, but that the prayer of thanksgiving has inherent in it the recognition of God’s prior creative action. It is thus the believer’s response to God as Creator, and the work of God and the prayer together make it acceptable (lit, ‘sanctify it,’ keeping the ritual imagery)” [1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 62].
130 Fee writes, “The instructions in the first paragraph are clearly given vis-à-vis the false teachers. In contrast to these false teachers, who have been deceived by Satan and in turn are deceiving others, Timothy must guard his own life and teaching of the truth with great care” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 64). Therefore, in the second paragraph Timothy is urged to function as a model for both godly living and ministry for the sake of his hearers.
131 The term is διὰκονος as in 3:8. Here it is descriptive of the act rather than the office.
132 This is probably inclusive of a larger section from 2:1--4:5.
133 This is probably the community as a whole (cf. Phil. 4:1). Paul’s concern is for the church in Ephesus!
134 If he will feed himself (ἐντρεφόμενος) spiritually. This is the image of child rearing.
135 This is a contrast to excellent teaching in 4:6b (e.g., the false kind of teaching). The contrast is emphasized because the imperative comes last. Literally, these are “godless and old womanish myths or legends” (τοὺς δὲ βεβήλους καὶ γραώδεις μύθους)--”wives’ tales.” Fee affirms that this terminology (old wives’ legends) is, “a sarcastic expression often used in philosophical polemic comparing an opponent’s position to the tales perpetuated by the old women of those cultures as they would sit around weaving and the like” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 65).
136 Paul now moves to the image of athletics--”keep yourself in training” (Γύμναζε).
137 This is “truth and its visible expression in correct behavior” (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, p. 66). See 2:2 and 3:16).
138 The term is γυμνασία.
139 It his helpful for the present age.
140 See Colossians 1:29.
141 This is a continuation of the athletic metaphor--e.g., to struggle--”contest.”
142 This is very similar to Paul’s affirmations in 2:4-6. Christ is the savior of all men (σωτὴρ πάντων ἀνθρώπων)--”especially,” “above all,” “chiefly,” “most of all”) of the believing (μάλιστα πιστῶν) (see Thayer, s.v. “μάλιστα,” p. 387). As Fee writes, “Our hope rests in him, because he is the Savior of all, that is, he would save (give life to) all people (see disc. on 2:4-6), but his salvation is in fact effective only for those who believe. The latter addition makes it clear that the universal scope of salvation argued for so strongly in 2:4-6 is not as the same time an expression of universalism” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 67).
143 In addition to a personal encouragement to Timothy who may have been age 30-35 among older elders, Paul is also affirming Timothy’s authority as Paul’s authority.
144 These are all in contrast to the false teachers, e.g., not involved in arguments (speech), good behavior (conduct), love and faith (cf. 1:5-6), and purity (in contrast to false asceticism; cf. 4:3; 5:22-23).
145 Fee affirms, “Rather than providing an example of the pastor’s specific duties in worship, these three items basically refer to the same thing--reading, exhortation, and exposition of Scripture--and such are to be Timothy’s positive way of counteracting the erroneous teachings (cf. 2 Tim. 3:14-17)” [1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 69].
146 His gift as pastor-teacher (?) through which he is to overcome the false teachers.
147 Paul is emphasizing the authority of Timothy’s teaching against the false teachers. Timothy has been confirmed by God (prophecies) and men (elders).
148 Fee writes, “The evidence from 2 Timothy 2:16 and 3:9 suggests that progress was one of the slogans of the false teachers, perhaps as a kind of elitist appeal to those who wanted to ‘advance’ into ‘deeper truths’ by engaging in their speculative nonsense .... If so, then this is a bold counterstatement to kind of progress, which in 2 Timothy 2:16 is ironically labeled ‘progress in ungodliness [asebeia].’ by Timothy’s being a faithful minister of the word of the gospel, the people will be able to see the real thing” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 70).
149 Fee understands Paul to have a future salvation in hand (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 70). It need not be either/or. Salvation could well be a present preservation as in 2:15 above with a view to future reward.
150 The placement of this very specific unit into the argument of the book is as follows: (1) this flows out of the specific exhortations which Paul has been giving to Timothy in 4:6-16--especially in view of his youthfulness, (2) here, however, Paul writes 5:1-2 as an introduction to what follows concerning widows, elders, and servants.
151 Leaders are to appeal to those in the congregation as they would to family (assuming the ideal of difference and respect in the home).
152 The term is Πρεσβυτέρῳ which no doubt includes the leaders as in 4:14 and 5:17-25, but may be more general describing all older men.
153 See Romans 16:13.
154 Perhaps this was an area of special concern with some in the community (cf, 5:11; 2 Tim. 3:6-7).
155 This is probably one of the two primary issues in the church. Here Paul is more specific with “men and women” as he deals with the younger widows and then in the next unit with the elders in the church.
Although older widows are addressed in this unit, it is the activity of the younger ones that Paul has specifically in focus. The descriptions of the “real widows” (5:5-7,9-10) are to stand in contrast with the activities of the younger ones (5:11-15). Probably, the difficulty with these younger widows lies with the influence which they are receiving from the false teachers. 2 Timothy 3:6-7 specifically says, “For among them are those who enter in to households and captivate weak women weighed down with sins, led on by various impulses, always learning and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.” Therefore, this unit on widows makes prefect sense in view of the infectious activity of the false teachers throughout the rest of the letter.
156 Literally the exhortation is to “honor” (τίμα) which not only implies respect, but also remuneration (cf. 5:17; Mark 7:10-16).
157 Literally it reads, “Honor widows who are being widows” (Χήρας τίμα τὰς ο῎ντως χήρας). This is a major theme in the OT (Ex. 22:22; Deut. 24:17, 19-21; Job 29:13; Ps. 68:5; Isa. 1:17) and in the NT (Acts 6:1-6; 9:36,39,41; James 1:27).
It seems that one who is really a widow is one who is all alone (without family to care for her as in 5:4-8, 16), sixty years of age or older (5:9), and one who is godly and given to prayer (5:5,10).
158 There may be some true insight by Fee (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 79) when he identifies a chiastic structure (ab ba) in 5:4-6:
a words to relatives (v. 4)
b words to the widows (v.5)
b judgment on disobedient widows (vv. 6-7)
a judgment on disobedient relatives (v.8)
159 This probably is an allusion to the fifth commandment, “Honor your father and your mother ....” (Ex. 20:12; Deut. 5:16).
160 The order reflects a Jewish concept of a day (Gen. 1; cf. 1 Thess. 2:9). This sounds much like Anna in Luke 2:36-38.
161 The term is σπαταλάω describing one who lives luxuriously or voluptuously, in indulgence (cf. James 5:5).
162 See 3:2.
163 The “but” probably goes back to verse 4.
164 This may be those living under his own roof. Perhaps some were neglecting or turning over to the church a widowed mother or grandmother.
165 Again, Paul seems to be concerned with how those outside of the faith are evaluating the church through its members. He is saying that Christian behavior is to be, “circumspect before the outsider and therefore at least be ethically equal to theirs--although obviously more is expected as well. Paul is not condemning unbelievers; on the contrary, he is saying that they do in fact take care of their own widows. To do less is therefore to be less than an unbeliever; it equals a denial of the faith, since it is to act worse than a person who makes no profession of faith (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 79).
166 The exhortation to add a widow to a list (Χήρα καταλεγέσθω) is to literally “write down” with the sense of “counting among” or “enrolling” in some kind of official list for the church’s care of widows.
167 This may have been the cultural norm for old age as will as an age beyond which one would not expect her to be remarried.
168 See the discussion of this phrase above in 3:2.
169 This list is probably representative and not descriptive of all of her good works.
170 See John 13.
171 The order of events in this verse may well be the clue to its meaning. It does not seem that their desire to remarry is tantamount to abandoning their faith, but that their desire to remarry overshadows their devotion to Christ to the point that they will allow their sensual desire to supersede their devotion to Christ. Therefore, this may well be descriptive of a remarriage fueled out of a passion which abandons one’s faith (πίστιν) because it is a remarriage to an unbeliever (cf. 1 Cor. 7:39).
Therefore, “commitment” and “previous pledge” are terms which describe a widow’s faith, rather than (1) a specific vow of “celibacy” that a widow would make to the church as a widow, or (2) her “faithfulness” to her first husband concerning which remarriage would have been abandoning the ideal of being married only once (5:9).
The latter two options see remarriage as the difficulty rather than the widow’s move away from her faith. Paul understands proper remarriage as being the means of redemption for these widows (5:14), and is thus concerned about redeeming them for the “faith”, rather than getting them to see the fault of remarriage (Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 82.
172 The Greek reads, “α῞μα δὲ καὶ” (“along with that they also”).
173 They are not doing what they should be doing (prayer [v. 5], and the good works of verse 9-10). Rather than investing themselves in their own houses as above, they go from house to house. Fee suggests that this could be descriptive of the disruption of the different house churches as they go from house to house (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p.82). He supports this through the term used for “gossips” (φλύαροι) which is not so descriptive of “idle talk about the affairs of others” as of “nonsense” or “foolishness” in regards to the truth (cf. the verb φλυαρέω with the sense of “making empty charges” or to accuse one falsely” [Thayer, p. 655]). Therefore, he writes, “Thus, the young widows are described in terms very much like the false teachers whose talk is foolish (1:6) and empty (6:20), and who are also talking about things they should not (cf. 1:6-7; 4:7; 6:3-4). It is probably as the ‘idle’ purveyors of the false teachings that they are busybodies, and thus this becomes one of the reasons they are to be in all submissiveness and not to teach (2:11-12) [1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 83].
174 See 4:1-2 above. Some of the younger widows have turned away under the influence of the false teachers who speak for Satan.
175 Perhaps these were women like Lydia (Acts 16:14-15) or Cloe (1 Cor. 1:11).
176 Fee offers a fine discussion of the argument in the following discussion: “The structure of the argument has some interesting similarities to the foregoing section on widows. Just as the concern there was twofold (genuine care for widows, in the context of some who have rejected faith), so here Paul begins with a genuine concern for the care of the elders (vv.17-19) but then moves on to the greater urgency--the impartial reproof of those who are sinning (vv. 20-21). Replacements for the sinning elders are to be selected with great care (v. 22), because some people’s sins, unfortunately, are not always immediately evident (v. 24). But never one to leave a matter on such a negative note, Paul adds that the same is often true of good deeds as well. Verse 23, the great puzzler, is a slight digression, prompted by what is said in verse 22 but expressed in light of both the asceticism of the false teachers (4:3) and Timothy’s personal health.
But why is all of this said here, and not after chapter 3, for example, or 4:1-5? The answer to that probably lies in the overall argument of the letter. After the charge in chapter 1, Paul began with the conduct in the community vis-à-vis the false teachers (chaps. 2-3) then moved to an exposure of the false teaching itself--and its source (4:1-4). After a renewed charge to Timothy and his own responsibilities in the situation (4:6-5:2), Paul gives instructions about how to deal with the two specific groups who are the problem element--some young widows (5:3-16) and their ‘captors,’ the straying elders (this section). Thus its location in the argument is related in part to the relationship of the false teachers to the younger widows and in part to the need finally to deal with the elders specifically (good and bad, but prompted by the bad)” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, pp. 87-88).
177 This term (Πρεσβύτεροι) does not seem to be a reference to older men so much (cf. 5:1) as to those who are leaders in the church (cf. 3:1-7; Titus 1:5-7; Acts 14:23; 15:4; 20:17,28).
178 Honor (τιμῆς) probably refers to pay (at least; cf. 5:18). It is difficult to identify what “double” has reference to--twice that of other elders, twice that of widows? Perhaps it refers to honor and remuneration. These leaders are to be well cared for by the community (see also 1 Cor. 9:7-14; 1 Thess. 2:7; 2 Cor. 11:8-9).
179 This Scripture is located in Deuteronomy 25:4. It is interesting that this placement of the verse in Deuteronomy is between two other discussions: (1) resolving disputes in Deuteronomy 25:1-3, and (2) levirate marriage in Deuteronomy 25:5-10. Clearly, the verse is to be illustrative of care for those who are a part of the community. Paul uses it in a similar way in this passage. Here the care is to be for those who work among them--the elders. It is also interesting that Paul places this verse between two issues: (1) financial remuneration, and (2) protection against false accusations. The overall point is that the community is to care for its own (cf. 1 Cor. 9:9,14; Lk. 10:7).
180 See Deuteronomy 19:5; Matthew 18:16.
181 The phrase literally reads, “before (the face of) all” (ἐνώπιον πάντων).
182 The present, active participle emphasizes that these elders are in sin (Τοὺς ἁμαρτάνοντας). Church discipline is not for those who have been caught in a sin and have thus repented. When that occurs, restoration is the issue at hand (Gal. 6:1). Here they are still sinning, therefore, church discipline is in view.
183 his could have reference to the remaining elders or the rest of the congregation.
184 Fee calls this a “heavenly tribunal” (1 and 2 Timothy, p. 91).
185 The Greek reads, “drink water only” (Μηκέτι ὑδροπότει).
186 Perhaps the logical connection with verses 22 and 23 is that in verse 22 Timothy is urged to keep himself free from sin, but in verse 23 Paul reminds Timothy that it is not sin for him to care for himself with a little wine as is needed. Such limitations are really tied to the asceticism of the false teachers as in 4:3 where it reads, “men who forbid marriage and advocate abstaining from foods, which God has created to be gratefully shared in by those who believe and know the truth” (NASB). As Fee says, “If he does not want Timothy sharing in their sins, neither does he want him to get caught up in the false teachers’ view of purity, namely abstaining from certain foods (4:3), which apparently included wine” (1 and 2 Timothy, p. 92).
187 Fee writes, “That is, when judgment finally comes on some people, it will be no surprise because of their evident sins” (1 and 2 Timothy, p. 92).
188 Perhaps these “hidden” sins are given in 6:5-10, namely, pride, arguing, jealousy, and covetousness.
189 The place of this paragraph in the argument of the book is somewhat problematic. Fee offers a plausible reconstruction which aids the interpreter here: “One wonders, therefore, whether the false teachings being propagated in this part of the world were putting considerable tension on the master/slave relationship in the church.
One cannot be sure that such was the case here, but it is altogether likely in view of the position of this section in the argument. Furthermore, as with the two preceding sections, the concern seems to be with the second item taken up, namely, the attitudes among believers. If so, then perhaps problems have arisen among some Christian slaves and their attitudes toward Christian masters similar to those among the younger widows. Has an over-realized eschatology or an elitist spirituality caused them to disdain the old relationships that belong to the age that is passing away?” (1 and 2 Timothy, p. 96).
190 Fee offers a helpful discussion on the nature of slavery in the first century. He emphasizes that it was not like American slavery in that it was not enforced on the basis of race, but on the basis of financial and political expedience (e.g., economic necessity, overtaking other nations, birth). Although a slave was at the bottom of the social ladder, some would stay there because of the security (1 and 2 Timothy, pp. 93-94).
This is not to approve of slavery. Scripture never promotes men becoming slaves to men (especially for indebtedness--e.g., the year of Jubilee in Leviticus 25). Nevertheless, Paul does unfold the significance of Christianity as one must walk though a fallen reality. Even though these slaves may be free in their relationship with Christ, they are still under the yoke in their earthly society.
191 Fee writes, “What if their orders violated conscience? Why not speak out against slavery? But Paul’s instruction is quite in keeping with the entire NT understanding of Christian behavior as essentially reflecting servanthood (cf. Mark 10:43-45; 1 Cor. 9:19; Gal. 5:13; Eph. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:16-17) and of Christian existence as basically eschatological--the form of this world is passing away; as an eschatological people, or present status is irrelevant (1 Cor. 7:17-24, 29-31). Therefore, precisely because it is essentially irrelevant, one may live one’s present status in loving obedience” (1 and 2 Timothy, pp. 96-97).
192 See 2:2; 3:7; 5:14; cf. also “blaspheme” in Romans 2:24; Isa. 52:5.
193 This may well be where the problem of the church lies.
194 See 4:12.
195 As in chapter one, Paul once again exposes and indicts the false teachers in this unit. Here Paul completes the portrait which he began in chapter one. These teachers are the reason for the difficulties in the church, and thus the presence of Timothy in Ephesus and the writing of this letter. It seems that they are driven by pride and ultimately greed (cf. Acts 19:23-41). Paul will finally pronounce their sentence of destruction!
196 This is through a first class condition which assumes the premise to be true.
197 See the warnings in Galatians 5:21 and Romans 1:29.
198 See 1 Thessalonians 2:4-9; Galatians 1:10. It seems that the false teachers were trying to receive people’s favor through their teaching and thus also their money. Many of the counterparts to these verses are found in the qualifications for elders.
199 As Fee puts it, “The point is clear enough. godliness is not something to make material gain in or from (v. 5); rather, it is itself the greatest gain (v. 6) [1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 103].
200 The term is αὐταρκείας describing contentment whether one is in want or in abundance (cf. Phil. 4:13).
201 See Job 1:21.
202 See Jesus’ discussion of this very thing in Luke 12:22-32 and Matthew 6:25-34.
203 Just as the other exposures of the false teachers led to an exhortation to Timothy (cf. 1:3-7, 18-20; 4:1-5) so does the pattern follow here. As Fee writes, “Even though Paul has yet a further word on riches, to the already wealthy (vv. 17-19), the final exposure and indictment of the false teachers calls forth an immediate final exhortation to Timothy (1 and 2 Timothy,Titus, p. 107).
In the context of an eschatological future Paul urges Timothy through four imperatives (6:11-12), proclaims a solemn charge (6:13-14), and then expresses a final doxology (6:15-16).
204 See Moses (Deut. 33:1; Josh. 14:6), David (Neh. 12:24), and the prophets (1 Sam. 9:6; 1 Kings 17:18; 2 Kings 4:7). Timothy is probably being placed in contrast to the false teachers with this title.
205 This would include their greed (6:6-10), their different doctrines (6:3; cf. 1:4; 4:3,7) and their divisive and destructive controversies (6:4-5).
206 This exhortation, ἀγονίζου τόν καλὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς πίστεως, speaks of perseverance whether its referent is that of running (cf. 2 Tim. 4:7, “finishing the course”) or with boxing/wrestling (cf. 1 Cor. 9:25-27) is not certain. But there is the sense of remaining in the event, the game, the competition.
207 Although it is difficult to be certain about the specific event which Paul has in mind here, this may have reference to Timothy’s baptism rather than to his call into ministry.
This “eternal life” (τῆς αἰωνίου ζωῆς) seems to be eschatological is likened in the athletic metaphor as the prize. Therefore, it may well have reference to reward in the future kingdom. This eternal life, nevertheless, is the life unto which God called Timothy. Therefore, there is a sense of certainty in the event, which he is to now also run for. It is within his grasp to do so (4:8).
208 There are many views as to the meaning of this term: (1) the exhortations given in 6:11-12, (2) an alleged baptismal charge from the allusion in 6:12, (3) the whole Christian faith, (4) Timothy’s own faith and ministry. Number four may be the best choice in view of 4:16 (“Take heed to yourself and to your teaching; hold to that, for by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers”), 6:20 (“O Timothy, guard what has been entrusted to you.”) and Paul’s words in 2 Timothy 4:7 (“I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith”).
209 Just as was the case with Jesus’ first coming (Galatians 4).
210 The term is δυνάστης (cf. Ecclus. 46:5; 2 Macc. 12:15) describing God as sovereign Ruler.
211 This title was used of Persian emperors (Ezek. 26:7; Dan. 2:37; Ezra 7:12) and of God (2 Maccabees 13:4). Lord of lords emphasizes God’s sovereignty over all other “deities” (Deut. 10:17; Ps. 136:2-3). God is sovereign over all powers be they human or divine (cf. 1 Enoch 9:4; Rev. 17:14; 19:16).
212 The term is ἀθανασίαν. He is not-dying.
213 This has reference to His blinding glory (cf. Ps. 104:2; Ex. 14:15-17; 34:29-35; 1 Ki. 8:11; Jn. 1:7-9; 3:19-21; 1 Jn. 1:5-7).
214 Literally it reads, “whom no one has ever seen nor is able to see” (ο῞ν ει῎δεν οὐδεὶς ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ ἰδεῖν δύναται)
215 See Revelation 5:13; 1 Peter 4:11; Revelation 1:6.
216 The placement of this unit into the argument of the book is somewhat problematic at first glance, but need not be. Fee’s excellent discussion is worth citing in full: “Paul was bringing the letter to its close with a final word against the false teachers, a word that turned out to be such a strong judgment against their greed that it included a warning to “all those who want to get rich” (v. 9). But there would have been some in the church who were already rich in the things of this life (v. 17), especially those in whose homes the church met (cf. also 5:16). However, since Paul’s first concern was with the false teachers and Timothy’s own role in combating them, he followed his words about them with an immediate final exhortation to Timothy--to keep contending in the noble contest until the End. Now, having given that noble charge to Timothy, he returns to say a few words for the already rich, lest they feel condemned by verses 6-10” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 114).
217 As Fee writes, “This paragraph is actually a single sentence in Greek that makes a considerable play on the word ‘riches’ and related ideas. The word itself occurs four times in four different forms.... Thus ‘the rich’ are not to trust in riches, but in God who ‘richly’ gives all things, and therefore are to be rich in good deeds, which then, to extend the metaphor, is their way to store up ... a treasure for the future” (Ibid., p. 117).
218 See Proverbs 23:4-5.
219 This statement demonstrates that Paul is not borrowing from Stoic ideas (cf. Phil. 4:10-13).
Although Paul often champions the poor, here he affirms that God also blesses those who are well-off financially (cf. Philemon 1-2, 5-7, 22). Nevertheless, he expects those who have to be generous with those who do not have (cf. Rom. 12:8, 13:2; 2 Cor. 9:6-15). He does not affirm greedy, self-indulgent living. He affirms that one can enjoy one’s wealth as a gift from God, but one must also be responsible with one’s wealth. Life is more than now.
220 Perhaps contextually this has reference to good works related to giving.
221 For similar New Testament discussions see Matthew 6 and Luke 16. See also Ecclesiastes 5:8-20. That which is “won” will most probably be reward in the Millennial kingdom. This will express itself in terms of ruling with Christ during the Millennium.
222 After completing Paul’s thoughts concerning riches in 6:6-19, Paul now brings his letter to a conclusion. This could have occurred after the charge and doxology in 6:16, but Paul wanted to be sure that the rich in the community did not misinterpret his words to the false teachers as a rebuke of them.
Paul will now conclude by repeating his charge to Timothy in view of the false teachers. As with Galatians, Paul does not offer any greetings at the conclusion of this letter. He has been dealing with serious business, therefore, he simply summarizes it and closes.
223 Keep the deposit! Fee writes, “The imperative ... is a metaphor, drawn from common life, reflecting the highest kind of sacred obligation in ancient society, namely, being entrusted with some treasured possession for safe-keeping while another is away” (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, p. 118). In specific this deposit was probably Timothy’s ministry against the false teachers in Ephesus (cf. 4:11-14; 5:22-23; 6:2, 11-12, 20-21).
224 See 4:7.
225 See also 1:6 and 2 Timothy 2:22.
226 The term is ἡστόχησαν from ἀστοχέω meaning to miss the mark, deviate or depart from something (cf. 2 Tim. 2:18; BAGD, s.v. “ἀστοχέω,” p. 118).
227 Has this concern been Paul’s driving issue throughout the letter (1:3-7, 19-20, 4:1-2; 5:15, 20; 6:10; cf. 2:14; 3:6-7; 5:5-6, 24-25)?
228 The “you” is plural (ὑμῶν). This is evidence that Paul probably intended for this letter to be read aloud to the church(es).
Concerning the term “grace” Fee writes, “The grace itself is a typically Pauline feature. The standard ‘good-bye’ in ancient letters was errosthe (lit., ‘be strong’), found in the letter of James (Acts 15:29) and the letters of Ignatius (cf. 2 Macc. 11:21, 33; Jos. Life 227, 365). But as with the salutation ..., Paul ‘Christianizes’ all the formal elements of the ancient letter” (Ibid., p. 120).
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines