The Babylon of this chapter undoubtedly includes an actual city that will be rebuilt on the Euphrates and a politico-commercial system that becomes the means and basis of a new worldwide religious system by which the beast will be worshipped (Rev. 13). If you recall, the beast brings about his own worship by his control of commerce, or buying and selling.
The chief element of Babylon emphasized in this chapter is commerce on a worldwide scale, i.e., international or multinational organizations.
In chapter 17 the beast and his allies in politico-commercial Babylon destroy religious Babylon, or apostate Christendom. Today there are a multitude of worldwide organizations already devoted to the concept of antichrist and are also already speaking of the overthrow of the present religious systems including Judaism, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism. But by contrast in this chapter it is God who overthrows commercial Babylon.
The announcement is made by another angel. Please note four things about this angel. First, he is “another” angel. “Another” is allos meaning another of the same kind as those angels that preceded him. This is not the Lord nor is there any reason to see this as the Lord since angels do have great power and often display great glory. Second, that “he comes down from heaven” points to the fact this judgment comes from God. Third, he has “great authority.” “Authority” is exousia which means “liberty, or authority” and then “power to act.” As an angel and messenger of God, he comes possessing supernatural authority and power to execute judgment on behalf of God. Fourth, “the earth was illumined with his glory.” Literally the Greek says “and the earth was made bright from or out of the source of his glory.” Grammatically it may also mean “by his glory.” The word “illumined” is the Greek fwtizw, a causative verb meaning to “illuminate or make bright.”
(1) God is absolute light, perfect holiness or righteousness and justice. In Him there can be no darkness (1 John 1:5).
(2) The angel’s glory and splendor is a derived glory. He comes expressing God’s glory and holy wrath against sin.
(3) The earth is now under Satan and the beast which is the epitome of evil and darkness.
(4) The coming of the angel from heaven illumined with glory symbolizes what God is doing. In His holiness, God is making the world fit to live in by removing the prime source of evil and darkness, commercial Babylon.
In verse 2 the fall of Babylon is repeated. He says “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great.” This is done primarily for emphasis, but as mentioned before, it may also represent the fall of Babylon religiously (chapter 17) and then commercially (chapter 18).
In the second part of verse 2 we are told that Babylon is demonic to the core. This is stressed in three statements: (1) “The dwelling place of demons” (the Greek stresses this as a permanent place). (2) “A prison of every unclean spirit” (cf. Eph. 2:2; 1 John 4:6 where demons are called spirits), (3) “and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird.” This third description is probably an allusion to Matthew 13:31-32 where birds may refer to demonic leaders operating in the apostate church.
In verse 2 we get a clear picture of the demonic source, power, and control of this system as it rises up in the last days. The worldwide movement and conspiracy of the last days will involve a multitude of organizations, the super rich in many countries, but it will not be the product of mere human ingenuity, but of satanic agency.
In verse 3 a specific charge is made against Babylon concerning her spiritual prostitution and intoxicating activity. But note that verse 3 is connected with verse 2 by the word “for” which shows the connection between the demonic activity (the cause) and the charges of verse 3 (the results).
First, we are told all the nations are involved. This is worldwide. Every nation has turned away from God for the almighty dollar and the luxuries it can buy—peace and affluence at any price.
“Have drunk” is a perfect tense which focuses our attention on the abiding results of Babylon’s evil influence, specifically, her spiritual, moral, political and national stupor. The world is already drunk and getting more so every day on materialism and the commercial mania of the times. The Tribulation will be absolutely unbelievable.
“Of the wine of the wrath of her fornication” is a reference to the world ideologies of Babylon, which will prostitute the divine institutions God has establish for man’s protection like: volition, freedom, marriage and the family, and nationalism. Some of these intoxicant agents are humanism, the unisex idea promoted so strongly even today by the ERA movement (strongly represented by the National Organization for Women), the New Age movement, internationalism, commercialism, multinational corporations, demon worship, gross immorality, and idolatry (cf. Rev. 9:20-21; 13:5-6, 16-17).
The last half of the verse speaks of both the kings of the earth and the merchants. “Merchants” is the Greek emporos, “trader, merchant.” Emporia means “commerce, business, trade.” An emporos is a person engaged in commerce. Behind this sell out by the kings are the super rich merchants, the billionaires, and great corporations working for world control. Money is king. It controls kings, people, and nations.
We are told “the merchants … have become rich by the wealth of her (commercial Babylon’s) sensuality.” “Wealth” is the Greek dunamis, a noun which means “power, strength, ability.” Here it refers to the power and strength of her sensuality that controls the world of mankind.
“Sensuality” is the Greek strhnos, a word meaning “arrogant or unrestrained luxury.” Here is an important lesson. Commercial Babylon, with its worship of money and power, will promote and push unrestrained luxury, sensuality, and pleasure designed to develop an all-consuming power over the masses via their uncontrolled lust patterns. Babylon will promote the philosophy that happiness, significance, security, and fulfillment are attained by the abundance of the things people possess, in travel and luxury, in comfort and pleasure, etc. Frankly, this sounds exactly like America and much of the world today.
In The Aquarian Conspiracy the author says in essence, “folks we are getting ready to take over, but don’t worry, you’ll love it.” The logo on the cover is 666. In other words the beast is going to provide peace, affluence, prosperity, luxury, etc., so everyone is going to love it.
Note the following concerning the commercialism of the world:
(1) It is man made though satanically inspired. Clearly, it is not of God because it has an independent and arrogant spirit that seeks its security and happiness apart from God. It is not because the details of life and its luxuries are wrong, but because they are allowed to usurp God’s place in the hearts of men (Rev. 18:7; 1 Tim. 6:5-11, 17-19; Luke 12:15).
(2) Israel’s kings were warned against multiplying horses, gold, and silver through commerce with Egypt because it resulted in independence and preoccupation with luxury rather than with the Lord (Deut. 17:16-17).
(3) Special judgment was pronounced on Tyre, and one of the reasons was that she was the great commercial center of the day and corrupted other nations through her commercialism as well as herself (Ezek. 26-28, especially 27). Trade with Tyre was the source of Solomon’s extravagance and preoccupation with the details of life (apes, peacocks, and stock piles of silver, gold and a six-stepped throne) (1 Kings 10:19f).
(4) Zechariah 14:21 closes his prophecy concerning the millennium and says “in that day there shall be no more a Canaanite.” This was a nickname for merchants. There will be business in the millennium which is legitimate but not the spirit of commercialism. International commerce tries to unify humanity through internationalism and promotes a spirit of self-confidence, independence, and rebellion against God as it existed in Babel in the time of Nimrod. Revelation 18:5, “for her sins have piled up as high as heaven” seems to be a clear reference to the tower and the spirit of Babylon. Like the early tower of Babel, Babylon’s commercial and political sins of independence and arrogance have reached up into heaven in man’s attempt to be like God. Babylon’s iniquities will have become full.
(5) The spirit of commercialism causes cities to become swollen with people which increases crime, violence, negative volition, and ironically, poverty.
(6) The spirit of commercialism begets universal covetousness, which is a form of idolatry, and is in contrast to the principle of 1 Timothy 6:5-19. Business, trade, making the almighty dollar, etc., becomes more important than God (Isa. 2:5-7; Hosea 12:1, 7, 8; James 4:13).
(7) The ultimate power and wickedness of commercialism is seen in the mark of the beast of Revelation 13 by which he attempts to control the world through manipulation and slavery.
(8) By its basic aims and nature, the spirit of commercialism blots out the divine institutions of volition or human freedom, marriage, family, country, and the love, adoration and dependence upon God through living in His Word as God’s servants and people.
A good illustration of this move against God’s divine institutions such as the family is a comment made by a radical feminist who wrote, “Childrearing to the extent to which it is necessary is the responsibility of all. Children are part of society but they should not be possessed by anyone … marriage and the family must be eliminated.”215
As John was undoubtedly thinking on the announcement of verses 1-3, another voice is heard from heaven calling believers to separation from Babylon both as a city and as a materialistic and godless system of commercialism.
“Another” is allos which implies this is another angelic being acting as God’s messenger with God’s Word to believers. Ryrie points out:
In its primary interpretation this appeal will be addressed to those believers who will be living in the Tribulation days and who like believers in every age will be tempted to compromise. In its application it is a relevant call to believers in every day to avoid compromise with Satan’s world system in its every form — religious and commercial. See Genesis 19: 12-14; Numbers 16:23-26; Isaiah 48:20; II Cor. 6:14-17; I John 1:15-17).216
“Come out of her my people.” “Come out” is an aorist imperative of urgency. It means “do it now, do not delay.” Further, it speaks of a decisive act. This is not only a physical separation, but a mental separation from materialism as a way of life and as a source of security, significance, and happiness.
“So that” points to the purpose and reason for separation which is twofold:
(1) “So that you may not participate in her sins.” “Participate” is the verb, sunkoinwnew, “to fellowship with, partake, be connected with,” or even, “be a partner with.” The simple noun form, koinwnos, is used in Luke 5:10 of those who were fishing partners with Simon in his fishing business. Rather than becoming partners with the Babylonian world system, we are to be partners with the Lord Jesus in His enterprise on earth. Literally, the Greek says “the sins of her” pointing to particular or specific sins, the sins of commercialism, the things which caused universal covetousness, destruction of the divine institutions, increase in crime, violence, and the search for happiness in luxurious living.
(2) “And that you might not receive of her plagues.” “Plagues” has the article which points to some specific plagues, those of chapter 16 and the seventh bowl judgment. The warning is simply that those who fall in with the system will experience the results of misery and loss in their own lives. Walvoord writes:
Seiss explains the phrase “come out of her,” citing Jeremiah 50:4-9 where the children of Israel are urged to “remove out of the midst of Babylon” (Jer. 50:8), and the command “Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and deliver every man his soul” (Jer. 51:6). (Joseph A. Seiss, The Apocalypse, p. 408). Alford compares the command to come out of Babylon to the warning to Lot to leave Sodom (Gen. 10:15:22) (Henry Alford, The Greek New Testament, IV, p. 715). The purpose of leaving Babylon is twofold: first, by separation from her they will not partake of her sin, and second, they will not have her plagues inflicted on them. The reference to plagues refers to the vials of chapter 16, especially the seventh vial which falls upon Babylon itself (16:17-21). This is further evidence that the event of chapter 18 is subsequent to the seventh vial and therefore in contrast to the destruction of the harlot in chapter 17.217
But of course, this has application for us today. We reap what we sow. When we sow to the flesh and pursue the world, we reap of the flesh. But when we sow to the Spirit, we reap of the Spirit, peace, joy, happiness and meaning in life.
This appeal is substantiated upon three spiritual laws or principles:
(1) The Law of Remembrance (verse 5). God’s actions in history with Babylon teach us this system cannot escape—judgment must come. The principle is God does not ignore or forget sin. He permits the increment or build up of sin, but eventually judgment must come. The first Babel conspiracy attempted to build a tower into the heavens (Gen. 11:4); this last Babylon conspiracy piles up her sins to heaven in defiance of God and God remembers. Judgment is inevitable and so believers must flee.
(2) The Law of Retribution (verse 6). Because of the enormity of her sin and because of the holy character of God—judgment is doubled. The thing judged here is the system. The final judgment of unbelievers does not come until the great white throne of Revelation 20.
(3) The Law of Retaliation (verses 7-8). She has assumed the position of queen; she has glorified herself and so to the same degree that she has rebelled against God, He retaliates in holy and righteous indignation to dethrone her.
“I set” is a present tense of a continuous condition. Both she and her leaders think nothing can upset this mighty system.
“A queen” is one who is very powerful, self sufficient and in need of nothing, i.e., absolutely sovereign.
“And am not a widow and will (thus) see no mourning.” A widow is one who mourns because of a loss. She has illicit love affairs with all the kings so how can she become a widow? They are all madly in love with her, but not really. Why? Because she is only a harlot who sells herself. They love her not for herself but for what they can get out of her.
“For this reason,” i.e., because of her arrogance, her spirit of independence and false security, her judgment comes in one day (i.e., suddenly). This stresses the fallacy of all false security. Remember therefore, the following principles (cf. Luke 12:16-20; 1 Tim. 6:6-19):
(1) Riches or the details of life can never provide life eternal or the abundant life.
(2) Riches can be destroyed in a moment.
(3) Life can be snatched from us in a moment and we have either eternal separation as unbelievers, or loss of rewards as believers.
(4) Therefore, the appeal of God’s word is for us to acquire happiness and eternal life through faith in the truths of God as revealed in the Word (see Isa. 55:1-13 and note especially vss. 1-2).
The kings here refer to a wider group of kings than the ten nation confederation of 17:12-16. This reaches out to all the other kings of the earth who are caught up in the web of the commercialism of the day. They all mourn because of the destruction of Babylon. Why? Because her commercialism means the control of the people and luxury in their courts, all of which is now lost.
The acts of immorality refers to their spiritual and political apostasy which rejects the divine standards of God and which accepts instead the materialism of commercial Babylon as well as its humanism.
“Will weep and lament over her.” By word order, this phrase is very emphatic in the Greek. Literally it says “and they shall weep and lament over her, the kings …” “Weep” and “lament” both mean “to cry aloud vocally.” The point is, when they see the object of their trust and the source of their happiness go up in smoke, they come unglued. The details of life just can’t give happiness!
“When they see the smoke of her burning.” The time of this burning is the bowl or vial judgment at the end of the Tribulation, very close to the return of Jesus Christ.
“Standing at a distance because of fear …” It appears they will hear of her destruction and either come to see or view the shouldering remains by TV or perhaps they will be assembled in this area for some international conference when this judgment occurs.
“Woe, Woe.” This word, even in our language, has a mournful sound, but this is especially true in Greek (ouai). Ouai is an onomatopoetic term, the “formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to.”218
The emphatic repetition of ouai portrays the hopeless wailing of a Christ rejecting world. Dr. Walvoord writes: “How sad is the hour of judgment when it is too late for mercy.”219 They stand afar in fear because they are afraid of being a part of it, but very shortly there will be no escape, for they will be gathered together with their armies in Palestine against the Lord who will slay them (19:13).
“The great city, Babylon, the strong city.” This, as we have seen, refers to the rebuilt city of Babylon on the Euphrates which literally fulfills Old Testament Scripture as well as this passage. The burning of the city is symbolical of the fall of the whole powerful commercial system. Rebuilt Babylon will be its control center. When the kings see its fall, they know it means the fall of the whole system and in this they are amazed because of its great strength, worldwide rule, and mighty accomplishments.
But there is only one who is Mighty and Great, and that is the Lord!!! This warns us to never put our trust in what man can build, for no matter how great, God can destroy it in less than an hour (vs. 10b, cf. vss. 8 and 17).
The economic character and commercialism of Babylon with its materialistic emphasis on consumerism is clearly seen from this passage by the reference to “merchants who weep” and by the reference to the luxury items that are mentioned. Their grief is occasioned by the loss of their trade and from the luxury items that their trade provided, but not by their love for Babylon. The extreme luxury of their merchandise is itemized in verses 12-13. Nearly 30 items are listed and it is a story of luxury, indulgence, and extravagance.
(1) Jewelry items — precious stones and costly metals.
(2) Apparel — fine fabrics used in their clothing composed of linen and silk in luxurious colors of purple and scarlet. (In ancient times these were the colors and fabrics of the extremely wealthy.)
(3) Luxurious furnishings — furniture made of “citron” (quinos) a costly and fragrant scented wood comparable to cyprus or cedar and used only in expensive furniture. Other expensive materials were ivory, brass, iron, and marble.
(4) Perfumes and Spices — Cinnamon, spice, incense, perfume and frankincense. Again these were things which could only be afforded by the ultra-wealthy.
(5) Food stuffs — Wine, oil, fine flour, wheat, cattle, sheep.
(6) Transportation items — horses, chariots (comparable to our planes, autos, boats, motorcycles, etc.).
(7) Slaves — “slaves and human lives,” literally the Greek has, “body and souls of men,” an idiom for a person who was owned body and soul.
Verse 14 gives us a striking spiritual description of these details of life: they are described as “the fruit of the desires or lusts of the soul.” The soul here may well refer to the sinful nature within the soul which always seeks to dominate the life. In other words, this heaping up of the details of life is from the sin nature which seeks its happiness apart from God.
Verse 14b emphasizes the fleeting and temporary nature of these details. “Will no longer find them” is somewhat emphatic by the word order used here. Literally the text reads, “no longer by any means, them (the details listed) will they find.”
Verses 15-19 calls our attention to the great unhappiness that comes when men put their trust in things or seek their happiness in the details of life.
As mentioned, the merchants mourn not because they love the city, but because their wealth which is derived from the city and its system is now lost. This is a commentary on the world today. When the people of this nation fail to live by faith and the principles of God’s Word, they will also fail to love their nation and the biblical principles upon which this nation was founded. When that happens, they will love America only for what they can get out of it; truly, this is a commentary on the America today. So we are seeing the decay of a nation.
The Lord warned against such coveting of wealth in Matthew 6:19-21 where the transitory wealth and glory of this world is set in contrast to the true riches of faith and blessings that men have in Christ (cf. 1 Tim. 6:11, 19)
In these verses we see a tremendous contrast and one that should strike a note of warning and alarm as we conduct our lives in a world that is already so dominated by the mental attitude of commercial Babylon. This mental attitude and control is going to increase, its enticements and pulls will get worse. We definitely need the perspective of these verses (20-24) along with obedience to verse 4.
The world weeps over the destruction of Babylon and the loss of its material luxuries. For the worldling, this is all he has; he thinks of life as consisting not only in the abundance of the details of life but also in possessing the luxuries of those details. By contrast, the believer must come out of the system, that is, he must not be controlled by Satan’s system, or by his own lust patterns. We can use the world, enjoy the blessings God gives, but God forbid that such things become our source of security and happiness. Further, the believer must rejoice over the prospect of the fall of commercial Babylon because of what this means to God and to all mankind in the coming kingdom with God’s rule on earth.
So the kings, the merchants, and the mariners wail over the passing of Babylon, but heaven and its people rejoice and find strength over the prospect of its fall.
Verses 20-24 divide up into four sections:
(1) The command to rejoice (vs. 20, the divine viewpoint).
(2) The portrayal of Babylon’s fall (vs. 21).
(3) The extent and nature of Babylon’s fall (vss. 22-23a).
(4) The reason or justification for Babylon’s fall (vss. 23b-24).
“Rejoice” is a command. God’s people are to find joy in the prospects of Babylon’s overthrow and in the actual occurrence when it is brought to pass at the end of the Tribulation. The verb is eufrainw and means “to cheer, gladden,” but in the passive voice as it is here, it means “be happy, rejoice, make merry.” The passive voice means “allow yourself to receive happiness, joy, from the truth of God’s Word about Babylon and its destruction.” This is what God’s Word should do for the believer when it is known and believed.
“O heaven” represents the broad address to the occupants in heaven—both angels and men. “You saints and apostles and prophets” narrows the address. “Saints,” literally “set apart ones,” refers to all believers who, as those set apart positionally and experientially, are to have such a response to Babylon’s fall. The “apostles and prophets” refer to those of the early church period, many of whom lost their lives to the Babylonian system.
But God’s commands are never without reason. So we read next “because God has pronounced judgment for you.” The idea is that God has judged your case against her and executed from her a just penalty. Babylon has been the cause of much misery and pain for the people of God, but they can rejoice because God has not forgotten His people nor Babylon’s evil.
In his vision, John sees a mighty angel throw a stone, one like a great millstone, into the sea. This picture is designed to portray the downfall of the great city and its system as:
(1) Sudden. It will be sudden as when a stone falls into the sea, suddenly, with a splash.
(2) Violent, Catastrophic. Such a great stone (like a meteor) would cause tidal waves which move across land destroying everything in their path. The destruction of Babylon leads to the destruction of the rest of its system.
(3) Complete, Total. Like a stone which is cast into the sea and sinks out of sight, so the destruction of Babylon will be so complete that it will be found no more, never to rise again (Jer. 51:61-64). This is the primary emphasis. Babylon will be found no more, not in any form. This is stressed seven times in chapter 18. Remember that seven is used over and over to stress the concept of completeness. Note this emphasis in the following verses: verse 14 (once), verse 21 (once), verse 22 (three times), and verse 23 (twice). Further, in each case the negative “no” or “not” in the Greek text is the very emphatic ou mh, a double negative that means “by no means.”
Verses 22 and 23a enlarge on the extent of the cessation of Babylon and her activity which characterizes her life and luxurious living.
(1) No more music and entertainers (vs. 22a). The commercial and business world often seeks escape in the jive and jazz, the rock and roll of its music world in the various places of night entertainment. Consider the hotels, motels, bars, lounges, and other establishments in every city where music is provided for the commercial world and its participants.
(2) No more craftsmen. The tools of the craftsmen who furnished the items of luxury will suddenly be as silent as a tomb. This means that the wheels of industry and the pens which write the orders for merchandise will come to a halt.
(3) No more grinding of grain. The millstones which grind the grain for flour will also stop. The food supply, which at that point is already in short supply, will now disappear altogether.
(4) The lights will go out. The lamp which lights the home and business will be put permanently out. Darkness, symbolizing the spiritual state of the world and the system of the beast, will now engulf everything. How awesome this experience will be—total blackness.
(5) The merry voices of bride and bridegroom and their wedding parties will cease. From this reference it appears that Babylon will become a virtual Riviera or Niagara Falls, famous for weddings and honeymooners, gambling, and gay times. But it will also be much like Reno, Nevada. Marriage will mean little more than a license for prostitution, a temporary contract. As Christ prophesied, men and women will be marrying and remarrying without any real concern for marriage as a divine institution of God. When marriage is entered into it will be a mere convenience if they bother to marry at all (Matt. 24:38). Life during the Tribulation will go on as usual in spite of its judgments, which shows just how callused man will become and how much he will be enslaved in the luxuries and pleasures of the world. But then, suddenly it is all over (2 Pet. 3:3-11).
Three reasons are now given for Babylon’s fall, and the reasons (especially the first) are both instructive and exhortative. They provide a commentary on the world today.
“For your (the commercial system of Babylon) merchants were the great men of the earth.” Wow! How this viewpoint has infiltrated the church of Jesus Christ (James 2:1-9). The expression “great men” is the Greek word megistanes (plural), which means “the chief, noble, the magnates of society.” These are the men who are looked up to, worshipped, honored, adored, and presented to everyone as the ultimate. They have power in society; they control the destinies of men, and live in the super luxury which everyone is supposed to want and that people think will give them happiness.
Note that it is because of this viewpoint that judgment comes. This viewpoint is a perversion and a prostitution of divine values and priorities (1 Cor. 1:26-29). People worship and long for wealth and luxury and thereby compromise principles and priorities to play the harlot with the merchants of Babylon, the corporation heads of the system of Babylon. Money and luxury is god, and people with money are the one’s who become the chief men of society. Character, righteousness, integrity mean nothing.
“Because all the nations were deceived by your sorcery.” The word “sorcery” is singular and looks at a whole program of sorcery or deception, a world conspiracy by the merchants or super rich magnates in control of the commercial system of Babylon, the multinational corporation heads.
The Greek word for sorcery is farmakeia, “the use of medicine, drugs or potions as in casting spells,” and metaphorically, “to deceive and disorient.” The word was used of poisoning and witchcraft, or trafficking in the demonic. This states in effect that the Babylonian system will use whatever method it can to poison the minds of men and to deceive them—demonism, drugs, and various forms of propaganda will be the norm.
“And in her was found the blood of the prophets …” The third and final reason is the murder and martyrdom of the people of God over the centuries of time. “Blood” is plural which stresses the many deaths and the magnitude of Babylon’s crimes against the people of God.
In the first reason we have a perversion of values portraying the moral degeneracy of the world. In the second reason we have the cause—sorcery, the demonic. In the third reason we have what amounts to a further effect of poisoned minds—the murder of the saints.
Joyless, dark, and silent, Babylon stands out as a monument to the utmost vengeance of God. Wickedness had sat enthroned in the midst of that professedly bearing the Name of Christ; but at last, when she had filled to the full her cup of iniquity, God rises in His fierce anger, His indignation burns, and Babylon falls to rise no more. Her destruction is irremediable. The chapter closes with a reiteration of the bloody character of the system.220
There is an obvious parallel in the rise and fall of Babylon in its varied forms in Scripture. As introduced in Genesis 11:1-9, Babylon, historically symbolized by the tower reaching to heaven, proposed to maintain the union of the world through a common worship and a common tongue. God defeated this purpose by confusing the language and scattering the people. Babylon, ecclesiastically symbolized by the woman in Revelation 17, proposes a common worship and a common religion through uniting in a world church. This is destroyed by the beast in Revelation 17:16 who thus fulfills the will of God (Rev. 17:17). Babylon, politically symbolized by the great city of Revelation 18, attempts to achieve its domination of the world by a world common market and a world government. These are destroyed by Christ at His second coming (Rev. 19:11-12). The triumph of God is therefore witnessed historically in the scattering of the people and the unfinished tower of Genesis 11 and prophetically in the destruction of the world church by the killing of the harlot of Revelation 17 and in the destruction of the city of Revelation 18. With the graphic description of the fall of Babylon contained in chapter 17 and 18, the way is cleared for the presentation of the major theme of the book of Revelation, the second coming of Christ and the establishment of His glorious kingdom.221
218 The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition copyright 1992 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Electronic version licensed from InfoSoft International, Inc. All rights reserved.