In his sermon, “Why Christ Had To Die,” author and pastor Stuart Briscoe says:
Many years ago when the children were small, we went for a little drive in the lovely English countryside, and there was some fresh snow. I saw a lovely field with not a single blemish on the virgin snow. I stopped the car, and I vaulted over the gate, and I ran around in a great big circle striding as wide as I could. Then I came back to the kids, and I said, “Now, children, I want you to follow in my footsteps. So I want you to run around that circle in the snow, and I want you to put your feet where your father put his feet.
Well, David tried and couldn’t quite make it. Judy, our over achiever, was certain she would make it; she couldn’t make it. Pete, the little kid took a great run at it, put his foot in my first footprint and then strode out as far as he could and fell on his face. His mother picked him up as he cried.
She said to me, “What are you trying to do?”
I said, “I’m trying to get a sermon illustration.”
I said, “Pete, come here.” I picked up little Peter and put his left foot on my foot, and I put his right foot on my foot. I said, “Okay, Pete, let’s go.” I began to stride one big stride at a time with my hands under his armpits and his feet lightly on mine.
Well, who was doing it? In a sense he was doing it because I was doing it. In a sense there was a commitment of the little boy to the big dad, and some of the properties of the big dad were working through the little boy.
In exactly the same way, in our powerlessness we can’t stride as wide as we should. We don’t’ walk the way we should. We don’t hit the target the way we ought. It isn’t that at every point we are as bad as we could be. It’s just that at no point are we as good as we should be. Something’s got to be done.47
Well God has done that something. Because of our fallen nature we are unable to meet the demands of the law; we are unable to stride the distance set out by our Father. So like the little boy who placed his feet on his father’s, we too are making the grade because Christ himself is holding us up by virtue of our union with him. Through our union with him, we are freed from our sinful passions and permanently oriented toward righteousness. This does not mean that we will never sin, but it does mean that the Christian’s true heart, no matter how great the struggle (in the “now-not-yet”), will always be toward God and righteousness.
Again, God has brought us into union with his Son Jesus Christ, so that just as he died to sin and rose from the dead, we too might die to sin and live for righteousness; we too can now meet the standard demanded by the Father’s holiness. This union with Christ is the grace to which Paul refers in 6:1-14. It is completely incongruous to Paul that we should be united to Christ himself and then continue in sin. This is Paul’s point in Romans 6:1-14.
6:1 What shall we say then? Are we to remain in sin so that grace may increase? 6:2 Absolutely not! How can we who died to sin still live in it? 6:3 Or do you not know that as many as were baptized into Christ were baptized into his death? 6:4 Therefore we have been buried with him through baptism into death, in order that just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too may walk in new life. 6:5 For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will certainly also be united in the likeness of his resurrection. 6:6 We know that our old man was crucified with him so that the body of sin would no longer dominate us, so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin. 6:7 (For someone who has died has been freed from sin.) 6:8 Now if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. 6:9 We know that since Christ was raised from the dead, he is never going to die again; death no longer has mastery over him. 6:10 For the death he died, he died to sin once for all; but the life he lives, he lives to God. 6:11 So you too consider yourselves dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus. 6:12 Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body so that you obey its desires, 6:13 and do not present your members to sin as instruments to be used for unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God as those who are alive from the dead and your members to God as instruments to be used for righteousness. 6:14 For sin will have no mastery over you, because you are not under law but under grace.
Idea: The reason Christians should not present themselves to sin, but rather to God, is because they have been united with Christ in his death to sin and in his resurrection to new life; they are not under law, but under grace.
I. Christians should not continue in sin because they have been united with Christ in his death through baptism and are therefore also united with him in his resurrection to new life (6:1-10).
A. Should Christians remain in sin so that grace may increase? No. Christians have died to sin and can no longer live in it (6:1-2).
1. Should Christians remain in sin so that grace may increase (6:1)?
2. No. Christians have died to sin and can no longer live in it (6:2).
B. Christians were baptized into the death of Christ and have therefore died to sin with him and have been raised to walk in new life (6:3-5).
1. Christians have been baptized into the death of Christ (6:3).
2. Christians have been buried with Christ through baptism into death (6:4a)
3. Christians have been raised with Christ that they might walk in new life (6:4b).
4. Christians have been united with Christ in his death and also similarly in his resurrection (6:5).
C. The Christian’s old man was crucified with Christ with the result that the body of sin need not dominate him/her any longer (6:6-7).
1. The old man was crucified with Christ so that it might no longer dominate us with the result that we remain enslaved to sin (6:6)
2. Death releases us from sin (6:7).
D. Christ, being unable to die again, has mastery over death and now lives permanently to God (6:8-10).
1. Christians have died with Christ (6:8a)
2. Christians live with Christ (6:8b)
3. Christ was raised from the dead (6:9a)
4. Christ will never die again (6:9b)
5. Death no longer has mastery over Christ (6:9c)
6. Christ died to sin once for all (6:10a)
7. Christ now lives to God (6:10b)
II. Christians should consider themselves dead to sin and alive to God, offering their bodies to him and not to sin, for sin shall not be their master because they are not under law, but under grace (6:11-14).
A. Christians should consider themselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus, presenting themselves not to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but to God as instruments of righteousness (6:11-13).
1. Christians should consider themselves dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus (6:11).
2. Christians should not let sin reign in their mortal bodies so that they obey its desires (6:12).
3. Christians should present their bodies to God for righteousness and not to sin for unrighteousness (6:13).
B. Sin will have not mastery over Christians because they are not under law, but under grace (6:14).
1. Sin will have no mastery over Christians (6:14a).
2. Christians are not under law (6:14b).
3. Christians are under grace (6:14c).
Idea: If God’s grace increases as my sin increases, why not just continue to sin?
I. Understand That You’re Dead To Sin and Now Have Life in Christ (6:1-10)
A. The Question (6:1-2)
B. Our Baptism with Christ (6:3-4)
C. Our Union with Christ (6:5)
D. Our Old Man Crucified (6:6-7)
E. Christ’s Death—The Paradigm (6:8-10)
II. Present Yourself to God (6:11-14)
A. Consider Yourself Dead to Sin/Alive to God (6:11)
B. Offer Yourself To God and not to Sin (6:12-13)
C. Sin Will Not Have Mastery Over You (6:14)
Justification and sanctification are two different realities, but they must never be separated and isolated one from the other. If they become totally separated, the logical end is license. If they become merged together, a “works” oriented salvation results.
Paul is moving from freedom from the penalty of sin, (1:18-5:21) to freedom from the power of sin (6:1ff). He has explained “the righteous by faith” in 1:18-5:21, now he is moving on to explain “shall live” and fill out the meaning of the Habakkuk quotation in 1:17—the theme verse of the entire letter. If the cross was sufficient to deliver from the penalty of sin, here it is sufficient to deliver from the power of sin.
6:1 Paul says, “What shall we say then? Are we to remain (ἐπιμένωμεν, epimenōmen) in sin (i.e., a lifestyle characterized by sin) so that grace may increase? En route to developing his argument concerning the gospel, Paul has thus far been in the habit of asking questions in order to prevent misunderstanding. Such is the case here (cf. also 3:1, 5, 9, 27, 4:1; 6:1, 15; 7:7). This particular question is related to the statement in 5:20 where Paul argued that “where sin increased, grace multiplied all the more.” Someone may be tempted to think, having just read 5:20, that since grace increased where sin increased, why not just continue to sin? Correct premise, wrong inference! Grace does indeed increase where sin increases, but this in no way leads to the inference that we should just continue to sin! Paul heads this off at the pass! Compare 1:18 in this light. In short, the question of 6:1 is rhetorical. It involves that which is morally right and should be obvious to any believer. Its transparent nature obvious, Paul nonetheless gives a clear answer in 6:2.
6:2 Should we continue to sin, even though grace increases? In answer to this, Paul says, emphatically and without qualification: “Absolutely not” (μὴ γένοιτο, mē genoito)! Let there be no mistake about it, Paul’s gospel is not one of cheap grace that leads to license. He asks, “How can we who died to sin still live in it?” The Christian has experienced a definitive break with the realm and power of sin through dying to it at the point of conversion (cf. 5:3-4ff). How can we live under its sway and render service to it when we, in fact, have died to it?
6:3-4 But how did that death to sin take place? Paul gives the answer here in v. 3. Beginning his sentence with do you not know (ἀγνοεῖτε, agnoeite), he implies that his readers probably know something of this teaching regarding baptism and union with Christ, but perhaps not exactly as he had taught it.
The phrases baptized into Christ (ἐβαπτίσθημεν εἰς Χριστὸν ᾿Ιησοῦν, ebaptisthēmen eis Christon Iēsoun) and baptized into his death (εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ ἐβαπτίσθημεν, eis ton thanaton ebaptisthēmen) have been variously interpreted, especially the preposition eis (“into”). It seems best, however, in light of v. 4 to take the preposition as meaning “baptized into union with Christ” and baptized into union with his death.” The reason is as follows: verse 4 begins with “therefore” indicating that it is drawing a conclusion from v. 3. The conclusion, however, is that we have been buried “with him.” The “with him” language implies union with Christ in v. 3.
The means by which we are buried with Christ in his death is through baptism (διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος, dia tou baptismatos). It must be stated up front that it is highly unlikely that Paul is talking about spiritual baptism (such as we might have in 1 Cor 12:13). Water baptism seems to be his point.
Now some commentators read this passage and argue that either water baptism by itself saves a person (sacramentalism; ex opere operato) or that baptism is at least required in order to be saved. Both of these explanations, even though they make good sense of the preposition “through,” must be rejected. First, Paul has argued at length to this point in Romans that a person is declared righteous by faith apart from any works, whether they be religious works in general or the performance of religious rites, such as circumcision (3:20-22, 28; 4:2-8, 9-12).
Second, baptism is not the main point of this paragraph nor is a baptismal theology being developed. Indeed, Paul is not focusing on the nature of baptism, but rather on our death and resurrection with Christ.
But why, then, choose water baptism? The reason Paul chose water baptism is because in the early church it had become a sure sign that a person was a Christian. It was equated with the salvation process so closely that in many cases it came to stand for the reality of personal salvation itself (Acts 2:38; 1 Pet 3:21). Thus it presupposed faith for its meaning and true faith always led to a person being baptized. We do the same thing today. In certain Protestant denominations if a person is asked how they became a Christian he/she may answer that they “walked the isle” on such and such a date. Well, we all know that “walking the isle” never saved anyone, yet the experience is often so closely associated with the time when a person initially trusts in Christ that the sign can stand for the reality.
The goal (cf. ἵνα, hina) of our union with Christ in his death, which occurred when we were baptized (i.e., “baptism” as a metonymy for salvation) is that just as (ὥσπερ, hōsper) Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, that is, through the power of the living God, so we too may walk in new life (ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατήσωμεν, en kainotēti zōēs peripatēsōmen). The resurrection of Christ as an eschatological reality ushered in a new era of salvation, and all those connected to him in his death and resurrection enter into this new life—a “new covenant” life inaugurated and characterized by the indwelling Spirit (cf. 7:6).
6:5 In v. 5 Paul further explains (γάρ, gar) how it is that we can walk in new life. We do so because of the ongoing effects of our participation in the death of Christ and our current participation in the resurrection of Christ. The future tense, “we will certainly also be united,” refers not to the eschatological future (cf. John 5:28-29), but rather to the future with respect to the logic of the process of salvation. First, we are reckoned dead with Christ, then we are reckoned to participate in Christ’s resurrection. The whole tenor of the passage argues for present participation in the resurrection of Christ as the means by which we might walk in new life (cf. v. 4 and the “for” beginning v. 5). While the ultimate goal of the resurrection will be culminated in the future, it is, nonetheless, a present reality for the believer.
What does Paul mean by the terms united (σύμφυτοι, sumphutoi) and likeness (ὁμοιώματι, homoiōmati)? The term “united” is used in many different contexts, including horticultural—a nuance which works well here, especially with the thought of dying, rising, and “new life” (cf. John 12:24). The believer has been grafted into the death and resurrection of Christ and draws spiritual life from that connection (cf. John 15:1-11).
The term “likeness” could imply that believers were united with Christ in something like his death, but not really his death. This is not a necessary conclusion from the term (cf. Phil 2:7) and strains the clear meaning of 6:3. The focus in vv. 3-4 is on our initial union with Christ at baptism. The past tense (aorist) verbs indicate this. The focus in v. 5 is on the ongoing effects of this union. This is made clear through the use of the perfect tense, we have become (γεγόναμεν, gegonamen). Thus Paul is now stressing present realities still in motion as a result of that initial union. Likeness, then, refers to certain “attributes” or “qualities that characterize” Christ’s death. Thus, insofar as his death was a death to sin (6:10), so also our lives are characterized by this likeness, i.e., death to sin.
6:6 In v. 6 Paul takes up and elaborates further on the thought of v. 5. When he says we know (τοῦτο γινώσκοντες, touto ginōskontes) he does not mean we know “by personal experience.” What we know is what Paul says next, namely, that our old man was crucified with Christ. This is something we believe by faith. It is not available to the five senses.
But what does Paul mean by our old man (ὁ παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος, ho palaios hēmon anthrōpos)? Some understand the phrase to refer to parts of a person. If you’re a Christian, the other part is the “new man” (Eph 2:15; 4:22, 24; Col. 3:9-11).
The “old man” language refers to who we were in our totality apart from Christ and in Adam, apart from the new era of grace and in the old era of sin, death, and judgment. It refers to the sphere of our existence before our union with Christ in the new era. Thus it refers to two different humanities with two different heads: Adam and Christ.48 It is both individualistic and corporate in focus. The individualistic focus can be seen in the fact that “the old man” was crucified with Christ. Also, the fact that Paul refers to “he (someone) who has died is freed from sin” (v.7) stresses the individualistic conception of “the old man.” But there is also a corporate focus in the expression “old man-new man.” In Ephesians 2:15 Paul refers to the new man as the sphere of existence of Jew and Gentile (Gal 3:28).
The expression, “body of sin” does not refer to sin as some entity, per se, but rather, as Paul points out in vv. 12-14, to my physical body as an instrument for the expression of sin. Assumed in this idea is a view of the entire man as existing completely within the realm of sin’s dominion. Our old man was crucified so that the body of sin would no longer dominate (καταργηθῇ, katargēsthē) us. The verb dominate is an excellent translation of the Greek katargēsthē, for while the crucifixion was definitive, the old age continues on and may attempt to bring us under its sway if allowed. We were crucified, it was not crucified. The ultimate goal of the crucifixion of our old man was so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin (τοῦ μηκέτι δουλεύειν ἡμᾶς τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, tou mēketi douleuein hēmas tē hamartia).
6:7 In v. 7 Paul clearly demonstrates—perhaps through a well known truth—why the crucifixion of our old man enables us to remain free of slavery to sin. This is so because the person who has died has been freed from sin (δεδικαίωται ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας, dedikaiōtai apo tēs hamartias). Death to sin entails the idea of freedom from it. The term “freed” (dedikaiōtai) could be translated “justified,” but in collocation with the preposition apo, and in a context where justification is not the issue, but progressive sanctification, “freed” is better.
6:8-10 The point of vv. 8-9 is this: if we have died with Christ we will certainly live with him since he died to death once and for all, it can, therefore, never hold sway over him again and subsequently he lives to God.
What does Paul mean when he says, “we…will live” with him (v. 8)? Is he thinking about our present experience as Christians, or is he thinking about the future? This is essentially the same question we faced in v. 5. Some scholars argue that the future tense points to the time of the eschatological future when in resurrected bodies we will be with the Lord. As it stands, this is not the best answer.
Others argue that while Paul uses the future tense, he is describing present realities. This view has much more to commend it. First, the theme of the paragraph as announced in vv. 1-2 concerns questions about living in sin in the present. Second, it is noted that in v. 2, where Paul is clearly referring to our present existence, that the future “will live” is used. Third, the focus in vv. 3-4 is on the present reality of our walk in light of our baptism into Christ’s death. Thus it parallels v. 8. Fourth, the verb “will live with him” in v. 8 seems to parallel “has been freed” in v. 7. If the former (v.7) is a present reality, why not the latter? Fifth, Christ’s resurrection life is a present reality for Paul (vv. 4, 5, 9, 10). Since, then, we are said to “live with him” (note the sun [“with”] prefix on suzēsomen), the living must take place in our present experience as Christians. Sixth, we have been “buried with Christ,” we have been “united with Christ,” and our old man has been “crucified with Christ.” It is likely, since these refer to past events with present implications, that when Paul uses another sun verb, namely, suzēsomen, that he is referring to a past event with present implications, i.e., our enjoyment of resurrection life from the moment of conversion. Seventh, the imperatives of vv. 12-14, especially presenting ourselves to God alive, imply current participation with Christ in his resurrection (cf. the “so you too” in v. 11). This is further confirmed by the “in Christ” language of v. 11. Eighth, Paul clearly taught elsewhere present union with the Lord in his resurrection life (cf. Eph 2:5-6).49
Thus there is good support for this second view. But, there are still problems. Perhaps the biggest objection is the use of “we believe” in v. 8. This seems to imply “hope” for a reality not yet in existence. Overall, then, it may be better to see Paul focusing on the present with a view to the future. In other words, both realities seem to be intended. It would appear, however, as was the case in 5:5, it was the present experience of salvation and the Spirit that led to the conclusion that hope does not disappoint. So also here. It is the present experience of Christ’s resurrection life that strengthens one in the belief that a future consummation is coming.
6:11 In connecting the thoughts of v. 10 with those of v. 11 Paul uses the conjunction so…too (οὕτως, houtōs). It appears that the death Christ died (v. 10) is both the model we are to follow as well as the ground or cause of our “considering ourselves” dead to sin. In other words, we are to consider ourselves dead to sin and alive to God in terms of following Christ’s example and we are able to consider ourselves dead to sin and alive to God since Christ, as our head, already died to sin and lives to God. The latter is based on the forensic connections between Christ and those related to him in 5:12-21.
The imperative consider (λογίζεσθε, logizesthe) means to “count something as true” or to “regard something as a certain way” (14:14). In this case the believer is exhorted to count himself dead to the power of sin and alive to God. Paul raised the question at the beginning of this paragraph, namely, “Are we to remain in sin so that grace may increase?” He answered it definitively in v. 2 with “Absolutely not!” But, in v. 2 he did not tell us how to remain free from the grip of sin. Here in v. 11 he does so. He says, in effect, “we remain free from sin by considering ourselves dead to it and alive to God.”
Two things need to be said about the idea of “considering,” or “reckoning” as some translations render it. First, the term has been used earlier on several occasions, the most pertinent being 3:28 and its occurrences in chapter 4. God “counted” Abraham’s faith as righteousness. He “reckons” or “considers” our faith as righteousness and now we must “consider ourselves,” in light of the work which God has done for us in our new head, Jesus Christ, dead to sin and alive to God. This requires faith. The implication is that the same way in which a person is justified, i.e., by faith, is the same way that a person is sanctified, i.e., by faith.
The second comment is that the imperative “consider” is in the present tense which in this case involves an ongoing commitment to consider oneself dead to sin and alive to God. It is based on the indicative reality that we have already died with Christ and have been raised with him as our new head (6:3-5). This is something God did to us. We do not create this reality by obeying the command, but we do participate in it through considering ourselves appropriately. When we consider ourselves dead to the power, purposes, and impulses of sin, we participate in Christ’s death to sin and so become increasingly delivered from its downward pull (cf. 3:23).
At the same time as we consider ourselves dead to sin, we are to consider ourselves alive to God (ζῶντας δὲ τῷ θεῷ, zōntas de tō theō). “Alive to God” is not so much an ethical idea, though it certainly involves that (6:12-14). It is more foundationally a relational and spiritual reality. Whereas God was once unknown to the believer, he is now known and has become the object of his/her affections. These opposite “reckonings”—dead to sin, alive to God—exist for the believer in Christ (ἐν Χριστῷ ᾿Ιησοῦ, en Christou Iēsou). God considered us “with Christ” when he died, was buried, and was raised. The forensic language is reminiscent of 5:12 where we were said to have participated in the sin of Adam. In any case, the present sphere in which we live out Christ’s death and resurrection (by considering it our own) is referred to as “in Christ.” The age of resurrection life and power has broken into the old age dominated by sin, judgment and condemnation. Death in Adam has given way to “life in Christ,” not only legally, but also practically, spiritually and ethically. Paul will spell this last point out in greater detail in the verses (and chapters) that follow.
6:12-13 Since Paul knows it is true that we are in fact dead to sin and alive to God, he therefore (οὐν, oun) advances the imperative that we are no longer to let sin reign in our mortal body (, mh oun basileuetw Je Jamartia en tw qnhtw Jumwn swmati). The apostle pictures sin here as a ruling master that must not be allowed to mount the throne and “call the shots,” as it were. He is a defeated king and must be kept down. If this is not done, he will assume a position of authority from which he will demand that we carry out his sinful desires and urges.
The sphere in which this defeated monarch will “live out” his sinful schemes, if allowed, is through our physical, mortal bodies. Therefore the sure way to ensure that this does not become a dominant reality is to freely and willingly present (, paristanete) our hands, head, and heart, to the Lord himself to be used in righteous causes and not to sin to be used for its ends, namely, unrighteousness.
6:14 Verse 14 rounds out the paragraph and gives the answer (which follows from vv. 2-11) to the initial question posed in v. 1. The for (γάρ, gar) which begins the verse links it closely with the preceding verses and indeed the question of the passage as a whole: “Should the Christian under grace continue to sin?” Answer: “No, because we were placed under grace in order that sin may longer reign over us.”
While the overall sense of 6:14 in its context is clear, the two principle clauses which comprise the verse have given rise to many different interpretations, some of which have very little, if any, merit. What does Paul mean when he says, sin will have no mastery over you (ἁμαρτία γὰρ ὑμῶν οὐ κυριεύσει, hamartia gar humōn ou kurieusei)? Some commentators have argued, as a result of this passage, that the Christian will not sin, ever. But this is to miss the entire thrust of the question which began this paragraph (v. 1) and to seriously minimize the imperatives of vv. 12-13. Further, it suggests a theology not only foreign to Paul, but to the entire New Testament (cf. the Corinthian correspondence; Gal 5:16ff; cf. 1 John 1:9; 1 Peter 2:11-12).
Some scholars have suggested that the future tense “will have no mastery” functions as an imperative or command. They argue that Paul is commanding the Romans Christians not to allow sin to control them any longer. While the future tense can function in this way (i.e., to give what amounts to a command), and the immediate context in vv. 12-13 is hortatory in nature, it is still unlikely that this is Paul’s meaning here. If this were the case, one would expect a “therefore” (οὖν, oun) to begin v. 14 not a “for” (γάρ, gar). Paul is giving the reason Christians should not sin, not another command.
The best way to understand “will not have mastery” is in reference to the power of sin not dominating our present experience—an experience characterized as in between the time of the inauguration of salvation and the consummation of salvation (8:18). Therefore, it is at once a word of explanation, which posits the ultimate basis for our deliverance from sin, and a word of encouragement in the form of a promise.
The reason the promise is certain is because the Christian is no longer under the administration of the law (i.e., in Adam), but under grace (i.e., in Christ). That is, the fact that our old man has been crucified and Christians now live in union with Christ is referred to as a state of grace. The term law (νόμος, nomos), though without the article, refers to the Mosaic law as a whole, an administration.
This passage contributes greatly to our understanding of sanctification and the object grounds upon which it proceeds, the relationship of our growth to the cross work of Christ and our responsibility in the matter.
Paul teaches that we do not need to sin and that indeed we ought not to sin because we have died to it through the death of Christ and our union with him. Also, in the same way, we are united with him in his resurrection and for that reason we can walk in newness of life—a life of love for God, expressed in keeping his commands (Rom 13:8-10) and a love for others expressed in civil obedience, encouragement, patience, and unity (Rom 12:1-15:13).
Thus, at the heart of progressive sanctification, that is, growth in holiness and Christlikeness, stands the cross work of Christ and its application to the believer who is reckoned by God to have participated in it. The responsibility of the believer is first off to reckon that they are indeed dead to sin and alive to God and then, in keeping with this, to present themselves to him and not sin as their new master. We would do well to think long and hard on the book of Romans before we run off into gimmicks to attempt to grow in the Christian life.
47 Stuart Briscoe, “Why Christ Had To Die,” Preaching Today 163, no. 4.
48 Douglas Moo, Romans 1-8, The Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary, ed. Kenneth Barker (Chicago: Moody, 1991), 391.
49 One should note the presence of the sun verbs in Ephesians 2:5-6 and the similarity between the ideas there and here in Romans 6. The vision in Ephesians 2:5-6 goes a step beyond Romans (though it may be inferred from it), however, when it pictures Christians seated with Christ in the heavenly realms.