MESSAGE STATEMENT: WHEN JESUS WAS PRESENTED AND REJECTED AS ISRAEL'S MESSIAH, HE PREPARED HIS DISCIPLES TO FOLLOW HIS TEACHINGS IN HIS UPCOMING ABSENCE AS THE CRUCIFIED, AND THEN RISEN, OBEDIENT SERVANT/MESSIAH, WHILE ISRAEL SLIPPED TOWARD JUDGMENT I. PROLOGUE: Through the genres of genealogy and narrative Jesus is identified as the Messiah, chosen by God to fulfill the Kingdom promises for Israel and the blessing promises for the world, but he is only received by a remnant (Joseph), He is rejected and persecuted by the nation (Herod), He is worshiped by those outside of the nation (the wisemen), and He is protected by God as the fulfillment of Scripture (1:1--2:23) A. Genealogy: Through the genre of genealogy, Jesus is introduced as the one chosen by God to bring about the Kingdom for which Israel is waiting, and as the one to fulfill the Abrahamic promises to all nations (1:1-17) 1. Introductory statement: The genealogy traces Jesus' lineage through the covenant lines of David and Abraham1 (1:1) 2. The genealogy is unfolded around four characters: Abraham, David, Jeconiah (and the Babylonian deportation), and Joseph the husband of Mary who gave birth to Jesus (1:2-16) a. Jesus' lineage is traced through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Judah, Perez, Hezron, Ram, Amminadab, Nahshon, Salmon, Boaz, Obed, Jesse, to David the King (1:2-6a) b. Jesus' lineage is traced through David, Solomon, Rehoboam, Abijah, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joram, Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, to Jeconiah at the deportation to Babylon (1:6b-11) c. Jesus' lineage is traced through Jeconiah, Shealtiel, Zerubbabel, Abuid, Eliakim, Azor, Zadok, Achim, Eliud, Eleazar, Matthan, Jacob, Joseph the husband of Mary through whom Jesus was born (1:12-16) 3. Summary statement: There is a symmetry in this genealogy to emphasize the periods of the coming kingdom: fourteen generations from Abraham to David (waiting), fourteen generations from David to the deportation, (kingdom period), fourteen generations from the deportation to Jesus (waiting again) (1:17) B. The responses to the birth and early life of Jesus reveal a remnant (Joseph) who believe God's revelation in faith, a nation (Israel-Herod) who reject and want to destroy God's Messiah, and those from outside of Israel who want to worship and honor Jesus as the Messiah sent and protected by God (2:1-23) 1. The Birth of Jesus Christ is unfolded as a miraculous conception of the Holy Spirit upon Mary as well as through the recounting of a faithful response by Joseph to the message of the angel that Mary's child was from the Holy Spirit and to be the fulfillment of the promise to the house of David as He saves His people from their sins as 'God with us' (1:18-25) a. Programmatic statement: The birth of Jesus Christ was as follows: (1:18a) b. Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit, before she had relations with Joseph (1:18) c. Joseph, though desiring to divorce Mary for what appeared to be immorality on her behalf, received a message from an angel of the Lord that the Child is from the Lord and is to fulfill the promises to the house of David; whereupon, he responds in faith by marrying Mary, keeping her pure, and naming the child Jesus (1:19-25) 1) Joseph desired to privately divorce Mary as a righteous and sensitive man (1:19) 2) When Joseph had considered divorcing Mary, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and exhorted him, as the son of David, to not be afraid to take Mary as his wife since the Child was (1) conceived by the Holy Spirit, and (2) since Joseph is to call the child Jesus who will save His people from their sins (1:20-21) 3) The narrator interrupts the dream to note that this announcement to Joseph is a fulfillment of the prophecy given by Isaiah that Jesus is to be God with us" (1:23) 4) Joseph responded in faith to the words of the angel by marrying Mary, keeping her pure, and naming the male child Jesus (1:24-25) 2. After Jesus was Born, He is honored by those outside of Israel (the wisemen), persecuted by those within Israel (Herod), protected by God, and safely brought back into the land of Israel in fulfillment of Scripture (2:1-23) a. After the birth of Jesus, wisemen arrive in Jerusalem seeking the one who was born Messiah, learn of the prophecies concerning Bethlehem through Herod, and are deceptively sent by Herod to find the Child (2:1-8) 1) After Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, during the reign of Herod the king, wisemen from the east arrived in Jerusalem inquiring as to the location of the one who had been born King of the Jews (2:1-2) 2) Herod becomes troubled at the words of the wisemen, learns of Bethlehem as the prophesied location of Messiah's birth, and then deceptively sends the wisemen to locate the Messiah and report back to him (2:3-8) a) When Herod heard of the questioning of the wisemen, he was troubled and learned from Israel's "wisemen" that Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem (2:3-6) b) Herod secretly sent for the wisemen, told them of the prophecy of Bethlehem, and deceitfully sent them to search and report back to him the location of the child (2:7- 8) b. As the wisemen left Herod, God led them to the house of Jesus; they worshiped Him, and went home a different way under God's direction (2:9-12) 1) As the wisemen took leave of the King, the star reappeared and led them to the very house of the Child (2:9-10) 2) When the wisemen saw the Child with his mother Mary, they worshiped him and gave to him gifts symbolic of the Kingdom (cf. Isa. 60:6) (2:11) 3) Having been warned by God in a dream not to return to Herod, the wisemen went home another way (2:12) c. Under the instruction of an Angel of the Lord, Joseph takes his family to Egypt in order to protect Jesus from Herod and to fulfill the prophecy of Hosea that God's Son would be called out of Egypt (2:13-15) 1) After the wisemen left, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and told him to take the Child and his mother to Egypt where they were to remain until the they were told otherwise because Herod sought to kill the Child (2:13) 2) Joseph obeyed in faith as he took the family by night for Egypt (2:14) 3) The family remained in Egypt until Herod's death to fulfill the prophecy of Hosea 11:1 that God had called His Son out of Egypt (2:15) d. Having been foiled by God, Herod attempts to destroy the Child born Messiah, only to bring sorrow upon the nation (2:16-18) 1) When Herod realized that he had been tricked by the wisemen, he slew all of the male children who were in Bethlehem and its neighboring areas from the age of two and under as he figured from the words of the wisemen (2:16) 2) Herod's slaying of the children is a fulfillment of Jeremiah 31:15-20 in that now there is sorrow for the nation,(but hope is coming through God cf. 2:19-21) (2:17-18) e. After the death of Herod, Joseph is instructed to return to the land of Israel with the family and to go to Nazareth in Galilee to fulfill the words of the prophets that Jesus would be despised as the Servant (2:19-23) 1) After the death of Herod, an angel of the Lord instructs Joseph to take the family back into the land of Israel (2:19-20) 2) Joseph was fearful of returning to Jerusalem when he heard that Herod Archelaus was reigning over Judea (2:22a) 3) Joseph is instructed in a dream to return to Nazareth in Galilee in order to fulfill the words of the prophets that the Servant would be despised2 (2:22b-23) II. JESUS IS INTRODUCED WITH FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINGDOM: Having been identified with the prophetic message of John, Jesus is demonstrated to be the true son of God who obeys his word, who proclaims in word and miracles the gospel of the Kingdom, and exhorts His disciples to submit to His rule for enrichment, usefulness to God, greatness in the Kingdom, and temporal life (3:1--7:29) A. Jesus' identification: As John, the Elijah-figure, came preaching repentance, baptizing those who were confessing their sin, and warning of judgment for the religious leaders who were externalists before God, Jesus comes and is baptized by John to identify Him with the eschatological aspects of John's message whereupon He is confirmed to be the Servant of the Lord and God's anointed King on earth (3:1-17) 1. John came preaching repentance in the wilderness of Judea proclaiming from Isaiah 40:3 that God's people should make themselves ready for His coming to deliver them (3:1-3) 2. Appearing as the prophet Elijah, John baptized those who repented of their sin in the Jordan river and warned the religious leaders in their self-righteousness and of their impending doom through the One who was to follow him, if they would not repent (3:4-12) a. Appearing as the prophet Elijah, John baptized in the Jordan those from Jerusalem, Judea, and the district around the Jordan who were confessing their sin (3:4-6) b. John rebuked the religious leaders of Israel who were coming for baptism because they were trusting in their heritage for acceptance before God rather than repenting of their evil as he warned of coming judgment through the one who will follow him (3:7-12) 3. As John agrees to baptize Jesus in order to identify Him with the eschatological aspects of John's message, Jesus is confirmed to be the Servant who is God's anointed King on earth (3:13- 15) a. Jesus came to John at the Jordan to be baptized by him (3:13) b. John attempted to prevent Jesus from being baptized by him (3:14) c. Jesus insists that John baptize Him in order that they might conformed to the will of God as Jesus identifies Himself with the eschatological aspects of John's Message ("the One coming"), and not the elements of sins (3:15) d. As a confirmation, The Father proclaims Jesus to be the Servant who is King3 (3:16-17) B. Jesus' demonstration: After Jesus is led by the Spirit to the desert and is weakened through fasting, he demonstrates Himself to be the true Israel (son of the Father) by not yielding, but obeying the word of God, and thus being ministered unto by God's angels after Satan departed (4:1-11) 1. The setting: Jesus is led by the Spirit (as the true Israel) into the wilderness where he fasted for forty days and forty nights (4:1) 2. The temptation: Jesus is presented as the true Israel who obeys the will of His Father against the temptations of the devil (4:2-10) a. Setting: The tempter came and spoke to Jesus (4:2) b. The temptations: Through temptations for Jesus to preempt the Father's will, He demonstrates Himself to be the true Son of the Father (Israel) who is obedient to the word of God (4:3-10) 1) When the tempter attacks Jesus' person- hood with a temptation to turn stones into bread, Jesus refuses to act apart from God's will (4:3-4) a) The tempter attacks Jesus' person- hood as proclaimed by the Father (cf. 3:17) by appealing to his need for food when he suggests that he turn the stones into bread (4:3) b) Unlike the nation Israel in the wilderness (Deut.8:3; cf. Ex. 16:15), Jesus responds that He will not provide for His hunger "alone" from God's will (4:4) 2) In a temptation for Jesus to force God to display his faithfulness to Him as the King, Jesus refuses to presumptuously test God's faithfulness (4:5-7) a) The tempter exhorts Jesus to seek national recognition by jumping from the pinnacle of the temple and thus forcing God to faithfully keep his promises (4:5-6) b) Unlike the nation Israel in the wilderness (Exodus 17:7), Jesus refuses to presumptuously test the faithfulness of God (4:7) 3) In a temptation for Jesus to receive universal recognition outside of God's design Jesus refuses to worship anyone but the Lord God (4:8-10) a) The tempter offers Jesus a universal rule if he will worship him (4:8-9) b) Unlike the nation Israel (Deut. 6:13) Jesus chooses to only worship the Lord God (4:10) 3. The conclusion: The devil left Jesus and angels began to minister to Him (4:11) C. Jesus' beginning ministry: Jesus began His ministry by retreating from Jerusalem in light of John's persecution, going to Galilee where he would be a light to Israel and the Gentiles, calling disciples from Galilee, and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom through word and deed, thus bringing many from all over who followed Him (4:12-25) 1. When Jesus learned that John had been taken into custody by Herod, He withdrew from Jerusalem to Galilee, leaving Nazareth and settling in Capernaum thus fulfilling Isaiah's prophecy that the Gentiles in Zebulun and Naphtali would see a great light (4:12-16) 2. Jesus began to preach the same message as John in Galilee, "Repent for the kingdom of heaven is at hand" (4:17) 3. Jesus called the brothers "Simon and Andrew" and "John and James" from their work as fishermen at sea to follow him and they immediately followed (4:18-22) a. Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, called Simon (Peter), and his brother Andrew to follow him to be fishers of men, and they left all and followed Him (4:18-20) b. Jesus called James and his brother John (Zebedee) to follow him and they left their work and father and followed Him (4:21-22) 4. Jesus began to minister in all Galilee as He preached the gospel of the kingdom and demonstrated signs of the kingdom resulting in multitudes following him from all around Israel: Syria, Decapolis, Galilee, Jerusalem, Judea, and from across the Jordan (4:23-25) a. Jesus went around all of Galilee teaching in the synagogues, proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and healing among the people (4:23) b. The news about Jesus spread into all Syria and they brought their sick for Him to heal (4:24) c. Great multitudes followed Jesus from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea, and beyond the Jordan (4:25) D. Jesus' Ruling Words: As Jesus saw the multitudes who were following Him, He went up on the mountain and taught, as King, His disciples who came to him that obedience to the rule of Christ brings enrichment, usefulness to God, greatness in the Kingdom of God and temporal life to the believer (5:1--7:29) [Discourse] 1. The setting: When Jesus saw the multitudes who were following Him he went upon the mountain, sat down, and spoke to His disciples who came to Him (5:1-2) 2. The message: Jesus taught His disciples that obedience to the rule of Christ brings enrichment, usefulness to God, greatness in the Kingdom of God and temporal life to the believer (5:3--7:27) a. Jesus proclaimed that enrichment would come to believers and those who are in relationship with them when they adopt the attitudes of the King(dom) (5:3-16) 1) Christ describes the vulnerable character of those who will be enriched by God in His Kingdom (5:3-12) a) Those who are aware of their need are identified with the kingdom (5:3) b) Those who mourn will be encouraged (5:4) c) Those who are gentle will gain the earth (5:5) d) Those longing for uprightness will receive it (5:6) e) Those who show mercy will receive it (5:7) f) Those who are pure within will see God (5:8) g) Those who make peace are identified with God (5:9) h) Those who are persecuted for being upright are being identified with God's kingdom just as the prophets of old were (5:10-12) 2) Being compared to both salt and light which attract the senses of men, the disciples are urged to not lose their obedient attitude which draws people unto God in His goodness (5:13-16) b. Jesus explained the full meaning of the Law in order that believers might do it and be great in the Kingdom (5:17--7:12)4 1) The principle is stated: Christ came to fulfill the Law so that whoever obeys Him will be called great in the Kingdom and whoever disobeys will be called least in the Kingdom (5:17-20) a) Christ identifies His instruction as fulfilling rather than abolishing the Old Testament whose promises are certain (5:17-18) b) Our handling of the commandments not only will determine our position in God's kingdom but must exceed the religious leaders of the day to ever hope to enter the Kingdom (5:19-20) 2) The principle is applied (5:21--7:12) a) One is not to murder in thought or deed but to be reconciled to their enemies to worship God (5:21-26) (1) Murder is not just physical destruction, but our attitudes and critical attacks toward on another (5:21-22) (2) Since a murderer is liable to the court, one should make the resolution of disputes a high priority or he will have to pay for them (5:23-26) b) One is not to commit adultery in thought or deed but to take drastic steps to guard oneself even in the area of divorce (5:27-32) c) One should always speak the truth without mental reservation in vows (5:33-37) d) One should be gracious and generous in their relationships and not seeking excessive retribution5 (5:38-42) e) One should love all men--good and evil--as God does rather than as the Gentiles do (5:43-48) f) One must do sacrificial acts of worship in secret before God to receive His pleasure and reward (6:1-18) (1) One is warned against practicing his uprightness before men so as to be noticed by them because God will not reward such righteousness in heaven (6:1) (2) Whatever one's spiritual ministry may be -- giving, praying or fasting -- we should not limit its effectiveness by being externalists, but capitalize on what God has for us by doing it as unto Him (6:2-18) g) One should seek spiritual rather than material riches trusting the Father to provide for needs (6:19- 34) (1) One should invest his life in God and His things over earthly things because the former will endure, draw our hearts toward Him, enlighten us, and keep us from choosing against Him (6:19-24) (2) Knowing that life consists of much more than things, and that God in His care will provide for our needs in life, one should invest himself in the Lord's desires as he deals with the issues of life daily (6:25-34) h) One must be careful in personal relationships examining himself before correcting a brother, and not being too open with the enemy because of the vulnerability factor (7:1-6) (1) Rather than being externally critical of others, one should first examine himself so that he is not found to be even more guilty and so that he can better help (7:1-5) (2) In a discerning way, one should not give that which is valuable to those who may discard it and turn upon him (7:6) i) One must ask God, who is more willing than a father to give good things, in order to receive things (7:7-11) j) The Law and the Prophets is summarized as doing unto others as you would have them do unto you6 (7:12) c. Jesus exhorted believers to follow His instruction so as to not be misled and destroyed, but to be supported and live (7:13- 27) 1) Believers are exhorted to choose the narrow way of Christ's instruction as a direction for life rather than the broader way leading to death (7:13-14) a) One should enter by the narrow gate because the wide gate and broad way which many enter by leads to destruction (7:13) b) One should enter by the narrow gate because the small gate and the narrow path lead to life for those who find it (7:14) 2) Believers are exhorted to watch for false teachers who in their teaching will destroy them (e.g.,the wide path) (7:15-23) a) One must be cautious of false "spiritual leaders" who appear to be harmless but actually desire to consume them (7:15) b) One can know the identity of false "spiritual leaders" by examining the quality of what they produce -- even if it is religious -- because that which is against God's word is bad (7:16-23) (1) One will know false "spiritual leaders" by what they produce in affecting others (7:16a) (2) Just as one can discern the incorrect vine or tree from a grape or fig, so also can one discern the true kind of tree by its fruit (7:16b-18) (3) Every tree that produces bad fruit is itself destroyed by the orchard keeper (7:19) (4) Due to the correlation of fruit and trees we can know false "spiritual leaders" by the affects which they have upon others (7:20) (5) "Spiritual leaders" who are active religiously for Christ but practice lawlessness will not be received by Him at the judgment (7:21-23) 3) Believers are exhorted to build their lives upon the supporting foundation of Christ's word rather than foolishness (7:24-27) a) Those who hear Christ's words and act upon them may be compared to a wise man who built his house upon a rock and did not lose it with the storms of life -- they will survive (7:24-25) b) Those who hear Christ's words and do not act upon them may be compared to a foolish man who loses his life in the storms of life (7:26-27) 3. The response: The multitudes responded by being amazed over the authority with which Christ taught- -unlike the scribes (7:28-29) III. JESUS MAKES HIMSELF KNOWN to Israel as Messiah through miraculous works which are characteristic of Messiah and the Kingdom, and through proclamation by Himself and His twelve disciples that the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand for Israel if she will receive Him (8:1--11:1) A. Jesus demonstrates Himself to be Israel's Messiah through miracles of healing, power and restoration all the while addressing those who would follow Him of their need for commitment to Him and God's desire to have those who will lead His people unto Him (8:1-- 9:38) 1. Miracles of healing over the physically curable: Jesus demonstrates Himself to be Messiah as he heals the physically ill as the Servant of YHWH, and corrects those who want to follow Him for the sake of wealth or in convenience (8:1-23) a. After coming down from the mount where he preached his sermon of obedience, Jesus demonstrates that He is messiah by healing a leper who seeks Him out, and commanding that he tell no one until he testifies to the priest in Jerusalem (8:1-4) 1) Setting: When Jesus came down from the mountain, after giving the sermon, great multitudes followed Him (8:1) 2) Miracle--Leper: Jesus is willing and heals a leperous man who seeks Him out, and commands him to tell no one, but to take the Mosaic sacrifice to the priest as a testimony to them (8:2-4) a) A leperous man asked Jesus to cleanse him if he was willing (8:2) b) Jesus was willing to cleanse the leperous man and commanded him to be cleansed whereupon he was cleansed (8:3) c) Jesus commanded him to tell no-one but to go to the priest in Jerusalem with the offering commanded by Moses as a testimony to the priests (8:4) b. When Jesus entered Capernaum, a centurion asked Him to heal his sick servant, and expressed confidence in His authority, whereupon Jesus demonstrated that He was Messiah by telling those who were following Him of the future participants in the Kingdom, and by healing the centurion's servant (8:5-13) 1) Setting: When Jesus entered Capernaum, a centurion came to Him entreating Him (8:5) 2) Miracle--Centurion: When the centurion tells Jesus of the need of his ill servant, and proclaims he confidence in Jesus' authority, Jesus tells those following Him of surprises to come in the future Kingdom, and heals the centurion's servant (8:6-13) a) The centurion tells Jesus that his servant is lying paralyzed at home in great pain (8:6) b) Although Jesus offered to come and heal the servant, the centurion honors Jesus and expresses faith by recognizing Jesus' authority to speak a command from afar (8:7-9) c) Marveling at the centurion's response, Jesus tells those following him of how Gentiles will participate in the future Kingdom, while many Jews will be cast out; then he heals from afar the centurion's servant (8:10-13) (1) Jesus marveled at the centurion's response (8:10) (2) Jesus tells those who are following him that such great faith has not been found in Israel, and that many from outside of Israel will participate in the Kingdom while many from within will be forbidden from entering the Kingdom (8:11-12) (3) Jesus tells the centurion that the healing will be done for him just as he has believed it would, and the servant was healed (8:13) c. When Jesus entered Peter's home he found his mother-in-law ill, healed her with a touched and was waited upon by her (8:14-15) 1) Setting: When Jesus had come to Peter's home he saw his mother-in-law lying sick in bed with a fever (8:14) 2) Miracle--Peter's mother-in-law: Jesus touched Peter's mother-in-law's hand, the fever left her and she waited on Him (8:15) d. Message to followers: After healing many who are demonized, and sick as the Servant of Israel, Jesus orders his disciples to go with Him across the Sea of Galilee, and proclaims Himself to be Messiah as he rebukes those who are seeking to follow Him for the sake of possessions or in convenience (8:16-23) 1) When evening came the people brought many people who demonized, and Jesus cast out spirits with a word, and healed all who were ill (8:16) 2) The purpose behind Jesus' miracles with the people was that he might be demonstrated to be the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy as the Servant of YHWH who took away the infirmities and diseases of Israel (8:17) 3) As Jesus orders his disciples to leave the crowd by crossing the Sea of Galilee, He proclaims who He is by correcting two disciples who are seeking to follow Him for possessions and convenience whereupon he entered the boat an is followed by His disciples (8:18-23) a) Jesus saw a crowd around Him and ordered His disciples to depart to the other side of the Sea of Galilee (8:18) b) One comes to Jesus and offers to follow Him wherever he goes, to which Jesus responds that there is no one place on earth where the Son of Man (who rules over earth as "man") dwells (8:19-20) c) One asks Jesus to be excused to deal with earthly matters before he follows him, to which Jesus emphasizes the need to follow Him as the priority when compared with earthly matters (8:21-22) d) Jesus entered the boat and his disciples followed Him (8:23) 2. Miracles of power over all creation: Jesus demonstrates Himself to be Messiah by displaying His power over the storm, demons, and sin thus receiving those who would follow Him, leaving and correcting the religious who rejected Him, and explaining the uniqueness of His message to that of present Judaism to those who inquired of Him (8:24--9:17) a. When a great storm arose on the Sea threatening the ship, Jesus was awakened by the fearful disciples, accused the disciples of having little faith, and calmed the storm, causing the disciples to wonder at who He was (8:24-27) 1) Setting: A great storm arose in the sea which threatened the ship and those who were aboard, but Jesus was asleep (8:24) 2) The miracle--calming the storm: After the disciples awoke Jesus in fear for salvation, He accused them of little faith and stilled the storm (8:25-26) a) The disciples came to Jesus and awoke Him asking Him to save them (8:25) b) After accusing the disciples of having little faith, Jesus rebuked the storm and all became calm (8:26) (1) Jesus asked the disciples why they were so timid and accused them of having little faith (8:26a) (2) Jesus rebuked the winds and the sea and it became perfectly still (8:26b) 3) The disciples marveled at what had occurred questioning what kind of man He was since the winds and sea obeyed Him (8:27) b. When Jesus was met by two demonized men, he cast their evil spirits into a herd of pigs leading to the death of the animals, and thus a rejection by the town's people who asked Him to leave [being more concerned for their pigs than the demonized men delivered by Messiah] (8:28-34) 1) Setting: When Jesus had come to the other side of the Sea of Galilee into the country of the Gaderenes, two demonized men, who in their strength blocked the road, came out of the tombs and met Him (8:28) 2) Miracle--the demonized, Gadarene men: After the demons recognized Jesus and asked that he send them into the swine, He granted their request and they killed the whole herd of pigs in the Sea (8:29- 32) a) As the demons recognized Jesus as Messiah, they questioned the timing of His judgment of them and requested that He send them to nearby swine if He was going to cast them out of the men (8:29-31) (1) Recognizing Jesus as the Messiah, the demons question Jesus as to whether He has come to judge them before the set, future time (8:29) (2) Seeing a herd of swine, the demons entreated Jesus to cast them into them if He was going to cast them out of the men (8:30-31) b) Jesus cast the demons into the swine and the whole herd rushed into the sea and perished into the water (8:32) 3) The response: When the people learned of the entire event, they asked Jesus to leave their region (8:33-34) a) The herdsmen ran to the city and reported all that occurred (8:33) b) The whole city came out to meet Jesus, and entreated Him to leave their region (8:34) c. Upon arriving in Capernaum, Jesus forgave a believing paralytic of his sins, and then physically healed him as evidence to the doubting scribes of His authority, causing the multitudes to marvel (9:1-8) 1) Setting: Jesus entered a boat at Gadara and crossed the Sea of Galilee over to His own city, Capernaum (9:1) 2) The miracle--paralytic: Upon arriving in Capernaum, Jesus was confronted by men of faith bringing a paralytic, forgave the man of his sins, and then physically healed the man as evidence to the accusing scribes that He had authority to forgive sins on earth (9:2- 7) a) When Jesus arrived in Capernaum, He saw men bringing a paralytic unto Him (9:2a) b) Jesus responded to the faith of the men encouraged the paralytic by forgiving his sins (9:2b) c) Some of the scribes said to themselves that Jesus was blaspheming (9:3) d) Jesus challenged the scribes' inner thoughts and healed the paralytic so that they might know that He, the Son of Man, had authority to forgive sins (9:4-7) 3) Response: The multitudes were filled with awe, and glorified God who had given such authority to men (9:8) d. A message to followers: Jesus calls Matthew, a tax-gather who follows Him, defends His love for sinners as the very heart of God to the Pharisees, and explains His Kingdom ministry as being unique to the present religion of Judaism (9:9-17) 1) Jesus called Matthew, a tax officer, to follow Him and he rose and followed Him (9:9) 2) As Jesus and His disciples partake of dinner with many tax-gathers and sinners, He answers the questioning indictments of the Pharisees by affirming that He, like God, has come to help those who are aware of their spiritual need rather than those who consider themselves righteous in their religious externalities (9:10-13) a) As Jesus was about to eat dinner in the house, many tax-gathers and sinners joined Him and His disciples for dinner (9:10) b) The Pharisees saw Jesus eating with these sinners and questioned His disciples as to why He was eating with them (9:11) c) Jesus overheard their questioning His disciples and answered that He, like God, desires to help those who are in need and not those who do not recognize their need through their formal religious externalities (9:12-13) 3) When the disciples of John the Baptizer come and question the absence of fasting by Jesus' disciples, He explains their actions in view of His presence with them, and in view of the newness of His Kingdom offer from Judaism of the day (9:14-17) a) The disciples of John the Baptizer came to Jesus questioning why His disciples do not fast like they and the Pharisees do (9:14) b) Jesus explains the absence of fasting by His disciples as due to the fact that He is present with them at this moment, unlike in the future when He will be taken away, and because His offer of the Kingdom is not a continuation of Judaism as they know it, but is completely new (9:15-17) (1) Jesus answers John's disciples (9:14a) (2) Jesus explains that fasting is not appropriate when the bridegroom is with the attendants of the bridegroom (9:15a) (3) There will be a future time of fasting when the bridegroom will be taken away from the attendants (9:15b) (4) That which Jesus represents [the Kingdom] is not a continuation of the old ["old garment," "old wineskins"] but must be received as something completely new [new wine in fresh wineskins] lest it destroy both the old and new (9:16-17) 3. Miracles of restoration: Jesus demonstrates Himself to be the Messiah by restoring life to the sick, dead, blind, and demonized, by proclaiming the Kingdom of God all over Israel, and exhorting His disciples to pray for leaders to gather God's people unto to Him in the wake of the lack of Jewish leadership (9:18-38) a. After explaining the differences between Judaism and His message of the Kingdom to John's disciples, Jesus goes to heal the daughter of a synagogue official who comes in faith, announces healing upon a woman who touched His garment in faith, and healed the official's daughter in spite of the mockery of the mourners, causing a report to go throughout all of the land (9:18-31) 1) Setting: While Jesus was speaking to John's disciples, a synagogue official came, bowed down, and in faith sought Jesus to come and heal his daughter who had just died (9:18) 2) The miracle--healing the official's daughter: On the way to healing the daughter of the synagogue official, Jesus announced healing for a woman of faith who had been ill for twelve years, and then went on to heal the official's daughter against the mockery of the mourners (9:19-26) a) Jesus and His disciples arose and began to follow the synagogue official (9:19) b) On the way to the official's home, Jesus announces to a woman sick of a hemorrhage for twelve years who touched His garment that her faith had made her well (9:20-22) (1) A woman, suffering for twelve years from a hemorrhage, touched in faith the fringe of Christ's garment to get well (9:20-21) (2) Jesus turned to the woman and told her to take courage, that her faith had made her well (9:22) c) When Jesus arrived at the official's home, He commanded the professional mourners to cease since the girl had not died but was asleep, but they laughed (9:23-24) d) When the crowd had been put out, Jesus entered, took the girl by the hand, and she arose to life (9:25) 3) The Response: The news about the healing of the official's daughter went out into all the land (9:26) b. As Jesus and his disciples were leaving the official's house, he healed two blind men in accordance with their faith, but they told all of the miracle against his command 9:27- 31 1) Setting: As Jesus and his disciples were going out from the official's house, two blind men approached beseeching him as the Son of David to have mercy on them 9:27 2) After Jesus entered the house (of the blind men), he asked them if they believed that he was able to heal them, and they said, "Yes" 9:28 3) Jesus touched their eyes and healed them7 in accordance with their faith 9:28-30a 4) Jesus warned the healed men to tell no one about what he had done, but they left and spread the news about him in all the land8 9:30b-31 c. As Jesus and His disciples were going out of the blind men's house, a demonized man was brought to Him, whereupon He cast the demon out to be praised by the multitudes as working unique works of God, only to be accused of evil by the pharisees (9:32-34) 1) Setting: As Jesus and His disciples were going out of the officials house, a dumb, demonized man was brought to Him (9:32) 2) The miracle: The demon was cast out of the man (9:33a) 3) The response: The multitudes marveled affirming the uniqueness of Jesus' works in Israel, but the Pharisees accused Him of casting out demons by the ruler of demons (9:33b-34) d. Response: As Jesus was going all around the land of Israel proclaiming the Kingdom and authenticating His message with signs of the Kingdom, He felt compassion on the lack of leadership for the people and urged the disciples to pray that God would send leaders to gather His people together (9:35-38) 1) Summary: Jesus was going about in all the cities and villages teaching the gospel of the Kingdom, and authenticating His message with healings of every kind (9:35) 2) Jesus felt compassion for the multitudes because they were distressed and downcast like sheep without a shepherd (9:36) 3) Jesus told his disciples that there were many to reach, but there were few workers, therefore, they should ask God to send out workers among His people9 (9:37-38) B. Jesus prepares and sends out His twelve disciples to announce the coming of the Kingdom, and then follows them to preach and teach in their cities (10:1--11:1) [Discourse] 1. Jesus summoned His twelve disciples giving them authority over unclean spirits and over disease and sickness (10:1) 2. Matthew lists the names of the twelve apostles as follows:10 Simon (who is called Peter), Andrew (Simon's brother), James (the son of Zebedee) and John (his brother), Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew (the tax-gatherer), James (the son of Alphaeus), Thaddaeus, Simon (the Zealot), and Judas Iscariot (the one who betrayed Him) (10:2-5) 3. Jesus sent His twelve disciples out after instructing them concerning whom to go to, what to expect concerning provisions, how to address those within each city, what future dangers to expect, concerning fear, and the effects they can expect from their message (10:5-42) a. Jesus sent these twelve out after instructing them (10:5a) b. Jesus instructed the twelve concerning whom to go to, what to expect concerning provisions, how to address those within each city, what future dangers to expect, concerning fear, and the effects they can expect from their message (10:5b-42) 1) Jesus instructs the twelve to not go to the Gentiles or the Samaratians, but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel only11 (10:5b-6) 2) Jesus instructs the disciples to preach the Gospel that the Kingdom of God is at hand,12 and to do authenticating works of the Kingdom13 (10:7-8a) 3) Jesus instructs the disciples to not accumulate wealth to live on during their journeys, but to rely upon God to provide for their needs through His people (10:8b-10) a) They are to give the message and signs of the Kingdom freely because they received them freely from God (10:8b) b) They are not to accumulate provisions for their journey but to be provided for by those to whom they ministered (10:9-10) 4) Jesus instructs the disciples to seek out those who will receive their gospel message as they enter each city, and to pronounce peace upon those who receive them and of the judgment which will come upon those who do not receive them (10:11-15) a) As the disciples enter a city, they are to inquire to learn of those who would respond favorably to the message of the Kingdom, and to stay with those people until they leave the city14 (10:11) b) When they enter a house they are to give it their gospel greeting of peace, to remain upon the house, if the house responds appropriately, and to return to them as they leave, if the house does not receive them (10:12-14) c) Jesus proclaims that there will be a worse judgment for the city who rejects His messengers than for Sodom and Gomorrah in the coming day of judgment (10:15) 5) Jesus instructs His disciples concerning future dangers in their mission of proclaiming the Gospel until Messiah comes in judgment as the Son of Man, because the people will treat them as they have treated Him (10:16-25) a) Jesus warns the disciples of the danger of their mission (10:16a) b) Jesus instructs the disciples to be shrewd, yet harmless in their interaction with men, and to have confidence in God's Spirit who will give them the words to say when they are falsely brought before the tribunals of men (20:16b-20) c. Jesus instructs the disciples to be shrewd, yet innocent in their actions (10:16b) d. Jesus warns of the evil works of men who will seek to "legally" destroy them, but also of the Spirit of God's provisions for them at such times (10:17-20) 4. Jesus warns that families will turn agasint them as they proclaim the gospel, but they are to endure the truth for deliverance (10:21-22) 5. Jesus instructs the disciples to leave a city which persecutes them for the next city since they will not finish going through the cities of Israel before the Son of Man comes15 (10:23) 6. Since a disciple is not greater than his master, the disciples should not expect that they will be treated differently than Jesus has been in His rejection by the religious leaders (10:24-25) C. Jesus instructs His disciples to not fear those who will persecute them but to make His words known to all because God holds all life in His hands, cares for them, and reward them for faithfulness (10:26- 1. Jesus instructs His disciples to not fear those who persecute them because God intends for these private words to be made known to all (10:26-27) 2. Jesus exhorts the disciples to not be afraid of those who will persecute them, but to fear God who holds all of life, cares for their lives, and will honor, or shame, them for their faithfulness before all in heaven (10:28-33) a. Jesus exhorts His disciples to not fear men who can destroy the body more than God who can destroy the soul and body in hell (10:28) b. Jesus exhorts His disciples to not be afraid because the Father is aware of the most intimate details of their life and cares for them (10:29-31) c. Jesus exhorts His disciples to not be afraid of men because God will reward those who remain faithful to Him, and shame those who do not before all in heaven (10:32-33) D. Jesus instructs His disciples that even though their message will divide many people, that those who receive them will receive Christ, the Father and reward (10:34- 42) 1. Jesus instructs His disciples that He did not come to bring peace upon the earth at this time but to incite division as people choose concerning who He is (10:34-39) a. Statement: Jesus quotes Micah 7:6 to describe the disunity which will come to households which are faced with the choice of Jesus (10:34-36) b. The one who chooses to follow family over Jesus is not worthy of Jesus (10:37) c. The one who does not choose to submit to Jesus over personal desires is not worthy of Jesus, and will not find his life but loose it (10:38-39) d. Jesus instructs His disciples that those who receive them will receive Christ, the Father, and the disciples' reward (10:40-42) 1) Jesus instructs His disciples that those who receive them receive Jesus and thus the Father (10:40) 2) As with prophets and righteous men, those who receive the disciples will share in the disciples' reward (10:41- 42) 2. When Jesus had completed giving instructions to His twelve disciples, He departed from there to teach and preach in their cities (11:1) IV. OPPOSITION TO THE KING: From an initial questioning of the work of Jesus by John the Baptizer, to more intense opposition which led to the rejection of Jesus by the leaders of the nation, Jesus continued to minister as the suffering servant by identifying the evil of the religious leaders and by proclaiming the gospel message for those who would hear in the form of parables about the interim form of the Kingdom which must take place in view of Israel's rejection of her King (11:2--13:53) A. As John the Baptizer hears of Jesus' works, and yet continues to be in prison, he questions whether or not Jesus is the Messiah, but is reminded by Jesus that His works fulfill the Scripture's expectations, and to not stumble over Him as the nation will (11:2-6) 1. When John the Baptizer, who was in prison, heard of the works of Christ, he sent His disciples to inquire as to whether Jesus was the Messiah or if they should look for someone else16 (11:2-3) 2. Jesus replied to John's disciples that His works authenticate Him as being Messiah, and that John should not stumble over Him who is to be a stumbling block to the nation (11:4-6) a. Jesus exhorted John's disciples to report to John the works of Jesus were fulfilling the Scriptures' expectation (Isa. 35:5ff; 61:1) of the coming King with His Kingdom: the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, and dead are raised up, the poor have the Gospel preached to them (11:4-5) b. Jesus exhorts John to not stumble over Him as so many others in Israel were doing (cf. Isa. 8:13-15) B. As Jesus began to speak to the multitudes about John the Baptizer He emphasized that John was the one to announce, in the spirit of Elijah, the coming of the Messiah, if the nation would receive him, but the nation had been stubborn, to the point of upcoming judgment, but He still exhorted them to listen to His words of life from God and to turn from Judaism (11:7- 30) 1. Setting: As John's disciples were going away, Jesus began to speak to the multitudes about John17 (11:7a) 2. Jesus not only identifies John the Baptizer as a prophet, but as the one who fulfills the Scriptures as the forerunner of Messiah if the nation will receive him, and in spite of the hindrances launched by the religious leaders (11:7b-15) a. John was not weak, or soft but a great prophet who's ministry was to be the forerunner of Messiah, yet, he is still less than those who will be in the Kingdom (11:7b- 11) 1) Through a series of questions, Jesus affirms that those who went out to see John went to see a prophet (11:7b-9a) 2) Jesus proclaims that John was more than a prophet, he was the forerunner of Messiah in accordance with Malachi 4:5- 618 and was thus the greatest of all the OT prophets (11:9b-11a) 3) Jesus proclaims that the least in the Kingdom of God are greater than John the Baptizer19 (11:11b) b. Jesus notes that even though this generation's leaders are trying to take the Kingdom of Heaven away, John is the Scripture's forerunner of Messiah in the spirit of Elijah if they will receive him (11:12-15) 1) From the days of John the Baptist until this time of Jesus the Kingdom of God has been taken away by force by violent men [the Pharisees]20 (11:12) 2) John is the fulfillment of the Scriptures which pointed to the Kingdom and its forerunner--Elijah--who is represented by John21, if Israel would accept Him (11:13-15) 3. Noting the capricious, unresponsive nature of His generation, Jesus pronounces judgment upon the Israelite cities who did not respond in repentance to His miracles as the Gentiles would have (11:16- 24) a. Jesus notes the unresponsive nature of His generation because they are not satisfied with God's attempts to reach them through the solemn [John] or the joyful [Jesus] (11:15- 19) 1) Jesus compares His generation to children who are never satisfied with what others do (11:15-17) 2) The reason Jesus compares this generation to children is because John came in a solemn spirit, and they accused him of being demonized, and Jesus came in joyfulness, and they criticized Him of lawlessness22 (11:18- 19a) 3) Jesus affirms that the works of those who follow the instruction of either John or Jesus will demonstrate the wisdom of their instruction 11:19b b. Speaking against the Israelite cities who had witnessed His miracles but refused to repent, Jesus proclaimed a greater judgment for them [present day Israel] than for the Gentiles who would have responded to His testimony (11:20-24) 1) Jesus began to speak against the cities who had seen His miracles but did not repent (11:20) 2) Jesus pronounces Woe upon the cities north of the Sea of Galilee, Bethsaida and Corazin, because they did not repent, as the Gentile cities of Tyre, and Sidon, would have at Jesus' miracles, therefore, their judgment will be more severe (11:21-22) 3) Jesus pronounces condemnation upon Capernaum, because it did not respond to miracles which would have turned evil Sodom from their sin and destruction, therefore, they will suffer a greater judgment23 (11:23) 4. In the midst of pronouncing judgment, Jesus, as the only true revealer of God, once again exhorts the multitudes [individuals] to turn from Judaism to following Him for life (11:24-30) a. At the time when Jesus was pronouncing judgment upon the Israelite cities who were not repenting over His message He spoke in prayer to God and directly to others (11:25a) b. Jesus thanked the sovereign Father for hiding truth from the "wise" and giving it to the innocent24 (11:25-26) c. Identifying Himself as the only One qualified to speak for the Father, Jesus urged the multitudes of Israel to turn from the oppression of Judaism to following Him for life (11:27-30) 1) Jesus acknowledges that He alone has the sole ability to reveal the Father to men (11:27) 2) Jesus exhorts the multitudes [individuals--"anyone"] to turn from the oppressive rule of Judaism to the liberating rule of Christ (11:28-30) C. Through numerous controversies with the Pharisees, Jesus, though continuing to minister as the suffering servant, demonstrates their error and evil, proclaims that they are under judgment for their rejection of Him and emphasizes that those who are related to Him are not those who are physically related, but are those who obey the Father, like His disciples (12:1-50) 1. In a Sabbath controversy where the Pharisees accused Jesus' disciples, and thus Jesus, of breaking the Sabbath, He corrects their understanding by demonstrating from Scripture the flexibility of the law, and by exposing their own evil in falsely accusing His disciples (12:1-8) a. Setting: During the time when Jesus was speaking out against the nation's inappropriate response to Him, the Pharisees accused Jesus of having His disciples break the Sabbath law when they began to pick the heads of grain and eat (12:1-2) b. Jesus responds to the Pharisees accusation that His disciples were breaking the law of the Sabbath by demonstrating from the Scriptures that the Sabbath was flexible, and from His presence that it was the Pharisees who were truly breaking the Scriptures by accusing the innocent (12:2-8) 1) Jesus responds to the accusation by demonstrating through David's eating of the consecrated bread meant only for priests that the Law was flexible during times of necessity25 (12:3-4) 2) Jesus responds to the accusation by demonstrating through the priestly duties on the Sabbath that the ministry of the temple was greater than the ministry of the Sabbath, and thus was the ministry of Jesus greater than the ministry of the Sabbath (12:5-6) 3) Jesus responds to the accusation by reminding the Pharisees of their spiritually corrupt condition from Hosea 6:6, by which they were accusing the innocent who are obeying the Lord of the Sabbath (12:7-8) 2. When trapped in a Sabbath controversy over whether or not it is right to heal a man on the Sabbath, Jesus exposed the Pharisees' hypocrisy under the Law, and healed the lame man, whereupon, the Pharisees exposed themselves as law breakers by plotting to kill Him (12:9-14) a. Setting: Departing from the Pharisees, Jesus went into their synagogue, where He was asked by the Pharisees, who sought to accuse Him, if it was lawful to heal on the Sabbath (12:9- 10) b. Jesus responded to the Pharisees' question by exposing their own hypocrisy in caring for animals over men; He then healed the man (12:11-13) 1) Jesus demonstrated the inconsistency of the Pharisees who would help an animal on the Sabbath, but would not do good for a man [of greater value] on the Sabbath (12:11-12) 2) Jesus healed the man's withered hand on the Sabbath (12:13) c. The Pharisees further demonstrated their evil nature by plotting to kill Jesus on the Sabbath (12:14) 3. Aware of the plottings of the Pharisees, Jesus chose to minister as Isaiah's Suffering Servant who did not lash out but quietly ministered until a future time of judgment (12:15-21) a. Setting: Aware of the plottings of the Pharisees, Jesus withdrew from them (12:15a) b. In response to the plotting of the Pharisees, Jesus quietly continued His work fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah that the Servant would not strike out, but continue His work until a future time of judgment (12:15b-21) 1) Many followed Jesus and He healed them all (12:15b) 2) Jesus chooses to not confront the Pharisees and to quietly continue His work in order that He might fulfill Isaiah's prophecy concerning the coming Servant (12:16-21) a) Jesus warned those whom He healed to not make Him known (12:16) b) The purpose in Jesus warning those whom He had healed not to make Him known is to fulfill Isaiah 42 where the Servant is identified as one who does not resist but humbly continues to carry out God's work until a future coming of the Kingdom with judgment (12:17-21) (1) The purpose in Jesus' actions was to fulfill the words of Isaiah the prophet concerning Him (12:17) (2) Isaiah describes the Servant as a meek and humble Servant who will continue to carry out God's work for Him until a future coming of the Kingdom with judgment (12:18-21) 4. Having healed a demonized man, Jesus responds to the Pharisees who, when asked ascribe His work to Satan, by logically refuting their accusations, proclaiming that the Kingdom of God was near, and warning the Pharisees that their words expose their hearts and will lead to future judgment (12:22-37) a. Setting: Jesus healed a deomonized men who was blind and dumb, so that he spoke and saw (12:22) b. Response one--the people: The multitudes were amazed and began to ask (the religious leaders) if Jesus was not the Son of David-- Messiah [expecting a negative response] (12:23) c. Response two--the Pharisees: The Pharisees responded to the multitudes by accusing Jesus of casting out demons by the power of Beelzebul, the ruler of the demons (12:24 cf. 9:34) d. Response three--Jesus: Jesus, knowing the thoughts of the Pharisees, responds by logically refuting their accusations, affirming that the Kingdom has come near, and warning the Pharisees that their words expose their hearts and will condemn them (12:25-37) 1) Jesus knew their thoughts (12:25) 2) Jesus refutes their accusations that the source of His power is Satan through logic and their inconsistency (12:25-26) a) Jesus refutes the accusation by the Pharisees by proclaiming that it is illogical to say that Satan is casting out Satan because that would describe the inner destruction of Satan's kingdom and thus the fall of Satan (12:25-26) b) Jesus refutes the accusation by the Pharisees by proclaiming that it is inconsistent to say that Jesus is casting out demons and yet to affirm that their sons are doing the same thing by the power of God. Therefore, their sons will judge against them for saying this (12:27) 3) Having reasonably demonstrated that His work is not from Satan, Jesus argues the only other logical conclusion--that it must be from God and thus, the Kingdom of God has come near to them since He is binding Satan (12:28-29) 4) Jesus warns the Pharisees that their blasphemous words against the work of the Spirit of God in Jesus expose their true heart, and will be used as evidence in the future to condemn them (12:32-37) a) Jesus warns the Pharisees that unlike general sin and blasphemy which shall be forgiven men, blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven men (12:32) b) Jesus warns the Pharisees that unlike words spoken against the Son of Man, those which are said against the Holy Spirit shall not ever be forgiven of men26 (12:32) c) Jesus warns the Pharisees to be consistent in their lives, because their words betray them and will be used to expose inner attitudes someday (12:33-37) (1) Through the analogy of trees, Jesus exhorts the Pharisees to align their fruit with themselves as trees because their fruit identifies them (12:33) (2) Jesus accuses the Pharisees of being evil and unable to speak what is good since one's words come from one's heart (12:34- 35) (3) Jesus warns the Pharisees that they will be judged for their words some day (12:36-37) 5. After Jesus' warning, some of the religious leaders desired to see a sign from Him, but He refused to give any beyond His deliverance from certain death, because the nation was coming under judgment for her rejection of Him as Messiah (12:38-45) a. After Jesus' warning, some of the scribes and Pharisees responded by asking to see a sign from Him (12:38) b. After Jesus identifies His generation as an evil one, He refuses to give any other sign to her except for His future deliverance from certain death, because she is coming under judgment for her rejection of Him as Messiah (12:39-45) 1) Jesus identifies His generation as an evil and adulterous one because it craves for a sign (12:39a) 2) Jesus vows to give no other sign to this wicked generation than his own personal deliverance from death, because the nation is coming under judgment for her rejection of Him--her Messiah (12:39b- 45) a) Jesus proclaims that no sign will be given to this generation except for the sign of Jonah: the death and resurrection (12:39b-40) (1) Statement: Jesus proclaims that no sign will be given except for the sign of Jonah the prophet27 (12:39b) (2) Just as Jonah was delivered from certain death in the belly of the sea monster, so shall the Son of Man be delivered from certain death in the grave for three days and three nights (12:40) b) Jesus proclaims that Gentiles will stand and condemn this Jewish generation because they responded to lesser spokesmen for God than Jesus (12:41-42) (1) Jesus proclaims that the men of Nineveh (Gentiles) shall condemn this generation (Jews) because they repented over Jonah's word, but this generation will not repent at the word of One who is greater than Jonah (12:41) (2) Jesus proclaims that the Queen of the South (Sheba--a Gentile) will condemn this generation (Jews) because she came from afar to hear Solomon's wisdom, but this generation will not listen to One greater than Solomon (12:42) c) Jesus through a parable proclaims demonic judgment upon His Jewish generation for making moral reform, but not receiving her Messiah (12:43-45) (1) Jesus compares the nation Israel to a deomonized man from whom an unclean spirit has departed but has not found a resting place (12:43) (2) Jesus compares the nation Israel to a house which a demon returns and finds in order (moral reform), but vacant (12:44) (3) Jesus compares the nation Israel with a man whose state becomes worse than it was as the demon returns with many others who are even more wicked (12:45) 6. Jesus identifies His true family as consisting not of those who are physically related to Him, but of those who are obedient to the will of the Father as His disciples were (12:46-50) a. Setting: Jesus is told, while He is speaking to the multitudes, that his family is outside wanting to speak to Him (12:46-47) 1) Jesus was speaking to the multitudes (12:46a) 2) Jesus' mother and brothers were standing outside seeking to speak to Him (12:46b) 3) Someone told Jesus that his family was present and wanted to speak to Him (12:47) b. After raising the question of the identity of Jesus' true family, He identifies His disciples and anyone who obeys the Father as His true family (12:48-50) 1) Jesus asked the one who told Him about the desire of his present family to hypothetically identify His family: "Who is My mother and who are My brothers" (12:48) 2) Jesus identifies His disciples and all of those who do the will of the Father as His true family (12:49-50) a) Jesus identifies His disciples as His family, "Behold, My mother and My brothers!" (12:49) b) Jesus identifies anyone who does the will of the Father in heaven as His family (12:50) D. Parables of the Kingdom: Through the cryptic form of parables designed to conceal truth from those who had rejected Him and reveal truth to those who had received Him, Jesus proclaimed to the multitudes and His disciples the mixed nature of the interim form of the Kingdom in view of His rejection, and the disciples' responsibility to proclaim this truth as His authority figures (13:1-53) [Discourse] 1. After Jesus left the house with His disciples he spoke to the multitudes about the interim form of the Kingdom with respect to its growth, and influence in the cryptic form of parable, designed to hide truth from those who had rejected Him and to reveal truth to those who had received Him as Messiah (13:1-34) a. Setting: After Jesus had left the house, He went to the sea and spoke from a boat many things in parables to the multitudes as they stood on the beach (13:1-3a) 1) On the day when Jesus spoke concerning the identity of His true family, He went out of the house and was by the sea (13:1) 2) So many people gathered around Jesus at the sea that He had to enter a boat while the multitudes stood on the shore (13:2) 3) Jesus spoke many things to the multitudes in parables (13:3a) b. Introduction: Through the telling of a parable, answering a question, and then explaining the parable, Jesus proclaims to His disciples that parables are meant to increase the understanding of those who properly respond to Him, and to hide understanding from those who have not responded properly to Him (13:3b-23) 1) Through the Parable of the sower and the soils for those who want to hear, Jesus proclaims that the sower will sow the seed upon many soils, only to die on most, and thrive on some (13:3b-9) a) The sower went out to sow (13:3b) b) Some seed fell beside the road and the birds at them up (13:4) c) Some seed fell upon the rocky places, sprang up quickly, but withered under the heat because they had no root (13:5-6) d) Some seed fell among the thorns, and were chocked out by the thorns (13:7) e) Some seed fell upon the good soil and yielded a crop (13:8) f) Exhortation: Let the one who desires to hear, hear these words (13:9) 2) When asked by His disciples as to why He spoke in parables, Jesus proclaimed that they are to distinguish and increase the understanding of the disciples who have responded to Jesus already as opposed to those who have not responded and are thus hardened and unable to hear (13:10- 17) a) Setting: The disciples came to Jesus and asked Him why He spoke in parables (13:10) b) Jesus answers His disciples by distinguishing them from others because they can hear the mysteries of the kingdom that many Old Testament saints longed to hear, unlike those who cannot understand due to their hardness of heart as Isaiah foretold (13:11-17) (1) Jesus proclaims that it has been granted to His disciples to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but it is not been granted to others to know the mysteries (13:11) (2) The reason it has been granted the disciples to know the mysteries of the Kingdom is because they have responded already, therefore more will be understood, but those who have not responded will even lose what they did understand (13:12) (3) Jesus explains that this practice of speaking in parables fulfills Isaiah 6:9- 10 where Israel's heart has become dull and refuses to hear God speak (13:13-15) (4) Jesus tells the disciples that they are blessed because they are of those who can hear and see, and because they are hearing and seeing what many of the prophets of old longed for (13:16-17) 3) Jesus explains the parable of the sower and the seed in terms of negative responses of men to the word of the Kingdom which yield no fruit, and the positive responses of men to the word of the Kingdom which do yield fruit (13:18- 23) a) Jesus exhorts the disciples to hear the parable of the sower (13:18) b) The seed which was sown by the side of the road represents that which Satan takes away form anyone's heart who hears the word of the kingdom and does not understand it (13:19) c) The seed which was sown on the rocky places represents the one who hears and receives the word of the Kingdom, but breaks down under the persecution and affliction which come to him because of the word (13:20-21) d) The seed which was sown among the thorns represents the one who hears the word of the Kingdom but is broken under worldly concerns and a desire for riches (13:22) e) The seed which was sown on the good soil represents the one who hears the word of the Kingdom, understands it, and bears fruit from it (13:23) c. Jesus spoke in cryptic parables to the multitudes, concerning the coming of the interim form of the Kingdom due to the nation's rejection of the King: those of genuine and false faith will co-exist, the heirs will grow rapidly into a protective force, and they will permeate all of the world (13:24-35) 1) Through the parable of the wheat and the tares Jesus teaches that the present form of the Kingdom will be one in which those of genuine faith and false faith will co-exist in the world until a future harvest (13:24-30) a) Setting: It seems to be the same-- at the Sea before the multitudes: Jesus presented another parable to them (13:24a) b) The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field, and had tares sown in his field while he slept by the enemy (13:24b- 25) c) When the wheat grew up and bore grain, the tares became evident also (13:26) d) When asked about the field, the farmer recognized that this was the work of the enemy (13:27-28a) e) When asked if he wanted his workers to gather up the tares, the farmer insisted on allowing them to grow together, for the sake of the wheat, until the final harvest when they will be separated unto different destinies (13:28b-30) 2) The parable of the mustard seed Jesus taught that the heirs of the Kingdom will grow rapidly from a small beginning including many in their protection (13:31-32) a) Setting: Jesus presented another parable to the multitudes (13:31a) b) The Kingdom of heaven is compared to a mustard seed which a man planted in the field [heirs of the Kingdom] (13:31b) c) When the minute mustard seed grew it was larger than all of the garden plants and the birds of the air [probably nation as in Dan. 4:10-12] came and nested in its branches (13:32) 3) Through the parable of the leaven Jesus taught that the interim Kingdom of Heaven will spread throughout all of the earth (13:33) a) Setting: Jesus spoke another parable to the multitudes (13:33a) b) The Kingdom of heaven is like leaven which a woman placed in meal (13:33b) c) The leaven permeated all of the meal (13:33c) 4) Everything which Jesus spoke to the multitudes was in parables so that he might fulfill the words of Psalm 78:2 where Jesus is cryptically describing God's workings in connection with the Kingdom in light of Israel's rejection of its King (13:34-35) 2. Leaving the multitudes, Jesus proclaimed to His disciples the characteristics of the interim Kingdom including the old concepts of the presence of Jews and Gentiles, and it's ending in judgment, as well as the new concepts that there will be a universal proclamation, an imitation by Satan, and an outward growth, in order that they might proclaim it as His authority figures (13:36-52) a. Jesus left the multitudes, came to a house and explained, at the disciples' request, the parable of the tares wherein the interim age will include children of Messiah as well as children of the devil to only be distinguished in the judgment administered by the Lord's angels at the end of the age (13:36-43) 1) Setting: Jesus left the multitudes by the Sea and entered a house where the disciples came and asked for Him to explain the earlier parable of the tares (13:36) a) Jesus left the multitudes and went into the house (13:36a) b) The disciples came to Jesus and asked Him to explain to them the parable of the tares of the field told earlier (11:36b) 2) Jesus explained the parable of the tares for those who wished to hear as being the interim expression of the Kingdom where He, Messiah, places sons of the Kingdom into the world, while the devil places counterfeits in the world, to be finally distinguished and taken to their respective places [judgment, or Kingdom] by the Lord's angels at the end of the age (13:37-43) a) Jesus, the Son of Man, is the one who sows the good seed (13:37) b) The field is the world, (13:38a) c) The good seed are the sons of the Kingdom (13:38b) d) The tares are the sons of the evil one (13:38c) e) The enemy who sowed them is the devil (13:39a) f) The harvest is the end of the age (13:39b) g) The reapers are angels (13:39c) h) Jesus, the Son of Man, will send forth angels to gather the evil out of His Kingdom and cast them into judgment (13:41-42) i) The righteous will continue greatly in the Kingdom of the Father (13:43a) j) Jesus urges those who are able (desirous) to hear Him to understand His words (13:43b) b. Through the parable of the hidden treasure, Jesus explained that Messiah came to redeem the kingdom for Israel (13:44) 1) The kingdom of heaven is like a treasure hidden in the field which a man found and hid (13:44a) a) It was first hidden (found) which relates to the History of Israel from Rehoboam [at the division of the nation in 931 BC], to the coming of Christ b) It was found as Christ came near with the Kingdom c) It was hidden again as Christ removed the Kingdom due to Israel's rejection 2) The man, over the joy of the treasure, sells all that he has and buys the field (13:44b) a) Jesus sold all that He had in His incarnation (condescension) b) Christ bought the Kingdom in His death c) Christ will come again with the kingdom c. Through the parable of the pearl of great price Christ tells of His coming to redeem Gentiles who would later become His Church (13:45-46) 1) The Kingdom of Heaven is like a merchant seeking fine pearls (13:45) 2) When the merchant found a pearl of great value he sold all that He had and bought it (13:46) a) That this is one pearl among may intimates the church b) That the pearl is from the sea intimates Gentiles c) He sold all (incarnation) and bought it (redemption) d. Through the parable of the dragnet, Jesus explains that the Angels will end this interim period with a judgment of the wicked from among the righteous (13:47-50) 1) The Kingdom of Heaven is like a dragnet which is thrown into the sea and gathers all kinds of fish (13:47) 2) When the net was filled the good fish were gathered into containers and the bad were thrown away (13:48) 3) At the end of the age the angels will take the wicked into judgment from among the righteous (13:49-50) e. Since Jesus' disciples understand His parables, they are responsible, as His authority figures, to proclaim the whole truth about the Kingdom (13:51-52) 1) Jesus asked His disciples if they understood all of His parables, and they said that they did (13:51) 2) Jesus exhorts his disciples that they are responsible, as His authority figures [scribe], to dispense the whole truth about the Kingdom [new and old] (13:52) f. After Jesus had finished these parables to the disciples, he departed from the house (13:53) V. JESUS' REACTION TO OPPOSITION: Jesus withdrew from the leadership within the nation who rejected Him only to continue to minister to those (outside of and within the nation) who would follow Him, and to train His disciples for their future ministry to people in His absence as He began to move toward Jerusalem (13:53-19:2) A. In the wake of religious and civil opposition to Jesus He withdrew Himself from active, public ministry among the people (13:53--14:13a) 1. Opposed in Capernaum: After speaking to His disciples, Jesus graciously returned to Capernaum to speak in its synagogue, but in response to their (religious authority) rejection of Him, did not do many miracles there (13:53-58) a. After Jesus had finished speaking the parables to His disciples, He left the house and went to His home-town (Capernaum) where he taught in their synagogue (13:53-54a) b. The people of Capernium were familiar with Jesus and His family and thus questioned the validity of His teaching and miracles taking offense (13:54b-57a) c. Jesus criticized the people's rejection of Him and did not do many miracles there because they would not believe (13:57b-58) 2. Opposed by Herod: When Jesus learns of Herod's (civil authority) murder of John the Baptizer for the righteous position which he spoke, Jesus withdrew to a lonely place on a boat (14:1-13a) a. While Jesus was in Capernaum, Herod, the tetrarch, heard the news of Jesus' works and believed that He was John the Baptizer raised from the dead (14:1-2) b. Jesus was told that John the Baptizer was arrested, and reluctantly slain by Herod the Tetrach for his critical use of the Law against Herod's marriage to Herodias (14:3- 12) 1) Herod had John the Baptizer arrested and placed in prison because he had married Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip, and John had spoken out against the illegality of their marriage (14:3- 4) 2) Herod wanted to put John to death, but he was afraid of the opinion of the multitude who regarded him as a prophet (14:5) 3) John was beheaded and served on a platter to Herodias due to an impulsive promise by Herod to her daughter on Herod's birthday (14:6-11) 4) John the Baptizer's disciples came, took the body, buried him, and reported the event to Jesus (14:12) c. When Jesus heard of John's death, He withdrew in a boat to a lonely place by Himself (14:13a) B. Even though Jesus departed from the leaders of the Nation, He continued to demonstrate to the multitudes and to His disciples that He was Messiah as He healed the sick, fed those of the nation who came to Him, taught His disciples of His sufficiency for life as He used them to administer the food, and came to them in the storm, and healed all of those who came to Him in Gennessart (14:13b-36) 1. Having departed from the cities under opposition, Jesus still had compassion upon the multitudes who came to Him, and thus healed their sick, and encouraged them and the disciples as He feed, from meager elements, over five thousand, through His disciples, with twelve baskets of scraps left over (14:13c-22) a. Setting: When the multitudes heard that Jesus had withdrawn in a boat to a lonely place, the multitudes followed Him on foot from the cities (14:13b) b. When Jesus went ashore, He saw a great multitude, felt compassion upon them and healed their sick (14:14) c. In the midst of a desolate place, and at a late hour, Jesus refuses to send the multitudes away, but encourages the faith of the multitudes and His disciples as He miraculously feeds over five thousand of them through the mediated service of His disciples who gather over twelve baskets full of food at the end (14:15-21) 1) When it was late, Jesus' disciples urged Him to send the people away in order to procure food because they were in such a desolate place (14:15) 2) Jesus responded that the multitude did not need to go away, but that the disciples should feed them (14:16) 3) The disciples responded that they did not have enough food--five loaves and two fish (14:17) 4) Ordering the disciples to bring the meager portions to Him, Jesus blessed and fed, through the disciples, over five thousand people to satisfaction with twelve baskets full left over (14:18-21) a) Jesus ordered the disciples to bring the meager portions to Him (14:18) b) Jesus ordered the multitudes to be seated on the grass (14:19a) c) Jesus blessed the food and gave it to the disciples (14:19b) d) The disciples gave the food to the multitudes (14:19c) e) The five plus thousand people ate, were satisfied, and had twelve baskets full left over (14:20-21) 2. After Jesus had sent His disciples across the Sea ahead of Him, dismissed the multitudes and prayed alone on a mountain, He came to His disciples in an early morning storm, walking on the water, which led to Peter's doubting expression of faith on the water, and the worship of the disciples when they realized that He was Messiah after He entered the boat, the storm stopped (14:22-33) a. Setting: Immediately after the baskets of food had been collected, Jesus sent the disciples in a boat ahead of Him, dismissed the multitudes, and went alone up to a mountain to pray in the evening (14:22-23) 1) Immediately, Jesus sent the disciples in a boat ahead of Him to the other side of the Sea while He sent the multitudes away (14:22) 2) After Jesus sent the multitudes away, He went up alone, in the evening to the mountain by Himself to pray (14:23) b. Jesus came walking on the water to His disciples who were in an early morning storm, exhorting them to take courage, helping Peter who walked on the water to met Him but began to sink due to his doubt, and leading to worship and recognition of Jesus as Messiah by the disciples when they entered the boat and the storm ceased (14:24-33) 1) The boat carrying the disciples was in a storm many miles from the land (14:24) 2) Jesus came to His disciples early in the morning (between 3-6 A.M.) walking on the Sea (14:25) 3) When the disciples saw Jesus they became fearful and shouted out that He was a ghost (14:26) 4) Jesus told the disciples to take courage and to not fear because it was He (14:27) 5) Peter, asked the Lord to invite Him to come on the water if it was He, but when He did, Peter began to sink in the water and begged Jesus to save him (14:28-29) 6) Jesus grabbed hold of Peter, asked him why he had doubted, and entered the boat whereupon the wind stopped (14:30-32) 7) When Peter and Jesus got into the boat, the disciples worshiped Jesus saying that He must surely be Messiah (14:33) 3. When the disciples and Jesus crossed over the Sea after the storm, they came to Gennesaret where the people recognized Him, brought their sick to Him and were healed as they touched His cloak (14:34- 36) a. Setting: When the disciples and Jesus crossed over the Sea, they came to the land at Gennesaret (14:34) b. When the men of Gennesaret recognized Jesus, they sent and brought all who were sick from the surrounding district (14:35) c. The people began to ask that they could touch the fringe of His cloak, and were healed as they did (14:36) C. Under the opposition of the Pharisees and the scribes Jesus exposed their evil hypocrisy to them and His disciples, and withdrew with His disciples to minister among the Gentiles who were seeking Him (15:1-39) 1. When some of the Pharisees and scribes from Jerusalem came and accused Jesus of evil because his disciples did not wash their hands, He responded by accusing them of evil by breaking the internal commandments of the law for the sake of their external traditions (15:1-11) a. Setting: Some of the Pharisees and scribes came to speak to Jesus from Jerusalem (15:1) b. The Pharisees and scribes asked Jesus why His disciples break the tradition of the elders in that they do not wash their hands when they eat bread (15:2) c. Jesus accused the Pharisees and the scribes of breaking the commandments of God with their tradition as he illustrated through their abusive treatment of parents, whereupon he identified the internal as that which defiles rather than the external (15:3-11) 1) Jesus asked the Pharisees and scribes why it was that they transgress the commandment of God for the sake of their tradition (15:3) 2) Jesus accused the Pharisees of transgressing the commandments of God for the sake of their tradition thereby demonstrating the truth of Isaiah's words that they are religious but far from Him in their hearts (15:4-10) a) Jesus accused the Pharisees and scribes of using their tradition of "giving things to God" as an excuse to enjoy them now and not help their parents who are in need thus dishonoring them (15:4-6) b) Jesus identified the Pharisees and the scribes as those spoken of by Isaiah in 29:13 who are religious but not honoring to God in their hearts (15:7-9) 3) Jesus told the multitudes that it was not the external which defiles a man (as the Pharisees and scribes taught), but the internal which comes out (in speech) which defiles a man (15:10-11) 2. When the disciples told Jesus that he had offended the Pharisees, He identified the Pharisees as false teachers who will be judged with their followers, and then explained to them that it is not external things which enter a person which make him unclean, but the internal heart from which evil comes forth which makes a person defiled, whereupon Jesus withdrew into the Gentile region of Tyre and Sidon (15:12-21) a. The disciples told Jesus that His accusation offended the Pharisees (15:12) b. Jesus responded by affirming that the Pharisees were false teachers who will be judged along with their followers (15:13-14) 1) Jesus explained that His Father will judge false leaders (15:13) 2) Jesus exhorted the disciples to not be concerned by the Pharisees because they and those who follow them will end in judgment (15:14) c. When asked by Peter to explain the parable which Jesus had spoken to the multitudes, Jesus questioned why it was that they still did not understand what He was saying, and then explained that it was not the external which makes a person unclean, but that which resided within a person and expressed itself externally (15:15-20) 1) Peter asked Jesus to explain for the disciples the parable which he had just spoken to the multitudes (15:15) 2) Although concerned that His disciples are still not understanding His parables, Jesus explains that external dirt does not defile a person, rather it is the resident attitude of the heart which then expresses itself externally which defiles a person (15:16-20) a) Jesus prefaces His explanation with a question as to why the disciples are still not understanding His parables (15:16) b) Jesus explains that external dirt does not make a man unclean but internal heart attitudes, which are reflected in words and actions do defile a man (15:17-20) (1) Jesus explains that the things which come from without and enter the stomach do not defile a person since they simply pass through the person (15:17) (2) Jesus explains that the words from one's mouth defile a man because they are sourced in one's heart which gives rise to all kinds to all kinds of sin like evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornication, thefts, false witness, and slanders (15:18- 19) (3) Jesus summarizes that it is the inner heart attitudes which defile a man and not external dirt (15:20) d. Jesus went away from Israel into the northern, Gentile region of Tyre and Sidon (15:21) 3. Jesus healed and bless Gentiles who came to Him as Gentiles for help (15:22-39) a. When a Canaanite woman from the Gentile region of Tyre and Sidon sought out Jesus as the Jewish Messiah to heal her demonized daughter, He refused to act since to do so would be to usurp to Gentiles the place of Israel, but did heal her when the woman took the humble position of a Gentile desiring to receive the overflow of Kingdom blessing to Israel (15:22-28) 1) Setting: A Canaanite woman from Tyre and Sidon sought out Jesus as the Jewish Messiah, ("Son of David") to mercifully help her demonized daughter (15:22) 2) Although Jesus would not answer the request of the Gentile woman who was usurping the role of Israel with their Messiah, He did heal her daughter when the woman took the posture of a Gentile who was seeking from Him an overflow from the Kingdom blessings for Israel (15:23-28) a) Jesus did not answer the Gentile woman who was seeking Him as the Jewish Messiah even under the plea of the disciples because He was Israel's Messiah (15:23-24) b) When the woman persisted with Jesus in the posture of a Gentile who did not seek to usurp the place of Israel but to receive an overflow of the blessing for Israel, Jesus granted her faithful plea and healed her daughter (15:25-28) (1) The woman persisted and asked Jesus as Lord to help (15:25) (2) Jesus explained that it was not appropriate for Him to give to dogs (Gentiles) children's (Israel's) bread (gifts of the Kingdom) (15:26) (3) The woman accepted the rebuke for asking that He substitute Gentiles for Israel, but sought Jesus as Lord of all to give to her an overflow of the blessing meant for Israel (15:27) (4) Jesus commended her faith and healed her daughter (15:28) b. When Jesus departed from the Gentile regions of Tyre and Sidon, He went along the Sea of Galilee (Decapolis) and upon a mountain where He healed the sick of (Gentile) multitudes who praised the God of Israel (15:29-31) 1) Setting: Jesus departed from Tyre and Sidon and went along the Sea of Galilee (perhaps in the Decapolis [cf. Mark 7:31]), whereupon, He went up a mountain and sat (15:29) 2) When great multitudes brought their sick to Jesus, He healed them causing the multitudes to offer great praise to the God of Israel (15:30-31) a) Great (Gentile) multitudes came to Jesus on the mountain with their sick: lame, crippled, blind, dumb, et cetera (15:30a) b) When Jesus healed all of the sick the multitudes praised the God of Israel (15:30b-31) c. Feeling compassion for the (Gentile) Multitudes who had been with Him on the mountain for three days, Jesus, against the concerns of the disciples, miraculously fed them through the disciples and then sent them away whereupon he went in a boat to Magadan (15:32-39) 1) Setting: Calling His disciples unto Him Jesus explained that He felt compassion for the multitudes because they had been with Him for three days and had nothing to eat; therefore He wanted to feed them (15:32) 2) Although the disciples objected to Jesus' desire to feed so many people (Gentiles), Jesus took the available provisions and feed over four thousand people with a surplus of seven baskets full of leftovers (15:33-38) a) The disciples objected to Jesus' desire to feed the multitudes since there was nowhere to get enough food in such a desolate place (15:33) b) After asking about the present provisions, Jesus had the multitude be seated, took the seven loaves and fish, gave thanks to God and distributed them through the disciples to the multitudes (15:34- 36) c) Four thousand men plus women and children ate, were satisfied, and gathered seven large baskets ( spuri" ) full (15:37-38) 3) Jesus sent away the multitudes and went in a boat to the region of Magadan D. Under the hardened opposition of the Pharisees and Sadducees who came up from Jerusalem to test Jesus, He refused to give a sign other than that of Jonah, departed from them, and warned His influenced disciples to not be infected by the teachings of the religious teachers (16:1-12) 1. When Jesus was asked by the Pharisees and Sadducees from Jerusalem to give a sign from heaven, He exposed their evil insensitivity to who He was, only offered the Gentile sign of Jonah, and left from their presence (16:1-4) a. Setting: The Pharisees and the Sadducees came up to Jesus and tested Him by asking Him to show them a sign from heaven (16:1) b. Jesus responded to the religious leaders' request by identifying their spiritual dulness and refusing to give any sign to such an evil generation other than that which was given to Gentiles--the sign of Jonah (16:2- 4a) 1) Jesus accused the religious leaders that they knew how to interpret the physical signs of the weather but not the spiritual signs of the time (16:2-3) 2) Calling this generation evil and one which had turned from God, Jesus repeated that He would not give any sign to it but the sign of Jonah (16:4a) c. Jesus left and went away from (abandoned) the religious leaders in Magadan (16:4b) 2. As Jesus and the disciples went to the other side of the Sea, Jesus warned them (through a figure of speech) to beware of the teaching of the Sadducees and the Pharisees, only to have to explain His words to them because they were being influenced and not responding in faith to Him in view of what they knew (16:5-12) a. Setting: When Jesus left Magadan, the disciples went with Him to the other side of the Sea and had forgotten bread (16:5) b. Jesus warned the disciples to beware of the teaching of the Sadducees and the Pharisees, but had to explain His words to them before they could understand because they were being influenced and thus, not expressing faith in Him (16:6-12) 1) Jesus warned the disciples to be careful of the infectious evil-teachings (leven) of the Pharisees (16:6) 2) The disciples missed the point of Jesus thinking that He was speaking of physical bread (16:7) 3) Jesus rebuked the disciples' for thinking of physical bread when they should have learned of His provision through the miraculous feedings, whereupon, they understood that Jesus was speaking concerning the teaching of the Pharisees and the Sadducees (16:8- 12) a) Jesus accuses the disciples of having little faith because they misunderstand what He is saying-- physical bread for spiritual teaching of the religious leaders (16:8) b) Jesus questions the disciples' concern about physical food in light of their recent experiences of Jesus feeding the five and four thousands, rather than an understanding of the religious leaders' instruction (16:9-11) c) The disciples then understood that Jesus was not speaking about the leven of bread, but the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees (16:12) E. Jesus instructed His disciples about His being Messiah, the coming program of the chruch, His future death, the coming Kingdom, and principles of the King to be followed on earth in His absence (16:13--19:2) [Discourse] 1. When Jesus came to Ceasarea Philippi, He led the disciples into a revealed understanding that He was Messiah, commended Peter for his spiritual understanding, promised to build His church upon this revelation, gave authority to Peter, and warned them to not tell others (16:13-20) a. Setting: When Jesus came into the region of Ceasarea Philippi, He asked the disciples, "Who the people say the Son of Man is?" (16:13) b. The disciples gave many answers: John the Baptist, Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets (16:14) c. Jesus asked the disciples who they thought that He was (16:15) d. Simon Peter answered that Jesus was Messiah, the Son of the living God (16:16) e. In response to Peter's confession Jesus blessed Peter for his spiritual understanding, promised to build His church upon this revealed truth, gave authority to Peter on earth, and told His disciples to tell no one that He was Messiah (16:17-20) 1) Jesus blessed Peter because this understanding had come to Him from the Father in Heaven28 (16:17) 2) Jesus promises to build His church upon Peter's revealed truth, and it will withstand the onslaughts of Hell (16:18) 3) Jesus gives to Peter authority to rule on earth with the judgments of God's rule in heaven [cf. Matt. 6] (16:19) 4) Jesus wanted His disciples to tell no one that He was Messiah (16:20) 2. When Jesus began to explain His necessary, future passion, and was rebuked by Peter, Jesus accused Peter of being influenced by Satan and men's interists over God's, whereupon He exhorted His disciples to completely commit themselves to Him in order to obtain life since He will come at a future time in judgment (16:21-28) a. Setting: From the time of Peter's confession on, Jesus began to explain to His disciples His future death and resurrection (16:21) b. Peter began to take Jesus aside and rebuke Him for speaking of a future death (16:22) c. Jesus rebukes Peter as Satan's instrument who is concerned about the interests of men and not God (16:23) d. In view of Jesus' future coming, concerning which some will be allowed to see a preview, Jesus exhorts His disciples to completely commit themselves to Him in order to obtain life, because there will be a future judgment (16:24-28) 1) Jesus exhorts all who desire to follow after Him to completely identify with Him even if it requires that he deny Himself because such commitment will yeild life (16:24-26) 2) The reason Jesus encourages such total commitment to Him is because there will be a later time when He will come in Judgment upon men (16:27) 3) Jesus promises that some of the disciples will see Jesus coming in His Kingdom before they die (16:28) 3. Six days following His prophecy, Jesus confirmed His word by appearing to Peter, James and John in a transfigured state which previewed the kingdom, and yet He forbade them to tell anyone of the event until after His resurrection as he explained to them that the Kingdom must yet be preceeded by Elijah, since this generation rejected John's ministry as Elijah, as they would Him, whereupon the remaining disciples were rebuked because they were being moved by their generation's attitude toward unbelief in Him (17:1-21) a. Setting: Six days following His prophecy concerning some who would see the Son of man coming in His Kingdom, Jesus took Peter, James, and John up to a high mountain by themselves (17:1) b. The words of Jesus about a future Kingdom on earth were confirmed [in the form of a down payment] to Peter, James and John as Jesus appeared as the Son of Man and representatives of OT saints appeared and spoke with Jesus (17:2-3) 1) Jesus was transfigured before Peter, James, and John: His face shone like the sun and His garments became as white as light (17:2) 2) Moses [the Law], and Elijah [the Prophets] appeared to them and spoke with Jesus (17:3) c. Although Peter's response to the transfiguration of Jesus was to want to begin to celebrate the Kingdom, the Father interrupted with the affirmation that Jesus was truly the Messiah, but also the suffering servant who must presently be obeyed, leaving the disciples in fear, but comforted by the sole presence of Jesus (17:4-8) 1) Peter recognized the theological/Kingdom implications of the appearances and saught to celebrate the feast of booths (17:4; cf. Lev. 23:39-44; Zech. 14:16) 2) While Peter was still speaking the Father spoke in a white cloud affirming Jesus as Messiah ["son" cf. Ps. 2:7], the suffering servant ["with whom I am well pleased" cf. Isa. 42:1], and the Prophet spoken of by Moses ["listen to Him" cf. Deut. 18:15] (17:5) 3) When the disciples heared the voice of the Father, they fell down in fear (17:6) 4) Jesus came to the disciples, told them to arise and to not fear, and when they lifted their heads there was no one present but Jesus (17:7-8) d. As the disciples were told not to tell of the transfiguration experience until after the resurrection of Jesus, they questioned how He could be the Messiah since the scribes insisted that Elijah must first come, to which Jesus agreed, but added that John had served in Elijah's role only to be rejected by the leaders as they would also reject Him now (17:9-13) 1) Setting: The disciples were coming down the mountain with Jesus after the transfiguration experience (17:9a) 2) Jesus commanded the disciples to tell the vision to no one until the Son of Man had risen from the dead (17:9b) 3) When the disciples asked why the scribes insist that Elijah must come before the King, Jesus exclaimed that they were right, but that he had already come in the ministry of John the Baptizer, but was cruelly rejected by the religious leaders as they would also reject Jesus now (17:10-13) a) The disciples asked Jesus why the scribes insist that Elijah must come first before the King (17:10) b) Jesus answered the disciples that Elijah will come to restore all things (Mal. 4:5), but that He did come already (as John the Baptizer) and was destroyed as also the Son of Man will suffer at the religious leaders' hands (17:11-12) c) The disciples then understood that Jesus had spoken to them about John the Baptizer (17:13) e. As Jesus, Peter, James, and John came down the mountain they met a man who charged the remaining disciples of being unable to heal his demonized son, whereupon, Jesus healed him, and rebuked the disciples for being influenced by the faithlessness of their generation concerning Him, which leads to powerlessness (17:14-21) 1) Setting: As they came down the mountain to the multitudes, a man came to Jesus pleading for his son who was very ill, but could not be cured by His disciples (17:14-16) 2) Jesus rebuked his disciples for their shared unbelief with their generation, and cast the demon out of the boy, thereby curing him (17:17-18) a) Jesus rebuked His disciples of being part of an evil, unbelieving generation and called the boy to Him (17:17) b) Jesus rebuked the demon and he came out of the boy bringing an immediate cure (17:18) 3) The disciples came to Jesus privately and asked why they were not able to cast out the demon (17:19) 4) Jesus explained that it was their lack of faith [in who He was] that prevented them from casting out the demon; a small amount of faith will enable them to do miraculous works (17:20-21) 4. While Jesus was in Galilee with His disciples He continued to foretell His passion, to encourage Peter as to His identity, and exhort the disciples to be humble as they cared for those who seemed to be under them--children, unbelievers, and believers in sin, then He left for Judea where He healed the multitudes who followed Him east of the Jordan (17:22--19:2) a. While they were all gathered together in Galilee, Jesus foretold his coming passion and resurection, and all were grieved (17:22- 23) 1) Setting: While they were gathering together in Galilee (17:22a) 2) Jesus proclaimed that He would be delivered into the hands of men who would kill Him, and that He would be raised on the third day (17:22b-23a) 3) The disciples were deeply grieved [note: they did not rebuke Him] over Jesus passion description (17:23b) b. When the disciples came to Capernaum, Jesus used a hasty word by Peter wherein he committed Jesus to pay a temple tax in order to demonstrate to Peter that He was the Son of God who supplies for the whole world (17:24-27) 1) Setting: When they had come to Capernaum those who collected the Temple tax asked Peter if his teacher, Jesus, did not pay it (17:24) 2) Peter answered hastily and said, "yes" (17:25a) 3) Jesus entered the house and taught Peter that He was not responsible to pay the tax because as God's Son He is free of taxation designed from strangers to give to Him (17:25b-26) 4) Jesus pays the tax so as to not offend others (17:27a)29 5) Jesus justifies His words to Peter by manifesting His divine person to him through performing the miracle with the "starter" in the mouth of the fish thereby demonstrating that He is the God of supply for all (17:27b) c. Spured by a [jealous] question in Capernaum about greatness in the Kingdom, Jesus teaches His disciples that humility in their relationships with those who appear to be under them [children, unbelievers, or believers in sin] will determine their greatness in the Kingdom of heaven (18:1-35) [Discourse] 1) Setting: While in Capernaum, the disciples came to Jesus asking about who was the greatest in the Kingdom of heaven [perhaps in view of the three who had gone up on the mountain with Him] (18:1) 2) Jesus directly answered the disciples' question about greatness through a child and affirming that entrance, as will as greatness in the Kingdom, is acheived through child-like humility (18:3-4) a) Jesus called a child to Him and proclaimed that one cannot even enter the Kingdom of God unless one is converted and becomes like a child (18:3) b) Jesus proclaimed that the greatest in the Kingdom of heaven is the one who humbles Himself like a child (18:4) 3) Jesus illustrated His answer to the disciples' question about greatness in the Kingdom by discribing the appropriate way for His followers to treat the lost as well as fellow believers who enter into sin (18:5-35) a) As Jesus describes a humble spirit, he warns His disciples to not do anything to be the source of stumbling for one who is searching after Him, because there will be server consequences from God who is aware of them, and concerned for them (18:5-14) (1) Continuing to describe a humble spirit, Jesus describes one who receives a child (beliver) as being one who receives Him, while one who prevents a child from coming to Jesus faces severe judgment (18:5-6) (2) Jesus warns of the severe consequences of being one who is a stumbling block for others as they seek Him (18:7) (3) Jesus exhorts his disciples to take drastic measures in this life so as to not cause themselves to stumble [perhaps by pride, and thus cause others to stumble], otherwise, they will receive severe punishment (18:8-9) (4) Jesus warns his disciples to not do anything to cause children (other believers) to be harmed in their search for Him because God is aware, the Son of Man came to die for them, and the Father in heaven is concerned about them (18:10- 14) b) Jesus taught the disciples the careful steps to follow in helping a brother who is in sin so as to act with the authority of God (18:15-20) (1) Jesus taught that if a brother sins, believers (the disciples) are to privately speak to him about the matter; if He listens one has won his brother (18:15) (2) Jesus taught that if a brother who is in sin refuses to listen to the correction of another, then one or two more are to accompany a believer to speak to an erring brother in order to confirm an attitude of sin with witnesses (18:16) (3) Jesus taught that if a brother who is in sin refuses to listen to the correction of a small group, he is to be reported to the church and treated as an unbeliever by the chruch (18:17) (4) Jesus affirmed that the disciples bare the authority of God in these matters of discipline when they act in unity (18:18-20) c) When asked by Peter if generous forgiveness is sufficient for one who has sinned against him, Jesus explained that unending forgiveness was necessary by the disciples because they are unendingly endebted to the Father who will hold them accountable if they will not forgive others of their dept (18:21-35) (1) Setting: After Jesus had taught on steps in disciplining a brother who is in sin, Peter asked if how many times one must forgive a brother who sins against him - - seven times? (18:21) (2) Jesus responds to Peter's affirmation of generous, but limited forgiveness, with a command for unending forgiveness (18:22) (3) Jesus illustrates His command for unending forgiveness of one who has sinned against another through a parable of a servant who was made to pay for his own indebtedness because he would not forgive another of his indebtedness to him (18:23-34) (4) Jesus warns his disciples that His heavenly Father will hold each of them accountable if they too will not forgive those in debt to them from the heart (18:35) d. When Jesus had finished speaking in Capernaum to His disciples concerning humility, He departed from Galilee and came into the region of Judea, beyond (east of) the Jordan, and great multitudes followed Him where He healed them (19:1-2) VI. AS JESUS CAME TO JERUSALEM HE CONTINUED TO INSTRUCT HIS DISCPLES: He presneted Himself as King, and was rejected by the nation, whereupon, He rejected the nation, and explained to His disciples the signs which will precede His second coming, as well as the need for everyone to be personally ready at His second coming (19:3--25:46) A. As Jesus moved toward Jerusalem, He The continued to instruct the disciples concerning marriage, entrance into the kingdom of God, His coming death and resurrection, greatness before God, and signs that He is truly the Messiah of Israel as individuals received Him (19:3--20:34) 1. Through the questioning of some Pharisees, Jesus proclaimed marriage to be perminate, divorce and remarriage to be an act of adultery, and singleness only as a choice one should make out of a desire to serve God more fully with one's life (19:3-12) a. The Pharisees came to Jesus with the intent of testing Him, and they asked [in accordance with the school of Hillel's understanding of Deuteronomy 24:1-4) if it was lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason at all (19:3) b. Jesus responded to the Pharisees' permissive attitude concerning divorce by explaining that God's design was for permanacy in marriage (19:4-6) 1) Jesus explained that God's design from creation was for there to be permanency in marriage in that only one man and one woman were created for one another (19:4 cf. Gen. 1:27) 2) Jesus explained that God's design from creation was for there to be permanency because the marriage bond was to be stronger than any other family relation (19:5a, cf. Gen. 2:24) 3) Jesus explained that God's design from creation was for there to be permanency because the separated two were to become a recreation of the "one flesh" (19:5b- 6a) 4) Jesus summarizes his argument with the affirmation that a man and wife's unity is permant and thus is not to be broken up by an other man (19:6b) c. The Pharisees responded to Jesus' emphasis upon permanince by asking why it was than that Moses commanded in Deuteronomy 24:1-4, "to give her a certificate and divorce her" (19:7) d. Jesus responds to the Pharisees' questions concerning Deuteronomy 24 by affirming that although Moses permitted divorce because of the extreem sinfulness of man, it was not God's design, and thus to divorce and remarry is to commit adultery (19:8-9) 1) Jesus responds that Moses permitted divorce because of the extreem sinfulness of man (19:8a) 2) Jesus regulates Moses' command by affirming that God's design was not enclusive of divorce, but was for permanency (19:8b) 3) Jesus explains the sense of Deuteronomy 24:1 with respect to remarriage when He says that if one divorces and remarries, he has committed adultry, unless he has been immoral already thus already commiting adultery (19:9) e. In response to Jesus' stringent affirmation of the permanence of marrage the disciples state that it would be better (more convenient) to remain single (19:10) f. Jesus does not agree with the argument from convenience as expressed by His disciples, therefore, He exhorts them to choose singleness only as a means to making themselves more effective for God's service (19:11-12) 1) Jesus affirms that not all men can remain single out of a desire to make themselves available to serve God (19:11) 2) Jesus explains that there are many reasons why men remain single, but the greatest of them all is when they choose this estate so that they may serve God in His Kingdom, blessing those who do (19:12) 2. As some children were brought to Jesus for Him to lay His hands upon and to pray for, Jesus taught His disciples who wanted to keep them from Him, that they should not because the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these children, whereupon He layed hands on them and then departed from the transjordan in Judea (19:13-15) a. Setting: Some children were brought to Jesus so that He might lay His hands on them and pray, and the disciples rebuked them (19:13) b. Jesus rebuked his disciples affirming that the children should be allowed to come to Him since the Kingdom of God belongs to those who are as children (19:14) c. After laying His hands upon the children, Jesus departed from Judea beyond the Jordan (19:15; cf. 19:1) 3. Jesus taught a rich man and His disciples that riches could be a hindrance to acceptance by God, and that only God's work could enable a man to enter the Kingdom of God whereupon He would bestow rich rewards upon the disciples, as well as everyone [including late-comers] who sacrificed to follow Him (19:16-26) a. Jesus taught a self-righteous man (who was much like religious Israel) that even though he thought that he had kept all of God's law, he had actually broken it at its very first commandment due to his great love for money (19:16-22) 1) Setting: Jesus was asked by a man who came to Him what good thing he must do to obtain eternal life (19:16) 2) Jesus unvails the man's hypocracy by mentioning the presupposition that the man has that he can do something good, which is only possible of God, and then commands that he obey the commandments (19:17) 3) The man reveals his legalistic predisposition (as with the nation Israel) by asking Jesus which commandments he must obey (19:18a) 4) Jesus responded to the man by citing the essence of the Ten Commandments to the man (19:18b-19) 5) Convinced that he had kept the Ten Commandments, the man asked Jesus what he was still lacking (19:20) 6) Jesus exposed the man's hypocracy on the level of the first commandment by exhorting him to sell all that he had, to give his money to the poor and to follow Him (19:21) 7) When the man heard Jesus' words he left because he had many possessions and loved them more than Jesus [God] (19:22) b. Although His discples were astonished that a rich man might not enter into the Kingdom of God on his own, Jesus taught them that God's work could make this possible (19:23-26) 1) Setting: In view of His discussion with the man Jesus spoke to His disciples (19:23a) 2) Jesus proclaimed that it is virtually impossable for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God (19:23b-24) 3) The discples were astonished at Jesus' words since they believed that those who were rich were blessed of God; therefore, they questioned who could be saved (19:25) 4) Jesus proclaimed to His disciples that it is only possible with God's help to be saved, since it was impossible for men on their own (19:26) c. When asked by Peter if the disciples will be honored for their sacrifices to follow Jesus, they are informed that not only will they receive the reward of rulership over Israel in the Kingdom, but also all (including late- coming ones [Gentiles?] will receive rewards and eternal life for following Jesus (19:27-- 20:16) 1) Peter, speaking for the twelve, asked Jesus if there would be any reward for them since they (unlike the rich man) had left all to follow Him (19:27) 2) Jesus promises that the disciples will be specifically rewarded for their commitment by ruling over Israel, and that everyone who sacrifices to follow Him will be rewarded and receive eternal life (19:28-29) a) Jesus promises that the disciples will be rewarded for their commitment when they will rule over Israel in the future Kingdom (19:28) b) Jesus promises that everyone who has sacrificed to follow Him shall receive more than that sacrificed and shall inherit eternal life (19:29) 3) Jesus warned that there will be suprises in the coming kingdom as to who is honored by God (19:30--20:16) a) Statement: Jesus stated that many who are first will be last and the last will be first (19:30) b) Jesus compares the Kingdom of heaven to a landowner who gave to those who contracted with him that which they agreed upon, and graciously gave to those who entered late the same amount (20:1- 15) (1) Jesus compares the Kingdom of heaven to a landowner who hired laborers in the morning who agreed to work for a denarius, as well as various other laborers throughout the day who agreed to work in his vinyard for what was right (20:1-7) (2) When evening came, the owner charged the forman to pay the laborers their wages beginning with the last group to the first group (20:8) (3) Each laborer received the same wage--one denarius (20:9-10) (4) The morning laborers complained to the owner that he had treated them unfairly by not paying them more than the late-commers (20:11-12) (5) The owner proclaimed his innocence in that he gave the morning laborers exactly what they agreed upon, and accused them of being envious because of his choice to be generous to the late-comers (20:13-15) c) Statement: Again Jesus said that the last shall be first, and the first last (20:16) 4. As Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, He privately told His disciples of His coming persecution, death and resurrection in Jerusalem (20:17-19) a. Setting: As Jesus was about to go up Jerusalem, He took the twelve disciples aside and spoke to them (20:17) b. Jesus fortold of His coming presecution, death and resurrection in Jerusalem (20:18- 19) 1) Jesus told them that they were going up to Jerusalem (20:18a) 2) Jesus foretold his coming death by crucifixion at the hands of Israel and the Gentiles (20:18b-19a) 3) Jesus fortold His comming resurrection on on the third day (20:19b) 5. Jesus taught the disciples that greatness was not a position which would be appointed by Him over others, but one which the Father would appoiont among those who serve one another as the Son of Man did for mankind (20:20-28) a. Setting: The mother of the sons of Zebedee came to Jesus with her sons to make a request of Him: namely, that her two children may sit with Him in His kingdom in seats of honor--on the left and right of Jesus (20:21) b. Jesus proclaimed that although they would indeed suffer with Him, that He could not offer those places of honor to them since that choice was determined by the Father (20:22-23) c. When the other ten disciples heard of the request of the ten, they became angry with the Zebedee brothers (20:24) d. Jesus explained to the twelve that greatness in the Kingdom will not be attained through placing one's self above another but through serving one another as the Son of Man has come to serve the race of men with His life (20:25-28) 6. As Jesus and His disciples were heading for Jerusalem, He healed the two blind men who looked to Him as Messiah--"Son of David" (20:29-34) a. As Jesus and His disciples where heading for Jerusalem and exiting Jericho, two blind men cried out amidst opposition to Him as Messiah to have mercy upon them (20:29-31) b. When Jesus asked the blind men what they wanted, they asked that He heal their blindness whereupon, He did and they followed Him (20:32-34) B. Jesus formally presented Himself as Messiah to the nation by preparing to enter Jerusalem as Zechariah's predicted Messiah, by entering the city with the proclaimation of the people that He was King fulfilling Psalm 118, and by entering the temple where he acted as Messiah and confirmed the words of those who were identifying Him as such, whereupon, He left Jerusalem to lodge in Bethany (21:1-17) 1. Jesus prepared for His formal presentation to Israel as Zechariah's predicted Messiah who came in the time of war as as the bearer of salvation riding on a donkey and its colt into the city of Jerusalem: at this point He is the suffering servant (21:1-7) a. Setting: When Jesus and the disciples were just outside of Jerusalem at the village of Bethpage, He sent two of His disciples to get a donkey and its colt which had been prearranged by Him in order that He might humbly enter the city on it thus fulfilling the prophecy in Zechariah 9:9 (21:1-4) b. The disciples did as Jesus had directed, brought the donkey and the colt, and laid on them their garments, on which Jesus sat in the image of Zechariah 9:9 2. When Jesus entered into Jerusalem, the people treated him as a king, proclaimed Him to be the fulfillment of Psalm 118, and identified Him as the prophet from Galilee (21:7-9) a. As Jesus entered the city of Jerusalem, the multitudes (who were there to celebrate the Passover) honored Him as a King and proclaimed Him as Messiah fulfilling Psalm 118 (21:7-9) b. When Jesus entered Jerusalem, the multitudes were stirred, questioned who He was, and were told that He was the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth in Galilee (21:10-11) 3. When Jesus entered the temple, He identified Himself as Messiah by cleansing it, healing the blind and lame, and agreeing with those who were proclaiming Him as Messiah (21:12-16) a. Jesus entered the temple and cast out those who were making a profit off of those who came to worship God (21:12-13) b. Jesus identified Himself as Messiah by healing the blind and the lame who came to Him in the temple (21:14) c. The cheif priests and scribes became indignant when they saw the cleansing, miracles, and the chants of the children identifying Jesus as Messiah and thus, asked Jesus if He heard what the children were saying (21:15-16) d. Jesus responded to the leaders by affirming the words of the children who were fulfilling Ps. 8:2 by proclaiming His Messiahship (21:16) 4. Conclusion: Jesus left the temple and went out of the city to Bethany where He stayed (21:17) C. Jesus exposed the rejecting heart of Israel's religious leaders through multiple confrontations, and thus foretold of the taking of the Kingdom from them and its being given to others (the Gentiles) through the cursing of the fig tree and the parables of the two sons and the landowner (21:18-22:46) 1. When Jesus came back into Jerusalem in the morning, He cursed a deceptive fig tree (representing the Nation Israel) and taught his curious disciples that they too will be able to do this and even grater things (include the Gentiles) if they exercise their faith (21:18-22) a. Setting: In the morning Jesus returned to the city (21:18a) b. When Jesus became hungry and looked on a fig tree for food, only to find that it had leaves but no fruit, he cursed it and it immediately began to wither (21:18b-19) c. When the disciples saw the withered fig tree they wondered how this could have happened so quickly (21:20) d. Jesus explained that faith was necessary to do the things which He had done and many even greater things including bringing the Gentiles into the blessing of God (moving mountains) (21:21-22) 2. In a conflict with the chief priests and the elders Jesus exposes their religious hypocrisy, speaks of the coming judgment which will come upon the nation for her rejection of Jesus as Messiah, and hints of a place for the Gentiles in the coming Kingdom (21:23--22:14) a. When Jesus was questioned by the chief priests and the elders of Israel concerning His authority, He refused to give a direct answer to them because they would not directly answer His question concerning the authority of John's baptism (21:23-27) 1) Setting: When Jesus had come into the temple the chief priests and the elders came up to Him while He was teaching questioned His authority (21:23) 2) Jesus agreed to directly answer the leaders if they would directly state whether John's baptism was from heaven or from men (21:24-25a) 3) As the leaders reasoned concerning the implications of either answer, they chose to not give a direct answer, and thus, Jesus also refused to directly answer their question concerning His authority (21:25b-27) b. Through the parable of two sons, Jesus exposed the hypocrisy of the religious leaders who appear to be obedient to the Father, but in reality did not obey His words through John the Baptizer (21:28-32) 1) Setting: In view of the above direct refusal by Jesus to reveal His authority, He asked the leaders for their opinion concerning a parable (21:28a) 2) Jesus described two sons: one who said he would do the job of his father but did not, and the other who said he would not do the job of his father and did; then He asked the leaders which did the father's will (21:28b-31a) 3) The leaders identified the latter son as the one who did the will of the father (21:31b) 4) Jesus applied the parable to the religious leaders who seemed to be the one's who obeyed the Father, but actually disobeyed His words through John the Baptist, while those who did not appear to be doing the will of the Father (taxgathers and harlots) did believe John and will thus enter into the Kingdom before them (21:31c-32) c. Through the parable of the "landowner," Jesus identified the religious leaders as those who were rejecting Him in accordance with Psalm 118:22, and thus deserving of judgment as the Kingdom is taken from them and given unto others (the Gentiles), only to be hated by the leaders (21:33-46) 1) The landowner rented out his vineyard after he had built it up (21:33) 2) When harvest time came around, He sent servants to collect his share but they were beaten by the vinegrowers (21:34- 36) 3) The landowner finally sent his son whom the vinegrowers killed (21:37-39) 4) Jesus asked what the landowner should do to the vinegrowers (21:40) 5) The response was that the landowner should rent out the vineyard to someone who would pay him dividends (21:41) 6) Jesus applied this to the leaders of the nation of Israel and stated that the Kingdom of God is going to be given to others (21:42-44) 7) The chief priests were enraged and wanted to kill Jesus except that they were afraid of the crowds who thought that Jesus was a prophet (21:45-46) d. Through the parable of the wedding feast Jesus teaches the religious leaders the consequences of their rejection of Him (22:1- 14) 1) Statement: the King prepared a wedding feast for His son (22:2) 2) The King invited his guests but they were unwilling to come (22:3) a) He sent forth servants to call the guests (22:3a) b) The guests had already been pre- invited (22:3b) c) The guests refused to come (22:3c) 3) The King reinvited His guests (22:4-6) a) He sent forth other servants to entice the guests (22:4a) b) He sent a message of preparation which He had made for them (22:4b- d) (1) He prepared the noon meal already (22:4b) (2) He prepared for further celebration (22:4c) (3) He made the necessary spiritual sacrifices (22:4d) (4) He exhorted them to come to the feast (22:4e) 4) The guests rudely, and violently refused to come (22:5-6) a) One group ignored the invitation and went back to their own jobs of interest (22:5) b) The remaining group responded violently seizing, mocking, and killing the servants (22:6) 5) The King punished those who treated Him with contempt (22:7) a) He heard of their rebellion (22:7a) b) He became enraged at their rebellion (22:7b) c) He punished the rebels (22:7c-e) (1) He sent His army (22:7c) (2) He annihilated the murders (22:7d) (3) He destroyed their town with fire (22:7e) 6) The King invited those outside of His immediate town to come to the wedding feast (22:9-10) a) He sent his servants to the ends of the roads to look for people (22:9a) b) As many as the servants found, they were to invite to the wedding feast (22:9b-10) c) The slaves went out and gathered together all they found, both evil and good, and the wedding hall was filled with guests (22:10) 7) While coming to greet his guests, the King saw one not properly attired for the feast, therefore, he had him removed (22:11-14) a) The King came to greet His guests (22:11a) b) The King saw one guest improperly attired (22:11b) c) The King exposed the guest's rebellion (22:12) (1) He asked the guest why he came without wedding clothes (22:12a) (2) The guest expressed guilt with silence (22:12b) d) The King had the guest removed, and punished (22:13) (1) He ordered that he be imprisoned (22:13a) (2) He ordered that he be thrown out in the dark where there is grief and anger (22:13b) 8) Jesus explained the parable to mean that even though there may be a general call into the Kingdom, all are individually responsible to obey it and thus be chosen to enter into the Kingdom (22:14) a) Many are called by the King to the Kingdom (22:14a) b) Few are chosen by the King to the Kingdom (22:14b) 3. Jesus exposed a hypocritical conflict with the Pharisees and the Herodians by exhorting them to give money to those whose image it bears, and to give one's life to God whose image they bear (22:15-19) a. Setting: The Pharisees and the Herodians gathered together to trap Him by asking Him if they should pay the poll-tax to Caesar or not (22:15-17) b. Jesus perceived their malice and questioned why it was that they were testing Him (22:18) c. Taking a coin, Jesus commanded them to give money which has one's image back to the one who owns it by means of His image, but to give to God that which bears His image-- themselves (22:19) d. When the Pharisees and the Herodians heard his answer, they marveled and left Him (22:22) 4. When confronted by the Sadducees who denied the resurrection with a hypothetical problem in Levirate marriage, Jesus explained that they did not understand the Scriptures, and argued for the existence of the resurrection through God's abiding relationship with the patriarchs, causing the multitudes to marvel (22:23-33) a. Setting: On the same day, some Saducees, who deny the resurrection, questioned Jesus (22:23) b. Arguing from the Law concerning Levirate marriage, the Saducees questioned the reasonableness of the resurrection due to the difficulty of multiple, legal marriages on earth (22:24-28) c. Jesus not only accused them of not understanding the Scriptures, and God, but affirmed the resurrection through God's abiding relationship with the patriarchs (22:29-32) 1) Jesus responded by stating that their question demonstrates a mistaken understanding of the resurrection, Scriptures and thus the power of God because there will not be marriage in heaven (22:29-30) 2) Jesus argued for the existence of the resurrection through the fact that God's promises to the patriarchs continues for them to yet partake of (22:31-32) d. The multitudes were astonished by Jesus' teaching (22:33) 5. After answering the Pharisees' question concerning the Law, Jesus asked them to explain David's words in Psalm 110:1, but received no reply and no further questions (22:34-46) a. Setting: When the Pharisees heard that Jesus had put the Sadducees to silence, they sent a lawyer to test Him which is the greatest commandment question (22:34-36) b. Jesus summarized the commandments of the OT Scriptures with the exhortation to love God and your neighbor (22:37-40) c. Jesus asked the Pharisees the meaning of David's words in Psalm 110:1 when David calls his son "Lord" (22:41-45) d. No one was able to answer Jesus, and dared to ask Him any questions from that day on (22:46) D. After Jesus warned the multitudes and His disciples about the hypocritical works of the scribes and Pharisees, and rebuked the religious leaders for their external fronts for evil, He rejected the nation Israel and told of certain coming judgment until she received Him at His second coming (23:1-39) 1. Speaking to His disciples and the multitudes, Jesus warns them to not exalt themselves at the expense of others as the scribes and Pharisees do, but to become great by serving one another (23:1- 12) a. Setting: Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to His disciples (23:1) b. In view of the evil of the scribes and Pharisees, Jesus warned His disciples and the people to not exalt themselves over one another (as the leaders do), but to be great by serving one another (23:2-12) 1) Jesus exhorted the people to do the Law over which the scribes and Pharisees had oversight, but not to do what they did (23:2-3) 2) Jesus described the evil which the scribes and Pharisees do as making life difficult for men, and seeking honor for themselves (23:4-7) a) They make obedience difficult for men, and do not themselves help men (23:4) b) They love to do deeds so as to be honored by men (23:5-7) 3) Jesus warns the people to not exalt themselves above each other for they are equal, and the only one above them is God (23:8-10) 4) Jesus taught the people that greatness would be measured by service and not self-exaltation (23:11-12) 2. Jesus pronounced multiple "woes" upon the scribes and the Pharisees because of their deadly hypocrisy which appeared to be godly but in-fact was a covering for their rebellion against God and His servants (23:13-36) a. Jesus pronounced a woe upon the scribes and Pharisees because they not only will not enter the kingdom themselves, but because they keep others form entering it themselves (23:13) b. Jesus pronounced a woe upon the scribes and Pharisees because they appear to be religious while they take from the poor--widows leading to judgment (23:14) c. Jesus pronounced a woe upon the scribes and Pharisees because they are evangelistic in their faith, and only qualify their converts for hell (23:15) d. Jesus pronounced a woe upon the scribes and Pharisees because they made distinctions for the sake of lawlessness, rather than truly understanding the place of vows before God (23:16-22) e. Jesus pronounced a woe upon the scribes and Pharisees because they are careful for the minutia of the Law, and neglect the important, primary aspects of its demands (23:23-24) f. Jesus pronounced a woe upon the scribes and Pharisees because they are concerned about external cleanliness all the while ignoring the uncleanliness which dwells within them (23:25-26) g. Jesus pronounced a woe upon the scribes and Pharisees because they were externally religious, but internally defiled (23:27-28) h. Jesus pronounced a woe upon the scribes and Pharisees because they claim to be in line with the fathers and prophets, but are and will demonstrate that they are in fact in line, and the culmination of all of those who kill the righteous (23:29-36) 3. In view of Israel's unwillingness to repent, Jesus pronounces a certain judgment upon the nation until she does receive Him at His second coming (23:37-39) a. Jesus declares the unwillingness of those in Jerusalem to come to Him from her historical stance of hostility (23:37) b. Jesus proclaims that He is leaving the nation to its judgment (23:38) c. Jesus proclaims that even though the judgment is certain, that it is not forever, but until He comes again in the name of the Lord [referring to how the nation should have responded to Him at the triumphal entry according to Psalm 118:26, cf. Matt. 21:42] (23:39) E. As Jesus left the temple and was questioned by the disciples concerning His second coming He explained to them the signs which will precede his coming, and the need for each individual to be ready [Discourse] (24:1- -25:46) 1. Setting: As Jesus left the temple, His disciples urged Him to admire the temple buildings, but Jesus proclaimed that they would all be destroyed in the future (24:1-2) 2. The disciples ask Jesus one basic question: "when will this eschatological judgment-coming of Messiah be?" (24:3) 3. In response to His disciples question, Jesus explained that His return will follow a period of troubles, which will increase and climax with the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel, whereupon he will publicly, and visibly return gathering believers to Himself from all over the earth (24:4-31) a. Jesus discusses upcoming catastrophes (in which one might place the destruction of the temple) and claims to Messiahship which lie ahead, but are not to be confused with the end times when He will return (24:4-6) 1) Jesus urges the disciples to not be misled (24:4) 2) Even though many will claim to be the Christ, and there will be wars and rumors of wars, these will not be signs of the end (24:5-6) b. Jesus discusses in a general way the events which will take place toward the beginning of the time near to when He will return [in the first half of the tribulation] (24:7-14) 1) World-wide conflicts and natural tragedies will increase but these are merely the beginning of what is to come (24:7-8) 2) The Jewish followers of Jesus will be persecuted by all nations (24:9) 3) Enormous apostasy, many false teachers, and apathy will increase because of the great lawlessness of the times (24:10- 12) 4) The one who endures during this time of persecution will be delivered into the future Kingdom (24:13) 5) The Gospel of the Kingdom will be preached into the whole world, and then the end times will come (24:14) c. Jesus discusses the events which will take place during time closer to His return as initiated by the abomination, unique to all of history, and cut short for the sake of the elect [the second half of the tribulation] (24:15-22) 1) When the abomination occurs which makes desolate in the holy place as spoken of by Daniel, the reader is to understand that the time is nearer to the Lord's return and is to flee (24:15-18) 2) Jesus warns that there is going to be a great tribulation at that time which is unique to all that has or ever will take place in human history (24:19-21) 3) Jesus encourages his readers with the fact that God will cut short those days for the sake of believers (24:22) d. Jesus discusses His return as being public, rather than private, observable to all, and resulting in the gathering of Jewish believers from all over the world to Israel (24:23-31) 1) Even through there may be many marvelous signs during this time which will be used to authenticate one as the Christ, Jesus warns his listeners that they are not to believe them (24:23-26) 2) The reason they are not to be deceived by private attestations to the identity of Christ is because His coming will be with certainty in clear, glorious visibility to the world under judgment (24:27-30) 3) When the Lord returns to the earth, He will gather together His elect believers from all over the earth to meet Him in Israel (24:31) 4. Through many parables Jesus taught His disciples that it will be important for Israel and the Nations to be personally ready for the return of the Son of Man because He will come in judgment (24:32--25:46) a. From the parable of the fig tree, Jesus taught His disciples that occurrence the prophetic signs which were just described will indicate that the Lord's return is very near (24:32-33) 1) Setting: Jesus exhorts His disciples to learn the parable of the fig tree (24:32a) 2) Just as one knows that summer is near when he sees the fig tree's leaves, so should one know that the Lord's return is near when one sees the prescribed prophetic events occur (24:32b-33) 3) The generation which sees the prophetic events occur will certainly not die until the Lord's return takes place (24:34-35) b. Through the analogy of the days of Noah, Jesus explained that the exact coming of the Lord in judgment will be a surprise to all, especially those who will be taken in judgment (24:36-41) 1) No one knows the exact timing of the coming of the Son of Man (24:36) 2) The coming of the Son of Man shall be unexpected as the judgment was by the people in the days of Noah (24:37-39) 3) When the coming of the Son of Man occurs some will be taken away in judgment, and some will be left to enter into the future Kingdom (24:40-41) c. Jesus urges the disciples to be on the alert because they, like the head of a household looking for a thief, do not know when the Lord will come (24:42-44) 1) Jesus urges the disciples to be on the alert because they do not know the exact day when the Lord will come (24:42) 2) Just as a head of a household needs to always be prepared because he does not know when a thief is coming, so do the disciples need to be prepared because they do not know when the Lord will come (24:43-44) d. Through the parable of the two servants, Jesus warns His disciples that those who are found to be doing what the Master asked of them will be rewarded by Him, while those who are abusive and not ready will be severely judged (24:45-51) 1) The servant who was put in charge of the master's household will be blessed and given more responsibility by the master when he returns and finds him to be doing what he is supposed to do (24:45- 47) 2) The servant who was put in charge of the master's household will be severely judged by the Master if He returns home to find that he has abused his responsibilities (24:48-51) e. Through the parable of the ten virgins, Jesus taught His disciples that they needed to be personally prepared for the coming of the Son of Man (25:1-13) 1) The Kingdom of heaven is compared to ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom (25:1-2) 2) Five of the virgins were foolish and five of the virgins were wise (25:2-4) a) Statement (25:2) b) Five of the virgins were foolish because they did not take extra oil in their lamps (25:2-3) c) Five of the virgins were prudent because they took oil along with their lamps (25:4) 3) All ten of the virgins fell asleep waiting for the bridegroom (25:6) 4) At midnight the bridegroom suddenly came and they were to come out to meet him (25:7) 5) The foolish asked the prudent to loan them some oil, but they did not have enough to loan, so the foolish went to the dealer to purchase some (25:8-9) 6) While the foolish had gone to purchase some oil, the bridegroom came taking those who were ready with Him to the wedding feast, and closing the door (25:10) 7) Later when the other virgins came and asked for admittance it was denied as the groom claimed to not know them (25:11-12) 8) Jesus exhorted the disciples to be on the alert because they do not know when the Lord will come (25:13) f. Through the parable of the talents, Jesus teaches his disciples that those who are ready at his coming will be honored and enter into the kingdom, but those who are not ready will be rebuked and punished (25:14-30) 1) Setting: Jesus teaches that the Kingdom of heaven is like a man who went on a journey and entrusted His possessions to his servants (25:14) 2) He gave to each according to their ability and went on a journey (25:15) 3) Each servant invested his talents and doubled their value except for the one who had received one talent since he hid it in the ground (25:16-18) 4) When the master returned, he commended, and gave greater responsibility, and invited each servant into his rest who multiplied his talent (25:19-23) 5) The servant with the one talent brought it back to the master claiming that he hid it out of fear of what the master might do to him if he had lost any of it (25:24-25) 6) The master responded in anger because the of the servant's inconsistent excuse, and ordered that the talent be taken and given to the most faithful of his servants and that the wicked servant be thrown outside of the kingdom into outer darkness (25:26-30) g. Through the parable of the sheep and the goats Jesus taught His disciples that when the Lord returns He will judge the nations on how they treated believing Israel during the tribulation (24:31-46) 1) Setting: When the Son of Man comes with His angels in all of His greatness he will sit on His throne and separate in judgment all of the nations from one another as a shepherd would separate the sheep on his right from the goats on his left (25:31-33) 2) He will bless those on His right and invite them to inherit the Kingdom because of the good way that they treated other believers during the tribulation (25:34-40) 3) He will command those on His left to depart from Him into eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels because of the bad way that they treated other believers during the tribulation (25:41-45) 4) Those on his left will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous will go away into eternal life (25:46) VII. THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION OF THE KING: Jesus was falsely accused, brutally crucified, and gloriously resurrected in accordance with the Scripture and then commissioned his disciples to tell the nations of his authority over heaven and on earth (26:1--28:20) A. The crucifixion of the King: In accordance with the prophetic words of Jesus and the Scriptures, Jesus was arrested, tried and shown to be innocent before God and man, unlike his disciples, and brutally crucified, only to be affirmed to be the Son of God through the miraculous events which followed, and buried in another man's tomb under the guard of Rome (26:1--27:66) 1. The preparation: Jesus prepared for his future crucifixion by announcing his upcoming crucifixion to his disciples in accordance with the plottings of the leaders of the nation, by being anointed for his burial in advance, by identifying Judas as the one who would betray Him, by announcing to his disciples that His death was going to inaugurate the new covenant, and that the Kingdom would yet be consummated, by predicting that all of his disciples would fall away from Him in the struggle, and by teaching his disciples through example the necessity to fight battles in the arena of prayer before the physical attack ensued (26:1-46) a. Setting: After Jesus had spoken to His disciples about his second coming he told them that He was about to be delivered up for crucifixion before the Passover (26:1-2) b. The chief priests and the elders of the people were plotting in the court of the high priest, Caiaphas, to seize Jesus and kill Him, but they were afraid to do so during the festival because of the people (26:3-5) c. While Jesus was at Bethany at the home of Simon the leper, He was anointed for his burial by a woman who poured perfume on Him, leading to Judas' decision to hand Jesus over to the Priests (26:6-16) 1) Setting: While Jesus was in Bethany at the home of Simon the leper, a woman pored a vial of costly perfume upon the head of Jesus (26:6-7) 2) The disciples were angry at this use of the perfume since it might have been sold and its profit used for the poor (26:8-9) 3) Jesus corrected His disciples of missing the significance of the woman's act since she had prepared Him for His burial, and will be remembered for it (26:10-13) 4) At Jesus' words Judas went to the chief priests and agreed to look for a time to deliver Jesus over to them for thirty pieces of silver (26:14-16) d. The Passover Supper: When the place for the Passover supper was cryptically arranged for (because of Judas?), Jesus identified Judas as the one who would betray him, proclaimed through the elements that he was going to initiate the new covenant, affirmed that there would yet be a future consummation of the Kingdom, sang a song, and left with his disciples for the Mount of Olives 26:17-29 1) Setting: Under cryptic instructions from Jesus the disciples prepared for the Passover supper in a place already determined by the Lord 27:17-19 2) Through the imagery of dipping into a bowl at the supper, Jesus identified Judas, one among them, as the one who would betray Him 26:20-25 3) Through the imagery of bread and wine, Jesus exhorts the disciples to partake of the elements as symbols of the work which Jesus will do to ratify the new covenant affirming that there will be a time of consummation when he will again drink with them in the Kingdom, whereupon, they sang a hymn, and went out of the upper room to the Mount of Olives 26:26-29 a) Jesus gave the bread to his disciples and told them to eat of it since it represented His body 26:26 b) Jesus gave the cup to his disciples and told them to drink of it because it represented His blood which was the foundation of the (New) covenant for the forgiveness of sins 26:27-28 c) Jesus proclaims that he will not drink of wine (which symbolized blessing, festivity, feasting) until the future time of the Kingdom 26:29 d) After singing a hymn (cf. Ps. 118), they went out of the upper room and to the Mount Olives (cf. 2 Sam. 15; Ezk. 10) 26:30 e. Jesus predicts in accordance with the Scriptures, but against the insistent resistance of the disciples, that all of them, including Peter, will fall away from Him when he is struck 26:31-35 1) Jesus predicts in accordance with Zechariah 13:7 that all of the disciples will fall away from him when he is struck, but that he will rise again and go before them to Galilee 26:31-32 2) Peter resists Jesus' prediction affirming that he will never desert Jesus 26:33 3) Jesus then predicts that Peter will deny Jesus three times before the cock crows 26:34 4) Peter and the rest of the disciples all resist Jesus' prediction affirming that they are willing to die with Jesus 26:35 f. When Jesus came with his disciples at Gethsemane, He urged them to pray for their own coming struggle, modeled for them the necessary spiritual struggle which must proceed the physical struggle as he petitioned God for release, but bent his will to the Father's plan, and then rebuked the disciples for sleeping because they were now about to enter into the physical struggle since his betrayer was near 26:36-46 1) Setting: Jesus came with his disciples to a place called Gethsemane and told them to sit at one place while he went deeply grieved to another place to pray with Peter and the two sons of Zebedee urging them to pray with Him 26:36-38 2) Jesus then went beyond the three he had brought with him and asked His father to let the judgment to pass if it was at all possible, and yet expressed his willingness for God's will to be done 26:39 3) Jesus then went back to the three, found them sleeping, questioned their strength (in view of previous boasts [20:20; 26:35), and urged them to watch and pray in order that they might not enter into temptation because they are weaker than they think 26:40-41 4) Jesus went away from the three disciples again and prayed to His Father affirming that he will face the judgment in accordance with God's will if He must 26:42 5) Jesus again came to his disciples and found them sleeping from exhaustion 26:43 6) Jesus went away from the three a third time affirming his willingness to face the necessary judgment 26:44 7) Jesus returned to the sleeping disciples and rebuked them for not fighting spiritually because they had to now enter the physical battle since he was now about to be betrayed 26:45-46 2. The arrest: While Jesus was still speaking to his disciples, the arrest was led by Judas who identified Jesus, was momentarily blocked by a disciple with force, but was ensued when Jesus rebuked the disciple as acting outside of the Father's plan since the arrest was in accordance with the scriptures, whereupon the disciples fled 26:47-56 a. While Jesus was still speaking to the disciples, Judas came up with the religious leaders and an armed crowd and identified Jesus with a kiss as he had arranged 26:47- 49 b. Jesus urged Judas to do not feign a greeting, but to do that which he came to do, and thus Jesus was seized 26:50 c. When one of the disciples drew his sword and struck the slave of the high priest cutting off his ear, Jesus rebuked him arguing that it is not the Father's will that this arrest should be fought, but that Messiah should suffer as the scriptures indicate 26:51-54 d. Jesus questioned the manner in which this arrest was being made (at night, in private, with weapons), because he had been available in the temple every day, but he was not seized; then Jesus asserted that this arrest was as it was to fulfill scripture 26:55-56a e. When Jesus was arrested all of the disciples left him and fled fulfilling scripture and has previous words (Zech. 13:7; Matt. 26:31ff) 26:56b 3. The Trials: In trials before Caiaphas and Pilate Jesus is demonstrated to be falsely accused and sentenced to crucifixion in accordance with the Scriptures, and his followers are shown to be truly guilty of disobedience to God (26:57-- 27:26) a. Before Caiaphas: In an interchange between Jesus and Peter, Jesus shows himself to be the obedient servant of God who withstands false accusations and charges of death as Messiah, while Peter shows himself to be a disobedient servant of God unwilling to stand before true accusations, and fleeing the seen in bitter remorse over his fulfillment of Jesus' prediction of his denial 26:57-75 1) Jesus was led to the high priest, Caiaphas, were the council was waiting 26:57 2) Peter was following at a distance and sat down in the court of the high priest to learn of the outcome of the events 26:58 3) Jesus is falsely accused by many false witnesses, is charged with speaking against the temple, and with being Messiah whereupon he affirms his position of Messiah, and claims that the next time he is seen, he will be seen as Judge, with the result that the council accuses him of blasphemy deserving the death penalty, and mocked him 26:59-68 4) Peter, in accordance with Jesus' prediction, denied knowing Jesus three times, and left the scene weeping bitterly b. Before Pilate: When the Sanhedrin decided Jesus' guilt, Judas was remorseful and hung himself, the priests fulfilled Scripture which identified their rejection of Messiah by buying the Potter's field with the blood money, and Pilate delivered Jesus to be crucified in spite of the lack of evidence, at the insistence of the people 27:1-26 1) In the morning the Sanhedrin decided to put Jesus to death and delivered him up to Pilate the governor 27:1-2 2) When Judas saw that Jesus had been condemned, he returned the money to the priests in remorse, hung himself, and the priests gave the money to the Potter's Field in fulfillment of OT prophecy, and it was then called the Field of Blood 27:3-10 a) When Judas saw that Jesus had been condemned he felt remorse, returned the thirty pieces of silver to the council, and confessed his sin in betraying Jesus, only to be rejected by them 27:3-4 b) Judas threw the money back at the priests, and went out and hung himself 27:5 c) The priests took the money and gave it to purchase the Potter's field in fulfillment of OT prophecy (cf. Zech. 11:12-13) 27:6-10 3) In the trial before Pilate, Jesus agreed that he was King of the Jews, refused to answer the accusations of the Jews, and was handed over in place of Barabbas to be scourged and crucified at the insistence of the people 27:11-26 a) When Jesus stood before Pilate he answered affirmatively that he was the King of the Jews 27:11 b) When Jesus was accused by the chief priests and the elders he responded with no answer to the amazement of Pilate 27:12-14 c) In accordance with custom, Pilate offered the multitude the opportunity of either releasing Jesus or Barabbas, with hopes of releasing Jesus, but the crowed under the influence of the religious leaders requested Barabbas, against the dream of Pilate's wife 27:15-21 d) Pilate had Jesus scourged, and delivered over to be crucified at the insistence of the people 27:22- 26 4. The Crucifixion of Jesus: Even though Jesus was severely mocked before the crucifixion and was crucified in accordance with the scorn which Scripture predicted, He was affirmed through the many miraculous events which followed to be the Son of God (27:27-56) a. Before Jesus was crucified He was severely mocked, and then led to Golgotha by Pilate's soldiers, and under the enlisted help of Simon of Cyrene 27:27-32 1) Three to six hundred soldiers of Pilate mocked Jesus in the Praetorium by stripping him, placing a scarlet robe, crown of thorns, and scepter-reed upon him, kneeling, hailing him as King of the Jews, spitting, and beating him 27:27-31 2) After the soldiers had mocked Jesus, they redressed him and led him away to crucify him 27:31 3) As the soldiers led Jesus to be crucified, they enlisted a Simon from Cyrene to carry his cross 27:32 b. At the Crucifixion of Jesus, He endured the full pain of the torture, was abused as they gambled over his garments and was insulted on all sides, experienced separation from the Father, was misunderstood by onlookers, and voluntarily gave his life up to God 27:33-49 1) When the soldiers and Jesus came to Golgotha, they tried to give Jesus drink to deaden the pain, but he rejected it; then they crucified him, gambled over his garments, and identified him as "Jesus the King of the Jews" with a sign over his head 27:33-37 2) Insults were cast upon Jesus by passers by, the scribes and elders, the chief priests and the robbers on the crosses on either side of him 27:38-44 3) Through darkness and the cry of Jesus from Psalm 22:1 Jesus is shown to be separated from the Father as he hangs upon the cross 27:45-46 4) Some who heard Jesus speak thought that he was calling upon Elijah to save him, and offered him wine to drink, but others mocked 27:47-49 5) Jesus cried out in a loud voice and voluntarily died 27:50 c. After the Crucifixion of Jesus many miraculous event occurred which confirmed the person of Jesus, and led the Romans guarding Jesus to identify Him as the Son of God, while the women who had followed Jesus from Galilee looked on from a distance 27:51-56 1) When Jesus gave up his spirit miraculous events occurred: the veil was torn indicating a new and living way of access to God, the earth shook and the rocks split to attest the greatness of Jesus who had been crucified, and believers were raised to affirm Jesus' authority over life and death 27:51-53 a) The veil of the temple was torn in two 27:51a b) The earth shook 27:51b c) The rocks were split 27:51c d) The tombs were opened 27:52a e) Many believers who were dead were restored (raised) and appeared to many when they came out of their tombs after Jesus' resurrection 27:52b-23 2) When the centurion and those with him keeping guard over Jesus saw the earthquake and the other natural phenomena, they proclaimed Jesus to be the Son of God 27:54 3) Many women who had been with Jesus since Galilee were watching the crucifixion from a distance including Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee 27:55-56 5. The burial: Jesus was buried in Joseph of Arimathea's grave and the tomb was sealed and guarded by Roman soldiers (27:57-66) a. A rich man named Joseph of Arimathea requested from Pilate the body of Jesus, prepared it for burial, laid him in his own new tomb, and sealed the entrance with Mary Magdalene and the other Mary observing 27:57- 61 b. On the day following the crucifixion, the religious leaders received permission from Pilate to make the grave secure with Roman guards and a Roman seal on the stone 27:62- 66 B. The Resurrection of the King: The women came to the tomb to discover an angel who demonstrated and announced Jesus' resurrection with an exhortation to tell the disciples to go to Galilee, and to discover Jesus who exhorted them in the same way, but the Roman guards were bribed by the religious leaders to circulate a false report that the body of Jesus was taken by the disciples while the guards slept (28:1- 15) 1. The empty tomb: On the morning after the sabbath, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to the tomb, encountered an angel who had opened the tomb, were told by the angel to see that Jesus was not present, and to tell his disciples that he had gone before them into Galilee, and then encountered Jesus who told them the same thing (28:1-10) a. On the morning after the Sabbath, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to the grave 28:1 b. They discovered that an Angel who was present had caused a severe earthquake, moved away the stone, and caused the guards to fear 28:2-4 c. The angel told the women to not be afraid, that Jesus has risen, to examine the tomb, and tell the disciples that he has gone before them to Galilee just as he said 28:5- 7 d. As the women were leaving to tell the disciples, they encountered Jesus, worshiped him, and were commissioned by him to tell the disciples to go to Galilee where they would see him 28:8-10 2. The false report: In an attempt to protect themselves against the prophecy of Jesus (cf. 27:63), the religious leaders bribed the Roman guards to circulate a false report that the disciples of Jesus had taken the body of Jesus during the night while the guards were sleeping (28:11-15) a. While the women were on their way to the disciples, the guards went and reported all that had happened to the religious leaders 28:11 b. The religious leaders met and agreed to pay the guards to say that Jesus' body had been taken by his followers while the guards were asleep, promising to protect them from any retaliation from Pilate for sleeping on duty 28:12-14 c. The soldiers took the money and spread the rumor about among the Jews until the day in which Matthew was writing 28:15 C. The final instruction of the King: When Jesus met his disciples on the mountain in Galilee, he commissioned them to proclaim his authority to all nations, by identifying them in the triune God, and by teaching them to do what Jesus had taught with the promise of his presence throughout the age [Discourse] (28:16- 20) 1. The eleven disciples met Jesus on the designated mountain in Galilee 28:16 2. When the disciples saw Jesus they worshiped him, and some doubted 28:17 3. Coming up to his disciples, Jesus exhorted them to go in to the world and proclaim the authority of Jesus to all nations by identifying them in the name of the triune God, and by teaching them to obey all that he taught with the promise of his presence throughout this age 28:18-20 a. Jesus came up to the disciples and spoke to them 28:18a b. Jesus proclaimed that all authority in heaven and on earth had been given to him 28:18b c. In view of the authority given to Jesus, he commanded the disciples to go and make disciples of all nations by identifying them in the triune God, and by teaching them to do all that Jesus had commanded them to do 28:19-20a d. Jesus promised that he would be always be with them until the end of the age 28:20b ___________________________ 1 The historical order is dislocated in order to emphasize that Jesus will not only fulfill the promises to Israel, in David, but to the world, in Abraham. 2 Psalm 22:6-8; Isaiah 53:2-3. 3 Psalm 2:7; Isaiah 42:1. 4 NB--The phrase "the Law and the Prophets" in 5:17 and 7:12 forms an enclusio tying these units together. 5 See Genesis 34; Leviticus 19:18; cf. Romans 12:17-21. 6 This may well end the section which was to the disciples. 7 "Then the eyes of the blind will be opened" (Isaiah 35:5- 6). The next part, "and the tongue of the dumb will shout for joy" is fulfilled in the next recorded healing, the casting out of the dumbe spirit (Mt. 9:32-34). 8 This response by the men represents the spiritual rebellion of the nation. They recognize Jesus as Messiah, and desire to partake in the benefits of the kingdom (physical salvation), but they do not wish to obey his words. They want the benefits of salvation without obedience! 9 Often we become the answer to our prayers. At least that is the case with this prayer. 10 They were already appointed as apostles (cf Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16; 53 in Pentecost). Here Jesus is naming those whom He is sending forth as an extension of the ministry which He has been carrying on. 11 Israel was the one to whom the promises were made and through whom the blessings would come to the Gentiles (Gen 12:3; Isa 60:3; Amos 9:12). Therefore, the promises must be proclaimed to Israel first! 12 This is as in John's message in Matthew 3:2 and Jesus' in Matthew 5:17. 13 See Matthew 8--9. 14 Hospitality is a Hebrew expression of faith (cf Genesis 18--19; Matthew 25:35ff; Hebrews 13:3). These prohibitions may well provide a clue as to when in Jesus' ministry is taking place. It seems that His popularity is high and therefore the risk is little. This will not be the case when He sends the 72 out in Luke 10:1-24. 15 NB--This is after Messiah has been cut off (cf. Daniel 9:26) and after the Tribulation (cf. Daniel 7:13ff). 16 While there are many explanations for John's question, it seems best to understand that he is puzzled that Jesus as Messiah is not bringing about the judgment that he expected (cf. Matthew 3). As Morris says, "Was Jesus, like John, a kind of forerunner? Would a greater come and bring judgment on sinners" (Matthew, p. 274)? No doubt John thought that Messiah would free captives (of which he was one). Jesus responds that he is doing the works of Messiah, and freeing captives (Isa. 35:5ff; 61:1), but that freedom is spiritual in nature (Luke 4). 17 Perhaps this unit occurs at this point because those who were listening to John's question and Jesus' response might have concluded that Jesus was in opposition to his forerunner. Therefore, Jesus clarifies his relationship to John for the people. 18 In the Malachi passage the messenger is going to prepare the way before YHWH. Jesus cites the passage with reference to Himself as Messiah. One should not miss the application. Jesus is the manifestation of YHWH. It is interesting that at the time when John came to Jesus with questions, Jesus proclaimed the greatness of John. Jesus does not deny His own. 19 Jesus is not denigrating John. He is also not speaking of character or achievement. Jesus is speaking of position. This is a dispensational discussion. John held the greatest position of all of mankind up to that point as the one who prepared the way for the coming of Messiah. However, this position of privilege was nothing compared to that which would be available for all of those who would be in the Kingdom. As Ridderbos writes, "IN the dispensation of promise, his significance was unsurpassed. Nevertheless it was nothing compared to the message brought by the least of Jesus' disciples and followers in the dispensation of fulfillment" (cited from Morris, Matthew, p. 281 n. 28). In the kingdom all believers will have the Spirit of promise (New Covenant). 20 Scholars proport four basic view to the meaning of this verse: (1) the kingdom suffers violence in the sense that some who look for it are doing so by violence (Zealots?), (2) people enter the kingdom with a fight or earnest effort (middle voice of the verb), and (3) the kingdom is being violently treated (under attack) by violent men (e.g., Herod, the Pharisees; passive sense of the verb). The third option is the better for the following reasons: (1) Matthew includes these words of Jesus in a context that speaks of the difficulties of John the Baptist [11:2], (2) Matthew includes these words of Jesus in a context that people who are unable to agree with Jesus or John [11:16-19], and (3) Matthew includes these words in a context where Jesus is not teaching people to enter the kingdom by reason of vigor (Morris, Matthew, pp. 281-282). 21 One problem with this statement is that John did not identify himself as Elijah when he was questioned specifically (Jn. 1:21). There are two possible explanations for this answer: (1) John did not know that he was the fulfillment of the prophecy in Malachi 3 and 4, but Luke 1:17 raises questions about this interpretation, (2) John knew that he was fulfilling the prophecy of Elijah's return, but he was proclaiming that he was not the literal, physical Elijah whom many Jews were expecting (cf. also Matt. 17:12; Morris, Matthew, pp. 283-284). 22 The Jews did not desire to reckon with God's claim, and they manufactured reasons for passing it by (Leon Morris The Gospel According to Matthew (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1992), p. 286. 23 There may well be degrees of felicity in paradise and degrees of torment in hell (12:41; 23:13; cf. Luke 12:47-48). 24 Jesus is affirming that even though these northern cities did not respond, that was in accordance with God's plan. As Kingsbury writes, "How is the reader to understand that Jesus should meet with such rejection? In private prayer, Jesus explains his rejection by invoking the will of his Father (11:25- 26)" [Matthew As Story (Philadelphia: Fortress Press; second edition), pp. 72-73]. 25 NB--Jesus = David, Pharisees = Saul. 26 There are four basic views concerning the meaning of this verse, and all of them relate to unbelievers: (1) this is an expression of apostasy (Hebrews 3; 6; cf. Carson), (2) this is a rebellion against the Spirit of God (Walvoord), (3) this is speaking against the work of the Spirit of God in Jesus or in the Church's message (Bruner; very similar to # 2 above), and (4) this is a historical sin against the work of the Spirit with the Physical witness of Jesus. 27 There are different views about the sign of Jonah. The discussion is different in Luke than it is in Matthew. Here the genative is epexegetical ( shmei'on jIwna' tou' profhvtou ). It is the sign which Jonah was (not that given to him or presented by him). Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites for he appeared to them as one who had been delivered from certain death. So too will Jesus be delivered from certain death in the heart of the earth. The 3 days and 3 nights may be represented by a part of a day or a night. Therefore 3 days and 3 nights are descriptions of a combination thereof (Carson, "Matthew" EBC, p. 296). 28 Up until now they had not been much more sensitive to what God had been saying to them than the people were (cf. 11:27; 16:5-12, 13). 29 Here Jesus is acting in a humble manner just as he will teach his disciples to do in chapter 18. Jesus will completely follow this pattern in his death (cf. 16:21; 17:12,22-23).