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Social-Cultural Life

Key Elements to the Social-Cultural Background of Jesus’ Time: Appreciating the World and Life of Israel and Galilee under the Romans

    Population

      Sibylline Oracles, 3.271

      Josephus, War 2.398

      Josephus, War 7.43

      Strabo

      Josephus, Antiquities14.115

      Philo, Flaccus 7.46

      Philo, Flaccus, 6.43

      Josephus, Contra Apion, 1.197

    Geography-Agriculture-Travel

    Values, Literacy, Life Expectancy

      Wisdom 7:1-2

      Philo, Special Laws 3.169-71, 178

      Sirach 42:12-14

      m. Aboth 5.21

      m Sotah 3.4

    Family and Home

      m Kethuboth 4.4-5

      Pesahim 3.7

      Ketuboth 5.2

      Shebiith 7.4

      Halla 2.7

    Politics and Power

    Economics

      m Nedarim 6.4

      Josephus, Antiquities 16.153-155

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.203

    Religion

      1 Maccabees

      Psalms of Solomon

      1 Maccabees 1:12-15

      1 Maccabees 1:15

      1 Maccabees 1:20-21

      Jubilees 2:17-22

      Jubilees 50:6-13

      CD 10-12

      m Shabbath 7.2

      m Tohoroth

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.380, 420-421

      Josephus, Antiquities 20.219

      Ag. Apion 2.102-105

      Josephus, Jewish War 6.126

      Josephus, Jewish War 5.199

      m Middot 2.5

      m. Tamid 1.4

      Josephus, Jewish War 5.219

      Josephus, Ag. Apion 2.108

      Josephus, Antiquities 7.365

      m. Sukkah 5.6

      m Tamid 4

      Josephus, Antiquities 3.230-232

      Philo, Special Laws 1.226; 235

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.214

      Josephus, Antiquities 3.248-249

      Jubilees 49:16, 18, 20-21

      Philo, Special Laws 2.145-149

      Philo, Questions on Exodus 1.10

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.260

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.50

      m Sukkah 5.4

      Josephus, Antiquities 3.264

      m Yoma 8.1

      m. Yoma 3.8

      Sirach 50:14-21

      1 Maccabees 4:36-59

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.16.17

      Psalms of Solomon 17–18

      Testament of Reuben 6:7-8

      Testament of Judah 21:1-5

      Testament of Dan 5:10-11

      Testament of Joseph 19:5-11

      The Messianic Rule=1QSa; see esp. 2:20

      4QpIsa 8–10:23

      CD 6:11; 12:22-23; 13:20-22; 14:18-19; 19:9-11; 19:34-20:1

      1 Enoch 39–71, esp. 46:1-5; 48:2-7; 62:3-14; 63:11; 69:27–70:1; 71:17;

      4 Ezra (= 2 Esdras) 13

      1 Maccabees 14:41

      Testament of Levi 8:14-15

      Philo, Special Laws 1.11 [64-65]

      4QTest; 1QS 9:11

      Sirach 48:1-11

    Key Sects

      Josephus, Antiquities, 18.16-17.

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.164-165).

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.171

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.288-298

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.12-15

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.162-163

      Josephus, Life 2.12

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.141-142

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.648

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.78-81

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.311-313

      Philo, Good Man 76-77

      Philo, Hypothetica 11.8-9

      Philo, Every Good Man 86-87

      Philo, Hypothetica 11.10-11

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.122-125

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.20

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.128

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.18-22

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.450

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.326

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.23-25

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.7-8

Related Topics: Bibliology (The Written Word)