PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS
|Exhortations||Be United, Joyful and in Prayer||Final Appeals||Instructions||Last Advice|
|Acknowledgment of the Philippian Gift||Philippian Generosity||Thanks for the Gift||Thanks for Help Received|
|Final Greetings||Greetings and Blessing||Final Greetings||Greetings and Final Wish|
READING CYCLE THREE (from "A Guide to Good Bible Reading")
FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL
This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.
Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five modern translations. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one main subject.
1. First paragraph
2. Second paragraph
3. Third paragraph
WORD AND PHRASE STUDY
NASB (UPDATED TEXT: 4:1
1Therefore, my beloved brethren whom I long to see, my joy and crown, in this way stand firm in the Lord, my beloved.
4:1 "my beloved brothers" Paul combined two of the typical NT terms for believers: "beloved" [twice] and "brothers." This affectionate combination showed his great love for this church as is seen in the next phrase and the parallel in 1:8.
▣ "whom I long to see" This same strong term (epipotheō) is also used in 1:8; 2:26; II Cor. 9:14.
▣ "my joy and crown" The term "crown" (stephanos) meant a victor's crown in an athletic contest. This same exuberance can be seen in Paul's comments to another Macedonian church (cf. I Thess. 2:19-20; 3:9). This church was the proof of Paul's effective apostleship (cf. I Cor. 9:2; I Thess. 2:19).
▣ "stand firm" This is a Present active imperative. This military metaphor refers to the Christian's ability to remain faithful amidst problems (cf. 1:27; I Cor. 16:13; Eph. 6:11-14). It also relates to perseverance (see Special Topic at 1:9-11), which is only possible "in the Lord" (cf. Gal. 6:9; Rev. 2:7,11,17,26; 3:5,12,21).
This is another biblical paradox in the relationship between God's sovereignty and humanity's free will (compare Ezek. 18:31 with Ezek. 36:26-27). In this verse believers are commanded to "stand firm," while in Jude v. 24 it is God who keeps them standing. Somehow, both are true.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:2-3
IUrge Euodia and I urge Syntyche to live in harmony in the Lord. 2Indeed, true companion, I ask you also to help these women who have shared my struggle in the cause of the gospel, together with Clement also and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.
4:2 "Euodia...Syntyche" Apparently, even in this loving church there is still internal tension. This does not refer to doctrinal tension, which was mentioned in chapter 3, but to fellowship tension of some sort. This first proper name means "a prosperous journey or success." The second name means "pleasant acquaintance" or "good luck." Their names did not match their current actions. In Macedonia women had more freedom than anywhere in the ancient Roman world (cf. Acts 16:12-15). Sometimes freedom turns into personal preference or even license.
▣ "live in harmony in the Lord" The key to harmony is the believers' relationship to Christ which radically transforms their relationships with their covenant brothers and sisters. Believers' love for God is clearly seen in their love for one another (cf. Eph. 4:1-6; 2:1-5; I John 4:20-21).
NASB, NKJV"true comrade"
This is often translated literally as "yoke-fellow" (cf. Arndt and Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, p.783). However, it is a masculine singular noun which, in a list of so many other names, possibly was a proper name itself, Syzygus (cf. NJB and Moulton and Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, p. 607), which would have been a play on the meaning of the name.
It is possible that this was Paul's way of referring to Luke. The "we" sections of Acts start and stop at Philippi. Luke may have stayed there to help the new converts and collect the offering for the church in Jerusalem.
▣ "to help these women" This is a present middle imperative which literally means "take hold with." Paul was admonishing one of the members of the Philippian church to help these two women overcome their differences in the Lord (cf. Gal. 6:1-4).
NASB"who shared my struggle in the cause of the gospel"
NKJV"labored with me"
NRSV"struggled beside me"
TEV"have worked hard with me"
NJB"have struggled hard"
This term is only used here and in 1:27. It is a military or athletic term for a "hard fight." It is metaphorical for the intensity of gospel work. These women helped Paul in his evangelistic mission work. Many of Paul's helpers mentioned in Romans 16 were women. Even missionaries have disagreements (cf. Acts 15:36-41). How they solve them as Christians is the issue, and the witness!
▣ "Clement" This is a common name in the Roman world. This person is mentioned nowhere else in the NT. However, Origen of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Jerome believed that it refers to Clement of Rome who wrote a letter to the Corinthian church sometime toward the end of the first century (a.d. 95). However, this identification seems highly speculative.
▣ "and the rest of my fellow-workers" Paul was willing to use many helpers in his gospel work. He was no prima-donna; he apparently delegated responsibility to other men and women. It is interesting to note in Romans 16 how many women's names appear as helpers of Paul.
▣ "whose names are in the book of life" This may refer to the registration of the covenant people in the OT (cf. Dan. 7:10; 12:1) which was metaphorical of God's memory. There are two books mentioned in Dan. 7:10 and Rev. 20:12-15: (1) the book of remembrances and (2) the book of life. The book of remembrances includes the names and deeds of both the redeemed and the lost (cf. Ps. 58:6; 139:16; Isa. 65:6; Mal. 3:16). The book of life includes the names of the redeemed and can be seen in Exod. 32:32; Ps. 69:28; Isa. 4:3; Dan. 12:1; Luke 10:20; Phil. 4:3; Heb. 12:23; Rev. 3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 20:12,15; 21:27. God knows those who are His. He will reward His followers and judge the wicked (cf. Matt. 25:31-46; Rev. 20:11-15). In the Greco-Roman world this term referred to the official registration of a city; if so, it might have been another play on this city's official status as a Roman colony (cf. 1:27; 3:20).
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:4-7
4Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, rejoice! 5Let your gentle spirit be known to all men. The Lord is near. 6Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. 7And the peace of God, which surpasses all comprehension, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.
4:4 There are two present active imperative forms of the term "rejoice" in v. 4. The term can be translated as a farewell, but in this context they must be translated "rejoice" (cf. I Thess. 5:16). This is a major theme in Philippians. Notice the number of times the terms "all" and "every" are used in vv. 4-13 as in 1:1-8. Joy must not be linked to circumstances. The key is the believers' relationship to Christ ("in the Lord").
TEV"a gentle attitude"
This call to Christian lifestyle began in 3:1, but the discussion of the false teachers drew Paul's mind away until this point where he renews the emphasis. The term itself is best translated "kind," "gentle," or "yielding" (cf. I Tim. 3:3; Titus 3:2; James 3:17; I Pet. 2:18).
▣ "be known to all men" This verse has been interpreted in two ways:
1. believers are to have this gentleness toward other believers so that those outside the church will notice and be attracted to Christ (cf. Matt. 5:16)
2. this gentleness is to be applied to all people, regardless of their relationship to the Lord, as a witness to His power in the lives of these converted pagans and as a deterrent to unfair criticism by unbelievers (cf. Rom. 12:17; 14:18; II Cor. 8:21; I Pet. 2:12,15; 3:16)
NJB"The Lord is near"
NKJV"The Lord is at hand"
TEV"The Lord is coming soon"
This word "near" is used of time (cf. Matt. 24:32,33). The Second Coming is a recurrent theme in Philippians. This has a very similar meaning to the Aramaic word maranatha (cf. I Cor. 16:22; Rev. 22:10). The any-moment expectation of the Second Coming was and is an encouragement to Christian living (cf. Rom. 13:12; James 5:8-9).
It is also possible that this could have referred to the Lord's moment-by-moment presence with believers (cf. Matt. 28:20; Rom. 10:8 and F. F. Bruce's Answers to Questions, p. 201).
4:6 "be anxious for nothing" This is a present active imperative. The church at Philippi was under great tension, both from without and within. Anxiety is not an appropriate characteristic for the Christian life (cf. Matt. 6:25-34 and I Pet. 5:7). There is nothing that should worry believers except possibly their standing fast in the Lord and serving Him. The great enemy of peace is anxiety.
▣ "but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving" This is a key answer to anxiety-prayer, for others and ourselves, mixed with thanksgiving. It is interesting how often Paul uses the term "thanksgiving" in combination with prayer (cf. Eph. 5:20; Col. 4:2; I Thess. 5:17-18; I Tim. 2:1). There is an obvious contrast between "for nothing" and "in everything." See Special Topic: Paul's Praise, Prayer, and Thanksgiving at Eph. 3:20.
▣ "Let your requests be made known to God" This a present passive imperative. There are several passages in the NT which emphasize that believers should persist in prayer (cf. Matt. 7:7-11; Luke 18:2-8). Possibly, thanksgiving and perseverance are the two missing elements in a proper theology of prayer. God knows what is needed but He desires the fellowship and trust involved in prayer. God has limited Himself in many areas to the prayers of His children; "We have not because we ask not" (cf. James 4:2).
4:7 "the peace of God" It is interesting that in this context the peace of God is mentioned in v. 7 and the God who gives it is mentioned in v. 9. The first emphasizes what God gives and the second His character. Peace is used in several different senses in the NT:
1. it can be a title (cf. Isa. 9:6; Rom. 15:33; 16:20; II Cor. 13:11; Phil. 4:9; I Thess. 5:23; II Thess. 3:16)
2. it can refer to the peace of the gospel in an objective sense (cf. John 14:27; 16:33; Col. 1:20)
3. it can refer to the peace of the gospel in a subjective sense (cf. Eph. 2:14-17; Col. 3:15)
Sometimes 2 and 3 are combined as in Rom. 5:1. See Special Topic: Peace at Col. 1:20.
▣ "which surpasses all comprehension" This is a present active participle. It has been interpreted in two ways: (1) God's peace is better than human reason or (2) God's peace is beyond human reason. The parallel passage in Eph. 3:20 is helpful. God's ways are beyond our ways (cf. Isa. 55:8-9). An example of this peace that passes all human ability to understand is found in the life of Paul in this very chapter (cf. vv. 11-13). The peace of God must be unconnected with circumstances and locked securely to the person and work of Christ. For "surpasses" (huperechō) see Special Topic: Paul's Use of Huper Compounds at Eph. 1:19.
▣ "shall guard your hearts and your minds" God's peace acts as a soldier guarding believers. This same beautiful truth of God's garrisoning of His children can be seen in I Peter 1:4, 5. The two Greek terms "heart" (kardia) and "mind" (nous) are synonymous in speaking about the whole person (feeling and thinking). Paul emphasizes Christian thinking throughout this letter. See note at 3:15. See Special Topic: Heart at Col. 2:2.
▣ "in Christ Jesus" He is the key to Paul's theology. All of God's benefits and blessings flow to fallen mankind through the life, teachings, death, resurrection, Second Coming and personal union with Jesus Christ. Believers are vitally united with Him. This is theologically synonymous with John's "abide in me" of John 15.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:8-9
8Finally, brethren, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is of good repute, if there is any excellence and if anything worthy of praise, dwell on these things. 9The things you have learned and received and heard and seen in me, practice these things, and the God of peace will be with you.
4:8-9 This continues the emphasis on the believer's thought life. The rabbis saw the mind as the seed-bed of the soul. What we think becomes who we are. These verses are much needed in the life of the modern western church in a day of such socially accepted evil. Paul's list is similar to the Stoics' lists of virtues. Paul was exposed to Greek philosophy as a citizen of Tarsus. He even quotes several Greek writers (cf. Acts 17:28; I Cor. 15:37 and Titus 1:12). See Special Topic: Vices and Virtues in the NT at Col. 3:5.
4:8 "finally" See note at 3:1.
▣ "true" This is truth in contrast to falsehood, however, it is not academic truth, but rather a lifestyle of godly living. This very term is used of God in Rom. 3:4.
▣ "honorable" This literally means "dignified." This term is often translated "grave" and is used for church leaders in I Tim. 3:8,11 and Titus 2:2. It seems to have been used in the sense of "dignity" with "attractiveness" toward both the saved and the lost.
▣ "right" This refers to one conforming to the standard of God's character, thereby being a morally upright person. In the OT the Hebrew term for "right" comes from the word for "measuring reed" and refers to God's nature as the standard by which all humans are judged. This does not mean that humans can be perfectly right with God on their own effort, but that God has freely imputed the righteousness of Christ to those who believe in Him by faith Once given, God's character transforms the receiver!
▣ "pure" This is used in the sense of moral purity (cf. I John 3:3).
▣ "lovely" This term is used only here in the NT. It seems to mean "pleasing," "amiable," "congenial," or "pleasant." This is another call for believers to live attractive lives.
NASB"of good repute"
This term is used only here in the NT. It refers to that which is "praise-worthy" or "attractive."
▣ "if there is any excellence" The grammatical form of these eight items used in v. 8 changes after the sixth one and becomes a first class conditional sentence which was assumed to be true. The term "excellent" is used only here in Paul's writings and only three times in Peter's (cf. I Pet. 2:9; II Pet. 1:3, 5). It refers to doing something well with its accompanying prestige. It was a common word in the Greek moral philosophers (Stoics). It is used to express goodness in its fullest practical expression.
▣ "worthy of praise" This meant "that which was approved both by God and by man" (cf. 1:11). It refers to being socially acceptable to a culture for the purpose of attracting people to God (cf. I Tim. 3:2,7,10; 5:7; 6:14).
NASB"dwell on these things"
NKJV"meditate on these things"
NRSV"think about these things"
TEV"fill your minds with those things"
NJB"let your minds be filled with"
This is a present middle imperative. This commercial term (logizomai) implies a process of calculating or reasoning that was continual and priority. Dwell on these things so that they can shape your thinking and living (see note at 3:15). God will do His part in the believers' lives through grace, but they must participate by removing those things that they know will draw their heart away from the Lord (cf. I Thess. 5:21-22).
4:9 "the things you have learned and received and heard and seen" All four of these verbs are aorist active indicatives. These relate to Paul's activities in Philippi. Both the content of believers' theology and their lifestyle (cf. Ezra 7:10) are crucial if believers are to reflect who the Lord is and attract others to Him.
It is interesting that the second word "received" (paralambanō) became an official term for "received tradition" and was used in that sense by Paul in I Cor. 11:23; 15:3.
▣ "seen" This emphasis began in 3:17. As Paul followed Christ, believers are to follow him.
▣ "Practice these things" This is a present active imperative, "keep on practicing these things!" Do not be just hearers, but doers (cf. Luke 11:28; James 1:22). It is very similar to the Hebrew concept, Shema (cf. Deut. 5:1; 6:4; 9:1; 20:3; 27:9-10), which meant "to hear so as to do." Christianity must not be turned into a creed isolated from daily godly living.
▣ "the God of peace" As verse 7 emphasizes the peace that God gives, this verse emphasizes the very nature of the One who gives it. This emphasis on the peace-giving God can be seen in Rom. 15:33; 16:20; II Cor. 13:11; I Thess. 5:23; Heb. 13:20. Jesus is called the Lord of peace in II Thess. 3:16.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:10-14
10But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at last you have revived your concern for me; indeed, you were concerned before, but you lacked opportunity. 11Not that I speak from want, for I have learned to be content in whatever circumstances I am. 12I know how to get along with humble means, and I also know how to live in prosperity; in any and every circumstance I have learned the secret of being filled and going hungry, both of having abundance and suffering need. 13I can do all things through Him who strengthens me. 14Nevertheless, you have done well to share with me in my affliction.
4:10 "I rejoiced" Paul is so appreciative of this church's help (money, concern, prayers, Epaphroditus).
NASB, NRSV"that now at last you have revived your concern for me"
NKJV"that now at last your care for me has flourished again"
TEV"after so long a time you once more had the chance of showing that you care for me"
NJB"now that at last your consideration for me has blossomed again"
At first glance this seems to be a negative statement in English. It is very similar to the phrase found in Rom. 1:10. The term "revived" means "to bloom again." Paul is simply stating that they had the desire to help him but they had not had an opportunity (imperfect tense of both the verb and the infinitive of v. 10b). This probably refers to a monetary gift (cf. v. 14). For a good article see Gordon Fee, To What End Exegesis? pp. 282-289.
4:11 "I have learned to be content in whatever circumstances I am" This is an aorist tense employing a Stoic term (autarkēs). The Stoic philosophers used this term translated "contented" as the goal of their philosophy, which was a passionless distancing from the affairs of life, "a self-sufficiency." Paul was not saying that he was self-sufficient, but that he was Jesus-sufficient ("in the Lord," v. 10). The peace of God is not connected with circumstances, but with the person and work of Christ. This contentment is both a Christian worldview and friendship with the Savior. The theological concept of Christian contentment is also found in II Cor. 9:8; I Tim. 6:6,8; Heb. 13:5.
4:12 This verse has three perfect tense verbs and six present infinitives. It is a beautiful, artistic affirmation of Paul's trust in God's moment-by-moment provision "in Christ." See Special Topic: Wealth at Eph. 4:28.
▣ "I know how to get along with humble means, and I also know how to live in prosperity" The two "I knows" are perfect active indicatives. Paul knew about want and plenty! The first term is translated "humbled" in 2:8, where it is used of Jesus. Here it means "less than what is needed for daily life."
The second word means "much more than is needed for daily life." There are two dangers facing believers in their Christian lifestyle: poverty and wealth (cf. Pro. 30:7-9). The danger is that with poverty one becomes discouraged with God and with wealth one becomes self-sufficient apart from God.
▣ "prosperity. . .assurance" See Special Topic: Abound at Eph. 1:8.
TEV"I have learned the secret"
NKJV"I have learned"
NJB"I have mastered the secret"
This literally means "I have been initiated." This is another perfect passive indicative. This term is used only here in the NT. It was used in the mystery religions for one who was initiated into their cult. Paul was asserting that he has learned by experience and by theology that the true secret of happiness is found in Christ, not in circumstances (cf. The Christian's Secret of a Happy Life by Hannah Whithall Smith).
4:13 The term "Christ" found in the King James Version does not occur in this verse in the oldest Greek manuscripts (א*, A, B, or D*). However, the pronoun "Him" certainly refers to Jesus. This is the flipside of the truth found in John 15:5. Biblical truth is often presented in tension-filled pairs. Usually one side emphasizes God's involvement and the other, mankind's. This eastern method of presenting truth is very difficult for western people to grasp. Many of the tensions between denominations are a misunderstanding of this type of dialectical presentations of truth. To focus on one aspect or the other is to miss the point! These isolated proof texts have developed into systems of theology which are in fact only "half truths"!
▣ "strengthens" This is a Present active participle, "the one who continues to strengthen" (cf. Eph. 3:16; Col. 1:11; I Tim. 1:12; II Tim. 4:17). Believers need to be strengthened by Christ. They also need to be strong (cf. I Cor. 16:13 Eph. 6:10; II Tim. 2:1). This is the paradoxical tension found so often in Scripture. Christianity is a covenant; God initiates it and sets the conditions and privileges, but humans must respond and obey and continue! These believers were under internal and external pressure from false teachers and persecutors! As Paul was content in all circumstances, so must they be (and us, too).
4:14 These believers shared with Paul in the spreading of the gospel (cf. 1:5) and the persecution that it brought. See Special Topic: Tribulation at Eph. 3:13.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:15-20
15You yourselves also know, Philippians, that at the first preaching of the gospel, after I left Macedonia, no church shared with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you alone; 16for even in Thessalonica you sent a gift more than once for my needs. 17Not that I seek the gift itself, but I seek for the profit which increases to your account. 18But I have received everything in full and have an abundance; I am amply supplied, having received from Epaphroditus what you have sent, a fragrant aroma, an acceptable sacrifice, well-pleasing to God. 19And my God will supply all your needs according to His riches in glory in Christ Jesus. 20Now to our God and Father be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
4:15,16 This has been understood to be a contradiction to II Cor. 11:8-9, which implies that the other churches of Macedonia also helped Paul. However, the time element is significant. Paul is saying that at this particular time no other church besides this church at Philippi had helped him. Paul was very hesitant to accept financial contributions (cf. I Cor. 9:4-18; II Cor. 11:7-10; 12:13-18; I Thess. 2:5-9; and II Thess. 3:7-9).
4:15 "You yourselves also know" This is an emphatic "you" and a perfect active indicative. Paul shared himself with this church and they reciprocated.
NRSV"shared with me in the matter of giving and receiving"
TEV"shared my profits and losses"
NJB"made common account with me in the matter of expenditure and receipts"
There is a series of commercial terms in vv. 15-18 which can be verified and defined from the Koine Greek papyri found in Egypt and the ostraca (broken pottery used as writing material). This first one was a banking term for an open account.
Paul was acutely aware of the problems caused by money. As a rabbi he was not allowed to take money for his teaching. The false accusations by the factions at Corinth reinforced his need to refuse monetary help from the churches. Paul must have felt uniquely comfortable with this congregation.
4:17 "I seek. . .seek" This is a very strong Greek term used twice to show Paul's ambiguous feelings about his thanksgiving for the gift and yet his not actively seeking their help. He realized that they would receive a blessing from God for their stewardship and generosity in the gospel. For this he was glad.
▣ "the profit which increases to your account" This is another commercial metaphor which refers to the interest that accrued and was deposited in another's account. Giving to gospel causes results in gospel blessings (cf. v. 19).
4:18 "I have received everything in full," This is another business term for a receipt of a payment in full. Paul felt this church had done everything expected and far more. (The use of the term "abound" or "abundance" and the prefect passive indicative "amply supplied").
▣ "Epaphroditus" He was the Philippian church's representative sent to deliver the monetary gift and stay on to help Paul (cf. 2:25-30).
▣ "a fragrant aroma; an acceptable sacrifice, well pleasing to God" This came from an OT metaphor of an accepted sacrifice on the altar of burnt offerings (cf. Gen. 8:21; Exod. 29:18,25,41; Lev. 1:9,13; Ezek. 20:41). This same type of metaphor is used by Paul in II Cor. 2:15 and Eph. 5:2.
The help given to Paul as a minister of the gospel is in reality given to God and will be repaid and blessed by Him!
4:19 "My God shall supply all your needs" This is not a blank check from God! "Needs" must be defined. This must be seen in light of the principles of spiritual giving found in II Corinthians 8 and 9, particularly 9:6-15. This is not a promise that can be taken out of context and be applied to every human desire. In this context it relates to Paul's provision for ministry. God will always supply those who are generous givers with more to give. This does not mean that they will have more for personal use, but more to give to gospel causes!
▣ "according to His riches in glory in Christ Jesus" It must be remembered that this whole chapter is motivated by the work of Christ and that all that is accomplished in the Christian life is by the help of the Lord, "in the Lord," (cf. vv. 1, 2, and 4). All of God's blessings come through Christ.
4:20 "to our God and Father be glory forever and ever" This is very similar to Paul's closing prayer in other books. The term "forever and ever" is literally "to the ages of the ages," which is a Greek idiom for "forever." See Special Topic: Paul's Praise, Prayer, and Thanksgiving at Eph. 3:20.
The description of God as Father is one of the greatest truths of the Bible (cf. Hosea 11). The family metaphors used for God (Father, Son) help humans understand His nature and character. God accommodates Himself to human understanding by using human titles, human analogies, and negation. For fuller note on "glory" see Eph. 1:6.
▣ "Amen" is the Hebrew word for "faith" or "faithfulness" (cf. Hab. 2:4). Originally this term was used to describe a stable stance, sure footing. It came to be used metaphorically of someone who was faithful, stable, steadfast, dependable, trustworthy. Later it came to be commonly used in the sense of an affirmation of a trustworthy statement. See Special Topic at Eph. 3:20.
NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:21-23
21Greet every saint in Christ Jesus. The brethren who are with me greet you. 22All the saints greet you, especially those of Caesar's household. 23The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.
4:21-23 It is possible that this was written in Paul's own hand which became a common technique to verify the authenticity of his letters (cf. I Cor. 16:21; Gal. 6:11; Col. 4:18; II Thess. 3:17; Philemon v. 19). This was also a common practice in the Koine Greek papyri found in Egypt. Most of Paul's letters were penned by a scribe (cf. Rom. 16:22).
4:21 "greet every saint" This is the only use of the word "saint" in the NT in the singular. It is followed in v. 22 by the plural form. Even v. 21 is used in a corporate sense. To be saved makes one a part of a family, a body, a field, a building, a people! It is impossible to be a spiritual "lone ranger." The gospel is received individually but results in a collective fellowship.
Be carful of the modern western overemphasis on individual rights and freedoms. Christianity is a corporate experience. Even well-known Reformation (Luther) slogans like "the Priesthood of the Believer" are biblically inaccurate. The NT people of God are described by the OT priestly phrases (cf. I Pet. 2:5,9; Rev. 1:60. But note that they are all plural, "a kingdom of priests."
Remember, believers are individually gifted at salvation for the common good (cf. I Cor. 12:7). We are saved to serve. Our modern cultural milieu has changed the biblical focus into "what's in it for me?" thereby turning salvation into a ticket to heaven instead of a life of ministry. Believers are not saved so that they might exercise their freedoms nor actualize their potential, they are saved from sin to serve God (cf. Romans 6). See Special Topic: Saints at Col. 1:2.
4:22 "especially those of Caesar's household" This obviously relates to servants, slaves, and minor officials in Rome in governmental service (cf. 1:13). Paul's gospel had even invaded the Emperor's own staff and would one day cause the whole pagan system to collapse.
NJB"be with your spirit"
NKJV, TEV"be with you all"
This refers to the human person. In the NT it is often very difficult to know if the author is referring to the Holy Spirit (with a capital "S") or the human spirit which is motivated by the Holy Spirit (with a little "s"). In this context it is obviously a little "s."
There is a manuscript variation in the Pauline closing (cf. Gal. 6:18 and Philemon 25). Some Greek texts, אc, K, and the Textus Receptus (NKJV), have "with you all," which was Paul's close in I Cor. 16:24; II Cor. 13:13; II Thess. 3:18 and Titus 3:15. The majority of ancient Greek papyrus and uncial manuscripts have "with your spirit."
This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.
These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.
1. What is the key phrase of this chapter?
2. What does it mean "to stand firm"?
3. What are the principles for solving disunity in a local church?
4. Give the aspects of prayer that Paul mentions in verses 4-7.
5. Describe in your own words the significance of verses 8 and 9 to our day.
6. Is verse 10 a negative statement by Paul to chide the Philippians for not helping him?
7. What is the true secret of happiness expressed in verses 11-13?
8. List and explain the three commercial terms found in verses 15, 17 and 18.
9. Explain how the context affects the proper interpretation of verse 19a.
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