Where the world comes to study the Bible

Historical Backgrounds to the Gospels

The Historical Background to Judaism from the Babylonian Exile to Roman Occupation: Understanding the Complexity of Judaism in Jesus’ Time

    The Sources for Understanding Jewish History and Second Temple Judaism

      The Old Testament (LXX)

      The Apocrypha

      The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha.

      The Dead Sea Scrolls, e.g., 4Q175

      Josephus, Antiquities,

      Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Against Apion, The Life of Flavius Josephus

      Philo of Alexandria

      Midrashim.

      Midrash Rabbah,

      Mishnah.

      Talmud.

    The Historical Backdrop to Second Temple Judaism and the Life of Jesus

      Homer’s Illiad

      The Septuagint (LXX)

      The Letter of Aristeas 47-51; 307-311

      1 Maccabees 1:14-15

      2 Maccabees 4:10-17

      Sirach 50:1-21

      2 Maccabees 5:15-26

      1 Maccabees 1:25-28

      Livy, History of Rome XLV. 12

      1 Maccabees 1:41-64

      1 Maccabees 4:36-61

      2 Maccabees 10:1-8

      1 Maccabees 13:41

      1 Maccabees 14:41

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.299

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.288-298

      Josephus, Jewish Wars 1.65

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.372-73

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.401

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.430

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.4-7

      Josephus, Antiquities14.8-13

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.19-21

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.41-46

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.48-53

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.72

      Psalms of Solomon 2:1-21

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.77

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.73

      Josephus, Antiquities 14. 82-83, 101-103

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.140-55

      Psalms of Solomon 2:22-35

      Dio Cassius 42.5

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.158-184

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.281

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.301-313

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.326

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.365-366

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.366

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.369

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.377-385

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.477-491

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.8

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.491

      Josephus, Jewish Wars 1.240-241

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.55

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.62-63

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.75-76

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.161

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.189-93

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.331-341

      Josephus, Jewish Wars 1.414

      Josephus, Antiquities 16.136-41

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.267-268

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.314

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.317-318

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.342-344

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.28

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.354; 18.1-10

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.26, 35

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.55

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.57-59

      Philo, Embassy to Gaius 38 299-305

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.85-89

Related Topics: Canon, Gospels