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Appendix Four: Kings and Events of the Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Dynasties

612 b.c.   Nineveh falls to neo-Babylonian army (Nebuchadnezzar)
608   Pharaoh Necho II marched to Carchemesh to halt expansion of neo-Babylonian power
    Josiah, King of Judah, tries to stop him
    Death of Josiah and assumption of throne by his son, Jehoahaz
    Jehoiakim, another son of Josiah, replaced Jehoahaz on the authority of Pharaoh Necho II within 3 months
    Palestine and Syria under Egyptian rule
    Josiah’s reforms dissipate
605   Nabopolassar sends troops to fight remaining Assyrian army and the Egyptians at Carchemesh
    Nebuchadnezzar chased them all the way to the plains of Palestine
    Nebuchadnezzar got word of the death of his father (Nabopolassar) so he returned to Babylon to receive the crown
    On the way back he takes Daniel and other members of the royal family into exile
605 - 538   Babylon in control of Palestine, 597; 10,000 exiled to Babylon
586   Jerusalem and the temple destroyed and large deportation
582   Because Jewish guerilla fighters killed Gedaliah another last large deportation occurred


562 - 560   Evil-Merodach released Jehoiakim (true Messianic line) from custody
560 - 556   Neriglissar
556   Labaski-Marduk reigned
556 - 539   Nabonidus:
    Spent most of the time building a temple to the mood god, Sin. This earned enmity of the priests of Marduk.
    Spent the rest of his time trying to put down revolts and stabilize the kingdom.
    He moved to Tema and left the affairs of state to his son, Belshazzar
    Spent most of his time trying to restore order.
    Babylonia’s great threat was Media.
    Rise of Cyrus
585 - 550   Astyages was king of Media (Cyrus II was his grandson by Mandane)
550   Cyrus II, a vassal king, revolted
    Nabonidus, to restore balance of power, made alliances with:
    1. Egypt
2. Crecus, King of Lydia
547   Cyrus marched against Sardis (capital Lydia) and captured all of Asia Minor
539   Gobiyas took Babylon without resistance (Dan. 5; Belshazzar Nabonidus’ co-regent; also Gobiyas possibly Darius the Mede, Dan. 5:31).
Oct. 11, 539   Cyrus entered as liberator from Nabonidus’ moon goddess, Zin
    Cyrus’ Successors
530   Cyrus’ son succeeded him (Cambyses II)
530 - 522   Reign of Cambyses (Elephantine Papyri)
    Added Egypt in 525 to the Medo-Persian Empire
522 - 486   Darius I came to rule
    He organized the Persian Empire along Cyrus’ plan of satraps
    He set up coinage like Lydia’s
486 - 465   Xerxes I (Esther)
    Put down Egyptian revolt
    Intended to invade Greece, but was defeated in the Battle of Thermopoly in 480
    Xerxes I was assassinated in 465
480   Battle of Thermopoly
465 - 424   Artaxerxes I Longimanus (Ezra 7-10, Nehemiah, and Malachi)
    Greeks continued to advance until confronted with Pelopanisian Wars
    Wars lasted about 20 years
    During this period the Jewish community is reconstructed
423 - 404   Darius II
    Authorized the feast of unleavened bread in the Elephantine Temple
404 - 358   Artaxerxes II
358 - 338   Artaxerxes III
338 - 336    Arses
336 - 331   Darius III


359 - 336   Philip II of Macedon built up Greece
    He was assassinated in 336
336 - 323   Alexander the Great (Philip’s son)
    Routed Darius II at battle of ISUS
    He died in 323 in Babylon of a fever after conquering the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East
    Alexander’s generals divided his empire at his death:
    1. Cassander - Macedonia and Greece
2. Lysimicus - Thrace
3. Selects I - Syria and Babylon
4. Ptolemy - Egypt and Palestine
5. Antigonus - small part of Asia Minor
    Seleucids vs. Ptolemies
301   Palestine was under Ptolemy’s rule for 100 years
175 - 163   Antiochus Epiphanes
    Wanted to Hellenize Jews, constructed gymnasium
    Constructed pagan altars; priests were mistreated
Dec. 13, 168   Hog was slain on the altar by Antiochus Epiphanies. Some consider this to be the abomination of desolation.
167   Mattathias and sons rebel. Mattathias killed. Judas took control.
    Judas Maccabeaus wages successful guerilla warfare
Dec. 25, 165   Temple rededicated


626 - 605 Nabopolassar dies (“Nabu, Protect the Sun”)
625 - 585
605 - 562 Nebuchadnezzar II
(“Nebo, Protect the Boundary”)
585 - 550
562 - 560 Evil Merodack 550
Cyrus II
556 Labaski Marduk
556 - 539 Nabonidus
539 - Gobiyas


550 - 530   Cyrus II (538 Medo-Persian dominate power called Achaemenian Empire)
530 - 522   Cambyses II (Egypt added and Cyprus)
522   Gaumata or Pseudo, Smerdis (reign 6 months)
522 - 486   Darius I (Hystaspes)
486 - 465   Xerxes I (Esther’s husband)
 465 - 424   Artaxerxes I (Ezra and Nehemiah in Palestine)
423 -   Xerxes II
424 - 404   Darius II Nothus
404 - 359    Artaxerxes II Mnemon
359 - 338   Artaxerxes III Ochus
338 - 336   Arses
336 - 331   Darius III Codomannus


359 - 336   Philip II of Macedon
336 - 323   Alexander the Great
323 -   Generals divide Empire
    1. Cassander - Macedonia
2. Lysimicus - Syria
3. Seleucus I - Syria and Babylon
4. Ptolemy - Egypt
5. Antigonus - Asia Minor (killed in 301 b.c.)
The Ptolemies controlled Palestine, but in 175 - 163 control passed to the Seleucids
175 - 163   Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the eighth Seleucid ruler
*Dates and names have been mostly taken from A History of Israel by John Bright, pp. 461-471.

Related Topics: History

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