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2 Timothy 4

 

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

UBS4 NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
Last Charge to Timothy
(3:10-4:8)
Preach the Word The Pastor and the Flock
(2:14-4:5)
Last Instructions
(3:10-4:8)
A Solemn Charge
    3:10-4:5 3:10-4:5  
4:1-5 4:1-5     4:1-5
  Paul's Valedictory Concluding Exhortations   Paul in the Evening of His Life
4:6-8 4:6-8 4:6-8 4:6-8 4:6-8
Personal Instructions The Abandoned Apostle   Personal Words Final Advice
4:9-15 4:9-16 4:9-15 4:9-13 4:9-15
      4:14-15  
4:16-18   4:16-18 4:16-18 4:16-18
  The Lord is Faithful      
  4:17-18      
Final Greetings Come Before Winter   Final Greetings Farewell and Final Good Wishes
4:19-22 4:19-21 4:19-21 4:19-21a 4:19-21a
  Farewell   4:21b 4:21b
  4:22 4:22 4:22a 4:22
      4:22b  

READING CYCLE THREE (from "A Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired but it is the key to following the original author's intent which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:1-5
 1I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom: 2preach the word; be ready in season and out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort, with great patience and instruction. 3For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires, 4and will turn away their ears from the truth and will turn aside to myths. 5But you, be sober in all things, endure hardship, do the work of an evangelist, fulfill your ministry.

4:1 "I solemnly charge you" Paul continues to lay out Timothy's task and admonishes him to action (cf. 1 Tim. 5:21; 6:13; 2 Tim. 2:14; 4:1). Remember this is Paul's last letter before being martyred (late a.d. 67 or early 68)!

▣ "in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus" The Father and Son are linked together in a grammatical form that emphasizes their equality (see SPECIAL TOPIC: THE TRINITY at Titus 3:6). Church leaders live and serve in the presence of God and His Christ.

▣ "who is to judge" This is an OT title and function for YHWH used here for Jesus. This shows His full deity (cf. Matt. 25:31ff; Acts 10:42; 17:31; Rom. 2:16; I Pet. 4:5); as Christ was the Father's agent in creation (cf. John 1:3; I Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:2), so too, will He be the Father's agent in judgment.

▣ "the living and the dead" This refers to Jesus' judgment of all conscious creation (cf. Phil. 2:10). The same phrase occurs in Acts 10:42 and I Pet. 4:5. Some will be alive at the time of the Second Coming (cf. I Thess. 4:13-18; some are with the Lord (cf. II Cor. 5:8); and some (the wicked) are in Hades (cf. Rev. 20:13; Matt. 11:23; Luke 16:23). 

SPECIAL TOPIC: Where Are the Dead?

▣ "by His appearing" Literally this is epiphany. It conveys the idea of "brightness, radiance, splendor, or glory." It may reflect the OT concept of God's presence in the Shekinah cloud of glory during the Wilderness Wandering Period of Israel's history after the Exodus. This is the characteristic word in the Pastoral Letters for the Second Coming (cf. 1 Tim. 6:14; 2 Tim. 1:10; 4:1,8; Titus 2:11,13; 3:4; II Thess. 2:8). See Special Topic at Titus 2:13.

Paul admonishes Timothy to do certain things in light of the reality of Judgment Day/Resurrection Day. The Second Coming is meant to encourage believers in every age, although it will be reality to only one generation. Believers should live each day as if it were, or might be, the last!

▣ "His kingdom" This refers to the reign of God in believers' hearts now that will be consummated over all creation (cf. Matt. 6:10). Here again, God's kingdom is assigned to the Son. Jesus Christ is described in three eschatological functions: (1) Judge; (2) the coming One; and (3) the King.

SPECIAL TOPIC: THE KINGDOM OF GOD

4:2 "preach the word" This is the first in a series of nine aorist imperatives. Our message (logos) is Jesus (cf. Col. 4:3). He is the gospel! He is the "Word" (John 1:1).

▣ "be ready in season and out of season" This is an aorist active imperative. Literally it is "seasonably" (eukairōs) and "unseasonably" (akairōs). This describes the "great commission" of Christianity (cf. Matt. 28:18-20; Luke 24:46-47; Acts 1:8). When in doubt share the gospel! It is always appropriate!

▣ "reprove" It is literally "to put on trial so as to prove" (cf. 1 Tim. 5:20; Titus 1:13; 2:15).

▣ "rebuke" This is an another aorist active imperative (cf. Luke 17:3; 23:40).

▣ "exhort" This is another aorist active imperative. This is the same root as "encourage." To reprove or rebuke without encouragement and patience is not Christian (cf. 3:10; 1 Tim. 1:16).

▣ "with great patience" See note at I Timothy 1:16.

4:3 "For the time will come" This reflects Paul's day, in some sense every day, and uniquely the last days (cf. 3:1; 1 Tim. 4:1-2).

▣ "they will not endure sound doctrine" Many of the words in the Pastoral Letters are also found in Luke's writings. It is possible that Paul used Luke as a scribe to write these letters.

The term "sound" means "healthy" and was used often by Luke (cf. Luke 5:31; 7:10; 15:27, etc.). It is a very common description of doctrine and faith in the Pastoral Letters (cf. 1 Tim. 4:6; 6:3; 2 Tim. 1:13; 4:8; Titus 1:9,13; 2:1,2,8).

▣ "but wanting to have their ears tickled" This phrase refers to the false teachers (cf. v. 4) and their followers. They hear only what they want to hear!

▣ "they will accumulate for themselves teachers" They just want to hear

1. those who agree with them (cf. Jer. 5:31)

2. those who teach new and speculative things

3. many different teachers (always a new seminar to attend)

 

4:4 "turn away. . .turn aside" The first term is used of perversion in Titus 1:14 (cf. II Thess. 2:11) or desertion in 2 Tim. 1:15.

The second term is used often in the Pastoral Letters (cf. 1 Tim. 1:6; 5:15; 6:20; 2 Tim. 4:4).

Both of these are a play on the OT concept of righteousness as a ruler (or straight edge); all the terms for sin are a deviation from the standard. These false teachers turn away from sound doctrine and turn to myths!

▣ "from the truth" See Special Topic: Truth at 1 Tim. 2:4.

▣ "myths" This concept is used often in the Pastoral Letters (cf. 1 Tim. 1:4; 4:7; Titus 1:14; 3:9; II Pet. 1:16). It possibly refers to

1. the Gnostic aeons (angelic levels between the high good god and lesser spiritual beings which would form matter)

2. Jewish Messianic genealogies

3. some non-canonical "gospels"

For a good discussion of the different meanings of "myth" and their connotations see G. B. Caird, The Language and Imagery of the Bible, pp. 219-242.

4:5 This is another contrast between the actions of Timothy and the false teachers.

NASB"be sober in all things"
NKJV"be watchful in all things"
NRSV"always be sober"
TEV"keep control of yourself in all circumstances"
NJB"must keep steady all the time"

This is a present active imperative. This does not refer to abstinence from wine but to being even-tempered. See full note at 1 Tim. 3:2.

NASB"endure hardship"
NKJV"endure affliction"
NRSV, TEV"endure suffering"

There is a series of three aorist active imperatives in this paragraph. This term is used three times in II Timothy (cf. 1:8; 2:3,9; 4:5). It refers to persecution and deprivation caused by being involved in the gospel ministry.

▣ "do the work of an evangelist" This is the second aorist active imperative in this paragraph. The noun "evangelist" is used only three times in the NT.

1. Phillip's seven daughters (cf. Acts 21:8)

2. a gifted local church leader (cf. Eph. 4:11)

3. and here

The term "gospel" (euangelion) literally means "good news"; an evangelist (euanelistēs) is one who shares the gospel.

An evangelist is a spiritual gift to the church (cf. Eph. 4:11) and evangelism is the responsibility of every believer (cf. I Pet. 3:15; Col. 4:6). Believers must not only affirm the mandate of Jesus (cf. Matt. 28:18-20; Luke 24:47; Acts 1:8) but live it out day by day!

▣ "fulfill your ministry" This is the third aorist active imperative. Gospel ministry without evangelism is not a full ministry (cf. Col. 4:17). Evangelism is the heart of God, the purpose of Christ's sacrifice, and the initial task of the Spirit.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:6-8
  6For I am already being poured out as a drink offering, and the time of my departure has come. 7I have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I have kept the faith; 8in the future there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day; and not only to me, but also to all who have loved His appearing.

4:6 "being poured out" This is a present passive indicative. This phrase is used in Phil. 2:17 of an OT wine sacrifice (cf. Exod. 29:40; Num. 15:4-7,9-10; 28:7,10,14,15,24). Paul saw his life as a sacrifice to Christ.

▣ "the time of my departure has come" This is a perfect active indicative. This term analusis (English "analysis") is found only here in the NT, but the verb form is used several times to refer to a ship being loosed from its moorings (cf. Luke 12:36). It is used metaphorically of death in Phil. 1:23. This is the last letter Paul wrote before being beheaded, between a.d. 67-68 (Nero killed himself in a.d. 68).

4:7 "I have fought the good fight" This is the first of three perfect middle indicatives. Paul used athletic (I Cor. 9:27; Phil. 3:13-14) and military (cf. Eph. 6:10-18) metaphors to describe his ministry. What he encouraged Timothy to do (cf. 1 Tim. 1:18; 6:12) he had done himself.

▣ "I have finished the course" This is the second perfect active indicative. Paul knew his death was imminent. He had fulfilled Ananias' prophecy in Acts 9:15 (cf. Acts 26:32). He had preached to all the categories mentioned and now Caesar.

"I have kept the faith" This is another perfect active indicative. It refers to

1. doctrine

2. faithfulness

3. an athletic metaphor for keeping the rules (cf. I Cor. 9:27)

 

4:8 "crown of righteousness" This is either (1) not our own but Christ's imputed righteousness, and/or (2) believers' Christlike living. The term refers to an athletic victor's laurel wreath. We get the English name "Stephen" from this Greek word. There are several crowns assigned to believers in the NT:

1. an imperishable crown (I Cor. 9:25)

2. a crown of righteousness (2 Tim. 4:8)

3. a crown of life (James 1:12; Rev. 2:10)

4. a crown of glory (I Peter 5:4)

5. a crown of gold (Rev. 4:4)

See SPECIAL TOPIC: RIGHTEOUSNESS at Titus 2:12.

▣ "which the Lord, the righteous Judge" The term "Lord" could apply to YHWH because He is called the Judge (cf. Gen. 18:25; Ps. 5:6: 94:2; Joel 3:12; Heb. 12:23; James 4:12) or to Jesus because this judgment is linked to "His appearing" (cf. 1:10; 4:1,8; 1 Tim. 6:14; Titus 2:13). YHWH has appointed Jesus as judge (cf. Matt. 25:31-46; Acts 17:31; II Cor. 5:10; see note at 4:1).

▣ "will award to me on that day" This has an end time (eschatological) orientation (cf. 1:18; 4:1). Apparently Paul believed that believers would be with the Lord at death (cf. II Cor. 5:8), but the rewards and full fellowship awaited Resurrection Day (cf. I Thess. 4:13-18).

▣ "but also to all who have loved His appearing" This refers to believers' eager anticipation of the Lord's Second Coming. It is no longer fearful. It is joyous! It is a sign of true Christianity!

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:9-15
 9Make every effort to come to me soon; 10for Demas, having loved this present world, has deserted me and gone to Thessalonika; Crescens has gone to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. 11Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and bring him with you, for he is useful to me for service. 12But Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus. 13When you come bring the cloak which I left at Troas with Carpus, and the books, especially the parchments. 14Alexander the coppersmith did me much harm; the Lord will repay him according to his deeds. 15Be on guard against him yourself, for he vigorously opposed our teaching.

4:9 "make every effort to come to me soon" Paul was lonely (cf. v. 21; Titus 3:12) and probably had eye problems (cf. II Cor. 12:7), which made it difficult for him to be alone.

4:10 "Demas has forsaken me" The historical context of Paul in prison, perhaps soon to be beheaded, may explain Demas' actions. It is uncertain as to how his forsaking Paul relates to his faith in Christ.

4:10 "having loved" The verbal here (aorist active participle) is agapaō. The verbs agapaō and phileō are synonymous in the NT (note John 3:35; 5:20; 11:3,5).

▣ "this present world" This is literally "this present age." See Special Topic at 1 Tim. 6:17. Demas chose the immediate over the eternal. The pull of this world is very strong, but it is only transitory (cf. I John 2:15-17).

▣ "gone to Thessalonika" Compare Philemon 24 with Acts 20:4. Artistarchus and also possibly Demas were from Thessalonika.

▣ "Crescens has gone to Galatia" There is a Greek manuscript variation involving the destination of Crescens.

1. the Asia Minor (western Turkey) Roman province of Galatia (cf. MSS A, D, F, G)

2. southern France, then called Gaul (Galatia, cf. MSS א, C)

3. Galilee in Palestine (cf. Vulgate, Coptic, and Armenian versions)

The United Bible Societies' fourth edition (UBS4) of The Greek New Testament gives "Galatia" (#1) an "B" rating meaning almost certain. If #2 it would support the fact that Paul did visit the eastern Mediterranean.

▣ "Titus to Dalmatia" He was one of Paul's faithful Apostolic delegates (cf. Cor. 3:2; 7:6; 12-12; 8:6,16,23; 12:18; Gal. 2:1,3; Titus 1:4). Dalmatia was a Roman province in the southern area of Illyricum (cf. Rom. 15:19, the former Yugoslavia). Paul preached there in Acts 20:1. It is north of Macedonia. This assignment is the last we hear of Titus in the NT.

4:11 "Luke" He was a Gentile physician (cf. Col. 4:14; Philemon v. 24 and the "we" sections of Acts). It is possible that the term physician may simply mean "educated." He is the only non-Jewish NT author (i.e., the Gospel of Luke, Acts, and possibly the scribe for the Pastoral Letters).

▣ "Mark" This is John Mark, in whose house the Last Supper may have been observed (cf. Acts 12:12). He accompanied Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey, but for some reason quit the team (cf. Acts 15:38). Paul and Barnabas had an argument over Mark's inclusion on the second missionary journey resulting in two separate mission teams (cf. Acts 15:36-41). Paul and John Mark did later reconcile (cf. Col. 4:10).

4:12 "Tychicus" Ephesus was the church and city where Paul spent the most time and effort. Timothy was in Ephesus when Paul wrote 1 Timothy. Tychicus was Paul's trusted messenger (cf. Acts 20:4; Col. 4:7; Eph. 6:21; Titus 3:12) who was probably the bearer of 2 Timothy to Timothy and was possibly Timothy's replacement.

4:13 "the cloak" This was a large, heavy garment which was used as a coat and also as a sleeping bag during the winter.

▣ "Troas" This was a port city on the coast of modern western Turkey. It was the location of Paul's "Macedonian vision" recorded in Acts 16:6-10. Apparently Paul had established a work there at some point.

▣ "and the books, especially the parchments" Even Paul felt the need to study and read. The "parchments" refer to tanned animal skins which were used for writings. Their name is taken from Pergamum where they were invented. This was very expensive but durable writing material. It probably referred to OT scrolls. "The books" may refer to letters or legal documents. However, this is all speculation.

4:14 "Alexander" This was a common name, so we are not sure whether he was

1. the same person mentioned in Acts 19:33-34

2. the false teacher mentioned in 1 Timothy 1:20, along with Hymenaeus

3. another unknown Alexander

He is another example of the opposition to the gospel, whether without or within the church.

▣ "the Lord will repay him according to his deeds" This is a spiritual principle. God is ethical and moral and so is His creation. Humans break themselves on God's standards. We reap what we sow. This is true for believers (but does not affect salvation) and unbelievers (cf. Job 34:11; Ps. 28:4; 62:12; Pro. 24:12; Eccl. 12:14; Jer. 17:10; 32:19; Matt. 16:27; 25:31-46; Rom. 2:6; 14:12; I Cor. 3:8; Gal. 6:7-10; 2 Tim. 4:14; I Pet. 1:17; Rev. 2:23; 20:12; 22:12).

▣ "Be on guard against him" This is a present middle imperative. Be on constant vigilance. Evil is present and vicious! It comes from both without and within!

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:16-18
 16At my first defense no one supported me, but all deserted me; may it not be counted against them. 17But the Lord stood with me and strengthened me, so that through me the proclamation might be fully accomplished, and that all the Gentiles might hear; and I was rescued out of the lion's mouth. 18The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed, and will bring me safely to His heavenly kingdom; to Him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.

4:16 "At my first defense" From this Greek term, apologia, we get the English word "apology." It was used in the sense of a legal defense (cf. Acts 19:33; 22:1; 26:1,2,24). Paul defended, explained, and proclaimed the gospel in several legal settings, both in Palestine and Rome (cf. Acts 9:15).

▣ "no one supported me, but all deserted me" This may explain v. 10. As fear melted the hearts of Jesus' followers after His arrest, so too, Paul's helpers began to become fearful and they deserted him (i.e., Demas).

In the Roman court system of Paul's day there was a preliminary investigation of the charges before the formal trial took place. Apparently in this legal procedure no one testified on Paul's behalf.

There is a Greek variant related to the tense of the verb.

1. imperfect – MSS A, C, D2,3, F, G, L

2. aorist – MSS א, D* (in the UBS4 text)

Bruce Metzger's textual commentary (p. 649) mentions that this same confusion is found in vv. 10,13, and 20.

▣ "may it not be counted against them" Paul reflects Jesus' words from the cross (cf. Luke 23:34) and Stephen's words in Acts 7:60, but notice also the accountability phrase of v. 14.

4:17 "the Lord stood with me" Jesus promised to be with us in Matt. 28:20. The same verb is used of Paul being encouraged by a supernatural presence in Acts 23:11 and 27:23 (also notice Acts 18:9).

▣ "and strengthened me" Paul often speaks of Christ strengthening him (cf. Eph. 3:16; Phil. 4:13; Col. 1:11; 1 Tim. 1:12; 2 Tim. 2:1).

▣ "the proclamation might be fully accomplished" Paul was sent as an Apostle to the Gentiles (cf. Acts 9:15; 22:21; 23:11; 26:17; Rom. 1:5; 11:13; 15:16; Gal. 1:16; 2:7; Eph. 3:1-8; 1 Tim. 2:7).

▣ "I was rescued out of the lion's mouth" Since Paul, as a Roman citizen, could not be given to be killed by wild beasts, this could be an OT idiom for (1) God delivering believers from their enemies or (2) God delivering them from death. Read Psalms 7:2; 22:21 and 35:17. Possibly Paul's first trial ended without a verdict.

Several times in the NT people are described as animals.

1. Matthew 10:16

a. believers – sheep, snakes, and doves

b. unbelievers – wolves

2. Luke 13:32 – Herod as a fox

3. Matt. 15:26-27; Phil. 3:2; II Pet. 2:22; Rev. 22:15 – dogs used for Gentiles, false teachers, unbelievers

 

4:18 "the Lord" In this verse (and v. 14), this could refer to YHWH, but in verse 17 (and v. 1) it refers to Jesus. Jesus is the best option for all the occurrences in chapter 4.

NASB"rescue me from every evil deed"
NKJV"deliver me from every evil work"
NRSV"rescue me from every evil attack"
TEV"rescue me from all evil"
NJB"rescue me from all evil attempts on me"

Paul knew that the Lord was with him, for him, and in him. He also realized that human opposition had a Satanic or demonic origin (cf. Eph. 6:10-19). The proclamation of the gospel is always accompanied by evil opposition!

This phrase is all the more striking and paradoxical when it occurs so close to Paul's execution!

▣ "will bring me safely to His heavenly kingdom" See SPECIAL TOPIC: THIS AGE AND THE AGE TO COME at 2 Tim. 3:1.

▣ "to Him be glory forever and ever" Paul often breaks into doxologies of praise (i.e., two good examples, Rom. 11:36; Eph. 3:14-21).

▣ "Amen" See Special Topic at Titus 2:12.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:19-21
 19Greet Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus. 20Erastus remained at Corinth, but Trophimus I left sick at Miletus. 21Make every effort to come before winter. Eubulus greets you, also Pudens and Linus and Claudia and all the brethren.

4:19 "Prisca and Aquila" The lady (also called Priscilla) is mentioned first in Acts 18:18,26; Rom. 16:3 and here; her husband is mentioned first in Acts 18:2 and I Cor. 16:19. Possibly she was mentioned first, which was highly unusual, because she was of Roman nobility. She may have been the stronger personality of the couple. They were tentmakers (or leather workers) like Paul and were his good friends and co-laborers in the gospel.

▣ "Onesiphorous" See note at 1:16-18.

4:20 "Erastus" The same name is also mentioned in Acts 19:22 and Romans 16:23, but it is probably not the same person.

▣ "Trophimus I left sick" This man is mentioned in Acts 20:4; 21:29 and possibly II Cor. 8:19-22.

There are so many questions we would like to ask the NT writers. One subject all believers think about is physical healing. In Acts (cf. 19:12; 28:7-9) Paul is able to heal, but here and in II Cor. 12:7-10 and Phil. 2:25-30, he seems unable. Why are some healed and not all, and is there a time window connected to healing which has closed?

I surely believe in a supernatural, compassionate Father who has and does physically as well as spiritually heal, but why is this healing aspect seemingly present and then noticeably absent? I do not think that it is connected to human faith, for surely Paul had faith (cf. II Cor. 12). I feel that healing and believing miracles affirmed the truthfulness and validity of the gospel, which it still does in areas of the world where it is first proclaimed. However, I feel that God wants us to walk by faith and not by sight. Also, physical illness is often allowed in believer's lives

1. as temporal punishment for sin

2. as consequences of life in a fallen world

3. to help believers mature spiritually

My problem is I never know which one is involved! My prayer for God's will to be done in each case is not a lack of faith, but a sincere attempt to allow the gracious, compassionate God to work His will in each life.

▣ "at Miletus" This was a seaport of western Asia Minor (western Turkey), south of Ephesus.

4:21 "Make every effort to come before winter" Paul was lonesome and probably had eye problems. Shipping stopped in the winter, so no one would be able to come to him after the seasonal storms began (cf. Titus 3:21).

We do not know of any of these believers from other parts of the NT. Oh, but God does!

There is an early church tradition (i.e., list of Roman bishops from Irenaeus) that a man named "Linus" was the leader of the church in Rome in the late 60's to late 70's.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 4:22
 22The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with you.

4:22 This was probably written by Paul's own hand to show the letter's genuineness (cf. II Thess. 2:2; 3:17).

▣ "The Lord" The NKJV has "the Lord Jesus Christ," following MSS א2, C, D, K, L, P, and most of the minuscule texts and versions. This same full form appears in the KJV, v. 1. The UBS4 rated the shorter text "B" (almost certain), following MSS א*, F, G, and Old Latin and Coptic versions.

There is obviously some scribal confusion in this title. MS A has "the Lord Jesus," which is also found in some Old Latin and Vulgate versions. As a matter of fact, the last sentence has eight forms in the Greek manuscripts (Metzger's textual commentary, p. 651).

▣ "be with your spirit" This pronoun "you" is singular, referring to Timothy (cf. Philemon v. 25). Here the term "spirit" is a small "s" referring to Timothy.

SPECIAL TOPIC: SPIRIT (PNEUMA) IN THE NT

▣ "Grace be with you" The pronoun "you" is plural. Although all of the Pastoral Letters were addressed to individuals, they were meant to be read aloud to the house churches (cf. 1 Tim. 6:21; Titus 3:15).

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. What is an evangelist?

2. Should every Christian be a verbal witness?

3. Do verses 5-8 imply that Paul was expecting to die?

4. What happened to Demas?

5. Why could Paul not heal Trophimus?

6. Why is the last sentence of the book a plural?