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18. Living a Life of Wisdom Instead of Foolishness

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Be very careful, then, how you live—not as unwise but as wise, making the most of every opportunity, because the days are evil. Therefore do not be foolish, but understand what the Lord’s will is. Do not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery. Instead, be filled with the Spirit.  Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord, always giving thanks to God the Father for everything, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ. (Ephesians 5:15-21)

How can we live a wise life?

Paul calls believers to imitate God (cf. Ephesians 5:1). We imitate God by living a life of love (Eph 5:1), by living as light (v. 8), and finally, by living wise lives (v. 15).

In Scripture, foolishness and wisdom are not intellectual issues; they are moral issues. According to Psalm 14:1, “The fool says in his heart, ‘There is no God.’ They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good.” The fool does not recognize God, and lives a life of evil. However, the wise man knows God and obeys him. Proverbs 9:10 says, “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.” If we are going to live wise lives, we must worship and obey God.

In this section, we will consider four characteristics of a wise life.

Big Question: How can we live a life of wisdom according to Ephesians 5:15-21?

Believers Live a Life of Wisdom by Making the Most of Their Time

Be very careful, then, how you live—not as unwise but as wise, making the most of every opportunity, because the days are evil.  (Ephesians 5:15-16)

One characteristic of wise people is that they make the most of their time in knowing and doing God’s will, whereas the fool wastes spiritual opportunities. Each day opportunities are lost to know God better, serve him, and build up his people.

“Making the most of every opportunity,” can be translated “redeeming the time.” It “has the basic meaning of buying, especially of buying back or buying out. It was used of buying a slave in order to set him free.”1

History is full of great examples of wise, godly people who redeemed their time to the maximum potential. For example, “Jonathan Edwards, the philosopher-theologian who became God’s instrument in the ‘Great Awakening’ in America in 1734–5, wrote in the seventieth of his famous Resolutions just before his twentieth birthday: ‘Resolved: Never to lose one moment of time, but to improve it in the most profitable way I possibly can.’”2 Similarly, “the great sixteenth–century reformer Philipp Melanchthon kept a record of every wasted moment and took his list to God in confession at the end of each day. It is small wonder that God used him in such great ways.”3

In contrast, “Judas, the most tragic example of wasted opportunity, spent three years in the very presence of the Son of God, as one of the inner circle of disciples, yet he betrayed His Lord and forfeited his soul for thirty pieces of silver.”4

As we consider these examples, we must ask ourselves, “How can we make the most of our opportunities to serve God and honor him?”

Application Question: How can we make the most of our time?

1. We must recognize how short our time is.

Moses says in Psalm 90:12 (NIV), “Teach us to number our days aright, that we may gain a heart of wisdom.” The NLT translates this as, “Teach us to realize the brevity of life, so that we may grow in wisdom.” If we do not realize how short our time is, we will not make the most of it. Our time is short because death awaits us. It is short because certain opportunities currently before us will not always be there. These opportunities include such things as the ability to cultivate relationships, serve in ministry, and pursue education. Finally, our time is short because Christ could come at any moment.

Some, in the foolishness of youth, live like they will be young forever. “Let’s eat, drink, and have as much fun as possible,” they say, not realizing that today could be their last. But we should pray as Moses did: “Lord, help us to know the brevity of life so we can make the most of it for your kingdom and purposes.”

What else must we do to make the most of our time?

2. We must plan prayerfully.

Proverbs 21:5 says, “The plans of the diligent lead to profit as surely as haste leads to poverty.” Believers should prayerfully make long term plans: one-year, five-year and ten-year plans that include spiritual, vocational, family, and educational goals. They should also make daily plans. In fact, while taking a leadership class in seminary, I was taught to map out every hour of the day so I could best use it for God. Unaccounted hours are typically wasted hours.

It has often been said, “He who fails to plan, plans to fail.” Spiritual progress doesn’t happen by accident. It goes to the diligent who prayerfully seek God for the best and wisest ways to live. 

Wise people are planners—they are not drifting through life. We must plan prayerfully even with our limited knowledge, while trusting God’s ultimate plan and his sovereignty over everything.

3. We must be willing to pay the price.

As mentioned, “making the most of” can be translated “redeeming,” or “buying.” There is a cost to making the most of our time. It means giving up other things we could do in order to best use our time. Be very careful of time wasters such as TV, social media, and video games. Yes, rest and recreation are important, but they must be limited. Doing so may well be part of the cost of living a wise life.

In addition, sometimes we may need to let go of relationships and other “good” things in order to make the most of our time for God. In business, these “good things” are called “opportunity costs”—things we must give up to take the best opportunities. Wise people are often brutal in cutting things out of their life that make them unproductive.

4. We must stay away from evil.

Finally, if we are to redeem our time, we must stay away from the foolishness of sin. Sin is the biggest waste of time. Paul implies this when he says to make “the most of every opportunity, because the days are evil.” We live in a world full of evil and temptation. If we are not making the most of our time for God, then we will fall into the evil of the day.

As far as church is concerned, it is often the people who are not involved who tend to get trapped in evil—drunkenness, dishonest practices, ungodly relationships, addictions, etc. Instead of living wisely, they live as fools. If you don’t use your time for God, Satan will use it for his purposes. There are really only two options.

Application Questions: In what other ways can we make the most of our time? In what other ways do people tend to waste time and opportunities?

Believers Live a Life of Wisdom by Understanding God’s Will

Therefore do not be foolish, but understand what the Lord’s will is. (Ephesians 5:17)

The next way to live a wise life is to know and understand God’s will. No doubt, we see this in Christ—the wisest man ever to live on the earth. Before going to the cross, he prayed, “Not my will but your will be done.” In fact, he taught us to pray, “Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.” If we are going to live wise lives, we must be consumed with knowing and doing God’s will. We considered this in our discussion of Ephesians 5:10—”find out what pleases the Lord.” Therefore, we will cover it only briefly here.

Application Question: How can we know and understand God’s will?

1. To understand God’s will, we must know the Word of God.

Second Timothy 3:16-17 says that the Word of God equips the man of God for all righteousness. If it is righteous, God wants to equip us for it through his Word. David said, “Your word is light unto my path and a lamp unto my feet” (Psalm 119:105). If we are going to know God’s will in a dark world, we must walk in the light of God’s Word.

Through his Word, God tells us exactly what to do in situations where there is a moral choice, and gives us principles to apply in other situations. We must know God’s Word in order to understand God’s will.

2. To understand God’s will, we must pray.

James 1:5 says, “If anyone lacks wisdom, let him ask of God who gives liberally.” God wants to give us wisdom so we can make wise decisions that honor him. To know God’s will, we must be people of prayer.

3. To understand God’s will, we must rely on the body of Christ.

God often gives direction through the body of Christ. First Corinthians 12:21 says, “The eye cannot say to the hand, ‘I don’t need you!’” As we rely on the body, God gives insight and direction through its members. To not rely on the body is to spiritually impoverish ourselves, and often to miss God’s best.

Application Questions: What are some other ways that God guides us into his perfect will? Is there something specific for which you are currently seeking the Lord about?

Believers Live a Life of Wisdom by Staying Sober

Do not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery. (Ephesians 5:18a)

Interpretation Question: In what ways does Scripture condemn the abuse of alcohol?

Another way believers live wisely is by being sober. Drunkenness was a common pastime in the ancient world, as it is today. Some people live to get drunk in their free time and on the weekends. Sadly, it is often seen as the only way to have fun. Living to get drunk is a wasted life, and Scripture condemns it. Isaiah 5:22 says, “Woe to those who are heroes at drinking wine and champions at mixing drinks.” MacDonald’s comments are helpful in understanding Scripture’s teaching on alcohol.

The Scriptures do not condemn the use of wine, but they do condemn its abuse. The use of wine as a medicine is recommended (Prov. 31:6; 1 Tim. 5:23). The Lord Jesus made wine for use as a beverage at the wedding in Cana of Galilee (John 2:1–11). But the use of wine becomes abuse under the following circumstances and is then forbidden:

1. When it leads to excess (Prov. 23:29–35).

2. When it becomes habit-forming (1 Cor. 6:12b).

3. When it offends the weak conscience of another believer (Rom. 14:13; 1 Cor. 8:9).

4. When it hurts a Christian’s testimony in the community and is therefore not to the glory of God (1 Cor. 10:31).

5. When there is any doubt in the Christian’s mind about it (Rom. 14:23).5

With all that said, abusing wine leads to debauchery. Debauchery, according to Webster’s online dictionary, refers to “bad or immoral behavior that involves sex, drugs, alcohol, etc.”6 

However, when Paul commands Christians not to get drunk, he is probably not only addressing a social issue, but also a theological issue. In the ancient world, worshipers commonly sought communion with their gods through various forms of ecstasy. This was achieved in part through taking drugs, heavy drinking, dancing, singing, and sexual orgies. In fact, witchcraft, or sorcery, in Scripture is the Greek word pharmakeia, from which we get our English word “pharmacy”—a place to buy medicine.

Paul might have had in mind the worship of the Greek God, Dionysius (Bacchus in Rome)—the wine God.7 Festivals to Dionysius included drunken orgies and happened as often as five times a month.8 Paul may be referring to this as he calls the Ephesians to instead be “filled with the Spirit.” The Ephesians were not to worship the living God in the same way that pagans worshiped false gods, and neither should we.

With that said, believers should not just stay away from drunkenness and experimenting with drugs because they are morally wrong, but also because they open the doors to evil spirits—as experienced by those in cult religions. Scripture seems to affirm this in 1 Peter 5:8 (KJV). It says, “Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour.” To “be sober” means to be free of intoxicants. Believers should be free of intoxicants because these substances open doors to the devil.

When a person becomes intoxicated, he submits control of his mind and body to a drug. No doubt this lack of control opens doors for evil spirits. We should not be surprised that in the majority of rapes, robberies, and murders, the perpetrator is under the influence of drugs.

If a Christian is going to live a life of wisdom, he must not abuse alcohol or drugs.

Application Questions: What do you think about the belief that abusing drugs and alcohol opens doors for demons? What is your personal practice with the freedom of drinking? How can Christians wisely handle this freedom?

Believers Live a Life of Wisdom by Being Filled with the Spirit

Instead, be filled with the Spirit. Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord, always giving thanks to God the Father for everything, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ. (Ephesians 5:18b-21)

Finally, if we are going to live wisely, we must be filled with the Spirit. The filling of the Spirit is a commonly misunderstood teaching; therefore, it might be helpful to first state what it is not.

Common Misunderstandings

Interpretation Question: What are some common misunderstandings of the filling of the Spirit?

1. To be filled with the Spirit is not a crazy, ecstatic experience that involves falling on the floor, shaking uncontrollably, or barking like a dog.

Scripture says one of the fruits of the Spirit is “self-control” (Galatians 5:23), and that the spirit of the prophets is subject to the prophets (1 Cor 14:32, KJV). This means when the Spirit of God moves in a person’s life, the person has self-control—not a lack of control. The Spirit-filled person is able to control his lust, language, and emotions.

In 1 Corinthians 12:3, Paul says that “no one who is speaking by the Spirit of God says, ‘Jesus be cursed,’ and no one can say, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ except by the Holy Spirit.” This needed to be said because the Corinthians were accepting many counterfeits in the church. They were probably so excited about power and charismatic gifts that they accepted everything without question. Paul says, “No, the Spirit of God won’t say Jesus is cursed.” In the same way, many churches today are so excited about the things of the Spirit that they lack discernment.

One of the tricks of the Anti-Christ in the end times will be “counterfeit miracles, signs, and wonders” (2 Thess 2:9). The enemy deceives people with these types of wonders even today. People in churches are barking like dogs, roaring like lions, falling down, shaking, and everything else. John commands believers to test the spirits to see if they are of God (1 John 4:1). We do this by the spirit’s fruit. One question we must ask is, “Does this ‘spirit’ produce self-control or lack of control?”

2. To be filled with the Spirit is not the same as the baptism of the Spirit.

Another common misunderstanding of the filling of the Spirit is confusing it with the baptism of the Spirit. When a person accepts Christ, the Spirit baptizes him into the body of Christ. First Corinthians 12:13 says that we have all been baptized by one Spirit into one body. It is a one-time experience whereby we become part of Christ’s body. Some believe the baptism is a second experience that believers must seek, and that it is commonly associated with speaking in tongues. However, again, 1 Corinthians 12:13 say that we have all been baptized by the Spirit, and verses 28-31 of the same chapter indicate that not everybody has the gift of tongues. Further evidence that we have all been baptized by the Spirit is the fact that Scripture never commands us to seek the baptism. If it were an important experience for all believers to pursue, wouldn’t there be at least one command for us to seek it? But, there isn’t.

Sadly, because the filling of the Spirit is commonly associated with the baptism of the Spirit in some circles, it has created two tiers of Christians—”Spirit-filled” and “unSpirit-filled.” In some churches, Christians who don’t speak in tongues are looked at as second class citizens. This is the opposite of what the baptism of the Spirit is meant to do. The baptism makes us one body—not two, and this incorrect theology divides what God unified.

Well then, we must ask, “What is the filling of the Spirit?”

Interpretation Question: What does it mean to be filled by the Spirit?

Whereas in the baptism of the Spirit we become part of the body of Christ, in the filling of the Spirit we offer our bodies to God. While the baptism of the Spirit is a one-time experience, the filling of the Spirit is to be a continual experience for believers. There is one baptism and multiple fillings. This is seen in the Greek tense of the word. It is a present imperative that can actually be translated “keep on being filled.” This verb is also passive—meaning “we do not fill ourselves but permit the Spirit to fill us.”9

Wiersbe’s comments on the word “filled” are helpful:

In the Bible, filled means “controlled by.” “They … were filled with wrath” (Luke 4:28) means “they were controlled by wrath” and for that reason tried to kill Jesus. “The Jews were filled with envy” (Acts 13:45) means that the Jews were controlled by envy and opposed the ministry of Paul and Barnabas. To be “filled with the Spirit” means to be constantly controlled by the Spirit in our mind, emotions, and will.10

The filling of the Spirit brings power in the Christian life to be holy, to witness, and to accomplish all God calls us to do. It should be the continual experience and endeavor of every believer. Believers should constantly seek this experience in their lives. If they don’t, they will produce little fruit for God’s kingdom.

How to Be Filled

Interpretation Question: How should believers seek the filling of the Spirit?

1. Believers are filled through yielding to the Spirit’s control.

Again, the word “fill” is passive, meaning that the Holy Spirit fills us. Therefore, in order for the Spirit to control us, we must yield to his will in our lives. We do this by obeying the commands in Scripture, heeding his promptings, and not grieving him through sin. If we commit sin, we must turn to God and confess it.

We must offer our bodies as living sacrifices unto God, as Romans 12:1 says. This is where many Christians fail. They continually hold back their best from God—not wanting to fully submit to him for fear of what he might say or where he might lead. As long as believers hold back from full obedience to God, they cannot be filled as they should be.

Are you yielding to the Spirit? Or are you holding back from full obedience?

2. Believers are filled through dwelling in the Word of God.

Consider what Colossians 3:16-18 says,

Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God. And whatever you do, whether in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him. Wives, submit to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.

It is hard not to notice the similarities with Ephesians 5:18-21. The results of being filled with the Spirit and letting the Word of Christ dwell in us richly are almost synonymous; they are worship, thanksgiving, and submitting to others.

Since the Spirit is the author of Scripture, to be filled by him means to dwell in the Word of God. The word “dwell” actually means “to be at home.” Many Christians can’t be filled and empowered by the Spirit because the Word of God is not “at home” in their lives. It is more like a visitor than a resident. They visit the Word of God on occasion. They say, “Maybe I’ll read the Bible today or maybe I won’t.” Therefore, they don’t have power in their lives, and they struggle with self-control, which is a fruit of the Spirit.

If we are going to be filled with the Spirit, we must dwell daily in the Word of God (Psalm 1:2-3). There the Spirit instructs and equips us for all righteousness (2 Tim 3:16-17).

3. Believers are filled through prayer.

In Acts 4:29-31, the church gathered to pray because of the persecution they experienced for preaching the gospel. The text shows their prayer and the result:

“Now, Lord, consider their threats and enable your servants to speak your word with great boldness. Stretch out your hand to heal and perform miraculous signs and wonders through the name of your holy servant Jesus.” After they prayed, the place where they were meeting was shaken. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke the word of God boldly.

When they finished praying the place was shaken, and they were empowered by the Holy Spirit to speak the Word of God boldly. Instead of fearing the threats of men, they had spiritual power to continue God’s ministry.

How do we get filled and empowered by the Spirit of God? We get filled and empowered by having a thriving prayer life. Your ability to serve God, be holy, and have joy will often be proportionate to your time in prayer. One of the ways the Spirit fills us is through our prayers.

As we consider Acts 4, we must also see the importance of corporate prayer. Even Jesus, when confronted with the cross, threw a prayer meeting to get ready for it (Mark 14:34-42). We should do the same when encountering trials and temptations in our lives. It is one of the ways that God fills and empowers us.

4. Believers are filled through worship.

In 2 Kings 3:12-15, Elisha is approached by Jehoshaphat and Ahab, who were seeking God’s wisdom about going to war. Elisha responds, “‘But now bring me a harpist.’ While the harpist was playing, the hand of the LORD came upon Elisha.” Elisha is filled by God’s Spirit and empowered as he worships. It’s the same with us—God empowers us through worship. In another story, God routs the enemy while Jehoshaphat and his army worship (2 Chr 20).

The Bible says God inhabits the praises of his people (Psalm 22:3 paraphrase). Wherever there is true worship, God manifests his presence and empowers his people.

5. Believers are filled through faithfully enduring trials.

We get a picture of this with Christ in the wilderness. Matthew 4:1 says he was led by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. But Luke 4:13-14 says this about his leaving: “When the devil had finished all this tempting, he left him until an opportune time. Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about him spread through the whole countryside.” When Christ left the wilderness after faithfully enduring temptation, he was empowered by the Spirit of God.

It is no surprise that the believers God used greatly in Scripture, he often sent first into the wilderness—trials—to be filled and empowered. Trials empty us of our self-reliance so we can fully rely on God’s strength. God said this to Paul about his thorn in the flesh in 2 Corinthians 12:9, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.”

God uses trials to weaken us so the power of his Spirit may be made perfect in us. With that said, some believers allow their trials to turn them away from God. Instead of running to him for strength and comfort, they run to something else like alcohol or other addictions. These people forfeit God’s power and give something or someone else control of their lives.

Are you drawing near God in your trial, or are you looking elsewhere for help? Your trial is strategic. It is there for God to empower and equip you for service. 

Results

Observation Question: What are the results of being filled by the Spirit, according to Ephesians 5:19-21?

In conclusion, Paul shares the results of being filled with the Spirit. We would naturally think of being bold witnesses, miracles, prayer that moves mountains, healings, etc., but those manifestations aren’t listed in this passage. Instead, he says,

Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord, always giving thanks to God the Father for everything, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ. (Ephesians 5:19-21 )

1. A result of being filled is corporate worship.

Paul said speak to one another with psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs. MacDonald’s comments are helpful here:

While some see all three categories as parts of the Book of Psalms, we understand only psalms to mean the inspired writings of David, Asaph, and others. Hymns are noninspired songs which ascribe worship and praise directly to God. Spiritual songs are any other lyrical compositions dealing with spiritual themes, even though not addressed directly to God.11

It must be noted that Paul says “speak to one another.” Corporate worship is focused on God, but it also involves speaking to and edifying one another. We commonly see this in the Psalms. Psalm 95:1-3 says:

Come, let us sing for joy to the LORD; let us shout aloud to the Rock of our salvation. Let us come before him with thanksgiving and extol him with music and song. For the LORD is the great God, the great King above all gods.

This reminds us that when we sing to God, it not only blesses him, but it also blesses others. As we raise our voices in worship, we speak to others about the greatness of God, and we edify them. Therefore, when we don’t sing, we rob others of this blessing. Some are certainly more gifted at singing than others, but Spirit-filled singing has nothing to do with being in tune or sounding good. It is with the heart that we honor God and edify others.

2. A result of being filled is individual worship.

Paul says to “make music in your heart to the Lord.” When filled with the Spirit, we find ourselves continually praising God—humming songs in our heart throughout the day. This is because the Spirit’s job is to glorify Christ and God (cf. John 16:14-15).

3. A result of being filled is thankfulness.

When a person is critical and complaining, they are not filled with the Spirit, but with the flesh (cf. Gal 5:19-21, Phil 2:14). When the Spirit fills us we give thanks in all circumstances, for this is God’s will for our lives (1 Thess 5:18).

4. A result of being filled is submission.

Instead of constantly seeking our own rights and our glory, we lay our rights down to serve and honor others as Christ did. Philippians 2:3 says, “Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves.” This includes both submitting to those in authority over us, and also to those under our authority. When Christ washed the feet of his disciples, he essentially submitted to them as a servant. That is why the disciples were so shocked and Peter at first refused this ministry (John 13). Like Christ, we must humbly submit to others, even those who submit to us.

Finally, in considering these results, we must understand that some commentators believe they are not just results, but also means of being filled with the Spirit.12 Certainly, they are both. When we worship individually and corporately, we are filled with God’s Spirit, even as Elisha was empowered as the harpist played worship music. When we are thankful, we are filled with the Spirit. But when we complain, we “put out the Spirit’s fire” (1 Thess 5:18-19). When we submit to one another God fills us, but when we are selfish and prideful, we lose his filling.

As believers, we must constantly be aware of the Spirit’s filling, for we need it to worship, to be thankful, to submit to God and others, and ultimately to accomplish everything God commands of us.

Application Questions: How have you experienced the filling of the Spirit? Are believers conscious of this experience or not conscious of it? How is God calling you to continually seek it?

Conclusion

How can believers live a life of wisdom that honors God, instead of a foolish life that dishonors him?

  1. Believers live a life of wisdom by making the most of their time.
  2. Believers live a life of wisdom by understanding God’s will.
  3. Believers live a life of wisdom by staying sober.
  4. Believers live a life of wisdom by being filled with the Spirit.

Copyright © 2016 Gregory Brown

Unless otherwise noted, the primary Scriptures used are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version ®, Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by the International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked (ESV) are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® (ESV®) Copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked (NASB) are from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.

Scripture quotations marked (NLT) are taken from the Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2007 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Scripture quotations marked KJV or AKJV are from the King James Version or Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible.

All emphases in Scripture quotations and commentators’ quotations have been added.


1 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 222). Chicago: Moody Press.

2 Stott, J. R. W. (1979). God’s new society: the message of Ephesians (p. 202). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

3 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 223). Chicago: Moody Press.

4 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 223). Chicago: Moody Press.

5 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 1944). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

6 Accessed10/3/2015 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/debauchery

7 MacArthur, J. F., Jr. (1986). Ephesians (p. 233). Chicago: Moody Press.

8 Accessed 10/3//2015 from http://global.britannica.com/topic/Bacchanalia

9 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 48). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

10 Wiersbe, W. W. (1996). The Bible exposition commentary (Vol. 2, p. 48). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

11 MacDonald, W. (1995). Believer’s Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. (A. Farstad, Ed.) (p. 1946). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

12 Evans, Tony (2009-01-01). Free at Last: Experiencing True Freedom Through Your Identity in Christ (Kindle Locations 1817-1819). Moody Publishers. Kindle Edition.

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