Lesson 54: The True Shepherd and His Sheep (John 10:1-6)Related Media
May 11, 2014
When I was in seminary, my professors in preaching classes all strongly emphasized the need to be clear when you preach. One professor often repeated, “A mist in the pulpit is a fog in the pew.” In other words, if you’re slightly fuzzy in your preaching, your congregation will be completely lost in the fog.
While I agree with that and I work hard to be clear, I sometimes wonder what kind of grade in preaching class the greatest preacher who has ever lived would have received. And I wonder whether He would be well-received as a preacher in modern evangelical churches. The reason I say that is that Jesus often left His audience—including His inner circle of followers—confused about what He was saying. It’s not that Jesus was unclear, of course. He knew the truth of God as no one else has ever known it. But often He deliberately spoke in cryptic language, leaving His hearers scratching their heads about what He meant. That was the case in our text, as verse 6 shows: “This figure of speech Jesus spoke to them, but they did not understand what those things were which He had been saying to them.”
This text is the closest thing to a parable in John’s Gospel. It’s more like an allegory or a symbolic illustration. But Jesus often spoke in parables. Matthew 13:34 says, “All these things Jesus spoke to the crowds in parables, and He did not speak to them without a parable.” Parables revealed the truth to those who really sought it, but it also concealed the truth from scoffers and those who were ambivalent about it. In verse 6, “they” refers to the Pharisees, with whom Jesus was speaking in John 9:41. They didn’t get it. But there are still a lot of divergent opinions among commentators today on the exact interpretation of the details here.
One key to understanding this passage is to view it in its context. John did not divide his Gospel into chapters and verses, so we should not draw a line between the end of chapter 9 and the beginning of chapter 10. There is no transitional phrase, such as “after these things,” or other time markers. When we get to 10:22, John designates the time as the Feast of Dedication, which took place in the winter. But verses 1-21 were probably connected with the Feast of Tabernacles (or Booths, 7:2), where the events of chapters 7-9 took place. John 10:21 refers back to the healing of the blind man in chapter 9. And, Jesus’ words, “Truly, truly,” which begin chapter 10, are never used elsewhere to begin a new discourse (Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John [Eerdmans], p. 501).
So we should understand John 10:1-21 as being closely related to the events in John 9, where Jesus healed the man born blind. The connection is: The Pharisees, who were the religious leaders in Israel, should have been faithful shepherds over God’s flock, but they had failed. The story of the blind man illustrates this when they get frustrated with his testimony concerning Jesus and throw him out of the temple. Not once did they rejoice over the wonderful fact that this man’s eyes had been opened. Rather, they were more concerned that Jesus had violated their legalistic Sabbath rules than they were about this man.
We saw the same thing in chapter 5, when Jesus healed the lame man by the Pool of Bethesda on the Sabbath. The religious leaders didn’t rejoice that this poor man had been healed. Rather, they wanted to get Jesus for violating their Sabbath rules. They also reveal their contempt for the people they should have been tenderly shepherding when they say (7:49), “But this crowd which does not know the Law is accursed.” As shepherds they should have taught the people, but instead they ridiculed them for their ignorance. They used their power to keep the people in fear, threatening them with excommunication if they confessed Jesus to be the Christ (9:22). And we see their arrogance and lack of concern for the flock when they told the blind man (9:34), “You were born entirely in sins, and are you teaching us?” These Pharisees were not faithful shepherds over the Lord’s flock.
So in John 10, Jesus draws a sharp contrast between them as false shepherds, whom He calls thieves and robbers (10:1), and Himself as the true shepherd. Many Old Testament passages picture the Lord as the shepherd over His people (notably, Psalm 23). If in the Old Testament the Lord is the shepherd of His people and in the New Testament, Jesus is the shepherd, it shows that Jesus is the Lord.
Probably Jesus paints the picture in John 10 against the backdrop of Ezekiel 34, where the Lord castigates the religious leaders of Israel for being self-centered, greedy shepherds who used the flock for their own comfort and gain, but failed to care tenderly for the hurting. The Lord pronounces judgment on those false shepherds and promises (Ezek. 34:23), “Then I will set over them one shepherd, My servant David, and he will feed them; he will feed them himself and be their shepherd.” That prophecy was fulfilled by the Son of David, the Lord Jesus Christ, who is the good shepherd of His sheep (John 10:11).
So John 10 gives us a symbolic picture of what has just happened in John 9. It also affirms the blindness of the Pharisees, who don’t understand this picture (9:40-41; 10:6). John 10:1-18 falls into three sections: In 10:1-6, Jesus contrasts Himself as the true shepherd with these self-centered false shepherds. In 10:7-10, He portrays Himself as the door of the sheepfold, who, in contrast to these false shepherds, came to give abundant life to His sheep. In 10:11-18, He explains how as the good shepherd He lays down His own life to provide life for His sheep. Today we can only look at 10:1-6, which shows Jesus to be the true shepherd of Israel in contrast to these self-centered false shepherds. The point is:
Jesus’ credentials and His qualities prove Him to be the true shepherd, whom His sheep follow.
We’ll look first at Jesus’ credentials, then at His qualities, and finally at what He says about His sheep.
1. Jesus’ credentials prove Him to be the true shepherd.
“Truly, truly” (10:1) alerts us that this is something that we need to perk up and pay attention to:
A. Jesus the true shepherd warns the flock about false shepherds (10:1).
John 10:1: “Truly, truly, I say to you, he who does not enter by the door into the fold of the sheep, but climbs up some other way, he is a thief and a robber.” Jesus was both rebuking the Pharisees who were listening to Him and warning His followers, including the former blind man, not to follow these false shepherds, whom Jesus calls thieves and robbers.
I read once about a seminary class that spent a semester searching the New Testament to discover which truth is emphasized more than any other. To their surprise they found that warnings against false teachers top the list, ahead of love or any other virtue. Jesus Himself warned (Matt. 7:15), “Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves.” The metaphor pictures the deceptiveness and the self-centered destructiveness of false prophets. They fool the sheep into thinking that they are sheep, and thus gain access to the flock. But their aim is not to build up and care for the flock, but to ravage them for their own selfish purposes (see also, 2 Cor. 11:13-15; 2 Peter 2; and 1, 2, & 3 John).
Satan’s aim is never to build up or care for people! He always seeks to destroy (John 10:10; 1 Pet. 5:8). And he often uses as his agents men or women who pose as true believers to cause destruction in the church. They seem to know the Bible and teach the Bible, which gains them a hearing among those who profess to know Christ. But their teaching and their practices do not lead people toward godliness, but toward destruction.
“Thieves” and “robbers” have slightly different meanings. Thieves tend to use cunning and deception. They break into your house when you’re gone or are asleep and steal without your knowing it. Robbers are more aggressive. They hold you up at gunpoint and force you to give up your valuables. But in both cases, they don’t care about you. They only want to profit at your expense. They want to use you to further their own selfish ends.
Note two important lessons here: (1) Being grounded in sound doctrine is essential, not optional. False teachers do not wear blinking neon signs saying, “I’m going to lead you astray!” They’re subtle and just slightly off. You have to know and be able to defend from Scripture the core doctrines of the faith. And you need to know how to distinguish the core doctrines, where compromise is fatal, from secondary doctrines that are not as essential for spiritual health.
(2) Christlike shepherds warn their flocks about false teachers. If Jesus, the true shepherd, warned about false teachers, then His undershepherds must also warn about false teachers if they are faithful to Him. To put it another way, Jesus was not always “nice” and “positive.” Read Matthew 23, where He pronounces woe after woe on the scribes and Pharisees, whom He repeatedly calls “hypocrites.” Both Paul and John pointed out false teachers by name (1 Tim. 1:20; 2 Tim. 2:17; 4:14; 3 John 9-10). People have criticized me because at times I have named false teachers or heretical groups. But if I leave it vague and general, people don’t connect the dots. I would not be a faithful shepherd if I didn’t specifically warn you about false teachers.
B. Jesus the true shepherd entered by the door (10:2).
John 10:2: “But he who enters by the door is a shepherd of the sheep.” The Greek construction warrants the better translation, “is the shepherd of the sheep” (Morris, p. 502). Jesus was referring to Himself as the legitimate shepherd of God’s flock because He entered the fold by the door. Some (e.g. J. C. Ryle, Expository Thoughts on the Gospels [Baker], p. 175) jump down to 10:7 and identify Jesus as the door. While that’s true in 10:7, importing that identification back into 10:2 is to confuse two different metaphors. In 10:1-6, Jesus is the true shepherd who enters the fold by the door. In 10:7-10, Jesus is the door with no reference to the shepherd. Then in 10:11-18, Jesus is again the good shepherd.
To understand 10:1-5, you need to have a mental picture of a sheepfold in that day. Each village would have a common walled-in fold where every evening the different shepherds from the village would bring all their sheep. There was one door or entrance to the fold, which often was just an opening. The doorkeeper would guard the door by lying across it, making sure that wild animals or robbers would not enter to harm or steal the sheep. In the morning, the shepherds would return, the doorkeeper would open to them, and they would call their sheep out to lead them to pasture during the day.
Some commentators (e.g. Calvin) hesitate to get specific about what each figure in this allegory represents, but I think we can make some helpful identifications. The fold is Judaism or Israel. Jesus is the true shepherd, who enters the fold to lead His genuine sheep, those whom the Father has given to Him (10:27-29), out to pasture. The man born blind is an example of this. The Pharisees are the thieves and robbers, who are not genuine shepherds.
But, what does the door represent? While in 10:7, the door is Christ Himself, in 10:2 the door is the Messianic office as described and prophesied in the Old Testament, which sets forth the credentials of the coming Messiah. He would be born of the tribe of Judah (Gen. 49:10), a descendant of David (Isa. 9:7; Jer. 33:17). He would be born in Bethlehem (Mic. 5:2) to a virgin (Isa. 7:14). He would give sight to the blind, hearing to the deaf, and cause the lame to walk (Isa. 35:5-6). He would be the prophet greater than Moses (Deut. 18:15). He would be a light to shine on all who are in darkness (Isa. 9:2; 42:6; 49:6). He would provide the water of God’s Spirit to thirsty souls (Isa. 44:3). John has shown us how Jesus fulfilled many of these and other Old Testament prophecies.
In his amazing little book, Science Speaks ([Moody Press], pp. 99-112), math professor Peter Stoner takes just eight Old Testament prophecies about Christ and assigns to each one conservative odds with regard to the question (p. 106), “What is the chance that any man might have lived from the day of these prophecies down to the present time and have fulfilled all eight?” He comes up with the answer of one in 1017.
Then he helps us picture this huge number. If you take 1017 silver dollars and spread them all over Texas, they would cover the entire state two feet deep. Mark one of the silver dollars, mix it into the whole, blindfold a man and tell him that he can go as far as he wants, but he must pick the one marked dollar. That is the same chance that Jesus could have fulfilled just eight Old Testament prophecies. But the reality is, Jesus fulfilled over 300 Old Testament prophecies (p. 108)! The point is, Jesus’ credentials show that He is the only person who could enter through the door of the Messianic office as prophesied in the Old Testament.
C. The doorkeeper opened to Jesus the true shepherd (10:3).
Again, some reputable commentators (Calvin, Morris) think that we are going too far to assign anyone specifically as the doorkeeper. Others say that it refers to God or the Holy Spirit or Moses. But in light of John’s Gospel, I think it is reasonable to view the doorkeeper as John the Baptist. He opened the door for Jesus to enter the fold of Judaism as their true shepherd. He was the predicted messenger, who cried out in the wilderness, “Make straight the way of the Lord” (John 1:23; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1). John pointed to Jesus and said (1:29), “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!” He opened the door for Jesus to enter the fold of Israel.
Thus Jesus came to Israel through the door of prophetic Messianic Scripture and the doorkeeper opened to Him as the true shepherd so that He could call His sheep out of the fold. His sheep are all from Israel whom the Father had given Him (6:37, 39, 10:29). He also has other sheep (the Gentiles), whom He would gather into one flock under Him as shepherd (10:16). Thus Jesus’ credentials prove Him to be the true shepherd.
2. Jesus’ qualities prove Him to be the true shepherd.
Of course, all of Jesus’ attributes show that He is the true shepherd of His sheep. As He will go on to say (10:11-18), the sheep belong to Him because He gave His life to purchase them. But here I can only point out two of the true shepherd’s qualities:
A. Jesus the true shepherd provides personal care for His sheep, calling them by name (10:3b).
John 10:3b: “The sheep hear his voice, and he calls his own sheep by name ….” The picture here is of a Near Eastern shepherd who spent much time with his flock and who knew each sheep personally. One writer gives an account of this sort of thing (H. V. Morton, cited by Morris, p. 502, note 17):
Early one morning I saw an extraordinary sight not far from Bethlehem. Two shepherds had evidently spent the night with their flocks in a cave. The sheep were all mixed together and the time had come for the shepherds to go in different directions. One of the shepherds stood some distance from the sheep and began to call. First one, then another, then four or five animals ran towards him; and so on until he had counted his whole flock.
Another writer tells of three or four shepherds separating their flocks solely by their different calls (ibid.).
Isn’t it nice when someone knows your name or sends you a personal note? I realize that form letters are necessary and I try to read form prayer letters from missionaries. But if I get one that has a personal note at the bottom, I always read that first. We all appreciate it when someone recognizes us personally.
Jesus does that with His sheep. If you belong to Him, He knows you by name. Unlike me as a pastor with limited storage space in my computer (brain), Jesus never forgets a name. More than that, He not only knows your name, but He also knows everything about you, yet He still loves you and wants to fellowship with you! He is your caring shepherd.
B. Jesus the true shepherd provides leadership and protection for His sheep.
These blessings are implied in John 10:3b-4: [He] “leads them out. When he puts forth all his own, he goes ahead of them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice.” Jesus was probably alluding to Numbers 27:16-17, where Moses prayed, “May the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, appoint a man over the congregation, who will go out and come in before them, and who will lead them out and bring them in, so that the congregation of the Lord will not be like sheep which have no shepherd.” Jesus was leading His true sheep out of the barren fold of Judaism and into the rich pastures of abundant life that He provides.
Note, too, that Jesus doesn’t drive His sheep from behind. He leads them by going ahead of them. He makes sure that the way is safe from predators. He takes them where He knows there are rich pastures for them to feed on. He never takes them where He has not gone Himself, including the valley of the shadow of death. He has been tempted in all the ways we are tempted, yet He was without sin (Heb. 4:15). With such a caring, personal Savior who always has our best interests at heart, we can submit to and follow Him, trusting Him even in life’s most difficult trials.
3. The shepherd’s sheep follow Him because they know His voice, but they flee from strangers whom they don’t know.
John 10:4b-5: “… the sheep follow him because they know his voice. A stranger they simply will not follow, but will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of strangers.”
A. The shepherd’s sheep follow Him because they know His voice.
Jesus repeats that His sheep hear and know His voice in verses 3 & 4. He is not referring to hearing an audible voice, as when people say, “The Lord spoke to me.” Rather, we hear His voice through His written Word, properly interpreted and applied. Granted, sometimes the Holy Spirit impresses a particular verse on our hearts as we read the Bible or through a sermon or a book or a word from another brother or sister in Christ. But it should never be some screwy interpretation of a verse taken out of context. The Lord’s sheep know His voice through His Word because they graze often in it.
B. The shepherd’s sheep flee from strangers whom they don’t know.
One mark of the Lord’s genuine sheep is that they persevere in sound doctrine. In Matthew 24:24, speaking of the end times, Jesus predicts, “For false Christs and false prophets will arise and will show great signs and wonders, so as to mislead, if possible, even the elect.” There will be many false teachers, but it is not possible that they will deceive God’s elect. As Jesus said (John 6:39), “This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day.” (See also, John 10:27-30.) But these promises do not absolve us of the responsibility to grow stronger in sound doctrine so that we will not be deceived. Dig deeper by studying God’s Word and by reading some solid theological books. Then when false teachers try to seduce you, you will flee.
But the bottom line is, it’s not how much you know, but who you know. The Pharisees knew far more theology than the man born blind, but they didn’t know the true shepherd. But the healed blind man now knew Jesus as his shepherd. Do you? Jesus prayed (John 17:3): “This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.”
- If Moses, the Psalms, and the prophets all testify to Jesus (Luke 24:27, 44), Christians should be reading and studying the Old Testament. How should a believer start doing that?
- Although warning about false teachers and refuting their teaching is a main job for pastors (Titus 1:9), many Christians don’t like this and few pastors do it. How can this be corrected?
- How can a believer know whether a thought or impression is truly from the Lord?
- How would your awareness of Jesus’ personal care for you affect how you deal with your current or future trials?
Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2014, All Rights Reserved.
Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation
Lesson 55: The Door to Abundant Life (John 10:7-10)Related Media
May 18, 2014
The “American dream” is to pursue what is called “the good life.” This usually means owning your own home, having a couple of late model cars in your garage, taking nice vacations, and retiring to a comfortable life of doing whatever you like. The rich and famous, who supposedly enjoy this good life, are splashed across the pages of magazines like People so that we all can vicariously enter their lives and dream about striking it rich ourselves.
But while many Americans who are financially comfortable may have achieved “the good life,” most of them have missed the abundant life that Jesus promised to all who follow Him. But what is the abundant life? Many who follow the “prosperity gospel” have just baptized the materialistic American dream with some Christian labels. Except for their outlandish hairdos and Christian jargon, the prosperity preachers look pretty much like unbelieving Americans in their pursuit of stuff.
But the abundant life that Jesus promised has nothing to do with collecting more stuff. It has everything to do with being right with God through faith in Christ and having the hope of eternity spent in His presence. The apostle Paul wasn’t rich in this world’s goods, but he enjoyed the abundant life that Christ offers. He was content with just food and covering (1 Tim. 6:8), but he was rich toward God (Luke 12:21; Eph. 2:7). He gained those riches by coming to know the Lord Jesus Christ (Phil. 3:8).
In our text, Jesus claims to be the door through which His sheep enter to experience the abundant life. This is the third of Jesus’ seven “I am” statements (for the others, see John 6:35; 8:12; 10:11, 14; 11:25; 14:6; and 15:1, 5). This means that the Lord’s message is Himself. Christianity is not primarily a bunch of rules or rituals; Christianity is Christ Himself. Our text teaches us that…
Jesus is the only door to abundant life for all who enter through Him.
Jesus again uses “truly, truly” to alert us that what follows is important (John 10:7): “Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep.” We have four verses with four important truths:
1. Jesus is the only door of the sheep (10:7).
In John 10:2-3, the scene was a common sheepfold in the village where the different shepherds would bring their sheep each night. There was a hired doorkeeper to guard the entrance. But now, the scene probably has shifted to the country, where the shepherd would take his sheep for summer pasture (William Barclay, The Gospel of John [Westminster], rev. ed., 2:58). The shepherd would build a protective enclosure for the sheep so that they could go in for protection and go out to feed. The shepherd himself would lay across the opening to the shelter at night. Thus Jesus could be both the shepherd and the door. Any intruders had to get by him to get to the sheep. As the door, He let in the true sheep, but He excluded predators or thieves that would harm the sheep.
G. Campbell Morgan (The Gospel According to John [Revell], p. 177) tells of a conversation he had with Sir George Adam Smith, a scholar who had spent much time in the Near East. Smith told of meeting a shepherd there who showed him the fold where the sheep were led at night. It consisted of four walls with a way in. Smith asked, “That is where you go at night?” “Yes,” the shepherd said, “and when the sheep are in there they are perfectly safe.” “But there is no door,” said Smith. “I am the door,” the shepherd replied. He was not a Christian man, but rather an Arab shepherd. But he was using the same language that Jesus used. He explained further, “When the light has gone, and all the sheep are inside, I lie in that open space, and no sheep ever goes out but across my body, and no wolf comes in unless he crosses my body; I am the door.”
Jesus is the only door of the sheep. J. C. Ryle (Expository Thoughts on the Gospels [Baker], 3:184) points out that no apostle or prophet could make such a claim. Only Jesus the Messiah could legitimately claim, “I am the door.” It’s the same thing that He later claims (14:6), “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me.” Jesus was claiming to be the exclusive, only way to God. Just as there was only one door into the ark and only one door into the Tabernacle, so Jesus is the only door to salvation and God’s presence. The apostle Paul put it (Eph. 2:18), “For through Him we both [Jewish and Gentile believers] have access in one Spirit to the Father.”
Unbelievers are okay with it if you say, “Jesus is a door to God.” They think, “That’s fine! Mohammad is also a door and Buddha is a door and nature is a door. All religions lead to God. There are many doors.” But when you draw the line that Jesus drew and insist, “No, He is the only door,” you get accused of being intolerant and bigoted. Even C. S. Lewis, in his otherwise mostly helpful Mere Christianity ([Macmillan], pp. 176-177) wrote,
There are people who do not accept the full Christian doctrine about Christ but who are so strongly attracted by Him that they are His in a much deeper sense than they themselves understand. There are people in other religions who are being led by God’s secret influence to concentrate on those parts of their religion which are in agreement with Christianity, and who thus belong to Christ without knowing it. For example, a Buddhist of good will may be led to concentrate more and more on the Buddhist teaching about mercy and to leave in the background (though he might still say he believed) the Buddhist teaching on certain other points.
But Lewis is missing the fact that all people, whether Buddhists “of good will” or “good” Catholics or “good” Baptists are all sinners by nature and can only be saved through faith in the death of Christ to atone for their sins. As Peter put it to the “good” Jews of his day (Acts 4:12), “There is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved.” Since Jesus is the only door …
2. All others claiming to be the door are thieves and robbers (10:8).
John 10:8: “All who came before Me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not hear them.” Obviously, Jesus was not saying that godly men like Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and other prophets were thieves and robbers. In the context, He is referring to those who preyed on the sheep and used them for their own selfish ends. And, He was especially speaking of the thieves and robbers who were standing before Him, the Pharisees who were not godly shepherds over Israel. They were like the false shepherds that Ezekiel 34 castigates. Or, as the Lord says (Jer. 23:1-2):
“Woe to the shepherds who are destroying and scattering the sheep of My pasture!” declares the Lord. Therefore thus says the Lord God of Israel concerning the shepherds who are tending My people: “You have scattered My flock and driven them away, and have not attended to them; behold, I am about to attend to you for the evil of your deeds,” declares the Lord.
The Lord goes on to describe how He will re-gather His flock and raise up a righteous Branch for David, adding (23:6):
“In His days Judah will be saved,
And Israel will dwell securely;
And this is His name by which He will be called,
‘The Lord our righteousness.’”
In John 10:8, Jesus repeats the truth that He stated in 10:5, that His true sheep will not hear or follow a false shepherd. They will persevere by following Jesus. Sometimes, the Lord’s true sheep may be led astray by a false shepherd for a while, but as Jesus promises (10:27-28), He will keep them: “My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me; and I give eternal life to them, and they will never perish; and no one will snatch them out of My hand.” John indicates that if people are not true sheep, eventually they will leave the church (1 John 2:19): “They went out from us, but they were not really of us; for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us; but they went out, so that it would be shown that they all are not of us.”
So, Jesus is the only door of the sheep. All others who claim to be the way to God are thieves and robbers. But, what are the spiritual implications of Jesus’ claim to be the door?
3. As the door, Jesus provides salvation, safety, and sustenance for any who will enter through Him (10:9).
John 10:9: “I am the door; if anyone enters through Me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture.” There are two things to consider here:
A. Jesus is the only source of salvation, safety, and sustenance for His sheep.
Jesus says that whoever enters through Him will be saved. “Going in and out” pictures safety. And, “finding pasture” pictures the sustenance our good shepherd provides.
1) Jesus provides salvation for His sheep.
In the context of the sheep analogy, being saved refers to protecting the sheep from predators that would kill them. But Jesus obviously has the idea of spiritual salvation behind His words. As we saw (John 3:17), “For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him.” (See, also, 5:34; 12:47).
As I’ve often said, we often toss around the word “saved” without thinking about just how radical it is. If you’re doing basically okay on your own, you may appreciate a helpful word of advice or a bit of encouragement, but you don’t need to be saved. You only need to be saved when you are helplessly, hopelessly lost. Instead of being saved, maybe we should use the word “rescued.” You don’t need to be rescued if you’re doing fine on your own. You only need to be rescued when you’re unable on your own to get out of a situation that will soon lead to your death.
In spiritual terms, the Bible is clear that before you believe in Christ, you’re not just going to die; you were already dead in your trespasses and sins (Eph. 2:1). As such, you were what Paul calls a child of wrath (Eph. 2:3). In John’s terms (3:36), the wrath of God was abiding on you. You were under God’s righteous condemnation for your sins. Being spiritually dead, there was no way that you could rescue yourself or do anything to help out with your own rescue. You required God’s intervention.
That’s exactly what God did when He sent His unique Son into this world. Jesus came to seek and to save lost sinners (Luke 19:10; John 12:47). On the cross, He bore the wrath of God on behalf of all who believe in Him. Using the shepherd and sheep analogy, 1 Peter 2:24-25 puts it like this:
He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed. For you were continually straying like sheep, but now you have returned to the Shepherd and Guardian of your souls.
Have you taken refuge in Jesus as your Savior? He is the only source of salvation because no one else can bear God’s wrath on our behalf. No one else can pay for our sins.
2) Jesus provides safety for His sheep.
This is the main idea behind the picture of sheep going in and out to find pasture. Barclay (ibid. p. 59) says that this “was the Jewish way of describing a life that is absolutely secure and safe.” If the country was under siege, people had to stay inside the city walls. But when they were at peace and the ruler was upholding law and order, people were free to come and go as they wished. Moses used this language in praying for his successor (Num. 27:16-17), “May the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, appoint a man over the congregation, who will go out and come in before them, and who will lead them out and bring them in, so that the congregation of the Lord will not be like sheep which have no shepherd.” (See also, Deut. 28:6; 1 Kings 3:7; Ps. 121:8.) So when Jesus, the good shepherd, guards the flock, they are secure to go in and out and find pasture.
The term also was a Hebrew expression that connoted familiar access. In Acts 1:21, Peter mentions “the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us.” Acts 9:28 mentions how after Paul’s conversion, when Barnabas introduced him to the apostles and they came to trust that he really was converted, Paul was with them, “moving about freely in Jerusalem.” Literally, the Greek reads, he was “going in and out” in Jerusalem.
So the spiritual picture is that if you have entered the fold through Jesus, who is both the shepherd and the door, He provides safety and familiar access. He is guarding all of your ways. You can go out to the rich pasturelands that He provides and come into the safety of His fold as you please.
3) Jesus provides sustenance for His sheep.
This is the picture behind “pasture,” as well as the idea of “abundant life” (10:10). It’s not pointing to having an abundance of material goods, but rather to the soul satisfaction that comes when you know that the Lord is your shepherd. You know that He is caring for you and He prepares a table before you even in the presence of enemies, so that your cup overflows (Ps. 23:5). He goes with you even through the valley of the shadow of death. In other words, Jesus isn’t promising an easy life where there are no trials or where you get instant deliverance from your trials. Rather, He is promising to meet all of our spiritual needs if we will enter through Him as the door. John G. Mitchell (An Everlasting Love [Multnomah Press], p.193) once asked W. R. Newell, who wrote a commentary on Romans, how many times he had taught Romans. He answered, “I have taught the book of Romans some eighty times, and the pastures are still green.”
As you may know, I’m not a fan of those who mingle psychology with the Bible. Nor am I favorable toward the popular 12 Step programs. Sometimes I’ve been asked, “If psychology or 12 Step groups help people deal with their problems, what’s wrong with that?”
In a nutshell, what’s wrong is that these approaches “help” people without directing them to Christ alone for salvation, safety, and sustenance. I used to be supportive of these methods, but then I read a book where the author, a well-known Christian psychologist (Henry Cloud, When Your World Makes No Sense [Oliver Nelson], pp. 16-17), states that he had tried the “standard Christian answers,” by which he means, faith, obedience, more time in the Word and prayer, etc. But he calls these things “worthless medicine” and then turns his readers toward his approach, which he claims, works. But his approach is essentially developmental psychology, not the all-sufficiency of Christ for our souls.
The same is true of self-help programs, such as the 12 Steps. They are not Christ-centered. Their approach is not to bring people under the lordship of Christ. Rather, they just “use” Christ (however you define Him) or, if you wish, some other “higher power,” to get what you want. “Do you want sobriety? Work the Steps—the Steps will give you sobriety. Are you dealing with an alcoholic family member? Try the Steps—they will give you the stability you’ve been looking for.” So “Christ” (however you conceive Him to be) becomes merely a means for you to achieve your agenda. But He is not the source of your salvation, your safety, and your sustenance. As the door, Jesus provides salvation, safety, and sustenance. He meets all of our spiritual needs. But, it’s not automatic.
B. Jesus’ blessings are for any and all who enter through Him.
The condition is (10:9), “if anyone enters through Me.” The invitation is open to “anyone” and everyone, but you must enter through Jesus alone. Any other way is illegitimate.
How do you enter? Well, that’s the theme of the entire Gospel of John. He wrote these signs that Jesus did (20:31), “so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.” Or (1:12), “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name.” Or (3:16), “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.”
To enter through Jesus the door means to believe in Him as the Christ, the Son of God, who died for your sins and was raised from the dead. Have you done that? Have you put your trust in Jesus as your only hope for eternal life?
Maybe if you’re a young person you’re thinking, “I’ll probably do that someday, but I want to have some fun first. I want to enjoy some of the pleasures that this world offers while I can. Later, maybe I’ll trust in Jesus.” But that is a serious mistake.
4. Jesus’ purpose for His sheep is radically opposed to the purposes of false shepherds: abundant life versus destruction and death (10:10).
John 10:10: “The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly.” There are only two ways to live your life: You can pursue this world for satisfaction, or you can seek after God to satisfy. The world, under the dominion of Satan, will rob, kill, and destroy your soul. Jesus offers life, and that more abundantly.
The Eskimos have an interesting way of killing wolves. They take a sharp knife, dip in in seal fat, and plant it blade up in the snow. A hungry wolf will smell the seal fat, which he loves, find the knife, and begin to lick it. As soon as he licks it, he tastes blood—his own blood. But he loves the taste of blood, so he licks more and more, until he finally kills himself. What he thought at first was really living was actually killing him.
Gorging yourself on the world and its sinful pleasures is like that. At first it tastes good, but it’s really destroying you. Only Jesus ultimately satisfies the soul. Only Jesus can reconcile you to God and give you real life—abundant life—that begins now and continues through all eternity.
Matthew Henry, the well-known pastor and Bible commentator, was on his deathbed in 1714, at age 52. He had suffered the loss of his first wife and of three children. He was relatively young. He could have complained about his early death. But he said to a friend, “You have been used to take notice of the sayings of dying men. This is mine—that a life spent in the service of God, and communion with Him, is the most comfortable and pleasant life that one can live in the present world” (Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible [Revell], p. 1:xiv).
Years ago there was a TV game show called, “Let’s Make a Deal.” The contestants had to choose between a prize that was visible to them or another prize that was concealed behind a curtain or door. The visible prize was usually a nice item, like an expensive stereo or TV set. Sometimes the unseen prize turned out to be a joke, such as 10,000 boxes of toothpicks. But at other times the person chose the visible gift and discovered to their horror that they had passed up, behind the curtain, a new car worth thousands of dollars. Whenever that happened, you felt with the contestant that awful feeling in the pit of your stomach that comes from making a major wrong choice.
Don’t make that mistake spiritually. The visible prize is all the stuff you see in this world. But when you enter through Jesus as the door, you gain things that eye has not seen and ear has not heard, which have not entered into the heart of man, all that God has prepared for those who love Him (1 Cor. 2:9).
- Someone says, “Jesus is fine for you, but I have my own beliefs.” How would you reply?
- How should you respond to people who are worldly, successful, and happy, while you’re suffering (see Psalm 73)?
- How would you answer a believer in the “prosperity gospel,” who says that if you have enough faith, you’ll be healthy and wealthy? (See Heb. 11:33-39.)
- Why is any “solution” to your problems a false solution if it doesn’t help you lay hold of the true riches in Christ?
Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2014, All Rights Reserved.
Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation
Issue 018. 2014 June Bible.org Translator's Newsletter
These last few months have resulted in 8 new translated articles being added to the site. Thank you for your hard work, Ruth, Siyuan, Tilak, Mariza, and Jenny!
Vickie Kraft, .
Steve Cole, .
Bob Deffinbaugh, .
Dianne Miller, .
Bob Deffinbaugh, .
Tony Tucci, .
- Winter NET Pastors Journal (Roger Pascoe)
Hints and Tips
Tip: Have you wondered what free step by step guidance is available for beginning translators?
Gengo () has some resources available that they use in their training program for translators. While the later projects that they have are definitely geared towards preparing people to translate in their work program, they do have 10 lessons freely available for interaction. Their helpful tips might be just what you need to avoid common pitfalls and take your translation quality to the next level.
Hopefully this will be a helpful resource to you as you work on accurately translating these important messages about God’s Word!
This time we had the joy of giving out one award for translation efforts. This award went to Mariza for having reached the 80 article milestone. She received an ePub version of the book Love or Die by Alexander Strauch. We pray that this resource is a blessing to you in your personal life and ministry.
We also had the joy of seeing Mariza’s long term project of translating Bob Deffinbaugh’s twenty-four part 2 Samuel series come to a completion. Great job!
Know someone else who is bilingual?
If you know of anyone else who would have the time and skills to translate articles for Bible.org please consider recommending this ministry to them. Sometimes the most obvious gifts (like preaching or being a leader) are not the ones with the most impact or need. This is a real opportunity to meet a need and impact thousands and thousands of people with the truth of God’s Word.
Need help, have questions, or prefer to meet in real time?
I am available and would love to answer any questions you might have. We do have a section on our Translation Series page, but you can always send me an email! I can also be available through Skype for a voice or chat conversation. Simply let me know through email that you would like to talk and we will get it worked out.
I look forward to hearing from you!
Related Topics: Administrative and Organization
3. We Don't Compromise Holiness (1 Peter 1:13-21)Related Media
1 Peter: Suffering Precedes Glory (part three)
Many attempts have been made to define God's holiness. It has been variously described as His "absolute unapproachability," His "absolute overpoweringness," and His "aweful majesty." The elusive concept of God's holiness is impossible to define precisely. Definitions break down because we simply don't have the faculties to comprehend-nor the vocabulary to express-God's holiness. Still, we're instructed to be holy because God is holy. We are declared holy by the blood of Jesus, and yet we continue to approach sin with apathy, complacency, and indifference. We must do battle for our own holiness. We must value holiness over convenience. Instead of asking, "How much can I get away with?" we should be asking, "How holy do I want to be?"
Lesson 56: Why Follow Jesus? (John 10:11-21)Related Media
May 25, 2014
Have you ever felt like it’s not worth it to follow Jesus? Perhaps you were going through a severe trial and you wondered, “If Jesus is the Lord and He loves me, then why is He allowing me to go through this trial?” You thought, “Life was better before I believed in Christ. Then I didn’t have all the problems that I’ve had since I became a Christian.” Perhaps you struggle with disappointment because your Christian experience isn’t all that you thought it would be or all that others seem to experience. So you wonder, “Why should I follow Jesus?” Our text answers that question simply and forcefully:
Since Jesus is the good shepherd who lays down His life for His sheep, you’d be crazy not to follow Him.
Jesus is still speaking to a mixed audience. The Pharisees were there, and Jesus’ teaching here will again result in a division among them (10:19-21; see 7:43-52; 9:16). Also, the man born blind, who Jesus healed, was there, along with other believers. Jesus’ words here were aimed at warning, instructing, and assuring them. He warns them about false shepherds so that they will not follow them. He instructs them about Himself as the good shepherd and what He provides for His flock. And He assures them of His sacrificial care for them and of the fact that He will accomplish His purpose with them. I will point out five truths here about Jesus, the good shepherd:
1. The good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep, but the hired hand has no concern for the sheep (10:11-13).
Jesus contrasts Himself with these self-centered religious leaders:
A. The good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep (10:11).
John 10:11: “I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep.” This is Jesus’ fourth “I am” claim in John’s Gospel. “I am the bread of life” (6:35). “I am the Light of the world” (8:12). “I am the door of the sheep” (10:7). “I am the good shepherd” (10:11, 14). Four times in these verses Jesus repeats that He lays down His life (10:11, 15, 17, 18). In the first two He repeats that He lays down His life for His sheep. The last two times, He emphasizes that He lays down His life so that He may take it up again. I could spend the entire message here, but let me point out four things:
1) Jesus death was selfless.
While Jesus set His sights on the joy set before Him as He faced the cross (Heb. 12:2), at the same time His giving Himself for us as sinners was the greatest act of selfless love in the history of the world. As Paul says (Rom. 5:7-8), “For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.” Jesus died voluntarily, in obedience to the will of the Father (John 10:18). He wants us to know and to feel His deep, selfless care for us. The word translated “good” has the nuance of excellence or beauty. The beauty of Jesus, the shepherd who gave Himself to rescue us from God’s judgment, should draw our hearts in love to Him.
2) Jesus’ death was sacrificial.
He laid down His life “for the sheep.” He died in our place. We should have faced God’s righteous eternal judgment because of all our sins. But Jesus intervened with His own blood to pay the debt on our behalf. Jesus is the only one who has ever lived who did not have any sins of His own to die for. So He alone was qualified to die for us who deserved to die. As Paul wrote (2 Cor. 5:21), “He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.” God imputed our sins to Christ and Christ’s righteousness to us.
3) Jesus’ death was specific.
He laid down His life “for the sheep.” Paul expressed this in other terms (Eph. 5:25, emphasis added): “Christ loved the church and gave Himself up for her.” The sheep are those whom the Father gave to the Son (John 10:29), whose names were written in the book of life before the foundation of the world (Rev. 13:8). In John 6:37, Jesus said, “All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will certainly not cast out.” He added (6:39), “This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day.”
In 10:26, He tells the Pharisees, “But you do not believe because you are not of My sheep.” He does not say, “You are not of My sheep because you do not believe,” but rather the reverse: “You do not believe because you are not of My sheep.” The determinative factor is whether they were Jesus’ sheep, whom the Father gave to the Son. It was these that Jesus came to die to redeem. He did not fail in His mission!
This truth is often misunderstood and attacked because it is alleged that if Jesus died only for His sheep, then we can’t offer the gospel to all people. But that is a false allegation. Jesus is “the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (John 1:29). John 3:16: “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.” Jesus is the Savior of the world (John 4:42). The almost final verse of the Bible appeals (Rev. 22:17), “The Spirit and the bride say, ‘Come.’ And let the one who hears say, ‘Come.’ And let the one who is thirsty come; let the one who wishes take the water of life without cost.” So this truth in no way limits the invitation to all people to be saved. God pleads with all to be saved.
Rather, this truth looks at the death of Christ from the standpoint of God’s intent or purpose. Jesus died actually to pay for all the sins of His sheep, whom the Father had given Him from all eternity. And He promises that He will not lose even one of them (John 6:39; 10:28). So this truth should assure us: If you believe in Christ, you’re one of His sheep for whom He died. And He promises to keep you unto eternity. His purpose will not fail (Eph. 1:11).
4) Jesus’ death was successful.
We just saw this (John 6:39), “This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day.” It’s also in our text (10:17, 18) where Jesus repeats twice that He not only will lay down His life, but also that He will take it up again. Many may claim that they will lay down their lives, but Jesus is the only one who legitimately could claim that He would take it up again. His resurrection verifies that the Father accepted His sacrifice (Rom. 4:25). So as the good shepherd, Jesus lays down His life for the sheep.
B. The hired hand has no concern for the sheep, but abandons them to save his own life (10:12-13).
John 10:12-13: “He who is a hired hand, and not a shepherd, who is not the owner of the sheep, sees the wolf coming, and leaves the sheep and flees, and the wolf snatches them and scatters them. He flees because he is a hired hand and is not concerned about the sheep.”
Jesus is contrasting His own sacrificial love and care for His sheep with the false shepherds of Israel, whom He here calls “hired hands,” who only cared for themselves. The difference is that Jesus owns the sheep because He bought them with His blood. But when predators come, the hired hands are more concerned about saving their own lives than they are about saving the sheep. It’s no great loss to them if the sheep perish, as long as they escape with their lives.
The contrast means that if you follow the good shepherd, you can be assured that He cares for you more than for His own life. If you’re one of His sheep, He promises (10:28), “I give eternal life to them, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of My hand.”
2. The good shepherd knows His sheep personally and they know Him (10:14-15).
John 10:14-15: “I am the good shepherd, and I know My own and My own know Me, even as the Father knows Me and I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep.”
We saw the same truth in 10:3-4, where Jesus said that He calls His own sheep by name and they follow Him because they know His voice. Each night as the sheep would re-enter the fold, the shepherd would examine each one, to see whether there were any injuries or problems that needed his care. He knew every sheep in an intimate, personal way, and the sheep knew the shepherd so well that they would not follow the voice of a stranger (10:5, 8).
Jesus does not mean that our relationship with Him is just as intimate as His relationship with the Father, which would be impossible. The Father and the Son know each other perfectly with no barriers between them. Jesus knows us perfectly, of course, but our finiteness and sin create barriers on our end to our knowledge of Him. So the comparison means that our relationship with our good shepherd is reciprocal, just as the relationship between the Father and the Son is reciprocal. Knowing God and His Son is the essence of eternal life (17:3). And the crucial matter on the day of judgment will be whether Jesus knows you (Matt. 7:23). He knows all people, of course, but He was talking about knowing you in a personal, intimate way.
The apostle Paul, who knew Christ more deeply than almost all other believers, made it clear that knowing Him is a lifelong quest (Phil. 3:8-14). As Hosea (6:3) exhorts, “Let us press on to know the Lord.” So each of us needs to ask, “Is that my quest? Am I seeking to know my good shepherd better each day?”
3. The good shepherd has other sheep that He must bring into His flock (10:16).
John 10:16: “I have other sheep, which are not of this fold; I must bring them also, and they will hear My voice; and they will become one flock with one shepherd.”
This is also a remarkable verse that we could spend an entire message on. Jesus was referring to the Gentiles, who were at that time outside the fold of Israel. He states the necessity (“must”) to bring them and the certainty that they will hear His voice and become one flock with one shepherd. This is the missionary mandate that Jesus later gave in the Great Commission to take the gospel to all nations (or people groups; Matt. 28:19; Luke 24:47; Acts 1:8). And, Jesus promises the success of the mission: “They will hear My voice; and they will become one flock with one shepherd.”
This ties in to what we saw in verse 11, “the good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep.” Jesus did not die in vain. He died to secure the salvation of His sheep and He strongly asserts that He will succeed. There is no uncertainty or desperation in His voice: “I hope that these other sheep will listen to My voice, because I really want them in My flock. But it’s up to them to decide.” No, it is certain: The Father gave them to Jesus, He died for them, and they will hear Him and they will come into His flock.
Sometimes those who deny the biblical truth of God’s sovereign election and effectual grace argue that this teaching will stifle evangelism and missions. They charge, “If all the elect will be saved, then why witness? Why send out missionaries?” The biblical answer is, “Because God ordained the means as well as the end.”
Paul was in Corinth and he was fearful. He was thinking about leaving when the Lord appeared to him in a vision and said (Acts 18:9-10), “Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking and do not be silent; for I am with you, and no man will attack you in order to harm you, for I have many people in this city.” Paul didn’t yet know who the Lord’s “many people” were. But the Lord knew and He assured Paul that they would come to faith as Paul preached the gospel. Paul later said (2 Tim. 2:10), “For this reason I endure all things for the sake of those who are chosen, so that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus and with it eternal glory.” They were chosen before the foundation of the world, but they obtained salvation when Paul endured hardship to preach the gospel to them.
And the Lord still has people whom He purchased for God with His blood “from every tribe and tongue and people and nation” (Rev. 5:9). But to gain eternal life the Lord’s people must go and tell them about Jesus. The truths of election and effectual calling assure us that our efforts will not be in vain.
John 10:16 also shows us the true unity and diversity of the church. We are one body in which there is no distinction between the races (Col. 3:11). Gentiles are now fellow-heirs with the Jews of the promise in Christ through the gospel (Eph. 3:6). The glory of the church is when those from diverse racial and social backgrounds join together in harmony to praise God for His great salvation. That’s part of the glory of heaven (Rev. 5:9)! Remember, in Jesus’ day the Jews hated the Gentiles, whom they viewed as unclean dogs. They couldn’t conceive of them as being on equal standing before God. Peter had to overcome his racial prejudice to go and give the gospel to the Gentile Cornelius and his guests (Acts 10). He later got called on the carpet by other Jewish Christians for doing so (Acts 11).
But God gets more glory when those who are enemies in the world become one flock in harmony in Christ. For that reason, we should labor to make this church as racially diverse as our city is. In 2005, Flagstaff was about 70% white, 16% Hispanic, 10% Native American, 1.8% black, and 1.2% Asian. My understanding is that unless there are language barriers, the church should not divide along racial lines. I’ve always felt great joy when I meet believers from other races and cultures and even in spite of our language and cultural differences, there is an instant bond of love in Christ. We are one flock with one shepherd!
One other truth in verse 16 is that the Christian life is not to be lived in isolation, but in community with other believers. Sheep aren’t independent creatures. To thrive, they must be part of a flock under the protection of a shepherd. Sheep that stray from the flock get eaten by the wolves. So even though you may not like some of the sheep that the Lord has brought into His flock, you need to work hard at harmonious relationships. The second greatest commandment is to love your neighbor as much as you do in fact love yourself (Matt. 22:39). If you just come to church and leave, without getting to know well some of your fellow believers, you’re missing one of the main sources for growth and encouragement in your Christian life.
Thus the good shepherd lays down His life for His sheep. He knows them personally and they know Him. He brings all of His sheep from different races and backgrounds into one flock under His care.
4. The Father loves the good shepherd because He lays down His life so that He may take it again (10:17-18).
John 10:17-18: “For this reason the Father loves Me, because I lay down My life so that I may take it again. No one has taken it away from Me, but I lay it down on My own initiative. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again. This commandment I received from My Father.”
Verse 17 is difficult to understand, but Jesus did not mean that He earned the Father’s love by laying down His life. The Father and the Son always loved one another with infinite love (17:24). D. A. Carson (The Gospel According to John [Eerdmans/Apollos], p. 388) explains the thought this way:
It is not that the Father withholds his love until Jesus agrees to give up his life on the cross and rise again. Rather, the love of the Father for the Son is eternally linked with the unqualified obedience of the Son to the Father, his utter dependence upon him, culminating in this greatest act of obedience now just before him … [the cross].
There could also be the thought that Jesus’ willing sacrifice elicited the Father’s eternal love in a fresh way. For example, I have loved Marla for over 40 years now. But perhaps she does something that reflects her love for me and my love for her wells up in a fresh way so that I say, “I love you for doing that for me.” The love was there before her deed, but her deed called forth my love once more. (I’m indebted for this explanation to a message on valleybible.net.)
But the main point Jesus is making is that His death was not a tragic accident where He was a helpless victim. As Acts 4:27-28 puts it: “For truly in this city there were gathered together against Your holy servant Jesus, whom You anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, to do whatever Your hand and Your purpose predestined to occur.” The sinners who crucified Jesus were responsible for their sin, but at the same time, God used them to fulfill His purpose to save Jesus’ sheep from their sins.
5. Since the only options are that the good shepherd is either crazy or God, you’d be crazy not to follow Him (10:19-21).
Jesus’ teaching again caused a division. Some blasphemously argued that He had a demon and was insane (10:20; see, also, 7:20; 8:48, 52). Others countered (10:21), “These are not the sayings of one demon-possessed. A demon cannot open the eyes of the blind, can he?” They may not yet have come to saving faith, but they were moving in the right direction. They saw that Jesus could not be demonic or insane. The only other option is that He is the Christ, the Son of God (20:31). He is the eternal Word in human flesh (1:14).
Two things prove that Jesus could not have been crazy or demon-possessed: His words (“These are not the sayings of one demon-possessed”); and His works (“A demon cannot open the eyes of the blind, can he?”). Study Jesus’ words and His works as recorded in the Gospels, with the prayer, “Lord, show me the truth about Jesus and I will obey You,” and He will answer. Jesus said (John 7:17), “If anyone is willing to do His will, he will know of the teaching, whether it is of God or whether I speak from Myself.” But you can’t play games with God. The key factor is, are you willing to follow Jesus if the evidence reveals that He is of God? John is saying that since Jesus is the good shepherd who lays down His life for His sheep, you’d be crazy not to follow Him.
To come back to the original question, “Why follow Jesus?” Following Him may result in more trials, maybe persecution, or even martyrdom. The author of Psalm 73 was honest about struggling with the same question. Since he had begun to follow God, he had experienced increased trials. He looked at the wicked who seemed to be prospering and thought (73:13a), “Surely in vain I have kept my heart pure ….” His answer came when he went into the sanctuary of God and considered eternity. The wicked would come into judgment; but of himself he remembered (73:26), “My heart and my flesh may fail, but God is the strength of my heart and my portion forever.”
The abundant life that Jesus gives consists in having God Himself as our portion, both now and forever. That’s why you should follow Jesus as your good shepherd.
- In what sense does Jesus’ death apply to the whole world? In what sense does it apply only to His sheep? Support your answer with Scripture.
- Why is the doctrine of election the foundation for the truth of the eternal security of the believer?
- Why is it important for the local church to be multi-racial? What is lost if we build the church around people just like us?
- Why did Jesus emphasize (10:17, 18) that His death was voluntary? What applications does this have for us?
Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2014, All Rights Reserved.
Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation
Lesson 57: Secure Forever (John 10:22-30)Related Media
June 1, 2014
All people, but especially children, have the basic need of feeling secure and loved. Kids need to grow up in a family where the parents love one another and where the children feel safe and are assured that their parents love them no matter what they do. If the parents threaten to withhold their love as punishment for disobedience, the children will not feel secure and will strive to earn their parents’ love. That’s always tragic!
The same thing is true spiritually. God wants His spiritual children to know that He loves and accepts them through the death of Jesus Christ on their behalf, not because of their performance. He wants us to know that we are eternally secure in our salvation even when we fail and sin. As a loving Father, He will discipline us for our good, so that we may share His holiness (Heb. 12:10). But He will not withdraw His love or cast us off as His children. It’s important for our spiritual growth that we know and feel that our salvation is secure forever.
So it’s sad that many teach that Christians can lose their salvation if they sin. Granted, there are some difficult texts in the New Testament that seem to teach that, such as the warning passages in Hebrews (see my Hebrews sermons). But it’s much easier to explain those texts from the foundation of texts that give solid assurance of eternal security than vice versa. Concerning our text, A. W. Pink (online at monergism.com) says, “No stronger passage in all the Word of God can be found guaranteeing the absolute security of every child of God.” Our text teaches …
Jesus’ sheep are eternally secure because the Father gave them to Jesus, Jesus gives them eternal life, and both the Father and Jesus keep them.
There is a two or three month gap between the discourse in 10:1-21 and that in our text, although the subject matter ties in with the theme of Jesus as the good shepherd of His sheep. The Feast of Tabernacles, which took place in the fall, was the setting for 7:1-10:21, but now it is winter, when the Feast of Dedication took place. This feast was not prescribed in the Old Testament, but rather it began when the temple was rededicated in 165 B.C., after the Maccabean revolt threw off the rule of the evil Antiochus Epiphanes. It is still celebrated today as Hanukkah.
John, who loves symbolism, may want us to see that Jesus fulfills all that this feast stands for. He is the new temple (2:19). Just as God delivered His people under the Maccabeans, so He delivers His people under Jesus. John’s mention that it was winter may also hint that for the Jewish leaders who were rejecting Jesus as their Messiah, it was spiritually winter.
In this context, as Jesus was walking in the temple, the Jewish leaders circled around Jesus and were saying to Him (10:24), “How long will You keep us in suspense? If You are the Christ, tell us plainly.” From Jesus’ reply we learn the first basis of our security as Jesus’ sheep:
1. Jesus’ sheep are secure because the Father gave them to Jesus.
At first you might wonder if the Jews’ request was sincere, but I don’t believe that it was. They were not coming to Jesus with the attitude, “We’re willing to bow before You as our Messiah, but could You just clear up a few questions?” Rather, they were blaming Jesus for their unbelief, saying in effect, “If You would just make Yourself clear, maybe we would believe in You. It’s Your fault that we don’t believe in You.”
Jesus, who knew the hearts of all people (2:24-25), knew that these men were not seeking answers to legitimate questions. So He replied (10:25-26), “I told you, and you do not believe; the works that I do in My Father’s name, these testify of Me. But you do not believe because you are not of My sheep.”
When had Jesus told them that He was the Messiah? The only time that He had clearly stated that was to was the Samaritan woman by the well (4:26). Because the Jewish leaders had a political idea of the Messiah as one who would free them from Rome, Jesus had not told them directly that He was the Messiah because they would have misunderstood.
But if they only had ears to hear, they could have recognized who Jesus was through John the Baptist’s testimony about Jesus as the Lamb of God and the Son of God (1:29-34). They could have heard it in Jesus’ astounding words in 5:19-47, where He claimed to have equal honor with the Father and to be able to give life to whomever He wished. He claimed that the Scriptures testified about Him and that if they came to Him, He would give them life (5:39-40). They should have heard it in Jesus’ claim to be the bread of life and in His promise to raise up all whom the Father had given Him on the last day (6:35, 39). They should have heard it in Jesus’ claim to be able to satisfy the thirst of all who believed in Him (7:37-38) and in His claim to be the Light of the world (8:12). They especially should have heard it in His claim (8:58), “Before Abraham was born, I am.”
They not only had Jesus’ words, but also His works that He did in the Father’s name (10:25). The Jewish leaders had seen and heard about many healings, including the lame man by the Pool of Bethesda (5:2-16) and the man born blind (9:1-34). He had miraculously turned the water into wine (2:1-11) and fed the 5,000 (6:1-14). But none of this resulted in their believing. Rather, they were becoming increasingly hardened in their rejection of Jesus to the point that when He raised Lazarus from the dead (11:1-53), they were even more determined to kill Jesus.
So, why, in spite of all this evidence, were the Jewish leaders so adamantly opposed to Jesus as their Messiah? Jesus tells them (10:26), “But you do not believe because you are not of My sheep.” He did not say (as we might have expected), “You are not of My sheep because you do not believe.” Rather, He plainly tells these unbelieving Jews, “You do not believe because you are not of My sheep.” He was emphasizing their inability to believe.
We saw the same thing back in 6:43-44, where speaking to His unbelieving opponents Jesus said, “Do not grumble among yourselves. No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up on the last day.” In case they didn’t get it, He repeated (6:65), “For this reason I have said to you, that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted him from the Father.” We saw it again (8:43), “Why do you not understand what I am saying? It is because you cannot hear My word.” He further explained (8:47), “He who is of God hears the words of God; for this reason you do not hear them, because you are not of God.”
In each case, Jesus emphasized to unbelievers their inability to believe in Him. Why would He do that? As I explained when we studied 6:44, the main reason that Jesus told these unbelieving Jews that they lacked the ability to come to Him is that skeptics need to be stripped of their proud self-confidence. Skeptics are proud of their knowledge and mental abilities. They even think that they have the ability to believe when they choose: “Just tell us plainly if you’re the Messiah, Jesus, and then we’ll believe!” But if a skeptic were able to come to Christ through his intellect or by deciding to believe of his own free will, he would come in pride, which is opposed to gospel repentance. And so Jesus tells them again (10:26), “You do not believe because you are not of My sheep.”
You may be thinking, “Well, if unbelievers are not capable of believing and if God has not given them the ability to believe, then He can’t hold them responsible for their unbelief, can He?” Yes, He can! As D. A. Carson puts it (The Gospel According to John [Eerdmans/Apollos], p. 393), “That they are not Jesus’ sheep does not excuse them; it indicts them.”
R. C. Sproul (Chosen by God [Tyndale], pp. 97-98) gives a helpful illustration of why God can hold unbelievers accountable for their unbelief, even though they are incapable of believing. He pictures God saying to a man, “I want you to trim these bushes by 3 p.m. But be careful. There’s a large pit at the edge of the garden. If you fall into the pit, you won’t be able to get yourself out. So stay away from the pit.” As soon as God leaves the garden, the man runs over and jumps into the pit. At 3 p.m. God returns and finds the bushes untrimmed. He goes over to the pit and sees the man at the bottom. He can’t get out. God says to the man, “Why haven’t you trimmed the bushes?” The man replies angrily, “How do you expect me to trim these bushes when I’m trapped in this pit? If you hadn’t left this pit here, I wouldn’t be in this predicament!”
Sproul explains that Adam jumped into the pit and in Adam, we all jumped in with him. God imputed Adam’s sin to the entire human race. We’re helplessly incapacitated by our sin, but at the same time God holds us responsible to repent and believe.
Twice in these verses (10:25, 26) Jesus confronts the unbelief of these Jewish religious leaders. But at the same time, He tells them that the reason they don’t believe is that they were not of His sheep. In 10:29, He says that His Father gave the sheep to Him. He said the same thing in 6:37: “All that the Father gives Me will come to Me….” It’s in 6:39: “This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day.” In His high priestly prayer, Jesus repeatedly refers to those whom the Father gave Him (17:2, 6, 9, 24; also, 18:9).
So the point for us is that as Jesus’ sheep, we are secure because the Father gave us to Jesus before the foundation of the world. Our salvation is not our doing. We are not Jesus’ sheep because we decided to believe. We decided to believe because we were Jesus’ sheep. As the apostle Paul wrote (Eph. 1:4-5):
Just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him. In love He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will.
That’s the basis of our security: Our salvation, including our faith, is totally from God. We didn’t help Him out in the process!
2. Jesus’ sheep are secure because He gives eternal life to them.
Consider two things:
A. Eternal life is a gift that Jesus gives to His sheep.
John 10:28a: “And I give eternal life to them ….” First, note that this is a claim to deity. No one but God can give eternal life to anyone else. Also, the fact that it is a gift shows that it was not merited or earned. It’s an undeserved gift, not a wage in payment for good works (Rom. 4:4-5; Eph. 2:8-9). Because of our sins, we deserved His wrath, but He gave us eternal life. So, it’s important to answer the question, “How can we know if we have received this gift of eternal life?”
B. You can know that you have the gift of eternal life if you believe in Jesus as your Savior, you hear His voice, He knows you, and you follow Him as your shepherd.
Ask yourself three questions:
1) Do I believe in Jesus? Jesus’ sheep believe in Him.
I am inferring this from Jesus’ indictment of these Jewish leaders (10:26), “But you do not believe because you are not of My sheep.” The implication is that His sheep do believe in Him. To believe in Jesus means more than intellectually believing that He is who He claimed to be. The demons believe in Jesus in that sense, but they are not saved. To believe in Jesus means to commit your eternal destiny to what He did for you on the cross. Rather than trusting in your own good works (as these Pharisees were doing), you must see yourself as a guilty sinner and trust that Jesus’ death paid the penalty for your sins that you deserved.
2) Do I hear Jesus’ voice? Jesus’ sheep hear His voice.
John 10:27: “My sheep hear My voice ….” Jesus was not referring to hearing an audible voice or to a mystical inner “voice.” He meant that the testimony by Him and about Him in the Bible rings true in your heart. When you read what the Word testifies about Jesus, you say, “Yes!” It means hearing in the sense of obeying. You desire to please the shepherd who gave His life to make you His sheep. You don’t just say, “Lord, Lord,” and then keep doing your own thing. You become obedient from the heart to His teaching (Rom. 6:17).
3) Does Jesus know me and do I follow Him? Jesus knows His sheep and they follow Him.
John 10:27: “I know them, and they follow Me.” As God, Jesus knows everyone, of course. But this refers to an intimate knowledge, to a personal relationship (see Matt. 7:23; 2 Tim. 2:19; Ps. 1:6; Exod. 33:12, 17; Amos 3:2). We saw this in 10:3, where Jesus says that the shepherd calls his own sheep by name. He repeated (10:14), “I am the good shepherd, and I know My own and My own know Me.” Because the sheep are known by the shepherd and they know Him, they trust Him and follow Him wherever He leads.
So, do you have a close personal relationship with Jesus? Does He know you and do you seek to know Him better? Do you obey His Word? You can know that Jesus has given you eternal life if you have received it as a gift through faith in Him and if you obey His voice, have a relationship with Him, and follow Him.
So Jesus’ sheep are eternally secure because the Father gave them to Jesus and He gives them eternal life.
3. Jesus’ sheep are eternally secure because both the Father and Jesus keep them.
Note four things here:
A. By definition, eternal life is eternal.
Eternal life by its very description is not temporary life—it is eternal life. Jesus indicated that there are two and only two eternal destinies (Matt. 25:46): “These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” If it is eternal life and if God gave it to us and Jesus says that we will never perish, then it is eternal life. If you could lose it, it wouldn’t be eternal.
B. Jesus promises to keep His sheep.
John 10:28: “I give eternal life to them, and they will never perish; and no one will snatch them out of My hand.” If Jesus’ sheep could perish, it would mean that He failed in His mission not to lose any of those the Father gave to Him (6:37-40). Jesus indicates that some thieves and robbers will try to snatch sheep out of His hand. But as the omnipotent Savior, Jesus prevails. To use another biblical analogy, we are members of Christ’s body. No one is able to cut off a member of Christ’s body. Or, He has caused us to be born again. We can’t get unborn!
No doubt all of us know people who seemed to be Jesus’ sheep, but they fell away. In some cases, they now deny the Savior that they once professed to believe in. You may wonder, “Are they saved?” Only God knows their hearts, but we can know this: If they truly possess eternal life, they will be miserable in their sin and unbelief. If they can be comfortable in sin and be indifferent about denying Christ, they do not give evidence of being His sheep. We should not give assurance of salvation to people in that condition. If they’re miserable, then urge them to repent and receive God’s forgiveness. The minute they do, they can be assured that they are Christ’s sheep and that He will keep them unto eternity.
C. Jesus promises that the Father also will keep His sheep.
John 10:29: “My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand.” Jesus’ sheep have double protection: Jesus has them in His hand and the Father has His hand around Jesus’ hand. So a thief would have to get through these two omnipotent layers of protection to steal Jesus’ sheep.
Some argue that a believer can remove himself from Jesus’ or the Father’s hand. But that subverts Jesus’ promise here, “They will never perish.” Surely He knew that our greatest enemy is ourselves. If believers could lose their salvation by sinning, then every believer who has ever lived would be lost, because we all have sinned after coming to faith in Christ. That would leave a gaping hole in the promise of salvation. Rather, Jesus’ point here is that if the Father gave us to Jesus before the foundation of the world and Jesus gave eternal life to us as a free gift, apart from anything in us, and if He and the Father promise to keep us from every enemy, then our salvation is secure. It doesn’t depend on our performance, but rather on His promise and on His and the Father’s power.
When Jesus says, “The Father is greater than all,” He means that there is no power in the universe more powerful than the Father, including our stubborn flesh. Satan and his demonic forces are powerful, but they are no match for the Father. Jesus was not denying His own deity by stating that the Father is greater than all. There is a hierarchy in the trinity, where the Father commands, the Son obeys (10:18), and the Holy Spirit carries out the divine plan (16:13-15). But Jesus’ point is that His sheep are secure because both He and the Father keep them.
D. Jesus asserts that He and the Father are one.
John 10:30: “I and the Father are one.” Some commentators (including even Calvin!) say that Jesus only means that He and the Father are united in their resolve to keep all the sheep. But that view doesn’t take into account the Jews’ reaction (10:31-33) of trying to stone Jesus because, as they charge (10:33), “You, being a man, make Yourself out to be God.” They got the point: Jesus was claiming to be one with the Father in His divine essence. As John began (1:1), “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” This strengthens the last point, namely, that if both the Father and the Son promise to keep Jesus’ sheep, then our salvation is eternally secure.
So here’s the deal: If your salvation was based on anything in you, then you can undo it. If you sin or lose your faith, you lose your salvation. But if your salvation rests on the fact that the Father gave you to Jesus before the foundation of the world, and that Jesus freely gave you eternal life apart from anything that you can do, and if Jesus and the Father are guarding you and promise that you never will perish, then your salvation is secure forever.
Some say that if we are eternally secure, it will result in Christians living in sin. C. H. Spurgeon (Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit [Pilgrim Publications], 35:695-696) replies to that charge:
Shall I come … to your house, and tell your children that, if they do wrong, you will cut their heads off; or that, if they disobey you, they will cease to be your children? If I were to propound that doctrine, your children would grow angry at such a slander upon their father. They would say, “No, we know better than that!” Far rather would I say to them, “My dear children, your father loves you; he will love you without end, therefore do not grieve him.” Under such doctrine true children will say, “We love our ever-loving father. We will not disobey him. We will endeavor to walk in his ways.”
Understanding the biblical doctrine of eternal security will lead to a holy life. Stand firm in it!
- Some argue that all people have the ability to believe in Christ by their own free will. What Scriptures refute this? Why is it important to refute it?
- If unbelievers can’t believe by their free will, should we appeal to them to believe? Is this contradictory? Why/why not?
- When is it right and when is it wrong to give assurance of salvation to a believer who has sinned badly?
- Some argue that a person can believe, then later become an atheist and deny Christ, yet still be saved. He just loses rewards. What Scriptures refute this?
Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2014, All Reserved.
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