A New Apologetic (1 Peter 2:11-12)Related Media
Merriam-Webster defines apologetics as "a systematic argumentative discourse in defense of a doctrine."
The Apostle Peter wrote to several congregations in need of an apologetic-a defense of their Christian faith-that they could share with their pagan neighbors. They were living in a culture that viewed Christianity as odd at best, dangerous as worst…maybe not unlike our culture today.
But Peter did not instruct them on how to debate or argue Christianity. His instruction to those early believers was to adopt an unusual attitude and a particular lifestyle.
Perhaps Peter's apologetic might work still work for us nearly two thousand years later…
4. God Conquers Odds (Judges 4:1-24, Deborah)Related Media
Judges: A Drifting People, A Delivering God (part four)
Israel found herself against overwhelming odds when she faced the army of King Jabin of Canaan in the Jezreel Valley. At the Lord's permission, King Jabin had subdued Israel in the Promised Land for twenty years. His army's strength rested in their technology. They boasted nine hundred iron chariots, representing cutting-edge military technology. They were fast, durable, and heavy. Against such great odds God was pleased to deliver the Israelites when they called out to Him. Our God sometimes allows us to paint ourselves into a corner so that He can come to our rescue. And the odds are ever in His favor.
කිතුණු ඇදහිල්ලේ මුලධර්ම-5 පාපය හා ගැළවීමRelated Media
“ගැළවීම යනු යේසුස් ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ තුල පෞද්ගලික ඇදහිල්ල තුලින් සහ පාප සදහාවු උන්වහන්සේගේ ජීවිත පුජාව තුලින් මනුෂ්යයා දෙවියන්වහන්සේගෙන් ලබන ත්යාගයකි. අප විශ්වාස කරන්නේ මනුෂ්යයා නිවැරදිකරුවෙකු කරන්නේ ක්රියා වලින් නොව, ඇදහිල්ල තුලින් වු අනුග්රයෙන්ය බවය. (ක්රියා13:38-39 , රෝම6:23, එපීස2:8-10). වරක් ගැළවීම ලැබු සියලුම සැබෑ ඇදහිලිවන්තයෝ, ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ තුල සදාතනිකව සුරක්ෂිත වන බව අප විශ්වාස කරනවා. ( රෝම8:1, 38-39; යොහාන්10:27-30).”
ගැළවීම යනු සීමිත මනසින් සම්පුර්ණයෙන් වටහාගැනීමට නොහැකි, බොහෝ ගැඹුරු සංකල්ප වටකර ගන්නා සරල වචනයකි. ගැළවීම යනු නිකම්ම අපායෙන් නිදහසේ බේරීමක්ද? එය ජීවිත රක්ෂණ ඔප්පුවක්ද? එය ආදම් සහ ඒව උන්වහන්සේට අකීකරුවු විට දෙවියන්වහන්සේට සිතාගැනීමට සිදුවු යම් දෙයක්ද? නැත, උන්වහන්සේගේ සර්වඥතාවය නිසා, මනුෂ්ය වර්ගයාට එය තදබල ලෙසඅවශ්ය වන බව උන්වහන්සේ ලෝකයේ අත්තිවාරමටත් පෙර සිට දැනසිටි නිසා බව ශුද්ධලියවිල්ල අපට උගන්වයි.
අප “මැවිල්ල හා වැටීම” ගැන අධ්යයනය කරන විට(3වෙනි පාඩම), ආදම් හා ඒව දෙවියන්වහන්සේට අකීකරුවී සාතන්ට කීකරු වීම නිසා ඔවුන් ස්වභාවයෙන්ම පව්කරුවන් බවට පත්වී එහි විපාක මුළු මනුෂ්ය වර්ගයාට බලපෑවේය.
1. ආත්මික මරණය- දෙවියන්වහන්සේගෙන් වෙන්වීම. ( ඔවුන් සැඟවී භය වුනා.)
2. ශාරීරික මරණය
3. පාපී ස්වභාවය ඔවුන්ගෙන් පැවත එන සියල්ලන්ට උරුමවීම
මනුෂ්යයාගේ ස්වභාවය දූෂණය වුනා, නැතහොත් කෙලෙසුනා:
බුද්ධිය: 2කොරින්ති4:4, රෝම1:28
මුළු කෙලෙසීම යනු පාපයේ දූෂිතකම සියලු මිනිසුන්ටත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ ඇස් හමුවේ ස්වභාවික මිනිසාට කිසිවක් දිය නොහැකි පරිදි පාපය සියලු කොටස් වලට පැතිර ගොස් ඇත.- චාර්ල්ස් රයිරි
පොරොන්දු හා පින්තූර
පරණ ගිවිසුමේ වටකරනු ලබන සියලු ශත වර්ෂ සඳහා දෙවියන්වහන්සේ දිනක අපගේ ගැළවීම ප්රදානය කරන ගැළවුම්කරුවෙකුගේ පොරොන්දු හා පින්තූර දෙවියන්වහන්සේ දුන්සේක. පළමු පොරොන්දුව වුයේ සාතන් තුවාල කරන්නට ඇති, නමුත් සාතන් මරණීය ලෙස පොඩි කළ ස්ත්රිගේ බීජය(උත්පත්ති3:15). ඉන්පසු උන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට ගැළවුම්කාරයාණන් කුමක් කරයිද යන්නෙහි පින්තූරය දුන් සේක. (උත්පත්ති3:21): පරණ ගිවිසුමෙහි පුජාවක් ලෙස දෙනු ලැබු සෑම සතෙක්ම යේසුස්ක්රිතුස්වහන්සේට යොමු කර ඇත. සෑම පුජාසනයක්ම යොමු කරනු ලැබ ඇත්තේ කුරුසියටය.
ක්රිතුස්වහන්සේ තුල ඉෂ්ඨවීම
යේසුස් ක්රිතුස්වහන්සේ, දිව්ය -මිනිසා, උන්වහන්සේට පාපයෙන් තොර ජීවිතයක් ගත කර, සියලු මිනිසුන්ගේ පාප වෙනුවෙන් රුධිරය වගුරුවා, මරණින් නැවත නැගිට, අපේ මැදිහත්කරු වීමට ආපසු ස්වර්ගයට යාමට හැකි වන පරිදි මනුෂ් මාංශය තුල ඇඳගත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේය.
ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණයෙහි ඉෂ්ඨ සිද්ධවීම්
ක්රිස්වහන්සේගේ මරණයෙහි මධ්යම අර්ථය ආදේශයයි.
විරුද්ධාර්ථයෙන්: “ස්ථානයෙහි” (මතෙව් 10:28, මාර්ක්10:45).
හ්යුපර් යන ග්රීක් වචනයෙන් කියන්නේ “සුභසෙත උදෙසා ” යන්නය, හෝ යන ග්රීක් වචනයෙන් කියන්නේ “තැන වෙනුවට ” යන අර්ථයකි.
(2කොරින්ති5:21, 1පේත්රැස්3:18). යේසුස්වහන්සේ අප වෙනුවට මැරුණ ආදේශකයාණන්ය. උන්වහන්සේ කුරුසියෙහි එල්ලන්නේ අපේ නියෝජිතයා හැටියටය.
දෙවියන්වහන්සේ උන්වහන්සේගේම අසීමිත ප්රේමයේ ධාරිතාවයෙන් ලෝකයට ප්රදානය කරන සේක. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අප උන්වහන්සේට එක්සත් වන ලෙස උන්වහන්සේගේ සත්වයන්ට බොහෝ ප්රේම කරන සේක. උන්වහන්සේ අප මැව්වේ උන්වහන්සේ සමග සහභාගිකමෙන් ජීවත් වීමටය. නමුත් මනුෂ්යයාගේ පාපය නිසා එම සහභාගිත්වය ඇතිකර ගැනීමට නුපුළුවන. දඬුවම වන්නේ ආත්මික හා ශාරීරික මරණයයි. දඬුවම නියම කරන විනිෂ්චයකාරයා දෙවියන්වහන්සේය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ ශුද්ධකමට පුර්ණ සාධාරණත්වයේ කිසි අඩුවක් නැතිව සමථයකට පත් කිරීමට පුළුවන්කමක් ඇත. මෙම දඬුවම ක්රියාත්මක වීමෙන් බේරීමට මරණයට නියමව ඇති මනුෂ්යයාට, ඔහු විසින්ම පැහැදිලිවම කළහැකි කිසිවක් නැත. එබැවින් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ, උන්වහන්සේ ප්රේම කරන පුරුෂයින් සහ ස්ත්රීන් උදෙසා දඬුවම ගැනීමට උන්වහන්සේම පැමිණි සේක. යේසුස් ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ අපේ පාප උදෙසා, සහ අපේ ශුභ සිද්ධිය උදෙසා අප වෙනුවෙන් මැරීමට ස්වේචිජාවෙන්ම පැමිණි සේක. උන්වහන්සේ ආත්මික හා ශාරීරික මරණය යන දෙකම සඳහා සම්පුර්ණ දඬුවම ගත්සේක.
උන්වහන්සේ පරිපුර්ණ ආදේශකයා වුයේ ඇයි?
මනුෂ්යයයා- සතුන්ට නැති, නමුත් එම වටිනාකමම ඇති මනුෂ්යෙයකු සඳහා මැරෙන්නට පුළුවන්.
පපය නැති- පව්කාරයන්ට තමාගේම නොවන පාප උදෙසා මැරෙන්නට පුළුවන්.
අසීමිත දෙවියන්වහන්සේ- අසීමිත පාප ගණනක් උදෙසා මැරෙන්නට පුළුවන්.
එය ඔබටත් මටත් කියන්නේ කුමක්ද? මම ඩොලර් ලක්ෂයක් ණය වී එය ගෙවීමට කිසිම සම්පතක් නැතිව සිටියා නම්, සහ වෙනත් කෙනෙක් මගේ ණය ගෙව්වා නම් මට තවදුරටත් එය ගෙවීමට නැත. එය තවදුරටත් මට එරෙහිව නැත. යේසුස්වහන්සේ මගේ පාප උදෙසා දඬුවම ගෙවා ඇති නිසා මට තවත් එම දඬුවම ගෙවීමක් නැත. - මම උන්වහන්සේ මගේ ආදේශකයා ලෙස පිළිගෙන, දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අනුග්රහය තුලට යාමට මගේම මාර්ගය සලසාගැනීමට යමක් කිරීමේ අදහස අත්හැර දමන්නේනම්.
Agorazo: යම් දෙයක් මිලට ගැනීම හෝ යම් දෙයක් සඳහා මිලක් ගෙවීම.
අපට මිදීමට හැකි වන ලෙස අපේ පාපය ඉල්ලා සිටින, මිල ගෙවීම ( 2පේත්රැස්2:1 බොරු ගුරුවරු; 1කොරින්ති6:20,7:23; එළිදරව්5:9).
Exagorazo: වෙළඳ පලට පිටතින් මිලදී ගැනීම.
ගලාති3:13,4:5: ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණය පාපවල මිල පමණක් නොව, පාපයේ අපට සම්පුර්ණ සහතිකවීම දෙන ලෙස, නැවත අප පාපයේ බැම්මට නොයන ලෙස පාපයේ වෙළඳපලෙන් අප ඉවත් කරගන්නවාද ඇත. අප කිසිවිටෙක නැවතත් පාපයට වහලෙක්සේ විකිනීමක් නොකෙරෙනවා ඇත.
Lutroo: නිදහස්වීමට මුදා හැරීම.
තීතස්2:14, 1පේත්රැස්1:18: සම්පුර්ණ හැඟීමක් ලෙස, වන්දියක් ලැබීම තුල නිදහස් කිරීමක්. මීදීමේ මතය යනු ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ ලේ වැගිරවීම නිසා, අදහන්නන් මිලදී ගෙන, බැඳීමෙන් ඉවත් කර, නිදහස් කර ඇත. මෙය අද ඔබටත් මටත් කියන්නේ කුමක්ද? ඔබත් මමත් අතීතයෙන්, අපේ පරණ ස්වාමියා වන යක්ෂයාට ඇති බැඳීමෙන්, අපේ පරණ පාපිෂ්ඨ හැසිරීම් රටා වලින්, නිදහස් කර ඇත.
වහල් වෙලඳපලෙන් අපේ සදාතනික නිදහස්වීම මිලදී ගැනීමට මිලය ගෙවා ඇත, අප සිටි ලෙසට නැවත කිසිවිටෙක පත්වන්නේ නැත. මෙම නිදහස ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ තුල මගේ උරුමයයි.
සමගිවීම යනු සතුරු භාවයෙන් මිත්රත්වයට වෙනස්වීමයි. ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණය මගින් සමගි කිරීම යනු මනුෂ්යයා දෙවියන්ගෙන් දුරස්ථව සිටීමේ තත්වය දැන් ඔහුට ගැළවීමට හැකිවන පරිදි වෙනස්වී ඇත. (2කොරින්ති5:19-21). අපගේ සමගි වීමෙහි පදනම වනුයේ ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණයයි(රෝම5:10-11). අප පෙන්වාදිය යුත්තේ වෙනස්වන්නේ දෙවියන්වහන්සේ පමණක් බවය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ කිසිවිටෙක වෙනස් වන්නේ නැත.
මෙය අද අපට කියන්නේ කුමක්ද? දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපගේ සතුරා නොවේය. අප නැවත ප්රතිපාක්ෂික බවට පත්වනතුරු බලා සිටිනවා යයි අප උන්වහන්සේ ගැන නොසිතිය යුතුය. උන්වහන්සේ අපේ මිත්රයාය. අප විසින් එම මිත්රත්වය විශ්වාස කිරීම උන්වහන්සේට වුවමනාය. යේසුස් ක්රිතුස්වහන්සේ කෙරෙහි අදහාගෙන සිටින අප වෙතින් උන්වහන්සේ කිසිවිටෙක ඉවත හැරෙන්නේ නැත.
මෙම වචනය කිංග් ජේම්ස් අනුවාදයෙහි තුන්වරක් දක්නට ලැබෙනවා: රෝම3:25, 1යොහාන්2:2,4:10. එයක්රියා පදයක් ලෙසද පෙනෙන්නට ඇත. NIV පරිවර්ථනයෙහි “ආලේපනය ලැබීම යයිද යොදා ඇත.”
පාද සටහන වඩාත් හොඳය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ උදහසින් ඉවත හැරෙන තැනැත්තා
එය හෙබ්රෙව්2:17 සහ ලුක් 18:13 හි ක්රියාපද ලෙස හමුවේ.
ග්රීක් බයිබලයේ පරණ ගිවිසුමෙහි කරුණාවේ ආසනය යන්න පරිවර්ථනය කිරීමට යොදාගෙන ඇති ග්රීක් වචනය Hilasterion . ගිවිසුමේ පුජාසනයෙහි වැස්ම තනි රත්තරන් විය. එය මත චෙරුබියම් දෙදෙනෙක් මුහුණට මුහුණ ලා සිට එය බලාගත්තෝය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ තේජස පුජාසනය මත විය. අලේප දිනයේදී උත්තම පුජකයා මනුෂ්යයින්ගේ පාප උදෙසා වැස්ම මත ලේ ඉස්සේය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ලේ දුටු විට, උන්වහන්සේට විනිෂ්චය වෙනුවට කරැණාව දීමට හැකි වන්නට ඇත. උන්වහන්සේගේ විනිෂ්චය තෘප්තිමත් වුයේය. අනුග්රහය ලැබීම වනාහි දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සංසිඳීම නොහොත් තෘප්තිමත්වීමය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේට සංසිඳීමට අවශ්ය වුයේ ඇයි? දෙවින්වහන්සේ මනුෂ්යයින් ගේ පාපය නිසා ඔවුන් සමග උදහස්වු සේක. ( රෝම1:18, එපීස5:6) ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ ලේ වැගිරීම මගින් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සංසිඳවීය.(රෝම3:25), උන්වහන්සේගේ උදහස ඉවතට හරවා, උන්වහන්සේ තෘප්තිමත් කළ කෙනා කෙරෙහි අදහාගන්නා අය උන්වහන්සේගේ පවුල තුලට ගැනීමට පුළුවන්කම ඇති කළේය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ හා මනුෂ්යයා අතර පාප ගොඩනගා තිබු බාධකය කඩා වැටුනේය. අනුග්රහය ලබාදීම මුළු ලෝකයේ පාපය කරණකොටගෙනය. (1යොහාන්2:2 එය කීමට දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අනුග්රහය ලබාදීමට තෘප්තිමත්වු සේක.
එය අද ඔබටත් මටත් කියන්නේ කුමක්ද? අප කර ඇති නරක දේවල් හරිගස්සා ගැනීමට අප සිතාගත යුතු නැත. යහපත් වැඩ කිරීමට අප උනන්දුවීමවත් මුදල්හෝ ස්වයං කැපවීම දීම වත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සංසිඳීමට හේතුවන්නේ නැහැ. නමුත් අපගේ හදවත් කෘතඥතාවයෙන් පිරීම නිසාය. යේසුස් ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ පුජාවීම සමග දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සම්පුර්ණයෙන්ම තෘප්තිමත් වන සේක.
ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කරවීම- පාපයේ දඬුවමින් ගැළවීම
ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කරවීම: සියල්ල උදෙසා ක්රියාව
රෝම3:26, 5:1: මෙය වරද නැති බවට නීතිමය තීන්දුවකි. අනාගත වරදට පත්කිරීමේ පුළුවන්කමක් නැත. (රෝම8:1). එය පළමු භාගයයි. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ ධර්මිෂ්ඨකමින් අපට බැර කරන සේක. උන්වහන්සේ අපට ධර්මිෂ්ඨ වීමට ප්රකාශ කරන සේක. ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ පරිපුර්ණ ජීවිතය සහ පුජාවීමේ මරණය ඇදහිල්ලෙන් පමණක් ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කරවීමේ පදනමයි. සියල්ල ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ බව අප විශ්වාස කරන විට, දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපේ ගිනුමට දමා; අප නිදහස් කරනු ලබයි. අප ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කරනු ලබන්නේ අපේ ඇදහිල්ලේ ගිනුම මත නොව, එනම් ඇදහිල්ල කුසල් සහිත වැඩක් නොව, ඇදහිල්ල ගැළවුම්කාරයාණන් පිළිගන්නා හිස් අතකි.
අප ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කරනු ලැබු මිනිසුන් බව තේරුම්ගැනීම එතරම් වැදගත් වන්නේ ඇයි? අපට නැවත පව් කළහැකි බවක් මින් කියවෙන්නේ නැත. අප පවි කරනවා, මේ පොළොවේදී ඒවායේ ඵල විපාක විඳිනවා. නමුත් සදාකාලික ලෙස වරදට පත්කිරීමක් නැත. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සමග අපගේ ඇති සම්බන්ධතාවය තුල මෙය අපට විශ්වාසයක් ගෙන දිය යුතුය. උන්වහන්සේටබොරු කීමට බැරිය. උන්වහන්සේ තුල “වරද නැත,” සහ “වරදට පත්කිරීමක් නැත” යයි කියන විට උන්වහන්සේ කියන්නේ සත්ත්යය, අපට උන්වහන්සේගේ පොරොන්දු මත රැඳී සිටීමට පුළුවන.
පැමිණිලිකාරයාගේ ඝර්ජනය මට ඇසෙනවා.
ඒ සියල්ලත් තව දහසකුත් මම දන්නවා.
යෙහෝවා කිසිවක් සොයාගත්තේ නැහැ!
පවිත්ර කිරීම-- පාපයේ බලයෙන් ගැළවීම
පවිත්රකිරීම: අඛන්ඩ ක්රියාවලිය
1තෙසලෝනික4:3, 1පේත්රැස් 1:16:
ස්ථානීය: ඇදහිලිවන්තයා දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ පවුලේ ස්ථානයෙන් වෙන්වීම.
අත්දැකීමෙන්: අපේ දිනපතා ජීවිතය තුල වැඩි වැඩියෙන් වෙන්වීම(1පේත්රැස් 1:16)
අප දැන් ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන් විසින් පාලනය කරනු ලබන බව වටහාගන්නවා නම් අප තවදුරටත් වහල් බවට පත් කරගන්නේ නැත. උන්වහන්සේ අපේ පරණ පුරුදු රටා වලින් වැඩි වැඩියෙන් අප නිදහස් කරනවා. උන්වහන්සේගේ පාලනයෙහි ඵල ලෙස පරික්ෂාවට“එපා” යයි කියන්නට උන්වහන්සේ අපට ශක්තිය දෙනවා ඇත. අපේ ගැළවීමට ස්ථර කීයක් තිබෙන බව ඔබට පෙනෙනවාද? උන්වහන්සේ සතුටු කරන ජීවිතයක් ගත කිරීම පුළුවන් කරවීමට දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපට සෑම සම්පතක්ම සලසා දෙන සේක. උන්වහන්සේ සෑම අවිනිෂ්චිත තාවයක්ම ගැන සැලකිල්ල දක්වන සේක. අපේ ජීවිතවල සියලු දවස් වලදී නොකඩවා යේසුස්වහන්සේ මෙන් තව තව වර්ධනය වීමට අපට හැකිය.
මහිමවත් කිරීම-- පාපය පැවතීමෙන් ගැළවීම
මහිමවත් කිරීම: සියල්ල වෙනුවෙන් ක්රියාව
1යොහාන්3:1-3 කොරින්ති15:35-56: ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ මෙන් අපි අපේ නැවත නැගිටීමේ ශරීර ලබනවා ඇත. පාප ස්වභාවයක් නැත. අපට එය මොන වාගේ එකක් වනවා ඇද්දැයි සිතාගැනීම පටන් ගන්නවත් බැරිය. අපට පුළුවන්ද? මේ අපේ අනාගතයයි. අපේ ජීවිතයේ සියලු කනස්සලු, දුක්,වේදනා සදාතනිකය බලන ජනේලයක් තුලින් අප බැලිය යුත්තේ මේ නිසයි. පොළොවේ අවුරුදු 30,40,50,60,70, හෝ 80 සදාකිකයේ ආලෝකය තුල ඉතා කුඩාය. සදාතනිකය සඳහා සුදානම් වීමට දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපට දී ඇති කාලය මෙයයි. මෙහිදී අප ගන්නා තීරණ, තෝරාගැනීම්, හා ප්රමුඛතාවයන් සියල්ල මීට පසු අපේ ජීවිතයට බලපානවා. සදාතනිකය සඳහා සුදානම් වුවත්, අප මේ සියල්ල නැවැත්විය යුතුය. ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ අදහාගෙන ඇති අප ආරක්ෂිත, ප්රේම කරනු ලබන, සහ අපේ ස්වර්ගික උරුමයන් සහතික කරනු ලැබු දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ දරුවෝය.
යලි උත්පාදනය: නැවත උපන්, දෙවියන්වහන්සේගෙන් උපන් ආත්මයාණන්වහන්සේගෙන් උපන්.
යොහාන්3:3,7; 1පේත්රැස්1:3;23, යොහාන්1:13; තීතස්3:5: අප ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ අදහාගන්නා මොහොත, අපට නව ජීවිතයක්, සදාකාලික ජීවිතයක් දෙනු ලබනවා. දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ ජීවනය මනුෂ්යයාගේ ආත්මය තුල කිසිවිටෙක යලි යලි සිදුවීමටවත් අහෝසි වීමටවත් බැරිය. මරණින් ජීවනයට පත්වෙමින් අපට සම්පුර්ණ අළුත් ගුණාංග හා ජීවත්වීමේ අරමුණු දෙනු ලබනවා. (2කොරින්ති5:15,17).
එපීස1:7,යොහාන්1:29: ක්ෂමාව යනු ලෙවිකතාව16 එළුවා මෙන්ය. ලෙවිකතාව 16 කියවන්න.
දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ ක්ෂමාව අපේ ක්ෂමාව මෙන් නොවේ. අප කිසිවිටෙක උන්වහන්සේ විසින් පිළිගන්නා බවක් දැනෙන හෝ උන්වහන්සේට සේවය කිරීමට නිදහසක් දැනෙන හෝ රපේ හෘද සාක්ෂිය පිට වරද ගැන හෝ පසුගිය පාප ගැන පසුතැවිල්ලක් වීම නොවන බව උන්වහන්සේ දැනසිටි සේක. අපේ පාප ඉවත් කළ යුතුව තිබු බව උන්වහන්සේ දැන සිටි සේක. අපේ දඬුවම උන්වහන්සේ ගනිමින් යේසුස්වහන්සේ පුළුවන්කම ඇතිකළේ එයයි. මෙය සෙත්යය වන්නේ අප ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ විශ්වාස කිරීමට පළමුව කර තිබු පාප සඳහා පමණක් නොව, අද හා හෙට කරන පාප සඳහාත්ය.
අදහන්නාගේ පවිත්ර වීමේ පදනම
අපේ පාවලින් නිරතුරුවම පවිත්රවීමේ පදනම සියල්ල සඳහා එක් වරක් වැගිරෙවු ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ රුධිරයයි.( 1යොහාන්1:7-9). අපේ පවුල් සම්බන්ධතාවය හරියට තබා ඇත්තේ උන්වහන්සේගේ මරණය මගින්ය; අපේ සහභාගිකම යලි පිහිටුවා ඇත්තේ අපේ පාපොච්චාරණය මගින්ය. මෙය අප සඳහා කියන්නේ කුමක්ද? එය කියන්නේ අපේ අතීත පාප කමා කරන ලබන බව හා දැන් පටන් අපට දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සමග කෙටි සම්බන්ධතාවයක් තබා ගැනීමට පුළුවන් බවය. පාපොච්චාරණය යනු අප කියන පාප හා උන්වහන්සේ කියන පාප පිළිබඳ දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සමග එකඟ තාවයකට පැමිණීමය. වැරදිවලට හේතු දැක්වීමට සුදානම්වන්න එපා: මමපොලඹවනු ලැබුවා; මම ඔහුගේ නරක ක්රියා වලට ප්රතිචාර දැක්වුවා විතරයි; මට තිබුනේ නරක වැඩ කරන පවුලක්. මම බොරු කීවා, සොරකම් කළා, මම ඇගේ කිර්තියට රිදවුවා. මම අකරුණාවන්ත වුනා. විශේෂිත වන්න. එවිට දෙවියන්වහන්සේ උන්වහන්සේගේ ධර්මිෂ්ඨකම හා විශ්වාසවන්තකම නිසා සමාව දෙන සේක. විශ්වාසවන්ත වන්නේ උන්වහන්සේ එය කරන බව කී නිසාය. ධර්මිෂ්ඨ වන්නේ දඬුවම උන්වහන්සේගේම පුත්රයා මගින් ගෙවා ඇති නිසාය. එය නැවත ගෙවීමක් ඉල්ලීමකට උන්වහන්සේ ධර්මිෂ්ඨ නොවනවා ඇත. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපේ පාප කමා කරන විට සිදුවන්නේ මෙයයි.
දැක්මෙන් පිට- යෙසායා38:17
මනසින් පිට- යෙරමියා21:34
ළංවීමෙන් පිට- ගීතාවලිය103:12, මීකා7:19
පැවැත්මෙන් පිට- යෙසායා43:25,44:22
ඔබත් මෙමත් මෙය අත්දකින්නේ කොස්ද? අප අපේ පාප පාපොච්චාරණය කරන විට, දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපට සමාවදී අප පවිත්ර කරන සේක, එවිට අපේ කැමැත්තේ
ක්රියාවකින් උන්වනහන්සේගේ සමාව පිළිගන්නේය.
දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අතීතය සඳහා සරල ක්රියාවක් මගින් වරදින් හා ලජ්ජාවෙන් ගළවාගන්නවා මම දැක තිබෙනවා. මෙය වරක්, වෛෂ්යාකම් කළ ස්ත්රිය මගින් පෙන්නුම් කර ඇත.
පාප ස්වභාවය විනිෂ්චය කරනු ලැබේ
රෝම6:1-10,14: මරණය යනු අභාවයක් හෝ නැවතීමක් නොව, වෙන්වීමකි. කිතුණුවෙකු ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ සමග කුරුසිපත්වීම යනු ඔහුගේ ජීවිතය කෙරෙහි වු පාපයේ ආධිපත්යයයෙන් වෙන්වීමයි. පාප ස්වභාවය ක්රියා විරහිත හෝ බල රහිත වෙනවා. නමුත් ක්රියා ස්තුස්වහන්සේ සමග අපේ කුරුසිපත්වීම යනු උන්වහන්සේ සමග නව ජීවිතයකට නැවත නැගිටීමක්ද වනවා ඇත. රෝම6:4: ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණය සහ නැවත නැගිටීමෙහි ඓතිහාසික ක්රියාකාරකම් අප විශ්වාස කරන විට අපේ පුද්ගලික ජීවිතයේ කොටසක් වනවා. අපේ පාප ස්වභාවයේ ක්රෑර පාලකයා ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණය මගින් බලයෙන් පහකර ඇත. දැන් අප දෙවියන්සේ සතුටු වන ජීවිතයක් ගත කිරීමට නිදහස්ය. එය අද අපට කියන්නේ කුමක්ද? අපේ එන්ජිම පාප ස්වභාවයට යා කරන පටිය විසන්ධිකර ඇත. දැන් අපට ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන් වහන්සේගේ පාලනයට භාරදී අප තුල පුරුදු රටාවන් ඇතිකරලීමට උන්වහන්සේට ඉඩ දිය හැක. පැරණි බේරිය නොහැකි පාපයේ- බලය තනණ්හාව, ඊර්ෂ්යාව, දුෂ්චරිතය, ආත්මාර්ථකාමිත්වය, තරහව, අපහාසය, යනකොයි දෙයක්වුවත් අප ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ සමග නව ගුණාත්මක ජීවිතයකටනැගිටුවනු ලැබ ඇති බව වටහාගන්නා විට කඩා දැමිය හැක. අප නව මැවිල්ලකි. (2 කොරින්ති5:17)
කුරුසියට පෙර පාප ඉවත් කිරීමේ පදනම
පරණ ගිවිසුමේ සාන්තුවරයින්ගේ පාප සඳහා කමාවීමේ පදනම වුයේ කුමක්ද? සතුන්ගේ ලේ ආවරණය කළේ පාප පමණය. නමුත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ බැටළුපැටවාණෝ ලෝකයේ පාපය ඉවත් කළේය. කුරුසිය එනතුරු පාපය සමග අවසන් කටයුතු කිරීමක් නොවීය. ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණය සෑම යුගයකම පව්කමාව සඳහා වු පදනමයි; ඇදහිල්ල හැමවිටම මාධ්යයයි. අප නොදන්නා දේ නම් පැරණි ගිවිසුම ඉල්ලා සිටින ඇදහිල්ලේ නියම අඩංගුවයි. නමුත් ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ ලෝකයේ අත්තිවාරමට පෙරසිටම මරාදමන බැටළුපැටවාණන් විය.(1පේත්රැස්1:20) දෙවියන්වහන්සේට කාලයේ බලපෑමක්වත් සීමාවක්වත් නැති බැවින් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ ඇස් හමුවේ එය ඒවන විටත් කර තිබුනේය. පරණ ගිවිසුමේ සාන්තුවරයින්ට අපට ඇති මුළු එළිදරව්ව නොතිබුනත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට කිරීමට කී දේ එසේ කරන්නට ඔවුන් ඇදහිල්ලෙන් ප්රතිචාර දැක්වුවෝය. උන්වහන්සේට අවශ්යවු පිදීම් ඔවුන් ගෙනාවෝය. උන්වහන්සේ දිනක හරිම බැටළුපැටවා සපයා දෙන බව දෙවියන්වහන්සේ දැනසිටි නිසා උන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට සමාව දුන්සේක.
ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ වැඩ සිටීම
අප තුල ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ චරිත ලක්ෂණ ඇතිවීමට ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ සථිරවම වැඩ සිටින සේක. පරීක්ෂාව ජයගැනීමට අපට බලය දීමට. දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය බබලවන්නට, අපට දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ කැමැත්ත තුල මගපෙන්වීමට, අප දේචත්වය අප තුල වැඩ සිටින සේක. (එපීස4:6,ගලාති2:20, 1කොරින්ති6:19, රෝම8:9)
දරු කමට හදාගැනීම
ගලාති4:1-5, රෝම8:14-17: පුත්රයාණන් ස්ථාපනය කිරීම. එම සංස්කෘතිය තුල, පවුල තුලට පුත්රයෙක් බිහි වුනත් නැතත් පවුල තුල වැඩිහිටි සම්බන්ධතාවයක් සමග සියලු වරප්රසාද හා වගකීම් දෙනු ලැබේ.
අප දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ පවුලට උපන් දරුවෝ සහ සියලු වරප්රසාද ඇති දරුකමට හදාගැනීමට ගත් දුවලා හා පුතාලාය. දරුකමට ගැනීම නව තත්වයන් ප්රදානය කරයි.
දරුකමට ගැනීමේ ප්රතිඵල නම් වහල්කමෙන්, භරකාරත්වයෙන් හා මාංශයෙන් ගළවාගැනීම.
මෙය ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ තුල අප සම්පුර්ණවීම ඇතුලත්ය. (කොලොස්සි2:9-10), සෑම ආත්මික ආශිර්වාද හිමිවීම.(එපීස1:3),සහ ස්වර්ග සහතිකවීම(1පේත්රැස්1:3-5).
රෝම10:4, කෙලොස්සි:2:14), නමුත් ධර්මිෂ්ඨ වන පිණිස අප ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කරවීමට හෝ බලවත් කිරීමට නොහැකිය. අප ජීවත්වන්නේ ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ ව්යවස්ථාව යටතේ,(ගලාති6:20), නැතහොත් ආත්මයාණන්වහන්සේගේ ව්යයවස්ථාව යටතේය.(රෝම8:2). සබත හැර පරණ ගිවිසුමේ සියලුම දස පනතේ නියෝග නව ගිවිසුමේද නැවත දැක්වෙනවා.
මෙය අපට කියන්නේ කුමක්ද? දස පනත ලියා ඇත්තේ ගල්ලෑලි මතය. ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ ව්යවස්ථාව ලියා ඇත්තේ අපේ සිත් වලය. අප උන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය අධ්යයනය කරන විට හා උන්වහන්සේගේ ආත්මයාණන්ගේ පෙලඹවීම් වලට කීකරු වන විට, වැඩි වැඩියෙන් අප සංවේදී බවට පත්වෙනවා.
මෙය කර ජීවත් වෙන්නැයි ව්යවස්ථාව නියෝග කරයි.
නමුත් අපට අත්වත් පාවත් දෙන්නේ නැත.
වඩා යහපත් වචන ශුභාරංචිය ගෙන එයි.
එය අපට පියාඹන්න සලස්වයි, අපට අත් තටු දෙයි.
හැමවිටම අප ආපසු ව්යවස්ථාව යටතට ගෙන ඒමටවුවමනාවෙන් පිටත මිනිසුන් සිටිනවා. සමහර දේවල් උපද්රවයක් නැති බව පෙනෙනවා, නමුත් සුක්ෂමව යම් කෙනෙක් අපේ ආත්මිකතාවය මැනීමට, ඌරුමස් නොකාසිටීම, කෝපි නොබී සිටීම වැනි නීති අප මත පටවනවා. අප ප්රෙවේසම් විය යුතුය. මේවායින් සමහර අදහස් පැමිණෙන්නේ වෙනත් ලබ්ධීන්ගෙන්ය,නමුත් සමහර ඒවා පුද්ගලයෙක් කෙතරම් ආත්මිකදැයි මැන බැලීමට අවංක කිතුණුවන් ගෙන්ම පැමිණෙන්නට පුළුවන්. ඔබ ව්යවස්ථාව යටතෙහි තබන්නට කිසිවෙකුට ඉඩ දෙන්න එපා. ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ කීකරුවී එයට කීකරු වෙන්ට බැරි හැම කෙනෙකුගේම දඬුවම ගනිමින්, ව්යවස්ථාව හරියටම සම්පුර්ණ කර තිබෙනවා.
සාතන්ගේ විනිෂ්චය සඳහා පදනම
කොලොස්සි2:15, යොහාන් 12:31, හෙබ්රෙව් 2:14: සාතන්ට විරුද්ධව ඇති සියලුම විනිෂ්චයන් පදනම්ව ඇත්තේ ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ කුරුසියේදී ඔහු පරදා දිනු ජයග්රහණය මතය. ඔහු පරාජයට පත් සතුරෙකි.
මෙය අප සඳහා කියන්නේ කුමක්ද? ගැළවීම ලැබීමට පෙර, අප අයිතිව සිටියේ සාතන්ගේ රාජ්යයටය. අපේ ඇදහිල්ල ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ මත තබන විට, දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපව උන්වහන්සේගේ ප්රේමවන්ත පුත්රයා ගේ රාජ්යය තුලට මාරු කළ සේක. (කොලොස්සි1:13). උන්වහන්සේ උන්වහන්සේගේ ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන් මගින් අප තුල වැඩ සිටීමට පැමිණි සේක. උන්වහන්සේ ලෝකයේ වැඩ සිටිනවාට වඩා අප තුල වැඩ සිටින සේක. සාතන් කේන්ද්ර කරගැනීමට පත්වන්න එපා. ඔබට ඇත්තේ පරාජිත සතුරෙකු බව දැන සිටින්න, ඔබ පරාජිත කිතුණුවෙකු හා ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ සඳහා සාක්ෂි දීමට උදාසීන කෙනෙකු ලෙස කිරීමට ඔබේ ජීවිතයේ පයගසා ඇති තැනින් ඉවතට ගැනීමට ඔහු නිතරම උත්සහා කරයි. ඔහුගේ උපක්රම වලට හසු නොවී, ඒවා හඳුනාගන්න. තවදුරටත් ඔබ ඔහුට අයිති නැත. (1පේත්රැස්5:8).
ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණය එහි වටිනාකම තුල අසීමිතය. එය සියලු මිනිසුන්ට සෑම කාල සඳහාය.
නමුත් එය බලපාන්නේ උන්වහන්සේ තුල අදහාගත් අයට පමණය.
( යොහාන්1:29,3:17; 2කොරින්ති5:19; 1තිමොති4:10; 2පේත්රැස්2:1; 1යොහාන්2:2).
ගැළවීම ලබාගන්නේ කෙසේද?
අපගේ පාප සඳහා ආදේශකයෙක් ලෙස මැරුණු බව ස්වාමීවු යේසුස් ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ අදහාගැනීම මත පමණක් පදනම් වන බව අළුත් ගිවිසුමෙහි දෙසිය වරක් සඳහන් වෙනවා.(යොහාන්3:16,1:12; ක්රියා16:31) ගැළවීම ලබා ගත යුතු නොමිලේ ලැබෙන දීමනාවක්ය. පුද්ගලයෙකු යාඤා කිරීමට පෙර කරුණු අවබෝධ කරගන්වාදැයි සහතික කරගන්න. ආරාධනාවට එකතු වීමේ අනතුරු සාකච්චා කරන්න.
1. ශුද්ධාත්මයාණවහන්සේ අප ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ ශරීරය තුල තබන සේක.- බෞතීස්මය(1කොරින්ති12:13). අපට ඉවත්වීමට යෝජනා නැත.
2. ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ ඇදහිලිවන්තයා මිදීමේ දිනය දක්වා මුද්රා කරයි.(එපීස1:13;4:30;). හිමිකමේ ලකුණ හා අධිකාරිත්වය. ගැළවීම නැතිවීම මිදීමේ දිනයට පෙර මුද්රාව කැඩීම හා සම්බන්ධ වනවා ඇත.
3. ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ අප ගැළවීමේ ඉතිරිය ලබන බව සහතික කරන අත්තිකාරමකි.( 2කොරින්ත5:5, එපීස1:14).
4. යේසුස්වහන්සේගේ පොරොන්දුව (යොහාන්10:28-30).
5. රෝම8:28-39). වඩා ඒත්තුගන්වන හා ඇතුලත්වු
කියවන්න එපීස1:3-14; රෝම8:28-30
1. අපේ ගැළවීම සැලසුම් කළේ කවදාද? ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ අදහාගෙන ඇති අප ගැන දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අරමුණු මොනවාද? ප්රතිඵල කුමක් වේද(6,12,14)?
කියවන්න හෙබ්රෙව්9:22-26-28; 10:11-14
2. අප ආදේශක පුජා කරන්නේ ඇයි? සතුන් පුජාකිරීම ප්රමාණවත් නොවුයේ ඇයි? ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ පුජාවීම අවශ්යය වුයේ ඇයි?
කියවන්න මතෙව්20:28, 26-28; මාර්ක්10:45; 1පේත්රැස්3:18
3. ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ මරණයෙහි මධ්යම අර්ථය කුමක්ද? මෙය ඔබට පුද්ගලිකව කියන්නේ කුමක්දැයි ඔබේ වචන වලින් කෙටියෙන් ලියන්න.
කියවන්න 1කොරින්ති15:1-4, 12-19
4. ශුභාරංචියෙහි සංස්ෂිප්ත අර්ථදැක්වීම කුමක්ද? ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ නැවත නැගිටීම අවශ්ය වුයේ ඇයි?
කියවන්න එපීස1:19-23; හෙබ්රෙව්7:23-27
5. යේසුස්වහන්සේ දැන් කොහේද? අප සඳහා අද උන්වහන්සේගේ ස්වර්ගික මෙහෙවර කුමක්ද?
කියවන්න 1කොරින්ති 6:20;1පේත්රැස්:18-19; ගලාති3:13; තීතස්2:14
6. මෙම පද වල ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ අප උදෙසා ඉෂ්ඨ කළේ මොනවාද? අපේ ජීවිත වලට උන්වහන්සේගේ ප්රයෝජනය කුමක්ද?
7. අප සඳහා වෙනත් ඉෂ්ඨ කළදේ මොනවාද?
කියවන්න කොලොස්සි1:13-14; හෙබ්රෙව්9:14; 1යොහාන්1:7; හෙබ්රෙව්9:14
8. අප සඳහා තවත් ඉෂ්ඨ කළ දේ මොනවාද? ගැළවීම ලැබීමෙන් පසු කරන පාප වලට අපට කමාව ලබාගතහැක්කේ කෙසේද? දෙවියන්වහන්සේට අප කමාව ලැබ ඇති පාප වල වරදෙහි තබාගෙන සිටීමට අවශ්යද? ඇයි? හෝ නැත්තේ ඇයි?
කියවන්න පිලිප්පි3:20;1පේත්රැස්2:5,9; යොහාන්1:12-13; ගලාති4:5; 1පේත්රැස්1:4
9. මෙම ජේදවල හමුවන අපේ ගැළවීම සඳහාවු වෙනත් වරප්රසාද මොනවාද?
10. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සමග ඔබේ ඇති සම්බන්ධතාවය නැතිගැනීමට ඔබට කළ හැක්කේ කුමක්ද? ක්රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ ඔබට කර ඇති සෑම දෙයක්ම නැති කිරීමට හැකි වෙනත් කෙනෙක් සිටිනවාද? මෙයට ඔබට දැක්වීමට ඇති ප්රතිචාරය කුමක්ද? සමාව ලැබෙන බැවින් ඔබට පව් කළාට කමක්නෑ යයි එයින් ඔබට සිතෙනවාද? නැතහොත් ස්වාමීන්වහන්සේට වඩා ගැඹුරින් තව ප්රේම කර වඩා විශ්වාසවන්තව සේවය කිරීමට උනන්දුවක් ඇතිවනවාද?
සම්බන්ධිත මාතෘකා: පාපය, ගැළවීම, විෂය මාලාව
An Introduction To The Book Of RevelationRelated Media
A. Revelation is often described as a “the Revelation of John” meaning the revelation to John1
B. It is actually a revelation of Christ2 (1:1)
C. The English title comes from the Latin revelatio which in its verb form means “to reveal or unveil that which has previously been hidden.” The was the title given to the book in the Latin Vulgate3
D. The Greek title is Αποκαλυψις taken from the first word in the text.
II. AUTHORSHIP: Although there is some debate, the author is probably The Apostle John of the sons of Zebedee
A. External Evidence:
1. There was a unanimous agreement as to the Apostle John as its writer by the early church before Dionysius.4
a. It was affirmed by Justin Martyr
b. It was affirmed by Clement of Alexandria
c. It was affirmed by Hippolytus
d. It was affirmed by Origin
e. It was affirmed by Irenaeus
2. In accordance with the writer’s statement that he was in exile on the isle of Patmos (1:9), the church Fathers identify this John as the Apostle John5
3. In chapters 2--3 the writer seems to be over the churches of the province of Asia and strong tradition places the Apostle John in this position6
4. Style is a major objection to apostolic authorship, however, this can be answered:7
a. The solecisms may be deliberate due to the book’s poetic nature
b. The work reflects a lot of apocalyptic reading behind it
c. If it was written in exile, the tools for a scholarly approach may have been absent
d. There is a mood of emotional excitement which may not have lent itself to polished prose
e. There may have been the help of an amanuensis
f. It is not written as an Apostle, but as a prophet
g. The curious language may be related to the setting forth of divine oracles and visions
B. Internal Evidence:
1. The writer calls himself John (1:4, 9; 22:8)
2. The writer speaks with great authority as a prophet (1:3; 22:6-10, 18-19)
3. The writer demonstrates himself to be a Palestinian Jew steeped in temple and synagogue rituals, the OT and the Targum
4. The writer calls himself John without any further description, therefore, he must have been well known8
5. Many similarities exist between the Apocalypse and other writings of John:
a. Both use the term λογος (Jn 1:1; Rev 19:13)
b. Both use the imagery of “the lamb,” “the water of life,” “he that overcomes,” “keeping the commandments,” and the adjective “true,”
c. There is an invitation to “him that is thirsty (Jn 7:37; Rev 22:17), a commandment received by Christ from the Father (Jn 10:18; Rev 2:27), white clothing for angels, (Jn 20:12f) and the worthy (Rev 3:4)
d. There is the sharp contrast between good and evil9
III. DATE: While it is not possible to be dogmatic, it seems best to place its writing under Domitian (AD 95-96)
A. There are two primary views concerning the time this book was written
1. Early in the seventh decade of the first century during the reign of Nero
2. Late AD 95-96 during the reign of Domitian (AD 81-96). This is probably the better choice:
a. The churches of Asia Minor have a considerable history (2:4; 3:1)
b. The persecution of Domitian was more universal than that of Nero which was centralized in Rome
c. The worship of the ‘beast’ may have been prefigured by Emperor worship which became official policy during Domitian’s reign10
d. Early tradition puts it in Domitian’s reign when Irenaeus says that the Apocalypse, “was seen no such long time ago, but almost in our own generation, at the end of the reign of Domitian”11
e. If Revelation 17:8, 11, concerning the beast has the Nero redivivus myth in mind, then this too would support a Domitian date since it would probably take until the time of Domitian for the myth to fully develop12
IV. PLACE OF WRITING: internally and externally the evidence seems to support Patmos, an island off the coast of Asia Minor not far from Ephesus as the place of writing (Rev 1:9)13
V. THE RECIPIENTS: The seven churches of Asia Minor and the Church today.
A. The immediate destination for the book was the churches of Asia Minor described in chapters 3--4
1. Perhaps these were chosen by the great circular road which linked them
2. Their order is due to their appearance on the road
B. Since this letter is from the Lord of the Church, it has application to all of the Church
VI. INTERPRETATIONS: There are several different schools of thought regarding the interpretation of the book of Revelation:
A. The Preterist school sees the book as having already been fulfilled by AD 312 with the conversion of Constantine
B. The Historical school sees the book as “a panorama of the history of the church from the days of John to the end of the age”14
C. The Idealist school sees the book as a conflict of the age-long principles of good and evil with non historic elements
D. The Futurist school sees the book from chapters four on as proclaiming prophecies yet to be fulfilled--this is the position of this writer
VII. THEME OF THE BOOK:
A. Throughout the book there is a conflict of earthly personalities and people directed and energized by demons and especially Satan in order to overthrow Christ’s rule on earth
B. But the book climaxes with God’s ultimate triumph through Jesus Christ to overthrow evil and establish the kingdom15
C. This is accomplished by John taking the reader behind the scenes to see the power which rests in the line of Judah, the Lamb that was slain being angry, the throne room of God and by addressing sub-themes such as judgment (14:77; 20:11-15), redemption (1:5; 5:6; 7:14; 12:11) and the kingdom (5:10; 11:177; 12:10; 20:4)16
VIII. There are many ways in which the structure of the book can be determined:
A. It can be outlined literally as Tenny did using “in the spirit”17
B. It can be outlined by means of recapitulation wherein chapters 12--19 recapitulate chapters 6--1118 or by having the seven trumpets and bowls recapitulating the seven seals
C. It can be outlined on the basis of 1:19 wherein chapter one refers to the ‘things seen,’ chapters two through three refer to the ‘things which are’ and chapters 4-22 refer to the ‘things hereafter.’19 This is the outline which will be followed in the ensuing argument even though some argue against it:
1. Some argue that it is too unbalanced--the third point is out of proportion.
But since the book has such a prophetic emphasis, this use of proportion could be intentional
2. Some argue that such an emphasis on chapters 4-22 makes the bulk of the book irrelevant to the seven churches
However, since the seven churches did not know when Christ was going to return, it would be as relevant to them as is today--especially since it was written in light of their persecution (1--3).
3. Within the last major division of the book concerning the ‘things which will be hereafter’ (4:1--22:21) there seems to be a basic chronological development:
a. This section begins with a prologue in 4:1--5:14
b. Then it moves through the tribulation in 6:1--19:21 wherein judgments are delivered
These judgments are part of the historical development of the book being themselves telescopic wherein the seventh seal introduces the seven trumpets and the seventh trumpet introduces the seven bowls which conclude the tribulation
c. Then in chapter 20 the millennium is described culminating in the eternal state (21--22)
IX. PURPOSES OF THE BOOK:
A. To complete the prophetic theme presented earlier in the prophecies of the Old Testament20
B. In view of the early addresses in chapters 2--3 to the churches John desires to comfort and encourage believers in the midst of suffering and persecution at the hands of evil ones by assuring them that Jesus Christ, and thus they themselves, will ultimately and finally triumph
C. To challenge the churches to godly living in view of the certain return of Christ and the certain judgment of evil
1 Leon Morris, The Revelation of St. John: An Introduction and Commentary, 1, 5.
2 There are those such as Thiessen who understand the genitive to be objective referring to a revelation about Christ (Henry Clarence Thiessen, Introduction to the New Testament, 316 cited by Harold W. Hoehner, “Analysis of Bible Books: The New Testament,” DTS, 249)but it is more probably a subjective genitive referring to a revelation by Christ. The reason for this is basically twofold: (1) the contents go far beyond Jesus Christ Himself with respect to the beast, the harlot, the two witnesses et cetera, and (2) the next clause in 1:1 which describes the revelation as being that which the Father gave to Christ would seems strange if the revelation was about Christ. Why would the Father need to give a revelation about the Son to the Son (Stanley D. Toussaint, class notes of student in 308 Pauline Epistles and Revelation, DTS, Spring 1984. Therefore, the genitive is probably subjective.
3 Harold W. Hoehner, “Analysis,” 249.
4 Ibid., 12:404; Toussaint; Gary G. Cohen, Understanding Revelation, 19.
5 “Clement of Alexandria says that the Apostle John returned from this island; Eusebius says that he returned after the death of Domitian, and Iranaeus says that he remained in Ephesus after his return until the times of Trajan” (Thiessen, p. 49).
7 Morris, 27-31.
8 Alvan F. Johnson, “Revelation,” EBC, 12:405.
9 Morris, 31; Toussaint.
10 Guthrie, NTI, 950; Toussaint.
11 Guthrie, 956.
12 Morris, 37.
13 Thiessen, cited by Hoehner, 250.
14 Ryrie, 8; Also see John F. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ, 15-23 for a more complete study.
15 Don Sunukjian, “Analysis of Bible Books: New Testament.” Unpublished Project, DTS, 353; Toussaint, 3.
16 Toussaint, 3.
17 Toussaint, 4.
18 Sunukjian, 358.
19 Toussaint, 4; Ryrie, 16; Walvoord, 47-48.
20 Walvoord, “Revelation,” BKC, 927.
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines
An Introduction To The Book Of JudeRelated Media
I. AUTHOR: Jude the brother of James and half brother of Jesus
1. Pseudo-Barnabas3 (c. AD 70-130)
2. Clement of Rome4 (c. AD 95-97)
3. The Shepherd of Hermas5 (c. AD 115-140)
4. Polycarp6 (c. AD 110-150)
5. The Didache7 (c. AD 120-150)
6. Athenagoras8 (c. AD 177)
7. Theophilus of Antioch9 (died, AD 183-185)
8. The Muratorian Canon10 (c. AD 170)
9. Tertullian11 (c. AD 150-220)
10. Clement of Alexandria12 (c. AD 150-215)
11. Origen13 (c. AD 185-254)
12. Synod of Antioch14 (c. AD 264)
13. Didymus of Alexandria15 (died, AD 394 or 399)
14. Eusebius16 (c. AD 260-340)
15. Jerome17 (c. AD 346-420)
B. Internal Evidence: Objections raised do not overturn the conclusion that Jude was the brother of James of Jerusalem and thus the half-brother of the Lord Jesus
1. The writer introduces himself as “Jude, the bond-servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James” (verse 1)
a. This James was probably the well known James of Jerusalem--the Lord Jesus Christ’s brother18
b. Jude is mentioned as among the brothers of the Lord in Mark 6:3 (cf. Matthew 13:55)
c. This identification by Jude may have been an attempt to identify himself with his brother’s reputation
d. It is not inappropriate for Jude to identify himself as the brother of James rather than the half-brother of Jesus--especially since he desires to emphasize himself as Jesus’ servant
2. Jude may well have been one of those mentioned in 1 Corinthians 9:5 who engaged in itinerate preaching19
3. Objections to Jude as Author:20 While objections to Jude, the brother of the James of Jerusalem, as author of the epistle range from assumptions of a late date to reinterpretations of verse one, there is no reason to conclude that Jude was other than the Lord’s brother
a. The letter was written too late for Jude to have been its author
1) But if the letter was written by the 90s Jude could still have been alive21
2) Interpretative issues concerning the occasion of the epistle (e.g., the description of the heretics, the connection with Gnosticism, the references to the apostles) do not demand a late date since they could be understood in the first century
b. Verse one really reads so as to describe an unknown Jude as son of an unknown James22
But such a view is unsupported by the textual evidence, and is improbable as a since the letter would not have gained suitable circulation unless it was identified with James of Jerusalem and pseudonymity was identified with well known figures
c. Jude was actually Jude the apostle called “Judas of James” (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13)
1) However it is most probable to understand the phrase in Luke and Acts ( ᾿Ιούδας ᾿Ιακώβου ) to mean “Jude, the son of James” rather than “Jude the brother of James” as Jude 1 reads
2) However, the author of Jude does not seem to identify himself with the apostles, and actually sees the apostles as being apart from himself (17,18)
d. Jude is the second-century bishop of Jerusalem and the phrase “brother of James” is an episcopal title at Jerusalem
However, there are no parallels to support this understanding
4. The identity of Jude as the Lord’s brother would account for the authority with which he writes, and the regard which the letter gained in the Christian church
5. The letter is colored by Jewish images and apocalypses which would match an historical first-century Jude.
II. DATE: Somewhere between AD 65-80
A. Dates have been assigned from AD 60-140
B. If Jude is the brother of James and our Lord (as has been argued above), then the date must fall into what would have been the limits of his life
C. Bigg suggests that Jude was older than Jesus by means of being the son of Joseph by a former marriage23, but there is no evidence to support this view
D. Jude was most probably a younger brother of Jesus, and may even have been the youngest in view of the order in Mark 6:3 and Matthew 13:5524
E. While it was true that verse three suggests that Christianity has been established enough to have an established body of doctrine25, it does not demand a late date for the letter:
1. A common basis of belief existed from the first among all Christians
2. “Faith which was once for all delivered to the saints” is indefinite as to its timing
3. The Apostle Paul wrote about the standard of teaching to which the Roman Christians were committed (Rom. 6:17), therefore, one could have existed for a first-century Jude26
F. The reference to the Apostles in verse 17 does not have to mean that the apostolic age has passed:
1. Jude is referring to apostolic predictions of scoffers who will arise in the Church, and there does not need to be a long period between prediction and fulfillment
2. There were many NT predictions of scoffers and Jude may have written after the apostolic writings had been well distributed (3,4,17,18), or he may be referring to Peter’s representative statement (2 Peter 3:3ff) as he writes to his same audience
3. It is also possible that the use of the term “spoken” in verse 17 suggests closeness to the oral tradition27
G. The identification of false teachers who have “crept in unnoticed” (verse 4) need not be connected with fully developed Gnosticism of the second-century, but may be an expression of first-century incipient gnosticism
H. The description of false teachers is similar to those found in the Pastoral Epistles, but this is not a problem since they need not be assigned a late date
I. Therefore, although it is difficult to be certain, a view which supports a younger Jude, the distribution of apostolic writings, as well as a development of theology and false teachers may allow for a date which is somewhere between AD 65-80
III. DESTINATION: It is very difficult to be certain about the destination, but it may be a reasoned judgment that it was to Christians who lived in Syrian-Antioch
A. Jude does not identify his audience in the book28
B. The letter was probably not really a general letter because Jude identifies a people with a particular situation (3-5,17,18,20)29
C. The use of the Jewish Apocrypha probably is more of a clue about the author than about the recipients of the letter
D. Some suggests that the letter may have been sent to those in a district within the region of Palestine because verses 17 and 18 suggest that the readers may have heard some of the apostles and had some acquaintance with Paul (cf. Acts 20:29)30
E. The readers may have also been Gentile because it is a Greek letter and the heresy is syncretistic; but the language is not determinative (note the book of Hebrews), and there is insufficient information about this period to identify the heresy with accuracy
F. If Antioch is the location of the letter (which is very speculative but a considered judgment):
1. It would fit a Jewish-Gentile audience
2. It may match the possible pattern of Jude ministering like James in the Palestine area
3. It would match the place where many apostles ministered
IV. THE RELATIONSHIP OF JUDE AND 2 PETER:
A. Its Nature: Similarities between the two works affirm some kind of literary relationship, while differences affirm individual emphases
1. Similarities affirm some kind of literary relationship:
a. Most of 2 Peter 2 is paralleled in Jude and there are parallels in the other chapters of 2 Peter
b. No less than 15 of the 25 verses in Jude appear in 2 Peter
c. Many identical ideas, words, and phrases are parallel to the two writings
2. Differences affirm individual emphases:
a. The common material focuses almost completely on the issue of false teachers
b. Peter emphasizes more positive teaching and Jude concentrates on denunciations
c. The two groups of false teachers are similar, but not identical
B. The Question of Priority: The arguments are not decisive for the priority of either book; the solution may best be found through the postulation of a common source, but even this is not certain.
1. The Options are for priority can be argued with some convincing evidence in each direction, but they are not determinative:
a. Jude is Prior: While there are several arguments31, the stronger ones are as follows:
1) Jude is shorter than 2 Peter so it may have preceded 2 Peter which was an enlargement of Jude (strong)
2) Jude approaches the problem of false teachers with greater spontaneity than 2 Peter which adds an introduction to the problem and does not seem to know the issue first hand (note the tenses of verbs; [not as strong])
3) Jude is harsher than 2 Peter who may have toned down his offensive (weak)
4) Jude uses apocryphal books and 2 Peter does not (perhaps because he has excluded the references because of their unorthodox character [cf. 2 Pet. 2:11; Jude 9])
b. 2 Peter is Prior: Though weak, the arguments for the priority of 2 Peter are as follows:
1) Jude makes reference to 2 Peter in verse 4 and 17 (cf. 2 Peter 3:3)32
2) The use of the future tense in 2 Peter to discuss the false teachers and the present tense in Jude suggests the priority of 2 Peter in that Jude experienced what Peter foresaw, but Peter did not always use the future tense33
3) Jude’s borrowing from Peter (an apostle) is more understandable than for Peter to be borrowing from Jude (weak)
2. Both Jude and 2 Peter depended on a similar source:
a. This is not generally held to for the following reasons:
1) The similarities are considered to be too close to be accounted for in this way
2) The situation of both letters seems to be too concrete for such an explanation
b. If their was a general writing which Peter and Jude refer to, one wonders about its authority in view of Jude 17; if it was apostolic, why did it require its incorporation into these two letters to be preserved; but this is not determinative since there were clearly sources which were apostolic in the Gospel accounts which were not preserved beyond their inclusion in the Gospels
3. Conclusion: This problem cannot be definitively solved with the information which presently exists but the theory of a similar source seems most possible:
a. It is possible that a document like this did exist in the early church as a catechetical tract on false teaching34
b. This may well make all of Jude except the first three verses and verses 19-25 an expression of this tract, but Jude does express his intention to write on another subject, and then he changes due to the pressing nature of the circumstances (verse 3)
c. This may well explain the differences in styles as the two writers adapt the material for their own theological purpose35
V. JUDE’S USE OF APOCRYPHAL AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHON WRITINGS
A. Jude seems to have used the following apocryphal writings:
1. The Assumption of Moses (v. 9)
2. The Book of Enoch (vv. 6,13,14,15)
3. The Testament of Naphtali (v. 6)
4. The Testament of Asher (v. 8)
B. Options Toward Understanding Jude’s Use of Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphon Writings:
1. Jude is not quoting these books, but providing information provided to him by inspiration
This is very unlikely due to the close parallels between Jude and the books, especially the book of Enoch36
2. Jude had ancient sources (an oral tradition just as the writer of 1 Enoch had) and the Spirit of God led him to use the inspired text, or to say what was true and reliable (e.g., Jude quotes the actual Enoch and not necessarily the book of 1 Enoch)
But the extra-canonical books were regarded as containing much truth just as works like Chafer’s Theology or by Swindoll are regarded as valuable today even though they are not inspired; there is no reason to suppose that Jude has a source other than the extra-canonical ones
3. Jude is using these “extra-canonical” works but not regarding all of them as Scripture (much as Paul did in Acts 17:28)37
VI. THE NATURE OF THE FALSE TEACHERS IN JUDE
A. It is not possible to identify the exact heresy of the false teachers38
B. The letter does offer characteristics of the heresy propagated by the false teachers:39
1. Their Doctrine:
a. They misunderstand the concept of grace (4a)
b. They deny Jesus Christ (4b)
c. They prefer their own dreamings rather than God’s revelation (8)
d. They misunderstand the doctrine of the Holy Spirit since He is absent (8,19)
e. They were critical toward the orthodox doctrine of angels (8)
2. Their Practice:
a. The are licentious, or lawless (4,7,16,18)
b. They unrighteously destroy for their own gain (11a,16)
c. They corrupt and pervert for personal gain (11b)
d. They blaspheme and rebel against divine authority (11c)
e. They are ruled by their passions and defile themselves (8,23)
f. They are arrogant and use people for their own gain (16)
3. Their Identity:
a. They are part of the Christian community (4)
b. While the descriptions lean toward a Gentile background,40 these are not determinative, and thus, may include Jews
c. Many suggest incipient gnosticism which unfolds in the second century,41 but this may be saying too much from the evidence.42 Childs’ broader, canonical explanation of a general description of heresy which threatens apostolic teaching may be a better choice43
VII. Purposes of Jude:
A. Jude began to write with the purpose of discussing their “common salvation” with his readers (v.3)
B. Because of the urgency of the situation Jude changed his purpose to discuss the problem of false teachers and to denounce them
C. Jude writes to defend the faith against false teachings which lead to antinomianism (or lawlessness)
D. Jude writes to warn believers not to be led astray by false teachers, and to urge them to rescue those who have (v. 23)
E. Jude writes to emphasize that those who do evil will be judge by the Lord
F. As Childs writes, “The Christian community is urged to maintain the faith which has been entrusted to it.”44
1 Charles Bigg offers the actual excepts in the ICC commentary, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistles of St. Peter and St. Jude, pp. 305-308.
2 See Guthrie, NTI, p. 906; Bigg, Jude, p. 308; Green, Jude, p. 42.
3 Cf. Barnabas ii.10 with Jude 3,4. This is a possible allusion to Jude.
4 Clement xx.12; lxv.2 and Jude 25.
5 Cf. Sim. v.7.2 with Jude 8.
6 Cf. Martyrium Polycarpi xxi, with Jude 25; Phil. address with Jude 2; iii.2 with Jude 3,20; xi.4 with Jude 20,23.
7 Cf. Didache, ii.7 and Jude 22f; Didache, iii.6 and Jude 8-10.
8 Cf. Suppl. XXIV with Jude 6. Bigg writes, “Here there is a clear reference to Jude” (Jude, p. 307).
9 Cf. ii.15.
10 Bigg writes, “Accepts Jude, but mentions it in a manner which implies that is was doubted by some” (Jude, pp. 14, 307).
11 De cultu fem. i.3.
12 Hypotyposes; cf. Paed. iii.8,44 with Jude 5,6; Strom. iii.2.11 with Jude 8-16.
13 Cf. Matth xvii.30; x.17; tom. xv. 27 with Jude 6. Bigg writes, “Origen treats Jude much as he treats 2 Peter. He acknowledges that there were doubts, but does not appear to have felt them himself” (Jude, p. 306). However, he does identify Jude as scriptura divina in his Comm. in Rom iii.6 (see. Michael Green, The Second Epistle General of Peter and the General Epistle of Jude: An introduction and Commentary, Tyndale, p. 42 n. 4).
14 Eus. H. E. vii.40.4.
15 Bigg writes, “Comments on Jude, and defends it against those who questioned the authority of the Epistle on the ground of the use therein made of apocryphal books. Migne, xxxix. 1811-1818; Zahn, Forschungen, iii.97.
16 H. E. ii. 23.25 although here he argues against its canonicity.
17 De uir. ill. iv.
18 See James 1:1; Galatians 1:19; 2:9; 1 Corinthians 15:7.
19 “Do we not have a right to take along a believing wife, even as the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?
20 See Guthrie, NTI, pp. 906-908.
21 Some argue that since Jude’s grandsons were said to have stood before the Emperor Domitian (AD 81-96; cf. Eusebius, H. E. iii.20.1ff) therefore, he probably was not alive toward the end of the century. But if Jude was the youngest of the brothers of the Lord (due to the word order which the Gospels suggest in Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:55), then this may not have been at all improbable in view of the early age of marriage in Judea (see Green, Jude, pp. 44-45; Mayor, Jude, p. cxlviii).
22 For this reading the term for “brother” ( ἀδελφός ) must be understood to be an interpolation (or an interpretative addition).
23 Bigg, Jude, p. 318.
24 See Green, Jude, pp. 44-45. Mayor writes, Jude, as we have seen, was apparently the youngest of the Brethren of the Lord, probably born not later than 10 A.D., if we accept the date of 6 B.C. for the Nativity. Taking into account the age at which marriage generally took place in Judaea, we may suppose that he had sons before 35 A.d. and grandsons by 60 A.D. These may have been brought before Domitian in any year of his reign. Jude himself would thus have been 71 in the first year of Domitian. If his letter was written in 80 a. D. ...he would have been 70 years of age, and his grandsons about 20” (Jude, p. cxlviii).
25 See “common salvation” and “the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints”.
26 See also Galatians 1:8ff; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 3:6,14; 1 Corinthians 11:2.
27 See Green, Jude, p. 47. Guthrie feels that some literary reference is more probable (NTI, p. 910 n. 10).
28 Those who are “called,” “beloved,” and “kept” (verse 1) could refer to any Christians.
29 Guthrie writes that Jude seems to have an, “apparent acquaintance with certain specific people whom he knows to have crept into the church by guile and whose behaviour is so vividly portrayed that it suggests first-hand acquaintance with the false teachers too” (NTI, p. 916).
Nevertheless, Child’s has a theological point when he argues that the subject matter addresses heresy which threatens apostolic teaching and the doxology support a general, or “catholic”, tone (The New Testament as Canon, pp. 492-493).
30 Guthrie, along with Wand, goes so far as to identify the area as Syrian-Antioch (NTI, pp. 916-917; See also Green, Jude, p. 48).
31 See Guthrie, NTI, pp. 921-922.
32 But “long before” of Jude 4 probably refers to the book of Enoch as in verses 14-15, and in verse 17 one would expect Peter to be mentioned by name as James was in 1:1. Also verse 17 may have reference to sayings which the apostles endorsed (Guthrie, NTI, p. 923).
33 The present tense is used to describe false teachers in 2 Peter 2:10,17,18; 3:5.
34 See Green, Jude, pp. 54-55.
35 See Green Jude, pp. 53-54.
36 See verse 14 and 1 Enoch 1:9 (Guthrie, NTI, p. 917).
37 See also 1 Corinthians 10:4; 15:33; 2 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:12.
With some concern to this writer Green suggests that Jude is not concerned with “critical, historical” matters when he cites Plummer who says, “‘St Jude probably believed the story about the dispute between Michael and Satan. But even if he knew it to be a myth, he might readily use it as an illustrative argument, seeing that it was so familiar to this readers’” (Jude, p. 49). Jude cannot affirm as true that which was not. It seems that under inspiration, Jude does adopt true portions of these extra-canonical works to make his point.
38 Guthrie, NTI, p. 912. Childs understands this to be the canonical point of the book of Jude when he writes, “Jude addresses the phenomenon of heresy and not any one specific form of error. Indeed, what characterizes the approach is that heresy is now dealt with as the theological referent, and not simply as an historical danger confronting a particular congregation.... it is constitutive of the Christian faith to be always threatened by this terrifying dimension of falsehood” (The NT as Canon, p. 492). Later he concludes, “the epistle of Jude offers a larger theological appraisal of the phenomenon of heresy by which to interpret the specific historical examples in the rest of the New Testament, and especially of the Pauline letters. On the other hand, the witness of the larger canon provides the actual content of the ‘faith once-and-for-all delivered unto the saints’ which the letter of Jude earnestly strives to preserve” (Ibid, p. 493).
39 Again Childs insightfully writes, “The identification of the threat of heresy by means of Old Testament figures serves to underline the major theological point that the alternative of unbelief was there from the beginning and is nothing new. Cain is the epitome of unrighteousness who murders his own brother. Balaam serves as the classic example of the corrupter perverts for personal gain, Korah personifies blasphemy and rebellion against divine authority .... The selfsame threat continues at work in the false teachers who have secretly gained entrance into the community of faith” (The NT as Canon, p. 492).
40 Guthrie, NTI, pp. 913-914.
41 See Green, Jude, pp. 38-40.
42 Bauckham may provide the most balanced approach when he writes, “It is better to see their antinomianism as simply one of the streams that flowed into later Gnosticism, but which at this stage is not distinctively gnostic” (Jude; 2 Peter, p. 12).
43 See Guthrie, NTI, p. 914; Childs, The NT as Canon, pp. 492-493.
44 Later he writes, “The letter offers a theological description of the phenomenon of heresy rather than attacking a specific historical form of error. Nevertheless, a clear theological profile of heresy emerges. Error consists in ‘denying our Master and Lord’ (v. 4), in perverting God’s grace by immorality and lawlessness (v. 7), and in rejecting divine authority for one’s own advantage (v. 16)” (Childs, The New Testament as Canon, pp. 492-493).
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines
An Argument Of The Book Of JudeRelated Media
Jude, The Brother Of James, Writes To Believers Secure In Their Relationship With God To Earnestly Contend For The Faith By Strengthening Themselves And Reaching Out To Those Who Are Being Influenced By False Teachers In Their Midst Who Stand In Line With OT Patterns And Will Receive Similar Judgment
I. Introduction: Jude writes as a servant of Christ and the brother of James to believers who are in a secure relationship with God praying that they might be filled to capacity with mercy, peace and love 1-2
A. Address: Jude writes as a servant of Christ and the brother of James to believers who are in a secure relationship with God through God’s calling, the Father’s love, and Jesus’ preservation for His future coming 1
1. Jude writes as a servant of Jesus Christ, and the brother of James (of Jerusalem)1 1a
2. Jude writes to believers who are in a secure relationship with God through God’s calling, the Father’s love, and Jesus’ preservation for His future coming 1b
a. Past: Jude writes to believers who are called (by God)
b. Present: Jude writes to believers who are loved in their relationship with God the Father
c. Future: Jude writes to believers who are kept (preserved) for their future relationship with Jesus Christ
II. Exhortations to Defend Against False Teachers: Jude urges his dear readers to defend the faith against false teachers in their midst who show themselves to stand in line with all of the ungodly who are not only deserving of judgment, but will receive it when the Lord returns 3-23
A. The Appeal: Although Jude was intending to write to his dear readers about their common salvation, he felt that it was necessary to write in order to encourage them to earnestly continue the struggle for the faith which they received 3
1. Jude was intending to write to his dear readers about their common4 salvation 3a
2. Instead of writing about their common salvation, Jude felt that it was necessary to write in order to encourage ( παρακαλῶν ) his readers to earnestly continue the struggle ( ἐπαγωνίζεσθαι ) for the faith of the gospel which was once for all delivered5 to the people of God 3b
B. Present Reason Stated: The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because certain people who were foretold to be evil, who shamelessly use God’s grace as a license to sin, and who deny Christ have secretly slipped in among them 4
1. The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because certain people have secretly slipped in among them6 4a
2. The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because those who have crept in are those who were long ago identified7 for condemnation 4b
3. The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because those who have crept in are shameless ( ἀσεβεῖς ) persons who use God’s grace as a license to do evil8 4c
4. The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because those who have crept in deny believers’ only Master and Lord--Jesus Christ9 4d
C. Historical-Eschatological Reason Stated--They are Ungodly and Will Be Judged: Jude urges his readers to contend against false teachers because they show themselves to stand in line with all of the ungodly who are not only deserving of judgment, but will receive it when the Lord returns to execute it upon them 5-19
1. Historical--Old Testament Types and Interpretation: Through the typology of OT types Jude urges believers to contend against false teachers because they walk in the pattern of OT sinners and influence others in the patters of OT false teachers making them deserving of judgment 5-13
a. Three OT Types10 and Interpretation: Jude urges believers to contend against false teachers because they walk in the pattern of OT sinners who were judged for their unbelief, prideful arrogance, and gross immorality thereby showing themselves to be more like animals than spiritual men and thus deserving of similar judgment 5-10
1) Three OT Types--Israel, Angels, Sodom:11 Jude desires to remind his readers of that which they once knew, namely that certain judgment has come upon those who do not believe, who are pridefully, and who enter into gross immorality 5-7
a) Reminder: Jude desires to remind his readers of that which they once knew12 about the certain judgment for such evil people as the false teachers 5a
c) Angels: The content of what Jude wants to remind his readers of is that ( ο῞τι ) the Lord has kept15 angels who left their proper realm16 in eternal bonds under darkness for the coming judgment17 6
d) Sodom and Gomorrah: The content of what Jude wants to remind his readers of is that (ο῞τι) the Lord punished Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them as an example18 for those like the false teachers who indulge in gross immorality 7
2) Interpretation/Application from the OT Types of Judgment: Jude affirms that the false teachers follow in the pattern of those in the OT who were judged for evil because they do not understand the heavenly world, but are guided under the auspices of revelation by their natural instincts becoming more like animals and thus deserving of judgment 8-10
a) Jude affirms that like those who were typologically judged in the OT for their evil, these false teachers, under the pretense of revelation (dreaming), defile the flesh, reject authority19, and blaspheme against (angelic) majesties (glories--δόξας)20 8
b) False Teachers and Angels: By contrasting the behavior of the archangel Michael toward the devil, and the that of the false teachers, Jude affirms that the latter do not understand the heavenly world, but follow natural instincts showing themselves to be more like animals than spiritual men, and thus following in the OT pattern for destruction 9-10
(1) Slandering Angels Developed: Jude develops by contrast the last of the three participle through a description of how even Michael the archangel did not dare to revile against the devil over Moses' body, but appealed to the Lord as Judge21 9
(2) These Men: By contrast with Michael the archangel, Jude affirms that these false teachers do not understand the heavenly world (since they do not understand angels to be the messengers of God), but follow their sexual appetites and prove themselves to be more like animals than spiritual men thereby leading to their destruction as with their OT types 10
b. Three More OT Types22 and Interpretation: Jude urges believers to contend against false teachers because they walk in the pattern of OT false teachers who do not love but consume, who teach that sin does not matter, who mislead through empty teaching, and who corrupt those under their influence making themselves worthy of judgment 11-13
1) Three OT Types--Cain, Balaam, Korah: Jude urges believers to contend against false teachers because they walk in the pattern of false teachers from the OT who do not love (Cain), teach that sin does not matter (Balaam), and incite insubordination in the church against God’s design (Korah) 11
a) Oracle of Woe:23 Jude pronounces an oracle Woe upon the false teachers 11:a
b) Cain: The reason Jude pronounces a woe upon the false teachers is because they have gone in the way of Cain24 11b
2) Interpretation/Application From The OT Types of Judgment: Through several metaphors Jude applies the destructive fate of the OT false teachers to the present false teachers who threaten the safety of the church, feed themselves, deceive, corrupt, and misguide resulting in their destruction 12-13
a) Hidden Reefs: Jude warns that as the church celebrates their central worship of fellowship-meals (along with the Eucharist--the “love feast”), they run the risk of becoming shipwrecked if they come too close to the false teachers among them because they have no fear of God and care for themselves29 (Cain?) 12a
b) Four Metaphors from Nature:30 The imagery of clouds, trees, waves, and stars Jude warns his readers that the false teachers are deceptive, corrupting, and misguiding resulting in their certain judgment 12b-13
(1) Clouds and Trees: Jude warns his readers that the false teachers are like clouds without water and autumn trees without fruit in that they appear to be valuable (in their teaching?), but they are of no benefit to the church and will thus be judged just as the fruitless tree is uprooted (Balaam?) 12b
(2) Waves: Jude warns his readers that the false teachers are like the turbulent sea which throws up its debris on the shore31 in that the teachers have a harmful, corrupting effect upon those who come under their influence (Balaam?) 13a
(3) Stars: Jude warns his readers that the false teachers are like "stars" which go astray32 from their ordained courses33 and thus mislead men, who look to them for guidance, away from God's design resulting in judgment (Korah?)
2. Eschatological--Prophecy and Interpretation: Through the prophecy of Enoch and the warnings given by the apostles, Jude identifies the false teachers as those who are ungodly and will be judged by the Lord at His return 14-19
a. The Prophecy of Enoch and Interpretation: Jude affirms through the prophecy of Enoch that the Lord will come with an eschatological judgment upon all those who do evil and speak heard-hearted words against the Lord as the present false teachers do through their grumbling which finds fault, their turning to follow their own desires, and their arrogant affirming of their own authority so as to gain favor from others whose sins they overlook 14-16
1) The Prophecy of Enoch: Jude affirms through a citation of 1 Enoch 1:9 that the Lord is coming with His angels for an eschatological judgment upon false teachers for their ungodly works and words toward Him 14-15
b) Quotation: Jude quotes 1 Enoch 1:9 affirming that the Lord will come with his angels for a future judgment against the ungodly for their evil works and words against Him 14b-15
(1) The Lord will come at a future time with his many angels36 14b
(2) The Lord will come to execute judgment upon all the ungodly for their works and hard-hearted words spoken against him 15
2) Application/Interpretation From the Prophecy of Enoch:37 Jude takes up the sense of “hard-hearted” words which the false teachers express against God to demonstrate that his opponents due such things by grumbling against the authority of God’s will and then following their own desires, and by affirming their own moral authority in a way which shows favoritism to those from whom they wish to gain favor 16
a) The false teachers express “heard-hearted words” against the Lord as they grumble (γογγυσταί) and are discontented like the nation Israel against the authority of God’s will38 16a,b
b) The false teachers express “hard-heartedness” against the Lord following their own desires rather than God’s design 16c
c) The false teachers express “hard-hearted words” against the Lord through speaking arrogantly against the Lord (as they affirm their own moral authority)39 16d
d) The false teachers express “hard-hearted words” against the Lord by showing partiality (in their teaching) in order to gain favor from certain persons40 16e
b. The Prophecy of the Apostles and Interpretation: In accordance with the apostolic teaching that scoffers would arise in the last time who would follow their own desires for ungodliness Jude identifies his opponents as such because they cause factions in the body but are those who live purely on a natural realm being devoid of the Spirit 17-19
1) The Prophecy of the Apostles: Jude urges his dear readers to remember the sayings of the apostles who warned that in the last time there would be scoffers who will follow after their own desires for ungodliness 17-18
b) Warning: The apostolic warning was that in the last time there will be scoffers who will follow after their own desires for ungodliness44 18
2) Application/Interpretation from the Prophecy of the Apostles: In accordance with the apostles warning Jude identifies the scoffers as being those who create factions within the body over their “spiritual teaching,” but who live from a natural perspective because they do not have the Spirit of God 19
a) Jude identifies the scoffers whom the apostles warned of as being those who create divisions or schisms within the body45 19a
b) Jude identifies the scoffers whom the apostles warned of as being those who are natural46 (in their orientation) and do not possess the Spirit 19b-c
III. The Appeal Again:47 Jude urges his readers again to contend for the faith by strengthening themselves against the influence of the false teachers and by reaching out to those who are being influenced by their contaminating instruction 20-23
A. Strengthen Yourselves:48 Jude urges his readers to strengthen themselves against the false teachers by building themselves up, praying in the Holy Spirit, keeping their love for God, and orienting their lives toward Jesus’ return for them 19-21
2. Jude urges his readers to pray in the Holy Spirit51 19b
3. Jude urges his readers to keep themselves in their love for God52 20a
B. Help Others: Jude urges his readers to help those in the Body by saving those who will respond to their rebuke from the judgment which would otherwise come upon them, and mercifully reaching to those who reject their rebuke, all the wile hating their sin 22-23
1. Jude urges his readers to have mercy on some who are doubting 22
2. Jude urges his readers to save church members among them as though you were snatching them out of the fire of destruction55 23a
IV. Benediction: Jude prays for his readers that God would preserve them from spiritual disaster and bring them to their future destiny which He intends for them, whereupon he dedicates his readers to their great God 24-25
A. Prayer:58 Jude prays that God would preserve his readers for the spiritual disaster which is before them (“keep you from stumbling”),59 and that He would bring them to the future destiny that He intends for them (“make you to stand in the presence of His glory blameless with great joy)60 24
B. Doxology: Jude dedicates his readers to their great God who is their Saviour through Jesus Christ their Lord, and to whom belongs glory majesty, dominion and authority before all time, now and forever--Amen 25
1 This is Jude the brother of James who leads the church in Jerusalem, and the half brother of John. Support for this identification may be found in this writer’s introduction to the book.
2 The term is πληθυνθείη.
3 Mercy, grace, and peace are important qualities which are needed for people facing the attacks and deception of false teachers.
4 This may have been common to Jude and his readers, and also thus, common to Jew and Gentile. Jude will not address this topic, but the defense of this topic against false teachers.
5 This would have been accomplished through apostolic teaching.
6 For similar NT warnings see Mark 13:22; Matthew 7:15; Acts 20:29-30; 1 Timothy 4:1ff; 2 Timothy 3:1ff; 2 Peter 2:2-3.
7 The term, προγεγραμμένοι, more literally means, “foretold in writing.” While this may refer to Peter’s having already marked them down for this judgment (if Jude is dependent upon 2 Peter 2:3), it may also be an illusion to the book of 1 Enoch as in verses 14-15, or Jude may simply have in view the OT and extra-canonical concepts of judgment which will come upon evil men.
8 This is an issue that Paul was constantly concerned about (Galatians 5; Romans 6).
9 Perhaps this denial is not only through proclamations against Christ (2 Pet. 2:1), but through their life-styles too (cf. Titus 1:16).
It is possible that “Master” ( δεσπότην ) is a reference to the Father (see Green, Jude, p. 162; 1 John 2:22).
10 These three types identify the false teachers as sinners in general.
11 These historical events are typological of future eschatological judgment (Israel, Angels, Sodom).
12 It is difficult to translate εἰδότας ὑμᾶς πάντα. Perhaps the best is, “(though once) you knew all things.”
While the discussion about Egypt and Sodom could be assumed from a knowledge of Biblical history, Jude’s reference to the judgment of angels could not come through this realm. Therefore Green may be correct when he states, “he appears to refer to some apostolic tradition denouncing false teachers in which they, like the recipients of 2 Peter, had been instructed. Such tracts may even have been called hypomnemata, ‘reminders’” (Jude, p. 163).
13 This example may be moved out of chronological order with the following two in order to emphasize that this can occur with God’s people who become apostate.
14 See Numbers 14:2f; 32:10-13; cf. 11:4-34; 26:63-65.
The order here of “first” ( α῞παξ ) and “second” ( δεύτερον ) strongly suggests that these people whom the Lord judged were among those who were redeemed from Israel. Therefore, the suggestion is that the false teachers were also once orthodox Christians who then went willfully astray into similar heresy as Israel with unbelief that led to idolatry and immorality (cf. 1 Cor. 10:1-11; Heb. 3:12-19; 4:6,11; Green, Jude, p. 164; Bauckham, Jude, pp. 49-50).
15 Green notes well the lex talionis (the law that the punishment fits the crime) when he writes, “Jude reinforces his lesson with a touch of savage irony. The evil angels had been too arrogant to keep their position--so God kept them in punishment” (Jude, p. 166; See also Bauckham, Jude, p. 53; the Greek is τηρήσαντας...τετήρηκεν).
16 It is difficult to specifically identify Jude’s reference in this statement. It may be alluding to one of the following, or to all of the following:
(1) The original fall of angels form their exalted positions (cf. Deut. 32:8; Isa. 15:12; 24:21ff; Rev. 12:3-4,9)
(2) Allusions to 1 Enoch 6--19; esp. 10:5,6,15,16; 12:4; 16:1; 22:4,10,11; 97:5; 103:8
(3) An historical reference to the demonized despots in Genesis 6:1-4 (cf. 1 Enoch 7; 9:8; 10:11; 12:4).
These were all expressions of pride and arrogance.
17 This judgment is spoken of in 1 Enoch
18 This judgment was the most graphic in the OT, and its reverberations can be felt throughout the Scriptures (cf. Dt. 29:23; 32:32; Isa. 1:9; 3:9; 13:19; Jer. 23:14; 49:18; 50:40; Lam. 4:6; Ezk. 16:46ff; Hos. 11:8; Amos 4:11; Zeph. 2:9; Matt. 10:15; 11:24; 25:41; Mk. 6:11; Lk. 10:12; 17:29; 2 Pet. 2:6; Rev. 11:8; 20:10; See also 1 Enoch 67:4ff).
19 This may have an ultimate sense of Jesus Christ (Green, Jude, p. 168).
20 These final three participles are tied to the OT events which preceded them. Bauckham writes, “Like the Watchers [angels] and the Sodomites, the false teachers indulge in sexual immorality. Like all three types, they reject the Lord’s authority by repudiating his commandments, and like the Sodomites [Gen. 19:5] they insult the angels. The last accusation probably means that they justify their transgression of the Law by denigrating the angels as its authors and guardians. Thus all three sins are aspects of their antinomianism” (Jude, p. 64; cf. Green, Jude, p. 169, n. 1).
21 See Bauckham for a thorough discussion of the extra-Biblical material surrounding this allusion (Jude, pp. 65-76).
22 Whereas the first three OT types identified the false teachers as sinners in general (5-7), these types identify them as false teachers (Bauckham, Jude, 79).
23 This is a prophetic pronouncement of judgment on sinners (see Bauckham, Jude, pp. 77-79).
24 Cain was not only the first murderer, but by nature of his position in history (Gen. 4:1-17), his sin became archetypal for others who would follow in rebellion after him (4:19-24; See Bauckham for extra-biblical sources which also support this pattern [Jude, pp. 77-78], but these are not needed since Genesis itself unfolds the pattern from Cain; the extra-biblical material is confirming). Therefore, Cain is typologically speaking a false teacher. The similar instruction of the false teachers is that they care nothing for their brothers, only for themselves!
25 The term for “error” is πλάνη having the sense of erroneously misleading Israel. This will be picked up upon by Jude in verse 13 as he describes the “misleading stars” (cf. Green, Jude, p. 172, n. 2; Bauckham, pp. 79, 90).
26 See Numbers 22-24. Although Bauckham argues that Jude’s point depends on extra-biblical literature [Jude, pp. 81-84], Balaam can be seen to be swayed by money in the Mosaic account of Numbers 22:21-35!
Also it was Balaam’s error that led the nations Israel into immorality and idolatry at Baal-peor (cf. Numbers 31:16 with 25:1-6). Green suggests, “Not doubt he told the Israelites, whom he had three times found himself unable to curse, that they were so firmly ensconced in the favour of the Almighty that nothing could affect their standing with Him. They could sin with impunity. Thus he led them into the error of fornication and denial of Yahweh’s sovereign claims through submission to other, inferior deities” (Jude, p. 172).
27 Of the three examples, judgment is not mentioned until Korah since as Bauckham writes, “it is the spectacular fate of Korah which illustrates most effectively the doom which awaits Jude’s opponents” (Jude, p. 91).
28 Korah, a great-grandson of Levi and younger contemporary of Moses led a revolt against the divinely established authority of Moses and Aaron as leaders in the church (Numbers 16). This kind of insubordination was known in the early church (cf. Titus 1:10-11; 3:10-11; 1 Tim. 1:20; 2 Tim. 3:1-9; 2 Jn. 9-10).
29 More literally they “shepherd themselves” with the idea of feeding themselves (cf. Ezk. 34:8).
30 As Bauckham writes, “The four metaphors which follow are drawn from nature, one from each region of the universe (air, earth, water, heavens) and each an example of nature failing to follow the laws ordained for her” (Jude, p. 92).
31 See Isaiah 57:20.
32 The term for “wandering”, πλανῆται, is a verbal tie to the three OT types above. The false teachers are like “misleading stars” just as Balaam mislead Israel (see verse 11 and πλάνῃ ).
33 Planets, comets, and meteors did this in the old astrological myths and were considered to represent “men who strayed from God and abandoned his laws” (see Bauckham, Jude, p. 89-90,92).
34 This is inclusive of Adam: (1) Adam (2) Seth, (3) Enosh, (4) Kenan, (5) Mahalalel, (6) Jared, (7) Enoch [Genesis 5:1-24].
The seventh generation emphasizes special status giving authority to his prophecy.
35 Jude introduces what he is about to say with a formal introduction for a citation (cf. Acts 2:16). He is going to refer to 1 Enoch 1:10 and apply this to the false teachers of his day ( τούτοις).
1 Enoch 1:9 reads, “Behold, he will arrive with ten million of the holy ones in order to execute judgment upon all. He will destroy the wicked ones and censure all flesh on account of everything that they have done, that which the sinners and the wicked ones committed against him” (James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:14-15).
Jude seems to be using this “extra-canonical” work, but is not regarding all of it as Scripture (much as Paul did in Acts 17:28). For a further discussion of what is occurring hermeneutically see the introduction to this book.
See Bauckham for a discussion of the nature of the Jude quotation (Jude, pp. 94-96).
36 Even in the NT this is descriptive of the return of the Lord in judgment (Matt. 25:31; 2 Thess. 1:7; cf. Dan. 7:13; Rev. 19:11-16).
37 Jude will emphasize the “hard-hearted words” which the false teachers speak against God in his application of the verse from 1 Enoch 1:9.
38 Bauckham insightfully writes, “Jude means that the false teachers, like Israel in the wilderness, dispute the authority of God (or Christ). Instead of accepting his will for them, they resist it and complain about it (cf. Num 14:2-3). Jude is again thinking of their antinomianism. No doubt the false teachers said that no good came of keeping the commandments of the Law and regarded them as a burdensome restriction of human freedom” (Jude, p. 98). See also Jude 5,11.
39 See also Daniel 7:8,20; 11:36, and Revelation 13:5.
40 They may have been showing partiality in their specific teaching so as to pervert the Law for the sake of a bribe, or to overlook sin for the sake of someone with whom he finds favor (see Malachi 2:9; Micah 3:11). As Bauckham says, “The same teaching in which they utter ‘big words’ against God is intended to please their patrons because it offers them freedom from moral restraint” (Jude, p. 100).
41 This term is picked up from verse 3 (ἀγαπητοί).
42 This term, μνήσθατε, is reminiscent of verse 5 where Jude urges his readers to remember (῾Υπομνῆσαι). As Bauckham says, “This formal transition indicates the transition from OT types and prophecies (vv 5-16) to an apostolic prophecy (vv 17-19) [Jude, p. 102].
43 The term is τῶν ῥημάτων. This may have reference either to a document which the Apostles wrote and is now only contained in 2 Peter 3:3 and Jude, or to instruction which was included in early apostolic teaching (as in Acts 20) and which is only summarized here.
44 The term for “ungodliness” ( ἀσεβειῶν) is the verbal clue which ties this apostolic warning with the former prophecy from 1 Enoch (see Jude 15 where ἀσεβεῖς is employed twice).
45 Bauckham writes, “Jude cannot mean that they have gone into complete schism, but that they gather their own faction within the church, like Korah (see on v 11). The tendency of their teaching is divisive because it creates an élisist group who regard themselves as those who truly posses the Spirit (see below) [Jude, p. 105].
46 Or “fleshly” ( ψυχικοί ) as in 1 Corinthians 2:14 (see also 1 Cor. 15:44).
47 After explaining the nature of the false teachers, Jude picks up once again his exhortation presented in verse three, “contend earnestly for the faith.” This unit is the climax of his letter as he develops that exhortation. Bauckham develops many of the verbal links between these verse and verse 1-3 (Jude, p. 111).
48 Jude strings together two participles, an imperative, and a participle in these two verses (ἐποικοδομοῦντες, προσευχόμενοι, τρήσατε, προσδεχόμενοι). This mixture of imperatives and participles together in paraenetic sections of the NT suggests that the imperatives should have an imperatival sense. Bauckham suggests that, “they reflect a usage found in rabbinic Hebrew where the participle can be used in rules and codes of conduct, though not in direct commands” (Jude, p. 112).
The last three exhortations emphasize the Trinity (Spirit, Father, Son), and the first, second, and last exhortations emphasize “faith, love and hope”.
49 Whereas the false teachers were destroying and tearing down the church, Jude urges his readers to build themselves up (see 1 Cor. 3:9-15; 2 Cor. 6:16; Eph. 2:19-22; 1 Pet. 2:5, etc).
50 This is the gospel spoken of in verse 3 above. This is “your” ( ὑμῶν ) faith as opposed to that of the false teachers.
51 This is in contrast to the false teachers who are “devoid of the Spirit” (v. 19).
52 I am interpreting the genative ( ἀγάπῃ θεοῦ ) as objective rather than subjective since this is in a paraenetic section (see also John 15:9-10 where this is done through obeying God’s commands; cf. 1 Jn. 4:16 with Jude 1).
53 Or orient their entire lives towards that future day.
54 “Mercy” ( ε῎λεος) probably describes the eschatological hope of ultimate salvation which believers will mercifully receive (Matt. 5:7; 2 Tim. 1:18). Unlike the false teachers, believers will mercifully receive life at the Lord’s return.
55 This is probably an illusion to Zechariah 3:1-5 (cf. Jude 9; also Amos 4:11). Jude is urging his readers exhort those in the church who are being influenced by the false teachers, and may be indulging in immorality to stop this (cf. Matt. 18:15-17; Luke 17:3; 1 Cor. 5; Gal. 6:1; 2 Thess. 3:5; 1 Tim. 5:20; Titus 3:10; Jas. 5:19-20)
56 Perhaps they will repent.
57 The image is again probably from Zechariah 3:3-4. The garment was the one worn closest to the skin which could be contaminated by body waists (human excrement). Just as cloths may be soiled by the body, so are people by the false teachers. While maintaining mercy on these people, Jude’s readers are to continue to hate sin and all that is associated with it.
58 As Bauckham correctly writes, “Having in the previous section stressed his readers’ responsibilities, Jude now assures them of the divine support and protection without which all their efforts will be fruitless” (Jude, p. 124).
59 See Psalms 38:16; 56:13; 66:9; 73:2; 91:12; 94; 116:8; 121:3.
60 See 1 Thessalonians 3:13; Colossians 1:22; Ephesians 1:4; 5:27 which similar sacrificial metaphors are expressed to describe the presentation of Christians as sacrificial victims without blemish (cf. Lev. 1:3; 3:1; Heb. 9:14; 1 Pet. 1:19).
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines
An Introduction To The Book Of 3 JohnRelated Media
I. AUTHOR: Probably the Apostle John, the son of Zebedee.
1. Disputed by Origen (c. 185-254)
2. Named as authentic by Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 315-86)
3. Disputed by Eusebius (c. 325-40)
4. Named as authentic by Jerome (c. 340-420)
5. Named as authentic by Augustine (c. 400)
6. Named as authentic by all of the canons (Muratorian (c. 170), Barococcio (c. 206), Apostolic (c. 300), Athanasuis (c. 367) except the Marcion (c. 140) except for Cheltenham (c. 360) who disputed it
7. Named as authentic in the Old Latin (c. 200)
8. Named as authentic in all of the councils except for Nicea (c. 325-40) [ Hippo (392), Carthage (397) and Carthage (419)].
B. Internal Evidence:
1. Guthrie writes, “As in 2 John the writer introduces himself as ‘the Elder’, and so the decision reached with respect to 2 John should apply here.
2. Similarities Between 2 John and 3 John:
a. Much emphasis is placed upon the ‘truth’ with a similar context of false teaching assumed
b. Both speak of hospitality:
1) John forbids it for false teachers
2) John commends it for the true
c. Both rejoice over others who walk in the truth (2 Jn 4; 3 Jn 3)
d. In both the author intimates his intention to visit the recipients (2 Jn 12; 3 Jn 13)
e. In both the author intimates that he has much to write but would rather not write in “paper and ink” (2 Jn 12), with ‘pen and ink’ (3 Jn 13)
II. DESTINATION: Gaius (even though his identity is obscure)
A. “The elder to the beloved Gaius, whom I love in the truth” (1)
B. The identity of Gaius is uncertain:
1. A traveling companion of Paul’s form Macedonia who is taken up in the riot in Ephesus (along with Aristarchus) on his last missionary journey (Acts 19:29)
2. A Corinthian whom Paul baptized (1 Cor 1:14) This may well be the Macedonian of Acts 19:29.
3. A traveling companion of Paul’s on his third missionary journey from Derbe Galatia (Acts 20:4)
4. All of the above references relate people to Paul and his ministry, but this Gaius may well have been a convert (“spiritual child”) of the elder John (4). This would not preclude any activity with Paul so he could still be one of his companions. It is also possible that the Elder in 3 John is simply adopting a fatherly attitude over those whom he has pastoral care in which case, there would not necessarily be any reference to a convert
5. Someone who shows hospitality to the whole church (Rom 16:23). This could be a correlation to the Gaius mentioned in 3 John since he there also does for ‘strangers’ who bear witness to his love before the whole church (5-6)
In conclusion it is not possible to identify Gaius with any degree of certainty with the information provided above. If one were to guess, it may be that 1, 2, 4, and 5 are all one and the same person because none of this information excludes any other and because it would be natural for John to have such a pastoral relationship with the church at Corinth. Thus Gaius would be a Corinthian who showed hospitality to strangers and accompanied Paul on his third missionary journey and who now was also under the care of John. Again this is speculation at best. This may be another person than any of those mentioned thus far since John mostly had contact with those in Asia.
III. DATE: Probably similar to 2 John (AD 85-90)
A. This epistle and 2 John are complementary are were thus probably written and sent on the same occasion
B. Even if these two letters were not written on the same occasion, there is nothing in 3 John to require a great time interval between it and 2 John
C. It is not possible to determine whether 3 John preceded or followed 2 John in spite of 3 John 9 (which could or could not refer to 2 John)
D. Guthrie writes, “In all probability this Epistle and 2 John were the latest Johannine writings and the latest of all the New Testament literature...”3
IV. OCCASION AND PURPOSE:
A. Occasion: It seems that the early church practiced the support of traveling Christian teachers and missionaries by providing food and lodging for them. John commends Gaius for outstanding service in this regard (5-8), but Diotrephes had refused to show such hospitality to emissaries sent out from John. In fact he absolutely refused to receive them and even went to far as to try to excommunicate anyone who did (9-11)
1. To commend Gaius for his stand against Diotrephes4
2. To assure Gaius that he will deal with Diotrephes when he visits the church
3. To commend Demetrius to Gaius’ private hospitality in view of the actions of Diotrephes
1 It is uncertain that any external evidence can be cited before the third century. But as Guthrie writes, “the absence of early attestation is not very surprising in view of the character of its contents” (NTI, 895).
2 Guthrie, NTI, 884-85. In addition Guthrie writes, “It is significant that the earlier writers appear to have less hesitation about apostolic authorship than the later, which is the reverse of what would be expected if the doubts were based on accurate tradition. It is just possible that the ascription to John the Elder caused more confusion at a later date because of the belief in some circles in a John the Elder distinct from John the apostle....On the whole, there are no conclusive external reasons for denying the authenticity of these Epistles” (Ibid., 886).
3 NTI, 899. The only other exception to this would be the book of Revelation which was probably written AD 95-96.
4 This name meaning “fostered, cherished by Zeus” from Διος for “Zeus” and τρεφω meaning “to cause to grow or increase, bring up, rear, as in children) [Liddell and Scott, 434, 1814) may refer to his pagan background rather than being a second or third century generation Christian (Burdick, 454).
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines
An Argument For The Book Of 3 JohnRelated Media
Because Of The Good Work Of Supporting (Through Hospitality) Those In Ministry Whom John Has Sent, John Exhorts Gaius Not To Be Distracted By Diotrephes Refusal To Receive Those Who Are Sent, And To Receive Demetrius As A Brother In The Ministry Who Has A Good Testimony
I. INTRODUCTION: John greets Gaius in love and prays that he may prosper because of his obedient walk 1-4
A. Author and Recipient: The elder (John) writes to the beloved Gaius whom he loves in the truth 1
B. Prayer: John prays that Gaius may prosper because he is walking in the truth 2-4
II. COMMENDATION and WARNING: John Commends Gaius for his ministry of hospitality to those sent form him and urges him to not be influenced to do otherwise by the evil deeds of Diotrephes 5-11
A. Commended for Hospitality: John commends Gaius for the hospitality which he has been showing to those who have gone out form John (as missionaries and teachers) to proclaim the truth about Jesus 5-8
B. Warning about the Influence of Diotrephes: John exhorts Gaius not to be influenced from his good works by Diotrephes who has demonstrated hostility towards John and those whom he sends by refusing to show hospitality and putting those who do so out of the church 9-11
III. RECOMMENDATION: John recommends Demetrius to Gaius (as a brother in the ministry) through the testimony of others, his alignment with the truth, and through John himself 12
IV. CONCLUSION: In conclusion John expresses his intention to personally come to speak of other matters, his desire of peace for Gaius, and greetings from his church and for Gaius’ church 13-14
A. Intention to Speak of Other Matter: John intends to speak of other matters in person when he comes 13-14
B. Peace for Gaius: John desires peace for Gaius 15a
C. John sends greetings for the church and asks Gaius to greet the church for him 15b
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines
An Introduction To The Book Of 2 JohnRelated Media
I. AUTHOR: Probably the Apostle John, the son of Zebedee.
A. Different Views: The different views of authorship of 2 John are as follows:
1. John the Elder
2. An unknown Elder
3. The apostle John, the son of Zebedee--the view of this writer for the following reasons:
B. External Evidence: This evidence is not as strong as that for First John, yet its brevity of the letter and the unlikelihood of it being quoted may account for some of this (as with 3 John)1
1. Cited or alluded to by Polycarp (c. 110-50)
2. Cited or alluded to by Irenaeus (c. 130-202)
3. Disputed by Origen (c. 185-254)
4. Named as authentic by Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 315-86)
5. Disputed by Eusebius (c. 325-40)
6. Named as authentic by Jerome (c. 340-420)
7. Named as authentic by Augustine (c. 400)
8. Named as authentic by all of the canons (Muratorian (c. 170), Barococcio (c. 206), Apostolic (c. 300), Athanasuis (c. 367) except the Marcion (c. 140) except for Cheltenham (c. 360) who disputed it
9. Named as authentic in the Old Latin (c. 200)
10. Named as authentic in all of the councils except for Nicea (c. 325-40) [ Hippo (392), Carthage (397) and Carthage (419)].
C. Internal Evidence:
1. The epistle’s own claims as the author describes himself as the Elder (2 Jn 1)2
2. The relationship of the letter to other Johannine writings (1 John, and the Gospel of John)3
a. Many phrases are in both 2 and 3 John are either identical or reminiscent of those in 1 John
b. and 3 John become more understandable in view of 1 John
c. All three books (1, 2, and 3 John) share common characteristics with the Gospel of John (see Introduction on 1 John).
A. “The Elder to the chosen lady and her children...”
B. Different Views:
1. An individual woman, her natural children and sister (1, 4, 13)
2. This is a figurative way of designating a particular church. Therefore “chosen sister” would refer to a different church and “children” would refer to spiritual children (parishioners) of the church. Support is as follows:
a. She is loved by all
b. The use of the second person plural after verse 5 and until verse 13 more naturally refers to a congregation rather than the woman and her children
c. The command to love one another (v. 5) fits a local church better than an individual family. But it could refer to a larger circle of Christians rather than an individual family
d. John provides a clear instance of the writer referring to an individual. Yet it could be argued that the cryptic reference is to protect the identity of the person from any persecution which might ensue from receiving the letter
3. Perhaps this is a both/and situation in that the church met at the home of the lady. Therefore, it could be to both of them4
III. DATE: Probably between AD 85-95
A. Internal evidence offers little evidence
B. It this epistle is linked with 1 John it must be supposed that it was written at about the same time or just afterward (AD 85-95)
IV. OCCASION AND PURPOSES:
A. Occasion: It seems that John is writing again to combat incipient Docetic Gnosticism (Christ was not really a divine person in human flesh (v 7).5 He was only a phantom playing the human role. He only appeared to have real humanity. Once again there is a dualism emphasizing that the physical is evil and the spiritual is good. The correlates with 1 John 2:18-27 and especially 4:1-6 (in particular 4:2).
B. Purpose: To warn believers of the perils of being indiscriminate in their interactions with those who teach lies about Jesus:
1. To defend the truth which is the unifying bond between believers (1-4)
2. To clarify love as obeying Christ and not being indiscriminate (and thus accepting) with the enemies of Christ (5-11)
3. To encourage faithfulness to doctrinal purity so that believers will not forfeit reward at the bema of Christ, but might experience the fullness of fellowship (8-9, 12 “that your joy may be full”).
1 Guthrie, NTI, 884-85. In addition Guthrie writes, “It is significant that the earlier writers appear to have less hesitation about apostolic authorship than the later, which is the reverse of what would be expected if the doubts were based on accurate tradition. It is just possible that the ascription to John the Elder caused more confusion at a later date because of the belief in some circles in a John the Elder distinct from John the apostle....On the whole, there are no conclusive external reasons for denying the authenticity of these Epistles” (Ibid., 886).
2 See Guthrie for a discussion about the identity of this title (NTI, 886-889).
3 Guthrie, NTI, 889-90.
4 For other arguments see Guthrie, NTI, 890-893.
5 The present tense is explained by Marshall as relating to an orthodox confession “[I believe that] Jesus Christ [is] coming in flesh.” Therefore the focus is on the present existence of Jesus in the flesh rather than the incarnation. Thus this has historical roots with Cerinthus who denied that Christ ever really was human. He simply came upon (and left) Jesus.
Another preferable option is to understand the present tense as being a timeless present (Lenski and Burdick, 425-26) for four reasons: (1) no know first century heresy denied Christ’s second coming in the flesh, (2) The Gnostics denied Christ’s first coming in the flesh, (3) the same phrase occurs in 1 John 4:2 where the perfect tense “having come” clearly refers to Christ’s first coming, and (4) flesh is more naturally used to refer to the present mortal body than to the immortal resurrection body.
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines
An Argument For The Book Of 2 JohnRelated Media
John Writes To Encourage A Loving Church To Exercise Discrimination In The Support (Hospitality) Which They Show With Respect To False Teachers
I. SALUTATION: John the elder writes this letter to the church whom he and all who love the truth love and prays that grace and peace would be with them in truth and love from God the Father and from Jesus Christ the Father’s Son 1-3
A. Author and Recipients: John the elder writes this letter to the church whom he and all who love the truth love in truth 1-2
1. Author: John the elder writes this letter
2. Recipients: John writes this letter to the church (the elect lady and her children)1 whom he and all who love the truth love in the truth
B. Greeting: John prays that grace and peace would be with them all (us) in truth and love from God the Father and from Jesus Christ the Father’s Son 3
II. WARNING: John exhorts this loving church to exercise discrimination in their acceptance of those false teachers who are disobedient to Christ 4-11
A. John commends the church for walking in love 4
B. John cautions the church against showing indiscriminate love towards those who are being disobedient to Christ 5-11
1. John exhorts the church to love one another in terms of obeying Christ’s commandments 5-7
2. John warns the church about the perils of showing indiscriminate love towards the false teachers 8-11
a. John warns the church of the loss which they might experience by being persuaded by the lies of these false teachers 8-9
b. John warns the church against advancing their lies by entering into indiscriminate fellowship with the false teachers 10-11
III. CONCLUSION: John concludes his brief letter by presenting his intentions to come and encourage the church as well as with greetings from the church in Ephesus 12-13
A. John intends to come and personally encourage the church rather than write a lengthy letter 12
B. John sends the church greetings form the church in Ephesus 13
1 See the introduction for a discussion of the meaning of this phrase.
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines