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Psalm 130

STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

NASB NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
Hope in the Lord's Forgiving Love
MT Intro
A Song of Ascents
Waiting for the Redemption of the Lord A Prayer for Deliverance From Personal Trouble A Prayer For Help Out of the Depths
130:1-4 130:1-2 130:1-2 130:1-4 130:1-2
  130:3-4 130:3-4   130:3-4
130:5-8 130:5-6 130:5-6 130:5-6 130:5-7a
  130:7-8 130:7-8 130:7-8 130:7b-8

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

 

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

A. This is one of those Psalms that speaks to the deepest desires and hopes of faithful followers.

1. there are problems, sins, and disappointments

2. the believer cries out to his/her only hope, YHWH

3. He hears and forgives

4. He is faithful to His character and word even when humans are not (cf. Ps. 51:1)

B. There are several names for Israel's Deity used in the Psalm.

1. YHWH, Ps. 130:1,5,7 (twice)

2. Yah, Ps. 130:3 (abbreviation of YHWH)

3. Adon, Ps. 130:3,6

See SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY.

C. This Psalm expresses both individual and corporate yearning for restoration (cf. Ps. 130:7-8).

D. Notice the grammatical theological emphasis of Ps. 130:7-8.

1. Ps. 130:7, "abundant redemption" (BDB 915 I, KB 1176, Hiphil infinitive absolute)

2. He (and He alone) will redeem - personal pronoun added to verb for emphasis

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 130:1-4
 1Out of the depths I have cried to You, O Lord.
 2Lord, hear my voice!
 Let Your ears be attentive
 To the voice of my supplications.
 3If You, Lord, should mark iniquities,
 O Lord, who could stand?
 4But there is forgiveness with You,
 That You may be feared.

130:1 "Out of the depths" This noun (BDB 771) has several figurative uses. It basically means "deep."

1. distress described as a flood of waters, cf. Ps. 69:1-2,14-15 (similar metaphor to Ps. 42:7a; 88:7)

2. YHWH as champion of watery chaos, cf. Isa. 51:9-10 (similar to Ps. 74:12-17; 89:9-10)

3. the defeat of Tyre's sea power (i.e., sunk into the sea), cf. Ezek. 27:34

4. possibly a reference to Sheol, cf. Jonah 2:2-6; Ps. 18:4-5)

 

▣ "I have cried to You" The exact nature of the psalmist's distress is not stated but it is related to his sense of sin (cf. Ps. 130:3-4). He feels alienated but knows God will forgive and restore a repentant, patient follower (cf. Ps. 130:5-6)!

130:2 This verse reflects the psalmist's prayer mentioned in Ps. 130:1.

1. hear - BDB 1033, KB 1570, Qal imperative

2. let Your ears be attentive - BDB 224, KB 243, Qal imperfect used in a jussive sense

 

130:3-4 Several English translations make these two verses a separate strophe (i.e., NKJV, NRSV, NJB).

The reality of the sinfulness of all humans after the Fall of Genesis 3 is a recurrent truth throughout the Bible.

1. Genesis 3:17-19; 6:5,11-12; 8:21

2. 1 Kings 8:46

3. 2 Chronicles 6:36

4. Ezra 9:15

5. Job 4:17; 9:2; 15:14-16; 25:4

6. Psalm 51:5; 76:7; 130:3; 143:2

7. Proverbs 20:9

8. Ecclesiastes 7:20

9. Isaiah 53:6

10. Nahum 1:6

11. Malachi 3:2

12. Romans 3:9-18,19,23; 11:32

13. 1 John 1:8-10

14. Revelation 6:17

All need forgiveness! Humans do not sense a need for forgiveness until the Spirit clearly reveals our need. There is no need for a savior until there is a sense of lostness! See SPECIAL TOPIC: FORGIVENESS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

Forgiveness is possible because of

1. the gracious, unchanging character of God (see SPECIAL TOPIC: CHARACTERISTICS OF ISRAEL'S GOD [OT])

2. the finished work of the Messiah (cf. Isaiah 53; Mark 10:45; 2 Cor. 5:21)

3. the drawing, wooing of the Spirit (cf. John 6:44,65; 16:8-15)

 

130:3 "mark" This verb (BDB 1036, KB 1581, Qal imperfect) denotes, in this context, the preserving of a record. This is reflected in the "two books" of God (i.e., book of deeds/remembrances and the book of life, see SPECIAL TOPIC: THE TWO BOOKS OF GOD of God). This is a metaphor for the memory of God.

It is ironic but God is asked again and again to forget our sins (i.e., Ps. 79:8; 106:6; Isa. 64:9; Micah 7:18) but remember His promises. On Judgment Day the books will be opened (cf. Dan. 7:10; Rev. 20:12)!

130:4 "feared" The outcome of a free and full forgiveness by a gracious God is the restoration of the personal relationship with God (i.e., lost in the Fall of Genesis 3), which is/was/will be the goal of creation. We were created by Him and for Him. Fear is the appropriate awe that He is due. Forgiveness results in fellowship! See Special Topic: Fear (OT).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 130:5-8
 5I wait for the Lord, my soul does wait,
 And in His word do I hope.
 6My soul waits for the Lord
 More than the watchmen for the morning;
 Indeed, more than the watchmen for the morning.
 7O Israel, hope in the Lord;
 For with the Lord there is lovingkindness,
 And with Him is abundant redemption.
 8And He will redeem Israel
 From all his iniquities.

130:5-8 This strophe emphasizes the theme of the patience of faithful followers in God and trust in His word (cf. Ps. 130:5). The concept of "waiting in faith" is expressed in this strophe by two words.

1. BDB 875, KB 1082 - Ps. 130:5 (twice) and assumed in Ps. 130:6, cf. Ps. 25:3,21; 27:14; 40:1; 56:7

2. BDB 403, KB 407 - Ps. 130:5,7, cf. Ps. 38:15; 42:5; 43:5

This is the place where the sovereignty of God intercedes the required volitional response of fallen mankind. Faithful followers choose to wait, hope, trust in God and His promises, even when circumstances and feeling scream to take a different path!

130:6 This metaphor of longing anticipation is similar to Ps. 42:1-2. God's people long for Him!

▣ "soul" See full note at Gen. 35:18 online at www.freebiblecommentary.org.

130:7 As the psalmist longs, waits, hopes, and trusts in YHWH, he now calls on God's people collectively to do the same.

Notice how YHWH is characterized.

1. in Him is lovingkindness (i.e., covenant, loyal love, see Special Topic: Lovingkindness [hesed])

2. in Him is "abundant redemption" (Ps. 130:7c)

3. in Him (and no other, cf. REB) is redemption (noun in Ps. 130:7 and verb in Ps. 130:8, see SPECIAL TOPIC: RANSOM/REDEEM) for all those who trust in Him (i.e., the covenant people, see SPECIAL TOPIC: COVENANT and Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan)

Remember biblical faith is corporate. It is a family! Be careful of the modern western over-emphasis on the individual. Salvation has a corporate focus! We are saved to serve. The goal of individual salvation is the health and growth of the body of believers!

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. What feelings come to your mind/heart after reading Ps. 130:1-4?

2. What do you think "depths" means?

3. Does God keep a record of sins?

4. Does Ps. 130:5-6 describe how you feel about God and His word?

Psalm 131

STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

NASB NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
Childlike Trust in theLord
MT Intro
A Song of Ascents,
of David
Simple Trust in the Lord Act of Humble Submission to God's Will and Guidance A Prayer of Humble Trust Childlike Trust
131:1-3 131:1 131:1-2 131:1-3 131:1-3
  131:2 131:3    
  131:3      

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 131:1-3
 1O Lord, my heart is not proud, nor my eyes haughty;
 Nor do I involve myself in great matters,
 Or in things too difficult for me.
 2Surely I have composed and quieted my soul;
 Like a weaned child rests against his mother,
 My soul is like a weaned child within me.
 3O Israel, hope in the Lord
 From this time forth and forever.

131:1 "Lord" This is the covenant name for Israel's Deity. See Special Topic: Names for Deity.

▣ "heart" This is a Hebrew idiom referring to a person. See SPECIAL TOPIC: THE HEART.

▣ "not proud" The psalmist describes his humble attitude toward God in several phrases in Ps. 131:1-2.

1. not proud (lit. "not lifted up") - BDB 146, KB 170, Qal perfect

2. eyes not haughty (lit. "my eyes not raised") - BDB 926, KB 1202, Qal perfect

3. do not involve (lit. "walk," BDB 229, KB 246, Piel perfect) myself in

a. great matters (BDB 152)

b. things too difficult (BDB 810, see Special Topic: Wonderful Things) for me

4. composed my soul - BDB 1000, KB 1436, Piel perfect

5. quieted my soul - BDB 198, KB 226, Poel perfect

Proud and haughty people are the recipients of YHWH's wrath (cf. Ps. 18:27; 101:5; Zeph. 3:11) because it reveals the results of the Fall of Genesis 3. Humility shows the results of a spiritual conversion and acceptance of God's revelation.

There is a real question about what the imagery of #3 means.

1. simply an idiom of humility

2. simply an idiom of dependance

3. someone who does not question God's great acts

4. someone who does not presume on God's power

5. a human who knows his/her place in the scheme of things (cf. Ps. 89:10)

 

131:2 The psalmist continues to describe his humble attitude by using the imagery of a child.

▣ "soul" This is nephesh (BDB 659), a way, like "heart," of referring to the whole person. See full note at Gen. 35:18 online.

131:3 The psalmist uses his own humble heart and peaceful hope/trust/patience (BDB 403, KB 407, Piel imperative, cf. Ps. 130:5,6,7) to encourage national Israel to the same place.

▣ "From this time forth and forever" This Hebrew idiom uses three words beginning with "ע" (cf. Ps. 113:2; 115:18; 121:8; 125:2).

1. BDB 773 - adverb for current time (i.e., first phrase)

2. BDB 723 III - preposition

3. BDB 761 - noun, 'olam, see Special Topic: Forever ('olam)

Psalm 132

STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

NASB NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
Prayer for the Lord's Blessing Upon the Sanctuary
MT Intro
A Song of Ascents
The Eternal Dwelling of God in Zion Liturgy Commemorating God's Choice of Zion and the Davidic Dynasty In Praise of the Temple For the Anniversary of the Transfer of the Ark
132:1-5 132:1-5 132:1-5 132:1-5 132:1-5
132:6-9 132:6-9 132:6-7 132:6-7 132:6-7
    132:8-10 132:8-9 132:8-10
132:10-12 132:10   132:10-12  
  132:11-12 132:11-12   132:11-12
132:13-18 132:13-18 132:13-18 132:13-18 132:13-14
        132:15-16
        132:17-18

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

A. This is obviously a Psalm about

1. God's promises to David in 2 Sam. 7:12-16; 2 Chr. 6:16 (see brief discussion of "The Davidic Covenant" in NIDOTTE, vol. 4, pp. 507-508)

2. God's choice of Mt. Moriah as the place for His presence to dwell (cf. Deut. 12:5,11,14,18, 21,26; 14:23-25; 15:20; 16:2,6,11,15; 17:8,10; 18:6; 26:2; 31:11, see Special Topic: Moriah)

B. The results of God's presence and Israel's covenant obedience are

1. to abundantly bless her provision, Ps. 132:15

2. to satisfy her hunger, Ps. 132:15

3. wonderful worship, Ps. 132:16

4. God's king exalted, Ps. 132:17

5. the destruction of the Davidic king's enemies, Ps. 132:17

C. For a good brief discussion of the theology of Zion see NIDOTTE, vol. 2, pp. 959 and 512.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 132:1-5
 1Remember, O Lord, on David's behalf,
 All his affliction;
 2How he swore to the Lord
 And vowed to the Mighty One of Jacob,
 3"Surely I will not enter my house,
 Nor lie on my bed;
 4I will not give sleep to my eyes
 Or slumber to my eyelids,
 5Until I find a place for the Lord,
 A dwelling place for the Mighty One of Jacob."

132:1 "Remember" This is an imperative used as a prayer. Psalm 25:6-7 shows the way this was used.

1. God, remember Your unchanging character of grace and mercy, Ps. 25:6

2. God, forget our sin, Ps. 25:7

 

▣ "on David's behalf" Often the people of Israel and her leaders asked God to have mercy on them because of

1. His promises to the Fathers (i.e., Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob)

2. His promises to David (cf. 2 Samuel 7; 2 Chronicles 6:16)

 

▣ "All his afflictions" This seems to allude to David's statements in 2 Sam. 16:12, but it may refer to David's initial problems in bringing the ark into Jerusalem (cf. 2 Samuel 6). The JPSOA translates it as "his extreme self-denial," which would relate to its usage in Num. 30:13 and 1 Chr. 22:14.

The LXX revocalizes the MT (BDB 776 III, KB 853, Pual infinitive construct) to "his meekness" (a noun, BDB 776, cf. Ps. 45:4).

132:2-5 "he swore to the Lord" This oath is not recorded in the historical books. Basically David

1. made a vow about the tabernacle being brought to Jerusalem

2. would not enter his own dwelling place (lit. "the tent of my house") until the tabernacle (i.e., YHWH's tent of dwelling) was in Jerusalem

3. would not sleep (hyperbolic) until the ark came

4. Ps. 132:5 states his purpose (i.e., the ark of the covenant and the tabernacle in his capital, cf. Acts 7:46)

It is obvious that #2 and #3 are hyperbolic and used in a literary fashion to show intense intent!

132:2 "the Mighty One of Jacob" This title (BDB 7 construct BDB 784) for Israel's Deity is first used in Gen. 49:24, where Jacob blesses his children, the future tribes of Israel. It is also used in Isa. 49:26 (promise of universal redemption) and 60:16, where it is linked with other titles for YHWH.

1. Savior (cf. Isa. 19:2; 43:3,11; 45:15,21; 63:8)

2. Redeemer (cf. Isa. 59:20; 63:16)

The NIDOTTE, vol. 1, p. 232, has the interesting comment that the adjective "mighty" has two forms.

1. originally it referred to the strength of bulls or wild oxen

2. to designate YHWH's power

 

132:5 This is not referring to David's desire to build a permanent temple (cf. 1 Kgs. 8:17; 1 Chr. 22:7) but to bringing the ark, along with its portable tent (i.e., tabernacle of the exodus period) into his capital, Jerusalem (cf. 2 Samuel 6).

▣ "dwelling place" This is plural in the MT and may be a grammatical way to denote significance, like NET's "a fine dwelling place."

In other contexts this term in the plural denotes all the buildings in the temple enclosure (cf. Ps. 43:3; 46:4; 84:1).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 132:6-9
 6Behold, we heard of it in Ephrathah,
 We found it in the field of Jaar.
 7Let us go into His dwelling place;
 Let us worship at His footstool.
 8Arise, O Lord, to Your resting place,
 You and the ark of Your strength.
 9Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness,
 And let Your godly ones sing for joy.

132:6 "Ephrathah" is an area in Judah which came to refer to the extended family of David (cf. Ruth 4:11). However, Bethlehem was not the location of the ark. They just heard about the King's oath (cf. Ps. 132:2) to bring the ark to Jerusalem.

▣ "Jaar" This is a reference to Kiriath-Jearim (cf. 1 Sam. 7:1; 1 Chr. 13:1-8), where the ark was housed in a private home for twenty years before David brought it to Jerusalem. "Jaar" is the singular form of "Jearim."

▣ "it" This is a feminine suffix, while "the ark" is masculine, so it may refer to David's oath (NIDOTTE, vol. 3, p. 736; AB, p. 244) mentioned in Ps. 132:2.

The NEB (p. 1000) mentions the fact that on at least two occasions "ark" is feminine (i.e., 1 Sam. 4:17; 2 Chr. 8:11). Since this Psalm has several archaic words and forms this may answer the gender problem.

132:7 Both verbs are cohortative plural and refer to a pilgrimage to YHWH's temple.

▣ "footstool" Both David (cf. 1 Chr. 28:2) and Solomon (1 Kgs. 8:27) recognized that the temple was not the true dwelling place of the God of creation. David began to call the place between the wings of the Cherubim above the mercy seat (lid of the ark) the place where heaven and earth, the invisible and visible, the eternal and temporal, met (cf. Exod. 25:22)! He called it YHWH's footstool" (cf. Isa. 66:1; see Special Topic: The Ark of the Covenant); also note Ps. 99:5.

The imagery of Deity as having feet is part of the limits of human vocabulary. See SPECIAL TOPIC: GOD DESCRIBED AS HUMAN (ANTHROPOMORPHISM) (anthropomorphism).

132:8 "Arise" This verb (BDB 877, KB 1086, Qal imperative) is used in Num. 10:35 and 2 Chr. 6:41 to denote YHWH rising from His throne to go before His people to fight on their behalf (cf. Ps. 3:7; 7:6; 9:19; 10:12; 44:26; 74:22; 82:8).

This verse and Ps. 132:9 seem to be an allusion to Solomon's dedication of the new temple in 2 Chr. 6:41.

▣ "Your resting place" YHWH is described in human terms because there is no other vocabulary available to Bible authors (see SPECIAL TOPIC: GOD DESCRIBED AS HUMAN (ANTHROPOMORPHISM). The ark of the covenant and, thereby YHWH Himself, needed/wanted a physical location for it/Him to reside/rest (cf. 1 Chr. 6:31; 28:2; 2 Chr. 6:41; Ps. 132:8,14; Isa. 11:10; 66:1). Remember, anthropomorphic imagery does not ascribe a limit on God but on human ability to comprehend the God of time and space (i.e., physical creation).

A new book by John Walton, The Lost World of Genesis One, uses the cosmologies of the ANE to show that Genesis 1 is the account of YHWH building a cosmic temple (i.e., the earth) as a place to rest (cf. Gen. 2:1-3).

Hebrews 3:7 through 4:13 (cf. Ps. 95:7-11) contains a play on the word "rest" referring to three different things.

1. seventh day of creation from Gen. 2:2 in Heb. 4:3,4,10

2. the promised land from Numbers 13-14 in Heb. 3:11,18; 4:8

3. eschatological heaven

"Rest" is both a sense of peace and a desired location of fellowship (cf. Ps. 62:1; Isa. 63:14; Jer. 31:2).

132:9 This verse has two imperfects used as jussives.

1. be clothed - BDB 527, KB 519, Qal

2. sing for joy - BDB 943, KB 1247, Piel

It is uncertain if there are two groups mentioned (i.e., priests and worshipers) or a literary parallel.

In Job 20:14 Job describes himself as clothed in righteousness. It is uncertain exactly what it means in connection with these priests. Possibly that they reflect YHWH's character and revelations in their leadership, lives, tasks, and duties.

This verse may reflect the festive and fearful march of the ark carried by specially dressed priests and singing Levites.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 132:10-12
 10For the sake of David Your servant,
 Do not turn away the face of Your anointed.
 11The Lord has sworn to David
 A truth from which He will not turn back:
 "Of the fruit of your body I will set upon your throne.
 12If your sons will keep My covenant
 And My testimony which I will teach them,
 Their sons also shall sit upon your throne forever."

132:10-12 This strophe surely alludes to 2 Samuel 7. Notice the conditional element of Ps. 132:12 related to each individual descendant but the larger purpose of God expressed in 2 Sam. 7:14-16.

Notice the sound play of so many of the verbs of Ps. 132:10-12 starting with שׁ.

1. do not turn away - BDB 996, KB 1427, Hiphil jussive

2. has sworn - BDB 989, KB 1396, Niphal perfect

3. He will not turn away - same root as #1 but Qal imperfect

4. I will set upon Your throne - BDB 1011, KB 1483, Qal imperfect

5. if your sons will keep My covenant - BDB 1036, KB 1581, Qal imperfect (notice the conditional aspect, cf. 1 Kgs. 9:4-9; Ps. 89:30-45)

 

132:10 "Your anointed" This is the term (BDB 603) from which the title "Messiah" comes. See SPECIAL TOPIC: MESSIAH.

132:12 "covenant" See Special Topic: Covenant.

▣ "testimony" See Special Topic: Terms for God's Revelation.

▣ "forever" See Special Topic: Forever ('olam).

132:11 "The Lord has sworn to David" As David swore in Ps. 132:2, now YHWH responds with His own oath. This oath is known as the Davidic covenant (cf. 2 Samuel 7; Ps. 89:3,35).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 132:13-18
 13For the Lord has chosen Zion;
 He has desired it for His habitation.
 14"This is My resting place forever;
 Here I will dwell, for I have desired it.
 15I will abundantly bless her provision;
 I will satisfy her needy with bread.
 16Her priests also I will clothe with salvation,
 And her godly ones will sing aloud for joy.
 17There I will cause the horn of David to spring forth;
 I have prepared a lamp for Mine anointed.
 18His enemies I will clothe with shame,
 But upon himself his crown shall shine."

132:13-18 This strophe describes the things YHWH has done (Ps. 132:13-14) and will do (Ps. 132:15-18).

1. He has chosen Zion (see Special Topic: Zion), Ps. 132:13-14

2. He will abundantly bless (emphatic infinitive absolute and imperfect verb of the same root, BDB 138, KB 159), Ps. 132:15a

3. He will provide food, Ps. 132:15b

4. the temple priests will be godly people, Ps. 132:16 (cf. 1 Chr. 6:41)

5. the temple worshipers (cf. Ps. 4:3 or Levites) will sing aloud for joy (emphatic infinitive absolute and imperfect verb of the same root, BDB 943, KB 1247), Ps. 132:16 (cf. 1 Chr. 6:41)

6. He will establish the dynasty of David in Jerusalem, Ps. 132:17

7. He will defeat Israel's enemies, Ps. 132:18

 

132:16 Because of the parallels of this strophe, probably "priests" (or Levites) are addressed in both lines of this verse.

132:17 "the horn of David" The horn is a Hebrew idiom of power and pre-immanence (cf. Luke 1:69).

▣ "to spring forth" This verb (BDB 855, KB 1033, Hiphil imperfect) may be related to the imagery of the special Davidic King called "The Branch." See:

1. SPECIAL TOPIC: JESUS THE NAZARENE

2. full note at Isa. 11:1 online

3. NIDOTTE, vol. 3, p. 75

The root for "crown" is נזר, which could denote

1. a crown (noun, BDB 634)

2. to consecrate (verb, BDB 634)

3. Branch (a title of the Messiah)

 

▣ "a lamp for Mine anointed" This is a specific usage of the light imagery that refers, not to revelation (i.e., Ps. 18:28; 119:105; Pro. 6:23) but to a Davidic descendant on the throne of Israel (cf. 1 Kgs. 11:36; 15:4; 2 Kgs. 8:19; 2 Chr. 21:7). In 2 Sam. 21:17 it refers to David himself.

Psalm 133

STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

NASB NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
The Excellency of Brotherly Unity
MT Intro
A Song of Ascents,
of David
Blessed Unity of the People of God The Joys of Harmony in the Family In Praise of Living in Peace Brotherly Love
133:1-3 133:1 133:1-3 133:1-3 133:1
  133:2-3     133:2-3

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

A. This brief Psalm is difficult to interpret because of its imagery that does not fit well together.

1. brothers - Aaron

2. Hermon - Zion

B. The theological purpose and historical period of this Psalm are unknown. Some see it as relating to

1. David's day (because of MT title) when Israel and Judah were reunited (cf. 2 Samuel 5, i.e., the United Monarchy)

2. the post-exilic period when Israel (Mt. Hermon) and Judah (Mt. Zion) are connected again (i.e., Cyrus' decree, 538 b.c.)

3. a Psalm that asserts the common fellowship of all levels of Jewish society (i.e., special anointing oil runs down Aaron's beard onto "all" his clothing)

4. a way of asserting God's desire for all His people to experience

a. abundant life now

b. eternal life one day

5. all blessings "descend" (used 3 times - BDB 432, KB 434, Qal participles) from God

a. covenant people (brothers)

b. unity (Aaron's clothing)

c. blessings (i.e., dew)

d. eternal life (Ps. 133:3c)

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 133:1-3
 1Behold, how good and how pleasant it is
 For brothers to dwell together in unity!
 2It is like the precious oil upon the head,
 Coming down upon the beard,
 Even Aaron's beard,
 Coming down upon the edge of his robes.
 3It is like the dew of Hermon
 Coming down upon the mountains of Zion;
 For there the Lord commanded the blessing—life forever.

133:1 "how good and how pleasant" These adjectives (BDB 373 II and BDB 653 I) describe the intended experience of humans created in God's image to be a community.

▣ "brothers" Exactly to whom this refers is uncertain, see Contextual Insights, B.

▣ "dwell" This noun (BDB 443 I) is related to the verb (DB 442) which means "to sit" (i.e., a fellowship meal), "to remain" (i.e., abide with), or "to dwell" (i.e., a place to live). It can be literal or metaphorical here.

133:2

NASB, NKJV,
NRSV"the precious oil"
TEV"the precious anointing oil"
NJB, JPSOA"a fine oil"
REB, LXX"fragrant oil"

The adjective (BDB 373 II) is the same one used in Ps. 133:1 (i.e., "good").

The noun "oil" (BDB 1032) can mean "fat" or "olive oil." Because of the mentioning of Aaron's anointing in Ps. 133:2c-d, this refers to his special inaugural commissioning service (cf. Exod. 29:7; 30:25,30; Lev. 8:12; 21:10).

The High Priest of Israel was both a cultic figure and eschatological Messianic figure (cf. Zechariah 3-4). Therefore, he could symbolize

1. the unity of God's OT people

2. the unity of all people made in God's image

 

NASB, NKJV"the edge of his robes"
NRSV, TEV,
NJB, JPSOA"over the collar of his robes"
REB"the collar of his vestments"
LXX"upon the fringe of his clothing"

The meaning of the noun (BDB 804) is the interpretive issue. Literally it means "mouth." It refers here to Exodus 28, which denotes a special collar of the High Priest's robe/ephod that cannot be torn (i.e., a Hebrew symbol of grief). The interpretive question is "how much oil was used?" Is it a symbol of unity (i.e., ran over all his priestly attire)? Is this Psalm about the unity of groups of Israelites/Jews or all mankind (i.e., Ps. 133:3c)?

Just a note, there are two possible roots from which this word "collar" could be taken.

1. garment, clothing - מד (BDB 551)

2. measure - מדד (BDB 551)\

 

133:3 How is Mt. Hermon related to Mt. Zion?

1. unity of the Promised Land

2. unity of the tribes of Israel

3. unity of all people in an eschatological setting (i.e., does Ps. 133:3 mean "life" here and now or "life" in an eschatological setting?)

 

▣ "dew of Hermon" The dew on this highest mountain, easily seen from northern Israel, was very heavy and became an idiom for abundance. Mt. Zion, with YHWH's blessings on their unity, would have similar abundant moisture.

▣ "forever" This Hebrew term (BDB 761, see Special Topic: Forever ['olam]) must be interpreted in a specific context. The theological issue involves the OT sense of a possible afterlife. There is no doubt that by progressive revelation (i.e., the NT) the Bible as a whole clearly affirms this truth, but did the OT? I think so (i.e., Job 14:14-15; 19:25-27) but not always (i.e., Ps. 23:5; 27:4-6). However, even in the OT there is a hint of hope.

1. Enoch (Gen. 5:24) and Elijah (2 Kings 2) are taken to heaven

2. in Psalms, cf. Ps. 1:3; 49:15; 73:24

3. in Isaiah, cf. Isa. 26:19

4. in Daniel, cf. Dan. 12:1-4

Psalm 134

STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

NASB NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
Greetings of Night Watchers
MT Intro
A Song of Ascents.
Praising the Lord in His House at Night A Liturgy of Blessing A Call to Praise God For the Evening Liturgy
134:1-3 134:1-2 134:1-2 134:1-2 134:1-2
  134:3 134:3 134:3 134:3

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 134:1-3
 1Behold, bless the Lord, all servants of the Lord,
 Who serve by night in the house of the Lord
 2Lift up your hands to the sanctuary
 And bless the Lord.
 3May the Lord bless you from Zion,
 He who made heaven and earth.

134:1 "bless" This verb (BDB 138, KB 159) appears three times in this short Psalm.

1-2. Piel imperative - Ps. 134:1,2

3. Piel imperfect used in a jussive sense - Ps. 134:3

The synonym (BDB 80) occurs often in the Psalms. See full note at Ps. 1:1. For this term (BDB 139) see SPECIAL TOPIC: BLESSING (OT). In Ps. 1:1 it is the faithful follower who is blessed, here it is Israel's God (see Special Topic: Characteristics of Israel's God).

▣ "all servants of the Lord" This denotes conscious creation (i.e., angels, humans, possibly other levels of spiritual beings, see Special Topic: Angels in Paul's Writings). A good parallel to this concept is (1) Ps. 103:19-22, where the same verb is used three times for the angelic world; (2) Ps. 135:1-4, where three "praises" (BDB 237, KB 248, Piel imperative) are used of the priests and Levites.

There were five different kinds of temple servants.

1. priests

2. Levites

3. singers

4. gatekeepers

5. the lowest servants (see NIDOTTE, vol. 3, pp. 203-204)

 

▣ "Who serve by night in the house of the Lord" This is mentioned again in Ps. 135:1-4. It refers to the descendants of Levi's family from Aaron who served in the temple in Jerusalem (lit. "stand," BDB 763, KB 840, strongly implies temple priests or Levites). The prepositional phrase, "by night" (BDB 538) means "all day long," not just those who kept watch at night (cf. 1 Chr. 9:33).

There is a parallel phrase in Ps. 135:2 which adds an additional descriptive phrase (i.e., LXX, NJB).

134:2 "Lift up your hands to the sanctuary" The verb (BDB 669, KB 724, Qal imperative) denotes the actions of priests. In Num. 6:24-26; Lev. 9:2, they bless (BDB 138, KB 159) the people by lifting up their hands, but here they "bless" YHWH who resides in His temple between the wings of the Cherubim over the "Mercy Seat" in the Holy of Holies.

The phrase "lifting the hand" can refer to several separate things.

1. taking an oath - cf. Gen. 14:22; Exod. 6:8; Num. 14:30; Ps. 106:26; Ezek. 20:5 (implied in Ezra 10:5)

2. act of rebellion - 2 Sam. 20:21

3. for blessing - Lev. 9:22; Ps. 134:2; Luke 24:50; 1 Tim. 2:8

4. sign of YHWH's actions - Ps. 10:12; Mic. 5:9

5. the gesture is a general way of referring to prayer - Exod. 9:29,33; 1 Kgs. 8:22,38-39; Ezra 9:5; Ps. 28:2; 63:4; 141:2; 1 Tim. 2:8

The Rotherham's Emphasized Bible translates "sanctuary" in a way that refers to the priests themselves (i.e., lift up your hands in holiness, cf. Lev. 21:6; 2 Chr. 23:6; Ezra 8:28). See SPECIAL TOPIC: HOLY.

134:3a This line of poetry shows the reciprocal relationship between blessing YHWH (i.e., worship) and Him blessing (BDB 138, KB 159, Piel imperfect used in a jussive sense) His covenant people (cf. Ps. 128:5).

▣ "Zion" See Special Topic: Zion.

134:3b YHWH is characterized as the creator (cf. Ps. 115:15; 121:2; 124:8; 134:3; 136:5; 146:6). This concluding phrase may hint at the theological thrust of Ps. 134:1, that "servants" includes both inanimate and animate creation.

Psalm 135

STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

NASB NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
Praise the Lord's Wonderful Works. Vanity of Idols
No MT Intro
Praise to God in Creation and Redemption Hymn Praising the Lord for His Mighty Deeds A Hymn of Praise Hymn of Praise
135:1-4 135:1a 135:1-4 135:1-4 135:1a
  135:1b-4     135:1b-2
        135:3-4
135:5-7 135:5-7 135:5-7 135:5-7 135:5-6
        135:7
135:8-18 135:8-12 135:8-12 135:8-12 135:8-9
        135:10-12
  135:13-14 135:13-14 135:13-14 135:13-14
  135:15-18 135:15-18 135:15-18 135:15-16
        135:17-18
135:19-21 135:19-21b 135:19-21 135:19-21b 135:19-20
        135:21a-b
  135:21c   135:21c  

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Etc.

 

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

A. This Psalm starts and concludes with

1. praise - BDB 237, KB 248, Piel imperative, Ps. 135:1 (thrice), 3a, 21c

2. sing - BDB 274, KB 273, Piel imperative, Ps. 135:3b

3. bless - BDB 138, KB 159, Piel imperative, Ps. 135:19 (twice), 20 (twice)

B. YHWH is praised/blessed/sung about because

1. character

a. He is good, Ps. 135:3 (cf. Ps. 147:1)

b. He is lovely, Ps. 135:3 (cf. Ps. 27:4; 147:1)

c. He is great, Ps. 135:5 (cf. Ps. 48:1; 145:3)

d. He is above all gods, Ps. 135:5 (see Special Topic: Monotheism)

e. His name is everlasting, Ps. 135:13a (cf. Exod. 3:15)

f. His memory of His promises is sure, Ps. 135:13b

2. acts for Israel

a. chose Jacob/Israel, Ps. 135:4 (cf. Deut. 7:6; 10:15)

b. sovereign, Ps. 135:6 (cf. Ps. 115:3; Eccl. 8:3; Isa. 46:8-10)

c. controls water, Ps. 135:7 (see Special Topic: Waters)

d. delivered Israel from Egypt, Ps. 135:8-9 (cf. Ps. 136:10-15)

e. protected Israel in the wandering period, Ps. 135:10-11 (cf. Ps. 136:16-22)

3. His acts toward Israel

a. chose them, Ps. 135:4

b. judged them, Ps. 135:14

(1) for their sin (cf. Heb. 10:26-31)

(2) or on their behalf against the nations (cf. Deut. 32:36)

c. but will forgive (cf. Deut. 32:26)

C. This Psalm includes a strophe on the folly of idolatry (cf. Ps. 135:14-18). He and He alone is God (see Special Topic: Monotheism). This strophe is similar to Ps. 115:4-8 (also note Exod. 20:23; Deut. 4:28; 29:17).

D. Many/most of the phrasing of this Psalm is found in other Scripture texts. The date of the Psalm is uncertain (i.e., did it quote or was it quoted?).

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 135:1-4
 1Praise the Lord!
 Praise the name of the Lord;
 Praise Him, O servants of the Lord,
 2You who stand in the house of the Lord,
 In the courts of the house of our God!
 3Praise the Lord, for the Lord is good;
 Sing praises to His name, for it is lovely.
 4For the Lord has chosen Jacob for Himself,
 Israel for His own possession.

135:1c-2 These phrases refer to priests. See fuller note at Ps. 134:1.

135:1 "Praise" This is the Hebrew term "Hallelujah." Notice the name for Israel's Deity is the abbreviated YHWH—Yah (Ps. 135:1,3,4,21), which forms the end of praise (lit. Praise the Lord).

▣ "the name of the Lord" See Special Topic: "The Name" of YHWH.

135:4 "Israel for His own possession" Israel was YHWH's special choice (cf. Exod. 19:5-6; Deut. 7:6; 14:2; 26:18; Isa. 43:21; Mal. 3:17; 1 Pet. 2:9) to reveal Himself to the nations (see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 135:5-7
 5For I know that the Lord is great
 And that our Lord is above all gods.
 6Whatever the Lord pleases, He does,
 In heaven and in earth, in the seas and in all deeps.
 7He causes the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth;
 Who makes lightnings for the rain,
 Who brings forth the wind from His treasuries.

135:5 "I know" See Special Topic: Know.

▣ "Lord" This is the Hebrew Adon, which means "master," "owner," "husband," or "Lord." See Special Topic: Names for Deity.

▣ "our Lord is above all gods" YHWH is the only God (cf. Exod. 18:11; Ps. 95:3; 96:4; 97:9, see Special Topic: Monotheism). This is where the exclusivisim of Israel is very obvious! She was the only monotheistic nation of the ANE.

135:6 "In heaven and in earth, in the seas" This is typical language for creation (i.e., this planet, cf. Exod. 20:11; Neh. 9:6; Ps. 69:34; 96:11; 146:6; Hag. 2:6). See SPECIAL TOPIC: HEAVEN.

▣ "the seas. . .all deeps" These may be synonymous or the first of YHWH's control of (1) agricultural water and (2) water as a weapon (i.e., lightning, floods, plagues, etc.). The second may refer to the imagery of ANE mythology of YHWH defeating watery chaos (cf. Ps 65:5-7; 89:9-10; Job 26:12-13; Isa. 51:9-10).

137:7 "His treasures" This Hebrew noun can mean "treasury" or "storehouse." The OT often uses the imagery of weather phenomena (i.e., hail, snow, wind, lightning, rain/flood) kept in heavenly storehouses to be used by YHWH, not Ba'al.

1. Deut. 28:12

2. Job 38:22

3. Ps. 33:7

4. Jer. 10:13; 51:16

YHWH controls the forces of nature for His purposes (cf. Lev. 26:4-5,9,16,19,22,26; Deut. 27:3; 28:4-5,8,11,12,17-18,22,24,38-42).

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 135:8-18
 8He smote the firstborn of Egypt,
 Both of man and beast.
 9He sent signs and wonders into your midst, O Egypt,
 Upon Pharaoh and all his servants.
 10He smote many nations
 And slew mighty kings,
 11Sihon, king of the Amorites,
 And Og, king of Bashan,
 And all the kingdoms of Canaan;
 12And He gave their land as a heritage,
 A heritage to Israel His people.
 13Your name, O Lord, is everlasting,
 Your remembrance, O Lord, throughout all generations.
 14For the Lord will judge His people
 And will have compassion on His servants.
 15The idols of the nations are but silver and gold,
 The work of man's hands.
 16They have mouths, but they do not speak;
 They have eyes, but they do not see;
 17They have ears, but they do not hear,
 Nor is there any breath at all in their mouths.
 18Those who make them will be like them,
 Yes, everyone who trusts in them.

135:8 "He smote" This verb (BDB 645, KB 697, Hiphil perfect) denotes a complete destruction sent and accomplished by God.

1. Ps. 135:8 - YHWH's promised deliverance from Egypt (cf. Gen. 15:12-15; Exod. 3:20; 7:25; 9:15; 12:13; Ps. 87:4; Isa. 30:7)

2. Ps. 135:10 - YHWH's defeat of the nations of Canaan (cf. Gen. 15:16-21)

 

135:13 "everlasting" See Special Topic: Forever ('olam). This may be a play on the root meaning of YHWH from the Hebrew verb "to be." See Special Topic: Names for Deity.

NASB"Your remembrance"
NKJV, JPSOA"Your fame"
NRSV, REB,
LXX"Your renown"
NJB"Your memory"

The Hebrew noun (BDB 271) means "remembrance" or "memorial."

1. human's memory - Pro. 10:7; Eccl. 9:5

2. Israel - Hos.14:7

3. YHWH - Exod. 3:15; Ps. 6:6; 30:4; 97:12; 102:12; Isa. 26:8; Hos. 12:5

 

135:18 Those who make the idols and then worship them will be like them.

1. cannot speak

2. cannot see

3. cannot hear

4. cannot breathe

They are lifeless imaginations of fallen, false human hearts and hands. Idols cannot help or know, so too, the worshipers! 

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 135:19-21
 19O house of Israel, bless the Lord;
 O house of Aaron, bless the Lord;
 20O house of Levi, bless the Lord;
 You who revere the Lord, bless the Lord.
 21Blessed be the Lord from Zion,
 Who dwells in Jerusalem.
 Praise the Lord!

135:19 This refers to

1. all the tribes of Israel

2. the special tribe of Levi, family of Aaron, YHWH's choice for His temple servants to come from In a sense, this tribe replaced the firstborn children of all the tribes as YHWH's servants (cf. Exodus 13).

 

135:20 "house of Levi" Not all Levites were priests but all priests were of the tribe of Levi. Some Levites

1. served in the temple (see note at Ps. 134:1)

2. served locally as teachers of the Law of Moses

 

▣ "revere the Lord" See Special Topic: Fear.

135:21 "Zion" See Special Topic: Moriah, Jebus, Salem, Jerusalem, Zion.

▣ "Who dwells in Jerusalem" See note at Ps. 132:14.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. List the characteristics of Israel's God.

2. Define monotheism.

3. Does God control weather for His purposes? Does that mean God sends all storms, floods, fire, etc.?

4. Why is trusting in idols so sad?

Psalm 136

STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

NASB NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
Thanks for the Lord's Goodness to Israel
No MT Intro
Thanksgiving to God for His Enduring Mercy Thanksgiving for the Lord's Great Deeds on Behalf of His People A Hymn of Thanksgiving Litany of Thanksgiving
136:1-9 136:1-3 136:1-3 136:1-3 136:1-3
  136:4-9 136:4-9 136:4-9 136:4-6
        136:7-9
136:10-22 136:10-22 136:10-22 136:10-15 136:10-12
        136:13-15
      136:16-22 136:16-20
        136:21-24
136:23-26 136:23-25 136:23-25 136:23-25  
        136:25-26
  136:26 136:26 136:26  

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Etc.

 

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

A. As "bless" (BDB 138, KB 159, Piel imperatives) opened and closed Psalm 135, "give thanks" (BDB 392, KB 389, Hiphil imperatives) opens and closes Psalm 136.

B. The liturgical repetitive pattern is obvious in the Psalm. The rabbis call it "the Great Hallel." The Priest would pronounce the first line of each verse and the worshipers the second in refrain.

C. The structure/theology is

1. YHWH Himself is characterized

2. YHWH's acts of deliverance are highlighted

3. Israel is called on to praise their national God, the only God

D. The Psalm is the parallel to Psalm 135.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 136:1-9
 1Give thanks to the Lord, for He is good,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.
 2Give thanks to the God of gods,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.
 3Give thanks to the Lord of lords,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.
 4To Him who alone does great wonders,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting;
 5To Him who made the heavens with skill,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting;
 6To Him who spread out the earth above the waters,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting;
 7To Him who made the great lights,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting:
 8The sun to rule by day,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 9The moon and stars to rule by night,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.

136:1 "‘Give thanks" the verb (BDB 392, KB 389) basically means "to throw" or "cast." In the Hiphil it is used of

1. thanksgiving by singing liturgical phrases

2. confessing (cf. Lev. 5:5; Pro. 28:13)

The AB suggests that there was a physical gesture connected to the act of thanksgiving which is the reason this seemingly unconnected root was used.

▣ "for He is good" The first strophe (Ps. 136:1-9) describes YHWH's person and acts of creation.

1. He is good (cf. 1 Chr. 16:34; Ps. 106:1; 107:1; 118:1,29; 136:1; Jer. 33:11)

2. He is over all gods (cf. Deut. 10:17, see SPECIAL TOPIC: MONOTHEISM)

3. He is the creator of this planet, Ps. 136:4-9 (cf. Genesis 1, see Special Topic: Wonderful Things for Ps. 136:4a)

 

▣ "For His lovingkindness is everlasting" This is a recurrent affirmation of YHWH's mercy and eternality (repeated in every verse).

For the term "lovingkindness" see Special Topic: Lovingkindness (hesed). For the term "everlasting" see Special Topic: Forever ('olam).

Notice the different ways the significant covenant term hesed (BDB 338) is translated.

1. NASB - "lovingkindness"

2. NKJV, LXX - "mercy"

3. NRSV, JPSOA - "steadfast love"

4. TEV, REB - "love"

5. NJB - "faithful love"

6. NAB - "God's love"

7. NET Bible - "loyal love"

I think the best way to describe this term is "YHWH's unconditional, loyal, covenant love." It is theologically analogous to the NT agapē.

136:4 "who alone" This is an affirmation of monotheism, Israel's uniqueness in the ANE (cf. Ps. 72:18; Isa. 44:24; see SPECIAL TOPIC: MONOTHEISM).

▣ "great wonders" The LXX omits the adjective. The UBS Text Project (p. 417) is divided over which one to accept, the MT or LXX. "Great" does appear with the term "wonders" in Deut. 6:22.

136:5

NASB"with skill"
NKJV, TEV"by wisdom"
NRSV"by understanding"
NJB, REB"in wisdom"
JPSOA"with wisdom"

The feminine noun (BDB 108) is used in Pro. 8:1 for God's first creation which He used to create all things. Some other passages where this is used are Job 26:12; Pro. 3:19; 24:3; Jer. 10:12.

The concept is parallel to "spoke" in Genesis 1. It refers to God's creative activities.

The NT asserts that Jesus was God's agent in creation (cf. John 1:3,10; 1 Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:2). Notice how the first three verses of the Bible involve the Trinity (see SPECIAL TOPIC: THE TRINITY).

1. Elohim (God), Gen. 1:1

2. Ruah (Spirit), Gen. 1:2

3. God/Jesus said, Gen. 1:3,6,9,14

 

136:6 "spread out" This verb (BDB 955, KB 1291) is used of God shaping the "dome" of atmosphere over the earth (cf. Job 37:18; Isa. 42:5; 44:24, see SPECIAL TOPIC: HEAVEN).

The UBS Handbook says this verb refers to YHWH establishing dry land on the waters (cf. Ps. 24:2). This is surely possible.

136:7-9 The mentioning of God's creation of the lights in the sky was a Hebrew way of rejecting astral worship. This theological imagery is similar to the plagues of Egypt (cf. Exodus 8-11) rejecting the animal deities of Egypt. YHWH, and He alone, is God! There is no other (see SPECIAL TOPIC: MONOTHEISM). Note "who alone" (BDB 94 II) in Ps. 136:4a.

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 136:10-22
 10To Him who smote the Egyptians in their firstborn,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 11And brought Israel out from their midst,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 12With a strong hand and an outstretched arm,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.
 13To Him who divided the Red Sea asunder,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 14And made Israel pass through the midst of it,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting;
 15But He overthrew Pharaoh and his army in the Red Sea,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.
 16To Him who led His people through the wilderness,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting;
 17To Him who smote great kings,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 18And slew mighty kings,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting:
 19Sihon, king of the Amorites,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 20And Og, king of Bashan,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 21And gave their land as a heritage,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 22Even a heritage to Israel His servant,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.

136:10-22 As Ps. 136:1-9 describes the God of creation (i.e., Elohim, cf. Genesis 1); Ps. 136:10-22 describes the God of deliverance/OT salvation (i.e., YHWH, though not mentioned, but implied, see SPECIAL TOPIC: SALVATION (OLD TESTAMENT TERM) [OT]).

1. the promised exodus from Egypt (cf. Gen. 15:12-15)

a. plagues

b. dividing the Red/Reed Sea (see Special Topic: Red Sea)

2. the promised conquest of Canaan (cf. Gen. 15:16-21)

 

136:12 "With a strong hand and outstretched arm" This anthropomorphic imagery (see Special Topic: God Described As Human) is common in the OT (cf. Exod. 13:3,9; 6:1; Deut. 3:24; 4:34; 5:15; 6:21; 7:19; 26:8; 1 Kgs. 8:42; Neh. 1:10; Ps. 44:3; 77:15; Jer. 32:21). See Special Topic: Hand.

136:13 The same words are used in Exod. 14:27 describing the Egyptian army's destruction at the Red/Reed Sea.

136:21-22 "heritage. . .heritage" This noun (BDB 635) is imagery drawn from Israel's unique place as YHWH's special choice (cf. note at Ps. 135:4).

1. He gave them Canaan to fulfill His promise to Abraham (cf. Gen. 15:12-21). This is stated again and again in Deuteronomy (cf. Deut. 4:21; 15:4; 19:10; 20:16; 21:28; 24:4; 25:19; 26:1).

2. He gave each tribe of Israel their own land allotment (cf. Joshua 13-19).

3. Israel was YHWH's special inheritance of all the nations (cf. Deut. 4:20; 7:6; 9:26,29; 32:9; 1 Kgs. 8:51; Ps. 28:9; 33:12; 78:62,71; 94:5,14; 106:40).

 

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 136:23-26
 23Who remembered us in our low estate,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting,
 24And has rescued us from our adversaries,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting;
 25Who gives food to all flesh,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.
 26Give thanks to the God of heaven,
 For His lovingkindness is everlasting.

136:23-26 This strophe functions as a summery of YHWH's great acts toward Israel as well as His acts as sustainer of all human life (cf. Psalm 104:27-30; 145:15; Matthew 5:45; Acts 14:17). This combines the connotation of the titles

1. Elohim - Creator, Provider, sustainer

2. YHWH - Savior, Deliverer, Covenant-making God

See SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY.

136:23 "in our low estate" It is uncertain if this refers to

1. period of the Judges

2. slavery in Egypt

3. exile in Mesopotamia

 

136:26 "God of heaven" This was later a Zoroastrian title for God, so common in the post-exilic period. The Jews often took the descriptive phrases and titles of pagan gods and foreign rulers to describe YHWH.

Heaven is plural, as so many Hebrew words are to denote greatness. The rabbis often discussed how many levels of heaven are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. See Special Topic: The Heavens and the Third Heaven. 

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. What does "YHWH is good" mean?

2. Why is "lovingkindness" such an important theological term?

3. Does Ps. 136:1-4 clearly express monotheism?

4. What event does Ps. 136:6 refer to?

5. Why are the sun, moon, and stars mentioned as creations of YHWH?

6. Where is the Red Sea?

7. Where in Genesis is the conquest prophesied?

8. To what characteristic of God does Ps. 136:25 refer?

කිතුණු ඇදහිල්ලේ මුලධර්ම-3 මැවීම සහ වැටීම

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මැවීම සහ වැටීම: සවර්ගයෙහි හා පොළොවෙහි සියලු දේවල් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ විසින් මවා උන්වහන්සේගේ බලයෙන් පවතින බව අප විශ්වාස කරනවා. ( උත්පත්ති1:1); කොලොස්සි1:16-17)

මනුෂ්යයා මවනු ලැබුවේ නිර්දෝෂී කෙනෙකු ලෙස, දෙවියන්වහන්සේට සමාන ස්වරූපයකින් නමුත් ඔහු විසින්ම තමාටත් මතු පරපුරටත්ශාරීරික හා ආත්මික මරණය යන දෙකම ගෙන එමින් ඔහු පාපය කළ බව අප විශ්වාස කරනවා.

මනුෂ්යයා දෙවියන්වහන්සේගෙන් පාපී ස්වභාවයක් උරුම කරගත් බවත් ගැළවීමේ අවශ්යතාවයක සිටින බවත් අප විශ්වාස කරනවා. (උත්පත්ති1:27;2:17;3:19; එපීස2:1-3)

මනුෂ්‍යත්වය යනු කුමක්ද? අප ආවේ කොයි සිටද? වසර දහස් ගණනක් දාර්ශනිකයින් හා දේවධර්ම ධරයින්ගේ මනසෙහි අභියෝගයක්ව තිබු ප්‍රශ්න මේවාය. කෙසේ වුවද අප සෑම කෙනෙකුටමත් එම ප්‍රශ්න සලකා බැලිය යුතුව තිබෙනවා.

ආලෝකය තත්පරයට හැ. 186000ක වේගයෙන් ගමන් කළත් මට

පෞද්ගලිකව එය එතරම් කාරණයක් නොවේ, නමුත් මගේ සම්භවය, මගේ ඉරණම

සහ මගේ ප්‍රෙයෝජනය ආදිය මටද අනෙක් සෑම දෙනකුටමද ඉතා වැදගත්ය. අප පදාර්ථයෙන් පැන නැගී පැවැත්මට පැමිණ, එමගින්ම නිකම්ම පරිණාමණය වනවාද? නැතහොත් ජීවමාන බලවත් දෙවි කෙනෙකු විසින් මවනු ලැබුවාද? මෙය කුමන වෙනසක් ඇතිකරනවාද කියා ඔබ සිතන්නට පුළුවන්. එය මහත් වෙනස් දෙයක් ඇති කරයි.

චාල්ස් රයිරි මෙසේ පවසයි “ මනුෂ්‍යයා පරිණාමයේ නිපැයුමක් නම්, යන්න ඉවත්කර නොගන්නේ නම් පාපයේ බලපෑම හා ගැළවුම්කරුවෙකුගේ අවශ්‍යතාවයේ ප්‍රමාණය පහත වැටෙනවා. අනික් අතට මනුෂ්‍යයා මවනු ලැබුවේ දෙවියන්වහන්සේ විසින් නම්, මෙම සංකල්පය මනුෂ්‍යයාගේ වගකීම එය හා සම්බන්ධව ගෙන එයි. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ මනුෂ්‍යයා මැව්වේ නම්, මනුෂ්‍යයාට පිටින් ඔහු වගකියන කෙනෙක් සිටී. මැවීමේ දර්ශනයක් අඟවන්නේ මවනු ලැබු අය මැවුම්කරුට වගකිව යුතුය යන්නය. මනුෂ්‍යයාගේ පරිණාමික සම්භවය ඔහුටම පිටතින් සිටින පෞද්ගලික මැවුම්කරුට ඇති වගකීමෙන් නිදහස් කරයි.

විශ්වයේ මනුෂ්‍යය වර්ගයාගේ සම්භවය ගැන ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල අපට කියන දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ එළිදරව්ව අප ඉගෙනගැනීම අවශ්‍ය වන්නේ ඒ නිසාය. උත්පත්ති 1 සහ 2 පරිච්ජේද වල ඒවා සරලව හා පැහැදිලිව කදිමට පැහැදිලි වෙනවා.

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ විශ්වය මැවු සේක

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 1:1

කියවන්න යොහාන් 1:1-3

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ, පුත්‍රයාණන්වහන්සේ සහ ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ යන ත්‍රිත්වය පොළොව මත, පොළොව තුල සහ අභ්‍යවකාශයේ පවතින, පෙනෙන නොපෙනෙන සෑම දෙයකම මැවුම්කරුය. උන්වහන්සේගේ බලය හා තේජස සරල වචන වලින් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ කීසේක යයි එළිදරව් කර ඇත. මෙය උත්පත්ති1හි දහ වරක් පුනරාවර්ථ ලෙස සඳහන්වේ. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ වචනය කථා කළා, එය සිදුවුනා. උන්වහන්සේ අලංකාර වාසස්ථානයක් ඔවුන් සඳහා මවා තිබුන විට, දෙවියන්වහන්සේ පළමු මනුෂ්‍යයින් මවනු ලැබුවා.

උත්පත්ති1:26-28,31: තවද දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපගේ ස්වරූපයෙන්, අපගේ සමානත්වය ලෙස, මනුෂ්‍යයා සාදම්හ. ඔවුහු මුහුදෙහි මත්ස්‍යයන් කෙරෙහිද, ආකාශයේ පක්ෂීන් කෙරෙහිද, තිරිසනුන් කෙරෙහිද, මුළු පොළොව කෙරෙහිද, පොළොව පිට බඩ ගා යන සියලු සතුන් කෙරෙහිද ආණ්ඩු කෙරෙත්වයි කී සේක.දෙවියන්වහන්සේ තමන් ස්වරූපයෙන් මනුෂ්‍යයා මැවු සේක. දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ ස්වරූපයෙන් ඔහු මැවු සේක. පුරුෂයාද ස්ත්‍රියද කොට ඔවුන් මැවු සේක. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට ආශිර්වාද කළ සේක. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට කියනසේක්: නුඹලා බෝවී වැඩෙමින් , පොළොව පුර්ණ කොට යටත් කර ගනිව්. මුහුදේ මත්ස්‍යයක් කෙරෙහිද ආකාශයේ පක්ෂීන් කෙරෙහිද පොළොව පිට හැසිරෙන සියලු සතුන් කෙරෙහිද අධිපතිකම් කරව් යයි කීසේක.දෙවියන්වහන්සේ තමන් සෑදු සියල්ලම දුටු සේක. එය ඉතා යහපත්ව තිබුනේය.

උසස්ම ජීවීන් ලෙස ස්ත්‍රීන් හා පුරුෂයින්ට දෙන ලද ඔවුන්ගේ වටිනාකම, ඔවුන්ගේ වැදගත්කම සහ ඔවුන්ගේ තත්වය මෙයයි.

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ උන්වහන්සේගේ ස්වරූපයෙන් පුරුෂයා සහ ස්ත්‍රිය මැවු සේක. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ‍ගේ මුළු ස්වරූපය පුරුෂයා සහ ස්ත්‍රිය එකටය.

1. පුරුෂයා සහ ස්ත්‍රිය එක සමානව මැවු සේක.

(අ) ස්වභාවයෙන්, බුද්ධියෙන්, හැඟී‍මෙන් චේතනාවෙන් සහ ආත්මයෙන් යුත් පුද්ගලයින්ය.

(ආ) වගකීමෙන් හා ගණන් දීමෙන්

1. ආශිර්වාද- ඵල දැරීම, ගණනින් වැඩිවීම.

2. ආධිපත්‍යය- පොළොවේ සභා පාලකයින්

(ඇ) වටිනාකමෙන් ඉතා හොඳයි.

2. පුරුෂයා සහ ස්ත්‍රි වෙනස්ව මැවුසේක.

උත්පත්ති 2 පරිච්ජේදයෙහි දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ස්ත්‍රිය සහ පුරුෂයා මැවු විස්තරය අපට දෙයි.

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 2:7

සෑදීම යන වචනය කුඹල්කරුවා මැටි හැඩගැස්වීම විස්තර කරයි. මැවුම්කාරයාගේ පෞද්ගලික සැලකිල්ල සිතට ගන්න. වචනය කීම පමණක් නොව, උන්වහන්සේ ප්‍රථම මිනිසා හැඩගස්වා සාදා ඔහු තුලට ජීවන හුස්ම පිඹින ලදී. උන්වහන්සේ ඔහුට කිරීමට වැඩදී ඔහු වෙනුවෙන් සාදා තිබු වාසස්ථානය වන අලංකාර උයනෙහි සතුටු වීමට නිදහස දුන් සේක. නුමුත් එම නිදහසෙහි එක බාධාවක් තිබුනා.

උත්පත්ති 2:16-17

“ආදම් නුඹට දිනපතා මම නුඹ ඳහා සාදා තිබෙන සියලු අපුරු ගෙඩි වලින් කෑමට භෝජන සංග්‍රහයක් තැබීමට පුළුවන්. අර ගසෙන් විතරක් කන්න එපා!මොකක්ද තහනම? දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ගස එහි පළමු ස්ථානයේ තැබුවේ ඇයි? උන්වහන්සේට වුවමනාවුයේ මැවිල්ල තම කැමැත්තෙන්ම උන්වහන්සේ නමස්කාර කිරීමට තෝරාගන්නා ජාතීන්ය. නමස්කාරය ප්‍රතිඵල දෙන්නේ කීකරු වීම තුලය. උන්වහන්සේට අප රොබෝ මෙන් හදන්ට තිබුනා. උන්වහන්සේ අපට තෝරාගැනීමට පුළුවන්කමක් වීමට ඉඩහරිමින් ගන්නේ මහත් අවදානමක්! නමුත් උන්වහන්සේ එසේ කළා. ඊළගට අප කියවන්නේ මැවිල්ලෙහි යහපත් නොවන එකම දෙය ගැනය.

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 2:18-25

මනුෂ්‍යයාගේ තනිකම යහපත් නැත, ඔහුට ආදරය කිරීමට, ඔහු සමග වැඩ කිරීමට, පාලනය කිරීමට වෙනත් කෙනෙක් වුවමනා විය, ඔහුට ගැලපෙන සහකාරියක් වුවමනාවිය. සහකරුවෙක්/ සහකාරියක් යනු කෙනෙක් තව කෙනෙකුගේ දේවල් ඉෂ්ඨ කිරීමය. ස්ත්‍රියෙකු නැතිව ආදම්ට ඔහුගේ පුර්ණ විභවයට ළගාවිය නොහැකි විය. එනම් ඔහුට ඉෂ්ඨ කිරීමට තිබුන නියෝග ඉෂ්ඨ කිරීමට නොහැකි විය. හෙබ්‍රෙව් භාෂාවෙන් සහකරු යන වචනයට ඇත්තේ එසෙර් යන වචනයයි. පරණ ගිවිසුමෙහි මෙම වචනය19 වතාවක් භාවිතා කර ඇත. හතර වතාවක් මිනිසුන් මිනිසුන්ට උපකාර කිරීම ගැනය. 15 වතාවක් යොදා ඇත්තේ දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපේ සහකාරයා ලෙසටය. උසස් තැනැත්තා පහත් තැනැත්තට උපකාර කරනවා මිස පහත් තැනැත්තා උසස් තැනැත්තාට කිසිවිටෙක උපකාර කිරීමක් ගැන නොවේය. නුමුත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔහුට අවෂ්‍යවු ස්ත්‍රිය දීමට පෙර, ආදම් සියලුම සතුන්ට නම් දී තිබුනේය.ඔවුන් ඔහු ඉදිරියට එනවිට ඔහු සිතට ගත්තේ මොනවාදැයි ඔබ සිතනවාද? ඔවුන් පිරිමි හා ගහැණු වශයෙන්, ජෝඩු වශයෙන් ආවෝය.ඔහු “ඉරේ කෙළවරට පැමිණෙන විට තමා වගේ ම කිසිවෙක් ඔහුට සම්භ නොවීය. ස්ත්‍රිය මනුෂ්‍යයාගෙන්, ඔහුට සහකාරියක් ලෙස සාදනු ලැබුවේය.

ඔහු ඔහුගේ අවශ්‍යතාවය හා උපකාරයක් නැති බව දුටුවේය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ මේ පුද්ගලයාට, ඔහුට ගැලපෙන නමුත් ඔහුගෙන් වෙනස් කෙනෙක් සපයා දුන්සේක. ඇය ඔහු වාගේ කෙනෙකු වු නිසා ඇයට ඔහුගේ සහකාරිය වීමට පුළුවන් විය.

ඇය දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අතින්වු විශේෂ මැවිල්ලක් වු නමුත් වෙනස් කෙනෙක්වී ඔහු සම්පුර්ණ කිරීමට ඇයට පුළුවන්විය.

මනුෂ්‍යයාගේ කොටසකින් ස්ත්‍රියෙකු සෑදීමට දෙවියන්වහන්සේ පුද්ගලික අවධානයක් දීම ගැන සිතේ තබාගන්න.(ඉල ඇටයකට හෙබ්‍රෙව් වචනය පරණ ගිවිසුමේ වෙනත් තැන්වල ඇත්තේ පැත්තක් යනුවෙන්ය.)දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඇය ආදම් වෙතට ගෙන ඒම ප්‍රථම සරණ මංගල්‍යයි.ඔහු සතුටින් ඇයව තමා වගේම තමාගේම ශරීරයෙන් කෙනෙකු ලෙස පිළිගත්තේය. ඔවුන් එක මාංශයක්වී එකිනෙකා අනිකාට හිග දේ පිරිමැසීය. ඔවුන් ලජ්ජාවකින් තොරව නිරුවත්ව සිටියෝය මෙයින් කියන්නේ කුමක්දැයි ඔබට යම් අදහසක් තිබෙනවාද? විවෘත භාවයක් අනතුරකට පත්වෙන ස්වභාවයක් අවංක ස්වයභාවයක් සහ ප්‍රේමයක් තිබුනේය. මෙම ප්‍රථම යුවල අතර සන්නිවේදනය නිදහසේ ගලා ගියේය. බිත්ති නොතිබුනේය, භය නොතිබුනේය, අගතීන් නොතිබුනේය, අනෙකාගේ වටිනාකම ගැන හෝ වැඩ ගැන හෙළාදැකීමක් නොතිබුනේය, ඔවුන්ගේ ලිංගිකතාවය කිසි අවනම්බුවකින් හෝ ලජ්ජාවකින් තොරව නිදහසේ රස වින්දේය. ඔවුන් පරීක්ෂා කරනු නොලැබු අහිංසක තත්වයක ජීවත්වුවෝය. පළමු විවාහයේ සිටම දෙවියන්වහන්සේ විවාහය කෙනෙකුගේ කිට්ටුම මිනිස් සම්බන්ධතාවයටත් වඩා මුල් තැන දිය යුතු බවද විවාහය ස්ථිර දෙයක් විය යුතු බවද පැහැදිලි කර ඇත. ඒදන් එසේ විය.කෙනෙක් ඔවුන්ගේ අහිංසක කම පරීක්ෂා කර පරීක්ෂාව සමත්වී ඇත්නම් ලෝකය අද මෙන් වී තිබීම ගැන පුදුම වෙනවා හැර කෙනෙකුට කරන්න දෙයක් නැත.

පරීක්ෂාව

කියවන්න, උත්පත්ති3:1-5

සාතන් ඔහුගේ පරීක්ෂාව සමග ස්ත්‍රිය වෙතට ළගාවුවේ ඇයි? ඇය සදාචාරාත්මකව දුර්වලව සිටි නිසා හෝ පාපයට බර වෙලා සිටි නිසා යයි මා හිතන්නේ නැහැ. යහපත හා නපුර දැනගැනීමෙන් ජීවන වෘක්ෂයෙන් නොකෑයුතුයි යන නියෝගය දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ මුඛයෙන් අසා තිබුන තැනැත්තා ආදම්ය. ඒව එය ලැබුවේ ආදම්ගෙන්ය. ඇය කෙතරම් බලපෑමක් සහිතද කියාත් ආදම්ට ඇය කෙතරම් වුවමනාවී සිටියාද කියාත් සාතන් දැන සිටියා. සාතන් ඇයට කථා කළේ සර්පයාගේ මුඛයෙන්ය. ඔහු අදත් පාවිච්චි කරන උපක්‍රමයක් පාවිච්චි කර එය ස්ත්‍රිය කළ දෙයක් ලෙස අප වට්ටනවා.

සාතන්ගේ උපක්රමය

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔබට වුවමනා දෙයක් ලබාගැනීමට ඉඩ නොදෙන නිසා උන්වහන්සේ යහපත් නැත. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ යහපත්ව සිටියා නම් ඔබගෙන් කිසිවක් රඳවා නොගන්නවා ඇත. නමුත් උන්වහන්සේ මෙම ගසෙන් කෑමට ඉඩ නොදුන් නිසා උන්වහන්සේ යහපත් විය නොහැකිය, ඔබට බාධා නොතිබිය යුතුයි, බාධාවන් ඔබ සීමා කරයි. බලාපොරොත්තු බිඳ වට්ටයි.

යහපත් දෙවි කෙනෙකුට ඔබ මත බාධා පමුණුවන්ට පුළුවන්ද? දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය සැබෑවන්නේ නැහැ, දෙවියන්වහන්සේ බොරුකාරයෙක්. ඔබ නිසැකවම මැරෙනේනේ නැහැ. එය විශ්වාස කරන්න එපා.දෙවියන්වහන්සේට ඔබ උන්වහන්සේ වගේ වන්නට අවශ්‍ය නැහැ. උන්වහන්සේ ඔබේ විභවයට ළගාවීමෙන් නවතා තිබෙනවා. ඉදිරියට ගොස් ගසෙන් කන්න. එය කෙතරම් ලස්සනද කියා බලන්න. අද අපට ඇති ආත්මික ගැටළු වලින් බොහොමයකට දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ගැන කියන මෙම බොරු දෙක හේතු වෙන බව ඔබට හමුවී නැද්ද?දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සැබවින්ම යහපත් නැහැ, දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය සත්‍යය නැහැ. උපක්‍රම පහර දෙනවිට-- පැහැදිලි කළ නොහැකි දේ සිදුවනවිට සිතීමට ඔබේ මනස හරහා නොපැමිණ “යහපත් දෙවි කෙනෙකුට මෙයට ඉඩ දෙන්ට පුළුවන් කොහොමද? හෝ දෙවියන්වහන්සේ වෙන මිනිසුන්ට හොඳ වෙන්ට පුළුවන්, නමුත් උන්වහන්සේ මට හොඳ නැහැ. උන්වහන්සේ මට හොඳවුවා නම් උන්වහන්සේ මට ස්වාමි පුරුෂයෙක් දෙනවා ඇත. හෝ උන්වහන්සේ අපට දරුවෙක් දෙනවා ඇත. හෝ උන්වහන්සේ මගේ විවාහ ජීවිතය සතුටු කරනවා ඇත. හෝ උන්වහන්සේ මම හෝ ස්වාමිපුරුෂයා හෝ දරුවා හෝ සුව කරනවා ඇත. උන්වහන්සේ මට රැකියාවක් දෙනවා ඇත. මට ඇත්තටම සතුටු වෙන්න තිබුනා. මම ඇත්තටම දෙවියන්වහන්සේ යහපත් යයි විශ්වාස කරන්නේ නැහැ.

උන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය කොහොමද?

ඔබ එය සත්‍යයයි විශ්වාස කරනවාද? ඔබ උන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය විශ්වාස කරනවා නම් ඔබ එයට කීකරු වනවා ඇත. ඇත්තෙන්ම මේ සියලු පුරාණ මනුෂ්‍යයින්ට කළයුතුව තිබුනේ එයයි. “දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය විශ්වාස කර උන්වහන්සේගේට කීකරු වෙන්න. නමුත් වෙනත් කටහඬක් සැකයේ බීජ පැලකර, දෙවියන්වහන්සේට අකීකරු වුනා.

වැටීම

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 3:6-7

යථාර්ථකරණය

ස්ත්‍රිය යථාර්ථකරණය වන හැටි සිතට ගන්න. එය ආහාරයට හොඳයි, එය බලන්න ලස්සනයි, සහ එය අප ඥාණවන්ත කරයි. එය තුල හානිකර විය හැක්කේ මොනවාද?

අකීකරුකම

ඇය කා, පැහැදිලිවම සංවාදය නැවැත්වීමට කිසිවක් නොකළ ඇගේ ස්වාමි පුරුෂයාට දුන්නා.

ඵල විපාක

එකිනෙකා සමග සම්බන්ධතාවලට ඉක්මනින් යම් දෙයක් සිදුවුනා. ඔවුන් අතර ප්‍රේමයේ ඒ විවෘතකම හා නිදහස ගලායාම දැන් වරද හා ලජ්ජාවෙන් කැළැල් වුනා. එකිනෙකාසැඟවීමට ඔවුන් විසින්ම අත්තික්කා කොල වලින් ආවරණය කරගත්තා. පළමු ප්‍රත්‍යක්ෂ ඵල විපාකය වුයේ ඔවුන්ගේ විවාහය මතවු බලපෑමයි. නමුත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ සමගවු ඔවුන්ගේ සම්බන්ධතාවයට වඩා නරක විපාක පැමිණෙන්නට ඇත.- ආත්මික මරණය

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 3:8-13

ඔවුන් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගෙන්සැඟවුනා. එසේ දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සමග තිබු සම්බන්ධතාවය නැතිවීම නැතිවීම ආත්මික මරණයයි.“ නුඹ ගසෙන් කනවිට නිසැකවම නුඹ මැරෙන්නෙහි යයි දෙවියන්වහන්සේ කීසේක. ආත්මික මරණය, දෙවියන්වහන්සේගෙන් වෙන්වීම

ඉක්මනින් සිදුවිය. නමුත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන් සෙවීමට පැමිණි බව ඔබ සිතට ගත්තාද? උන්වහන්සේ සොයාබැලීම ආරම්භකළා. උන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ගෙන් ප්‍රශ්න කරන විට ආදම් තම භාර්යාවට හා දෙවියන්වහන්සේට දොස් පැවරුවා. ඒව කීවේ සර්පයා තමා රැවටු බවත් තමා හරි බවත්ය. 1තිමොති2:14 කියන්නේ ඇය මුළුමනින්ම රැවටුන බවයි. සාතන්ට අවනත වීමෙන් මෙම පළමු මනුෂ්‍යයින් ඔවුන් විසින්ම ඔහුගේ ආධිපත්‍යය යටතට පත්වුනා. දැන් ඔවුන්ගේ අකීකරුකමේ ඵල විපාක බොහෝ දුරට පැහැදිලියි.මෙතැන් පටන් ලෝකය කෙසේ වන්නේද? පුරුෂයින් සහ ස්ත්‍රීන් අතර සම්බන්ධතාවය කෙසේ වෙනස්වනු ඇද්දැයි දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට කීසේක.

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 3:14-15

සර්පයාට සහ සාතන්ට

සර්පයා ශාප ලද්කේ බ ව ඇගවීය. උගේ ශරීරය පාවිච්චි කළ සාතන් ශාප ලද්දෙක්ය. සර්පයා දැන් බඩගා යනවා ඇත.

ගැළවුම්කරුවාණන් පොරොන්දුවිය

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ මිදුම්කරුගේ පළමු පොරොන්දුව, සාතන් පරදවන කෙනාට දුන් බව සාතන්ට සුවිශේෂී විය. මෙම මිදුම්කරු, ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ කන්‍යා උපත ගැන අනාවැකි කියන ස්ත්‍රියගේ දරුවකු වනවා ඇත.

සාතන් මිනිස් වර්ගයා තුලට පාපය හඳුන්වා දීමට ස්ත්‍රිය පාවිච්චි කළේය. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ගැළවීම ගෙනෙන්නට ස්ත්‍රිය පාවිච්චි කරන්නට ඇත. සාතන් හා ස්ත්‍රිය අතර ප්‍රතිපක්ෂ බවක් තිබෙන්නට ඇත. එය තම දරුවාගේ විලුඹට ගැසීම දක්වා උග්‍රවන්නට ඇත. ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ කුරුසිය මතවු මරණය එයයි.

නුමුත් උන්වහන්සේගේ නැවත නැගිටීම මරණය ජයගත්තේය.

උන්වහන්සේගේ මරණය හා නැවත නැගිටීම මගින් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ සාතන්ගේ හිස පොඩි කළේය. මෙය අප එළිදරව් පොතෙහි කියවන, සාතන් පරදවන, අවසන් ජයග්‍රහණය කලින් කියනු ලබයි.

ස්ත්‍රින්ට: දරුවන් වැදීමේදී වේදනාව සහ ආධිපත්‍යය

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 3:16

දැන් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ජීවිතය වැටුන ලෝකයක් තුල වන බව ඔවුන්ට කියනසේක. ස්ත්‍රිය සඳහා, දරුවන් වැදීම මහත් වේදනාවක් වනවා ඇත. නමුත් නරකම දෙය වුයේ ඇගේ ස්වාමිපුරුෂයා සමග තිබු අපුරු සම්බන්ධතාවය වෙනස්වීම යයි මා සිතනවා. පාලනය කරන්නන්ගෙන් එක් කෙනෙකු වනවා වෙනුවට ඇය පාලනය වන්නකු බවට පත්වුවා විය හැක. මෙහි පාවිච්චි කළ වචනය කුරිරු ආධිපත්‍යයක් ලෙස පෙන්නුම් කරයි. මෙය කෙසේ සත්‍යවනවාදැයි අප දනිමු. යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ දැන නොගත් ලෝකයේ ස්ත්‍රීන්: භාණ්ඩ, දේපල සෙල්ලම්බඩු මෙහෙකාරියන් සහ වහලියන් ලෙස සලකනු ලබති. උන්වහන්සේ දැන සිටින තැන්වල පවා අරගලය පවතියි. ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ලෙන් කියනවාට වඩා ඇත්තේ ස්ත්‍රීන් ගැන වැරදි ආකල්පයන් සහිත දේවල්ය.

පුරුෂයන්ට: වේදනාකාරී වෙහෙස සහ ශාරීරික මරණය

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 3:17-20

ශාප කරවනු ලැබුවේ සර්පයා සහ භූමිය පමණක් බව සිතට ගන්න. පස ඵල ඇතිකරවනසේ සාරවත්වීම වෙනුවට ආදම්ට ඔවුන්ගේ ආහාර වේදනාකාරී වෙහෙසකින් විරුද්ධකාරී පොළොවකින් උදුරාගන්නට සිදුවන්නට ඇත. අන්තිමේදී ඔවුන් මැරෙනවා ඇත. සදාකාලිකව ජීවත්වීමට මැවු අපුරු ශරීරය මැරෙන්නේය. පළමු පරම්පරාවෙන් එසේ වන්නට වසර සිය ගණනක් ගත්තේය. ආදම් අවුරුදු 930ක් ජීවත් විය.

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන් අකීකරුවු මොහොතේ සිට ඔවුන් වෙනස් කර තිබු උන්වහන්සේගේ තහනම ඔවුන් වෙනස් කර තිබු ලෝකය සහ ඔවුන් වෙනස්කර තිබු ඉරණම ඔවුන්ට දැන්වු සේක.

ආදම් තම භාර්යාවට ඒව යයි නම් තැබීය. එය මනුෂ්‍ය වර්ගයා ඉතිරිව පවතී යයි විශ්වාස කරමින් කළ ඇදහිල්ලේ ක්‍රියාවකි. නමුත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන් බලාපොරොත්තු නැතිව සිටීමට ඉඩ හැරියේ නැහැ. දිනෙක ගැළවුම් කරුවාණන් ඔවුන්ගේ සතුරන් පරාජය කරන බවට උන්වහන්සේ පොරොන්දු දී තිබුනා.

දැන් ගැළවුම්කරු කුමක් කරයිද කියා චිත්‍රයක් ඔවුන්ට දුන්නා

ගැළවුම්කරු සිතුවම්වේ

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 3:21

අත්තික්කා කොළ යෝග්‍ය නොවීය, දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට හම් වලින් ඇඳුම් සාදා දුන්සේක. උන්වහන්සේ ඒවා ලබාගත්තේ කොහොමද?දෙවියන්වහන්සේ තමන්ගේ වැටුනු දරුවන්ට ඇඳුම් සඳහා සතුන් මරා ඇත, උන්වහන්සේ එසේ කරමින් කරුණු කීපයක්ම අපට ඉගැන්වු සේක.උන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ ඇස් හමුවේ පාපය කෙසේ භයංකාරද කියා ඉගැන්වු සේක. ලේ හැලීමක් නැතිව කමාවක් නොවීය.

ඔවුන් වෙනුවට ආදේශකයෙකුට මැරෙන්නට පුළුවන් බ ව උන්වහන්සේ විදහා දැක්වු සේක. සතුන් ආදම් සහ ඒව වෙනුවට මැරෙන පාප දරන්නන් වුයේය. අපේ වාසි කෝණයෙන්ම එය අප සඳහා කොහොම පින්තූරයක්ද! ආදම්, ඒව සහ ඊට පසු සියලු පරම්පරා වෙනුවෙන් යේසුස්වහන්සේ කළේ එයයි. ආබෙල් පුජා කළ සතුන් පිළිගත් අතර කායින් ඔහුගේ මහන්සියේ ඵල පුජා කළවිට එය පිළි නොගත් නිසා දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට උන්වහන්සේ නමස්කාර කරන විධිය ගැන යම් උපදේශයක් දුන් බව අපට නිෂ්චය කිරීමට පුළුවන.

(උත්පත්ති4) පාපය කුඩා විෂ බීජයක් ලෙස පටන්ගෙන සෙමින් මිනිස් වර්ගයාට පැතිරුනු ‍දෙයක් නොවේ. එම පාපය ආදම් සහ ඒවට ඉපදුන පළමු දරුවා ඔහුගේ සහෝදරයා මැරීමෙන් සම්පුර්ණ සංවර්ධනයට පැමිණියේය. ආදම් සහ ඒව පව්කාරයන් බවට පත්වු විට ඔවුන්ගේ පාප ස්වභාවය ඔවුන්ගෙන් පැවතෙන්නන් වෙතටද පත්වුනේය.

ඒදනෙන් පිටමං කිරීම

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 3:22-24

මෙය මිනිස් ඉතිහාසය පටන්ගැනීමේදී සිදුවු දේවල සරල වාර්ථාවකි. මෙම සිදුවීම් වල විශේෂත්වය වඩාත් පැහැදිලිව අලුත් ගිවිසුමෙහි සඳහන්වේ.

කියවන්න රෝම 5:12-14

ආදම් ස්වභාවයෙන්ම පව්කාරයෙක් බවට පත්විය. ඔහුගෙන් පැවත එන සියල්ලෝම එම පාපී ස්වභාවය උරුම කර ගත්තෝය. පාපය යනු කුමක්ද? බයිබලය එය බොහෝ ආකාර වලින් විස්තර කරයි: නොපනත්කම, කැරලිකාර කම, අපචාරය, අයුක්තිය, සහ නපුර.

පාපය සඳහා පරණ ගිවිසුමෙහි වෙනස් වචන අටක් පාවිච්චි කර ඇත. අලුත් ගිවිසුමෙහි වෙනස් වචන දොළහක් ඇත.

පාපය අර්ථ දැක්වීම: දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අපෙන් බලාපොරොත්තු වන, දෙවියන්වහන්සේ මහිමයට පත් කිරීමට අනුකූල නොවන ඕනෑම දෙයක් පාපයකි. අප සියලු දෙනාටම අඩුවී ඇති, අප එය මනින ප්‍රමිතිය යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ බව රෝම3:23 අපට පෙන්වා දෙයි.

පාපය ලෝකයට ඇතුල්වුනේ එක් මනුෂ්‍යෙයක්, එනම් ආදම් තුලින්ය. මරණය පැමුණුනේ දඬුවම ලෙසය, සෑම මනුෂ්‍යෙයක්ම පව්කාරයෙක්, ස්වභාවයෙන් පව්කාරයෙක් බව ඔප්පු කරන සාධකය නම් ව්‍යවස්ථාව ඉශ්‍රෙයල්ට දීමට ප්‍රථම අවුරුදු දහස් ගණනක් තුල සියලු මනුෂ්‍යයින් මැරුනෝය. ඔවුන්ට හරිදේ සහ වැරදි දේ කියාදීමට නීති මාලාවක් නොතිබුනේය. ව්‍යවස්ථාව දුන්විට ව්‍යවස්ථාවට අවනතනොවු අයත් ව්‍යවස්ථාව නැති අයත් පව් කළෝය. ඔවුන් මියයාමේ සාධකය එය ඔප්පු කළේය.

එක් මිනිසෙකු තුලින් කමාවේ ත්‍යාගය, සාධාරණය ඉෂ්ඨ කිරීම සහ සදාකාල ජීවනය නොමිලේ දෙන ලද බව පාවුල් අපට කියයි.

කියවන්න රෝම 5:15-21

මෙම කොටසෙහි පාපය සහ දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අනුග්‍රහය අතර වෙනස එළිදරව් කරනු ලැබේ. පාපය වැඩිවන තරමට දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අනුග්‍රහය තවත් වැඩිවේ. යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ තුලින් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අනුග්‍රහය කොතරම් වැඩියෙන් පිටාර ගලයිද?

ආදම් සහ ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ අතර වෙනස

1. එක් කෙනෙකුගේ වරද නිසා බොහෝ දෙනෙක් මැරුනේය, එක් මනුෂ්‍යෙයකුගේ අනුග්‍රහයේ දීමනාව බොහෝ දෙනෙකු වෙත පිටාර ගැලුවේය.

2. එක් අපචාරයක් - විනිෂ්චය හා වරදට පත් කිරීම බොහෝ අපචාර- දීමනාව- සාධාරණය ඉෂ්ඨ කිරීම

3. එක් මිනිසෙකුගේ අපචාරය තුලින් මරණය රජවීම, එක් මිනිසෙකුගේ කීකරුවීම තුලින් අදහන්නන් ජීවනය තුල රජවීම

4. එක් අපචාරයක් සියලු දෙනා වරදට පත්කිරීම, -එක් ධර්මිෂ්ඨ ක්‍රියාවක් තුලින් සියලු දෙනාට සාධාරණය ඉෂ්ඨ කිරීම ප්‍රදානය කිරීම

5. එක්කෙනෙකුගේ අකීකරුකම -බොහෝදෙනා පව්කරුවන් කරනු ලැබීම.

එක් කෙනෙකුගේ කීකරුකම- බොහෝදෙනා ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කරනු ලැබීම.

6. පාපය වැඩිවිය - අනුග්‍රහය ඊටත් වඩා වැඩිවිය.

7. පාපය මරණයෙහි රජවිය. - අනුග්‍රහය සදාකාල ජීවනය ගෙන ඒමෙහි රජවිය. වෙනස ඉතා ප්‍රබලය. උපතේදී ස්වභාවික පාපයෙන් තොරවු කිසිවෙක් නැත. සිතිවිල්ලෙන්, වචනයෙන් හෝ ක්‍රියාවෙන් ඔවුන්ගේ ජීවිත කාලය තුල පව් නොකළ කිසිවෙක් නැත. කොතරම් යහපත්වුවත් සදාචාර පුද්ගලයෙක් වුවත් උත්සහා කරනවා විය හැකි වුවත් ධර්මිෂ්ඨකම සඳහා දෙවියන්වහන්සේ තබා ඇති ප්‍රමිතියට ලගා ළඟාවීමට නුපුළුවන. අනෙක් අතට දෙවියන්වහන්සේ යේසුස්ක්‍රිස්තුස්)වහන්සේ දීමෙන් විදහාපෑ දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අනුග්‍රහයට සමාව දිය නොහැකි පාපයක් නොපනත්කමක් ඇත්තේ නැත.

උන්වහන්සේට යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ තුලින් ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කළ නොහැකි තරම් දුෂ්ටයෙක් නැත. නමුත් නැවතත් අපේ කැමැත්ත කිරීම කාරණයකදී ඔබ 17 වෙනි පදයෙහි දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අනුග්‍රහයෙහි බහුලත්වය සහ ධර්මිෂ්ඨකමේ දීමනාවෙහි යන වචන සිතා බැලුවාද?දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ත්‍යාගය දී තිබේ- උන්වහන්සේගේම පුත්‍ර යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ, උන්වහන්සේ අපගේ ආදේශකයෙකු ලෙස ලේ හැලුවේය. උන්වහන්සේ මරණයෙන් නැගිට අපගේ සියලු පාප මිල ගෙවා ඇති බවත් උන්වහන්සේගේ පුජාවීම දෙවියන්වහන්සේ පිළිගත් බවත් ඔප්පු කළේය. නුමුත් ත්‍යාගය ඔබ ගන්නා තුරු එය ඔබේ නොවේ. යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ ඔබේ ගැළවුම්කරු හා ස්වාමීන්වහන්සේ ලෙස පිළිගෙන තිබෙනවාද? දෙවියන්වහන්සේට ඔබට සදාකාල ජීවනය දීමට තවත් කිරීමට දෙයක් නැත. කරන්නේද නැත.දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔබ ගළවාගැනීමට ඔබේ කිසිම උත්සහායක් හෝ උන්වහන්සේගේ ඇස් හමුවේ පිනක් උන්වහන්සේ භාරගන්නේ නැත. උන්වහන්සේගේ අනුග්‍රහයේ බහුලත්වය පිටාර ගලා ඇත. ඔබ එය ලබාගෙන ඇති බවට නිසැකවන්න.

අධ්‍යයන ප්‍රශ්න

කියවන්න යෝබ් 38:1-18; ගීතාවලිය8;යෙසායා 40:26-28

1. මෙම පද වලින් ඔබ මැවුම්කරු හා උන්වහන්සේගේ මැවිල්ල ගැන ඔබ ඉගෙනගන්නේ මොනවාද?

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති 1-2; ගීතාවලිය 33:6-9;හෙබ්රෙව් 11:3

2. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ විශ්වය මැව්වේ කෙසේද? උන්වහන්සේ පුරුෂයා හා ස්ත්‍රිය මැවු විධියෙහි වෙනස කුමක්ද? (උත්පත්ති 2:7, 21-22) එය තුල ඔබ දකින විශේෂත්වය කුමක්ද?

3. මෙම පළමු මිනිසුන් සඳහා දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සැලස්වුයේ මොන ආකාර වලින්ද? උන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ට දුන් එකම තහනම කුමක්ද?

කියවන්න උත්පත්ති3

4. සර්පයා(සාතන්) ස්ත්‍රිය වෙත ළගාවුයේ ඇයි කියා ඔබ සිතන්නේ කුමක්ද? ස්ත්‍රිය ගෙඩි වලින් කෑවේ ඇයි? ඇගේ ස්වාමිපුරුෂයා සිටියේ කොහේද? ඔහු කෑවේ ඇයි කියා ඔබ කුමක් සිතනවාද?

5. ඔවුන් පිට ඉක්මනින් පැමිණි බලපෑම කුමක්ද? එයට තිබුන විශේෂත්වය කුමක්ද? ඔවුන් සොයාගෙන ආවේ කවුද? දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සමග තිබු සම්බන්ධතාවය වෙනස්ව තිබුන බව අප දන්නේ කෙසේද?

6. ඔවුන්ගේ අකීකරුකම සඳහාවු විපාක ඔවුන් සහ ඔවුන්ගෙන් පැවතෙන්නන්ගේ ජීවිත වෙනස් කළේ කෙසේද? එය ඔවුන්ගේ ස්වභාවය වෙනස් කළාද?

7.දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සර්පයාට වුන පොරොන්දුව කුමක්ද? ඌ අදාල කරගන්නේ කාටද? බීජවල විලුඹට ගැසුවේ කෙසේද? සර්පයාගේ හිස පොඩි කළාද?

8. උත්පත්ති3:21න් අඟවන්නේ කුමක්ද? දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සම් ලබාගන්නේ කොහොමද? පාපය ගැන ඔවුන් ඉගෙනගන්නා පාඩම කුමක්ද?

කියවන්න රෝම5:12-21

9පාපය ලෝකයට ඇතුල්වුනේ කා තුලින්ද? එය බලපෑවේ කාටද? දඬුවම කුමක්ද?

10. ධර්මිෂ්ඨකම ඇතිවුනේ කා තුලින්ද? වරප්‍රසාද ලද්දෝ කවුද? ත්‍යාගය කුමක්ද?

11 යේසුස්වහන්සේගේ වෙනස්කම් ලැයිස්තුවක් සාදන්න

12 සෑම කෙනෙක්ම, යහපත් සදාචාර මිනිසුන් පවා පාප ස්වභාවයකින් ඉපදීම හඳුනාගැනීම ගැන ඔබට ගැටළුවක් තිබෙනවාද? අප ධර්මිෂ්ඨ කිරීමට දෙවියන්වහන්සේට කුමන මිලක් වුයේද? උන්වහන්සේගේ පාපය ගැන දැක්ම තුලට ඔබේ ඇතුලාන්ත අදහස් යමක් දෙන්න.

13. 15-21 පදවල ත්‍යාගය සහ අනුග්‍රහය යන වචන හතර වරක් බැගින් සඳහන්වේ. දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ පුත්‍රයා නම් ත්‍යාගය ඔබ ලබා තිබෙනවාද?

Related Topics: Creation, Curriculum, Man (Anthropology)

Lesson 39: What Do You Think About Jesus? (John 7:1-13)

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December 15, 2013

Dr. James Boice, the late pastor of Tenth Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, tells (The Gospel of John [Zondervan], 1-vol. ed., p. 471) of when the staff of his radio program went out on the streets of Philadelphia to ask people, “Who is Jesus Christ?” Sometimes they asked, “Do you think Jesus Christ is God?” The answers they received revealed the confusion that many have with regard to those crucial questions.

One young woman responded, “Jesus Christ was a man who thought He was God.” Another young woman, a biology student, replied, “Jesus Christ is pure essence of energy. God to me is energy, electric energy because it’s something that’s not known.” A man answered, “I think that’s something you have to decide for yourself, but He had some beautiful ideas.” Others replied, “He is an individual who lived 2,000 years ago who was interested in the betterment of all classes of people.” “He was well liked; He meant well; He was a good man.” But most people were just confused. They answered, “I haven’t any idea…. I don’t know.”

It’s sad that in a country like ours, where anyone can easily hear about Jesus Christ, there could be so many people who don’t know who He is. And if a person does not have a basic knowledge of who Jesus is, then he cannot trust in Him as Savior and Lord. He would be believing in a Jesus of his own imagination. A correct knowledge of who Jesus is must underlie saving faith in Him. And so as John labors to make clear in his Gospel, the crucial question for every person to answer correctly is, “Who is Jesus Christ?” You need to get that one right!

But this is also an important question even for those of us who have already believed in Jesus as Savior and Lord. Just as in human relationships such as marriage there is always room to grow to know the other person more deeply, so it is in our relationship with Jesus Christ. At least 25 years after his conversion, the apostle Paul said that his aim was still, “that I may know Him” (Phil. 3:10). The more deeply we know Jesus Christ for who He is, the more quickly we will submit to Him as the Lord of our every thought, word, and deed and the more readily we will trust Him in all the daily matters of our lives.

John 7 & 8 relates some incidents at the Feast of Booths in Jerusalem that show the mounting opposition to Jesus. It would be about six months after this feast that Jesus was crucified. “After these things” (7:1) reflects a gap of six months from the events in chapter 6, which took place near the time of the Passover (6:4). John fills in the gap by adding (7:1), “Jesus was walking in Galilee, for He was unwilling to walk in Judea because the Jews were seeking to kill Him.”

There were three great Jewish feasts in Jerusalem that every male was expected to be at: Passover (in the spring); Pentecost (50 days after Passover); and Booths (or Tabernacles, in the fall; Lev. 23:33-44; Num. 29). Passover pictures the Lord’s death for our sins as our Passover Lamb. Pentecost foreshadowed the outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2). Booths pictures Christ’s coming again to joyously gather the harvest of His people and dwell permanently with them. Colin Kruse explains the Feast of Booths (John [IVP Academic], p. 181):

The feast had a double purpose: to remember Israel’s time in the wilderness when they lived in booths, and to rejoice before the Lord after harvest (in particular the grape, olive and fruit harvests). It also involved looking forward to a new exodus, the time when the kingdom of God would be brought in with all its attendant blessings.

He adds that it was the most joyful of the three pilgrim feasts. In Jesus’ time it included pouring out water as a remembrance of the water from the rock that sustained Israel in the wilderness, and a candle-lighting ceremony that commemorated God’s presence with Israel through the pillar of cloud and fire. Jesus plays off these two ceremonies when He invites those who are thirsty to come to Him and drink (7:37), and when He proclaims (8:12), “I am the Light of the world.”

On one level, John 7:1-13 functions to set the stage for the rest of chapters 7 & 8. But it also reveals to us some wrong views about Jesus that the Jewish people, including Jesus’ own brothers, had about Him. But a careful look at these verses also reveals that Jesus is both Messiah and Lord, which fits in with John’s purpose that we would believe in Him as the Christ, the Son of God, so that we may have eternal life in His name (20:31). So the main point is:

Believing in Jesus for salvation depends on having the right view about who He is.

The dominant focus of these verses is on those with wrong views about Jesus.

1. Many have wrong views about Jesus: He is a mere man, whether good or misguided.

There are three groups pictured here, all of which to one degree or another have wrong views of Jesus: His brothers, the Jewish leaders, and the multitude at the feast.

A. Jesus brothers had a worldly, unbelieving view of Him: “He needs to go public where it really counts.”

The reference to Jesus’ brothers (7:3) refers to other sons that Mary and Joseph had after the birth of Jesus (Matt. 1:25, “until”; Luke 2:7, “firstborn”; Mark 3:31-35; 6:3). The Catholic Church believes that Mary was a perpetual virgin, but the biblical evidence is against that view. These brothers were Jesus’ half-brothers, born to Joseph and Mary after Jesus’ birth.

Although they were unbelieving at this point, we know that at least two of the brothers, James and Jude, later came to believe in Jesus. He appeared to James after His resurrection (1 Cor. 15:7). James later became the leader of the Jerusalem church and wrote the Epistle of James. Jude, who humbly identifies himself (Jude 1) as “a bond-servant [slave] of Jesus Christ and brother of James,” wrote the short Epistle of Jude.

In 7:3-4, Jesus’ brothers offer Him some unsolicited “career” advice: “Leave here and go into Judea, so that your disciples also may see Your works which You are doing. For no one does anything in secret when he himself seeks to be known publicly. If you do these things, show Yourself to the world.” John explains (7:5), “For not even His brothers were believing in Him.”

We cannot say for sure what motives lay behind the brothers’ comments. Some say that they were sarcastically ridiculing Jesus: “You want to be famous. Go to Jerusalem, do some miracles, and you’ll hit the big time!” Or, they could have been motivated by family shame: Jesus, at first popular, was now losing disciples. If He went up to Jerusalem for this big feast, perhaps He could gain back some of them and save the family name. Or, at best, they were offering sincere, but worldly advice: “If you want Your Messianic claims to be made known, You need to go prove Yourself to the religious authorities in the capital city.”

My understanding is that probably the brothers thought of Jesus in line with the multitude, that He should be a political Messiah who could deliver Israel from Rome. If Jesus’ miracles meant that He was this promised political savior, then He needed to establish His claim in Jerusalem with the Jewish authorities and with the masses there, not in the obscure villages in Galilee. They may have been embarrassed over Jesus’ strange claims that people had to eat His flesh and drink His blood to have eternal life. But, since He was their brother, they didn’t turn away as the offended disciples had done. Rather, they gave Him their opinion of how He could best establish His claims if they were true. But their advice was based on a complete misunderstanding of Jesus’ divine origin and His mission.

The brothers’ advice to Jesus was similar to the temptation that Satan put before Jesus to jump off the pinnacle of the temple and let the angels carry Him safely to the ground so that everyone who saw it would be astonished and bow before Him as the Son of God (Matt. 4:5-7; Luke 4:5-8). The brothers here are saying, “Go up to Jerusalem and do a few more spectacular miracles and everyone will follow You.” It was a worldly-wise publicity and marketing strategy, but it was satanic at its core.

There are plenty of people today who try to build their ministries or churches through worldly methods of publicity and marketing. A few years ago, I was making a hospital visit and a woman who was visiting the same patient introduced herself to me and added, “I’m the pastor of marketing at [such and such] Church.” It was the first time I had ever heard about, much less met, a “pastor of marketing”! While there’s nothing wrong with letting the community know that your church exists and when its services are, the whole concept of using worldly marketing methods to promote a church strikes me as wrong-headed. If the Holy Spirit is moving in our midst, the world will hear about it!

Jesus replied to His brothers (7:6), “My time is not yet here, but your time is always opportune.” I’ll comment on 7:7, where Jesus mentions the world’s hatred, in a moment. But then He tells His brothers (7:8), “Go up to the feast yourselves; I do not go up to this feast because My time has not yet fully come.” So He stayed in Galilee, but after His brothers left for the feast, Jesus went up, “not publicly, but as if, in secret” (7:10).

Note first that Jesus obviously was not lying to His brothers. Some early manuscripts, to alleviate the difficulty of Jesus saying that He wasn’t going, but then He went, report Jesus as saying, “I do not yet go up to this feast,” rather than “I do not go.” But even if the original was, “I do not go,” the context (7:6) makes it clear that He meant, “I am not going with you because it is not the Father’s time for Me to go. You can go any time, but I must go at the time and in the manner that My Father directs Me to go.” So John is showing Jesus’ firm resolve to do the Father’s will, not the will of His unbelieving brothers, even if they meant well.

Also, don’t miss the sober truth that it’s possible to be in close proximity to Jesus, to know Him as few others do, and yet still be unbelieving and lost! Jesus’ brothers had grown up with Him. I can’t imagine what it would have been like to have a sinless brother, but they must have sensed that Jesus was very different than they were. Probably they resented His sinless life because it convicted them of their own sins. They had undoubtedly heard His teaching and they knew that He performed many miracles (“if” in 7:4 does not express doubt, but has the nuance of “since”), but they still did not believe. The application is: You can grow up in a Christian home and go to church every week and know a lot about Jesus, but not personally believe in Him as your Savior and Lord.

B. The Jewish leaders had a hostile view of Jesus: “This man is upsetting our traditions: We need to kill Him!”

By “the Jews” (7:1, 11, 13), John means, “the Jewish leaders.” They were seeking Jesus, but not so they could learn from Him and believe in Him, but so they could kill Him (7:1, 19, 25, 30, 32, 44; 8:37, 40, 59). Jesus threatened their power, which they used to control the people through fear (7:13). He didn’t fit their idea of a political Messiah who would play their political game and reward them all with nice positions in His kingdom. When He upset the money-changers’ tables in the temple (2:14-16), He threatened their income. So they didn’t carefully listen to Jesus’ teaching or think rationally about the amazing miracles that He was doing. Rather, they reacted emotionally because Jesus threatened their comfortable way of life.

Even so, there are many today who do not believe in Christ because they react emotionally rather than rationally. They sense that to come to Christ would mean the end of their plans, their prestige, and their control over their lives. They like the comfortable lives that they have and they don’t want to face the truth that they are rebels against the Holy One of God.

C. The multitude had an inadequate, mixed view of Jesus: “He’s a good man”; “No, He’s leading the people astray.”

John 7:12-13: “There was much grumbling among the crowds concerning Him; some were saying, ‘He is a good man’; others were saying, ‘No, on the contrary, He leads the people astray.’ Yet no one was speaking openly of Him for fear of the Jews.” “Grumbling” here means “quietly debating among themselves,” since as John notes (7:13), they were afraid to speak openly. “Big brother” (or the National Security Agency) might be listening!

The multitudes were divided into two camps, both of which were wrong. Some said, “He is a good man.” That was true as far as it went, but it didn’t go anywhere near as far as it should, as John’s Gospel demonstrates. John Stott points out (Basic Christianity [Eerdmans], rev. ed., pp. 23-26) that if Jesus was not God in human flesh, His claims would have meant that He was not a good man, but a very self-centered man. He was always talking about Himself and telling people that they should believe in Him as the only way to have eternal life. He claimed that the Old Testament was written about Him (5:39, 46). He claimed to be the bread of life, who could satisfy the hunger of all who come to Him (6:35). He claimed that whoever believes in Him would have rivers of living water flowing from his innermost being (7:38). He claimed to be the Light of the world (8:12). He claimed that before Abraham was born, He existed (8:58). No good man, who was not God in human flesh, could say such things without being considered a deluded megalomaniac.

The other camp thought that Jesus was leading the people astray. They were the traditionalists, who thought that the ways of the fathers were good enough. But if Jesus was a deceiver, He was a very good one! He got many fiercely monotheistic Jews to believe His claims to be God to the extent that many of them eventually suffered persecution and martyrdom because of their belief in Him. But He also would have been a very evil deceiver, because if He deliberately led people to believe in Him, knowing all the time that He was not the true way to eternal life, He condemned them to a godless eternity. Nothing could be worse than knowingly to deceive people with regard to their eternal destiny.

So both camps were in error and both errors would result in people still being under God’s righteous judgment, because neither camp believed in Jesus as Savior and Lord. But why did these Jewish people, who had the Scriptures, who heard Jesus’ claims and who saw His miracles, not believe?

2. The cause for wrong views about Jesus: He confronts our sin and we fear what others would think if we were to believe in Him.

John gives us two reasons why these Jews at the feast did not believe. First, they hated Jesus because He confronted their sins (7:7). Second, they were ambivalent about Jesus because they feared the religious leaders, who would put them out of the synagogue if they believed (7:13; 9:22).

Jesus tells His brothers (7:7), “The world cannot hate you, but it hates Me because I testify of it, that its deeds are evil.” As we saw (3:20), “For everyone who does evil hates the Light, and does not come to the Light for fear that his deeds will be exposed.” To come to Jesus, you have to let Him confront your sins. You have to turn from your deeds of darkness and learn to walk in the light, as He Himself is in the light (1 John 1:5-7).

Also, implicit in Jesus’ words is the truth that if you follow Him, the world will hate you because of your holy life. You will not be the most popular person at the office or at school if you don’t join the world in its sinful ways. James (one of Jesus’ brothers who later believed) draws the line (James 4:4): “You adulteresses, do you not know that friendship with the world is hostility toward God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God.” You have to choose sides. Which side are you on?

Coupled with wanting to blend in with the world is the fear of what people will think if you follow Jesus. It was the fear of the Jewish leaders that kept many in the multitude from openly believing in Jesus (7:13). So if you want to cover up your sins and blend in with the world, you will not truly believe in Jesus.

3. The only saving view of Jesus is that He is both Messiah and Lord.

This is not stated directly in our text, but it comes through pretty clearly:

A. Jesus is Messiah.

We see this by the fact that Jesus did not “do His own thing,” but rather He lived in obedience to the Father’s plan. If Jesus had chosen to do so, He could have been the popular, political Messiah that the people wanted. They wanted to make Him king (6:15). He could have gone up to Jerusalem, much like political candidates today do, worked out a few backroom compromises and given some promises for political favors, and He would have been swept into office.

But Jesus was operating on God’s timetable, which ultimately led to the cross. Here, Jesus tells His brothers (7:6), “My time is not yet here.” He was probably referring to His time to go up to the feast, as well as to the manner in which He would go there, not openly, but at first in a quiet, undramatic way. He knew that He had come to die for our sins, but at the proper time, not in response to His brothers’ worldly advice. He came to lay down His life for His sheep in obedience to the Father’s will.

B. Jesus is Lord.

Jesus testified to the world that its deeds are evil (7:7). Of course, many of God’s prophets down through the centuries had done the same thing. But those prophets always identified themselves with the sins that they preached against. Their message was always, “We have sinned against the Lord!”

But Jesus came as the Light shining in the darkness. He could ask (John 8:46), “Which of you convicts Me of sin?” As Peter testified (6:69), Jesus is “the Holy One of God.” Jesus rightly could call on all people to follow Him with the promise that He could give them eternal life. As the officers who were sent to arrest Jesus, but came back without Him, testified (7:46), “Never has a man spoken the way this man speaks.” Jesus is the Lord God in human flesh. To be saved, you must believe that Jesus is the Christ (the promised Savior), and that He is the eternal Son of God.

Conclusion

To sum up, there are several important applications that we should take away from these verses:

First, if you grew up in the church and have been familiar with Christian teaching all your life, do not be fooled into thinking that you are saved by your familiarity with Jesus. If Jesus’ own brothers were not saved by their connection, it shows that no one is saved by familiarity alone. You must personally believe in Him as your Savior from sin, the one who bore your penalty on the cross.

Second, if you have believed in Christ, you must let Him confront your sin so that you forsake it and walk in the light. Through God’s Word, Jesus tells us how to think, speak, and act in a godly way. If you are not letting the Word confront your sins, you are not walking with Jesus.

Finally, if you believe in Jesus as Savior and Lord, you must be at war with the world. You are either a friend of the world and an enemy of God or a friend of God and an enemy of the world. As John wrote (1 John 2:15), “Do not love the world nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.”

Application Questions

  1. To what extent (if any) should the church utilize worldly business and marketing practices? Where do we draw the line?
  2. Someone tells you, “I believe that Jesus was a very good man, but I don’t believe He is God.” How would you reply?
  3. Agree/disagree: If you are not letting the Word confront your sins, you are not walking with Jesus. What Scriptures support this?
  4. What does it look like in daily practice to be at war with the world? Discuss the practical implications of 1 John 2:15-17.

Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2013, All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation

Related Topics: Faith, Soteriology (Salvation), Spiritual Life

Psalm 137

STROPHE DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

NASB NKJV NRSV TEV NJB
An Experience of the Captivity
No MT Intro
Longing for Zion in a Foreign Land Prayer for Vengeance on Israel's Enemies
(A Lament)
A Lament of Israelites in Exile Song of the Exiles
137:1-3 137:1-3 137:1-3 137:1-3 137:1-2
        137:3
137:4-6 137:4-6 137:4-6 137:4-6 137:4-5
        137:6
137:7-9 137:7-9 137:7-9 137:7 137:7
      137:8-9 137:8-9

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Etc.

 

WORD AND PHRASE STUDY

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 137:1-3
 1By the rivers of Babylon,
 There we sat down and wept,
 When we remembered Zion.
 2Upon the willows in the midst of it
 We hung our harps. 

3For there our captors demanded of us songs,
 And our tormentors mirth, saying,
 "Sing us one of the songs of Zion."

137:1 "By the rivers of Babylon" Possibly a better translation would be "by the waterways." The water system of Babylon of that day involved not only rivers but also manmade canals, like the Canal Chebar (cf. Ezek. 1:1).

We learn from Acts 16:13 that it was an ancient custom for cities with no synagogue to meet by the local river for worship. This may be the case here.

▣ "There we sat down and wept" Because of the combination of the words "sat" and "wept" this seems to relate to a funeral dirge setting. Sitting flat on the ground was a Jewish form of mourning.

▣ "we remembered Zion" It is interesting that in the Bible it was important for humans to remember (cf. Ps. 137:5 [implied],6,7). The term "exalt" in Ps. 137:6 is translated by the Jewish Publication Society of America, in their new translation, as "keep Jerusalem in memory as my happiest hour."

The term "Zion" is a synonym for the entire city of Jerusalem and the temple area located on Mt. Moriah (see Special Topic: Moriah, Salem, Jebus, Jerusalem, Zion). It is very hard for us to understand the full implication of Israel in exile. She had been promised a Davidic king forever (2 Sam. 7:10,13,16). She had been protected during the invasion of the Assyrian king, Sennacherib, in Hezekiah's day (cf. Isaiah 37). However, Jeremiah told them that exile was imminent unless they repented and turned back to God. The Covenant (see SPECIAL TOPIC: COVENANT) had always been conditional (cf. 1 Sam. 13:12,13), but they relied on ancient traditions instead of personal relationships. Therefore, God's covenant was made inoperative (i.e., exile) in their day.

137:2 "the willows" Horticulturalists tell us that willows do not grow in the ANE but that this tree (BDB 788 II) is probably a type of poplar tree that grows along the Euphrates and Jordan Rivers. See UBS, Fauna and Flora of the Bible, p. 170. Some even suggest that the branches of this particular tree were used during the Feast of Tabernacles to build the booths that the people lived in.

▣ "We hung our harps" It is interesting to note that all of the verbs in Ps. 137:1-3 are in the perfect tense, which may imply that the author lived sometime later than the exile and was writing about a bitter past experience.

The RSV translates the term "harps" (BDB 490) as "lyres." It is very difficult to ascertain the exact kind of musical instruments involved because the names changed from culture to culture, as did the design of the instruments. It was a small stringed musical instrument.

137:3 "For there our captors. . .our tormentors" It has been suggested by some commentators that this verse is an example of the mockery committed by the Babylonian captors, but the term translated by NASB, "demanded," is, in reality, the much more simple Hebrew word "ask" (BDB 981, KB 1371, Qal perfect). It is quite possible that the Babylonians were only interested in the new type of music which the Jews produced. However, for the Jews, they could not sing religious songs in a foreign land because they were committed to the worship of YHWH, who had seemingly been defeated by Marduk. This was a time of great confusion for the Jews during this period of history. There was the concept in the ANE that whoever won the battle was empowered by their national gods. YHWH was willing for His own name to be impugned in order for His people to turn back in trust to Him.

Notice there are several words that begin with שׁ.

1. Ps. 137:3 verb, "ask" - BDB 981, KB 1371, Qal perfect

2. Ps. 137:3 participle, "captors" - BDB 985, KB 1382, Qal participle

3. Ps. 137:3 noun, "songs" - BDB 1010

4. Ps. 137:3 noun, "mirth" - BDB 970

5. Ps. 137:3 verb, "sing" - BDB 1010, KB 1479, Qal imperative

6. Ps. 137:4 noun, "songs" - BDB 1010

7. Ps. 137:4 verb, "sings' - BDB 1010, KB 1479, Qal imperfect

8. Ps. 137:4 noun, "song" - BDB 1010

9. Ps. 137:5 verb, "forget" - BDB 1013, KB 1489, Qal imperfect

 10. Ps. 137:5 verb, "forget" - BDB 1013, KB 1489, Qal imperfect used in a jussive sense

 11. Ps. 137:6 noun, "joy" - BDB 970

 

▣ "our tormentors" This word (BDB 1064, KB 1700) is found only here. It could be

1. a parallel to "our captors" of Ps. 137:3a

2. "those who led us away" (REB), LXX, Peshitta, Vulgate

3. from another Hebrew root (הלל - BDB 237), "make a mockery of"

 

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 137:4-6
 4How can we sing the Lord's song
 In a foreign land?
 5If I forget you, O Jerusalem,
 May my right hand forget her skill.
 6May my tongue cling to the roof of my mouth
 If I do not remember you,
 If I do not exalt Jerusalem
 Above my chief joy.

137:4 "How can we sing the Lord's song
 In a foreign land"
Some have identified this statement with the concept of national deities, but it seems to me that it refers more to the religious character of the songs and that it was impossible to sing praises to YHWH in the midst of such judgment and alienation. I'm sure that the Jews really wondered if God's covenant was forever broken, if He would ever love them again, and if there was any hope for their nation. God would answer these questions in a positive way in the future but at this period of time there was great confusion and misunderstanding.

▣ "Lord's" This is YHWH. See Special Topic: Names for Deity.

137:5 "If I forget you, O Jerusalem" This shows their faith amidst dark times. Psalm 137:5-6 is a self curse used for literary intensity!

▣ "May. . .May" These are both Qal imperfects used in a jussive sense.

▣ "my right hand forget her skill" Notice that the words "her skill" are italicized in the NASB, which means that they are not in the MT. Because the context is singing this may be an allusion to the fact that these Jewish musicians were apostacizing by singing religious songs while in captivity and may have lost their skill as musicians. This seems to be the emphasis in Ps. 137:6, which implies the loss of singing ability.

137:6 "If I do not exalt Jerusalem

Above my chief joy" The literal phrase, "above head," is unique and may refer to some cultic gesture or symbolic head covering. The LXX takes "head" as "beginning" or "origin" (see Special Topic: Head).

As is so often with these rare poetic words, it is best to remember that

1. the parallel gives us a clue

2. the etymology of cognate roots is often a pointer to meaning

3. the thrust of the Psalm as a whole

JPSOA has "keep Jerusalem in memory at my happiest hour."

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: 137:7-9
 7Remember, O Lord, against the sons of Edom
 The day of Jerusalem,
 Who said, "Raze it, raze it
 To its very foundation."
 8O daughter of Babylon, you devastated one,
 How blessed will be the one who repays you
 With the recompense with which you have repaid us.
 9How blessed will be the one who seizes and dashes your little ones
 Against the rock.

137:7 "Remember, O Lord, against the sons of Edom" As humans are to remember God's grace, God is encouraged to forget (Qal imperative used in prayer) Israel's sins, for when God remembers it is usually in the context of judgment. That is exactly the purpose of this statement, that the God of vengeance, Deut. 32:35, will act fairly and justly toward the sons of Edom who violated their own relatives (i.e., the Jews). There is much biblical evidence that Edom participated in the siege, fall, and sack of Jerusalem (cf. Ps. 87:4-8; Jer. 49:7-22; Lam. 4:21; Ezek. 25:12-14; 35:1ff; Amos 1:11; Joel 3:19; and especially Obadiah 10-14). See SPECIAL TOPIC: EDOM AND ISRAEL.

▣ "Who said, ‘Raze it, raze it'" This is supposedly the words (two Piel imperatives) of the Edomites in the day that Jerusalem fell to Nebuchadnezzar's army. However, the new translation of the Jewish Publication of America has, "strip her, strip her." This is quite possible in light of Isa. 47:2-3; Lam. 1:8; Ezek. 16:37. The metaphor here is of a woman who is publicly shamed. This interpretation is bolstered by the fact that in the next phrase, "to its very foundation," can be translated as "buttocks" (BDB 414, KB 417, AB, p. 273). I think the first option is better.

137:8 "O daughter of Babylon" It is quite common to call nations by the term, "daughter of." This is a Hebrew idiom used to include an entire population. See full note at Jer. 46:11 online. It is interesting that the three verbs of Ps. 137:8 are repeated in Jer. 51:56.

NASB"you devastated one"
NKJV"you who are destroyed"
NRSV,
NASB margin"you devastator"
TEV"you will be destroyed"
NJB"doomed to destruction"
JPSOA,
Targums"you predator"
REB"the destroyer"

The UBS Text Project, p. 419, gives "devastated one" a "B" rating (some doubt). The differences between the options are

1. דודהשה - devastated one

2. דדהשה - devastating one

 

▣ "How blessed will be the one who repays you

 With the recompense with which you have repaid us" This is simply the OT example of the "eye for an eye" justice of Lev. 24:19-22; Deut. 19:19; repeated in Jeremiah 51. We Reap what we sow (often called "the two ways," cf. Job 34:11; Ps. 28:4; 62:12; Pro. 24:12,29; Eccl. 12:14; Jer. 17:10; 32:19; Matt. 16:27; 25:31-46; Rom. 2:6; 14:12; 1 Cor. 3:8; 2 Cor. 5:10; Gal. 6:7; 2 Tim. 4:14; 1 Pet. 1:17; Rev. 2:23; 20:12; 22:12).

There are six imprecatory (i.e., cursing) Psalms, i.e., Psalms 55; 59; 69; 79; 109; 137.

137:9 "dashes our little ones" This was a common practice in the ANE (cf. 2 Kgs. 8:12; Isa. 13:16,18; Hosea 10:14; Nahum 3:10). It is interesting to note that the specific prophecy mentioned in Isa. 13:16 was against Babylon. This seems to be a horrible example of the truth that what we sow, we reap. The historian, Prideaux, tells us that when Babylon came under siege that the women and children were killed in order that more food would be preserved for the military defenders of the city.

▣ "the rock" The noun (BD 700) has the definite article. It could refer to

1. a name for Petra (often called "the red" city), a capital in Edom (BDB 701, cf. 2 Kgs. 14:7)

2. a way of referring to idolatry, which is opposite of YHWH, "the true rock"

3. some emend the term to "Aram" (a country)

4. a way of referring to a hard surface, like a wall or side of a house. This fits the context and parallelism best.

 

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Why was the Babylonian captivity such a theological crisis? 

2. How do these historical examples in the life of the nation of Israel apply to us in the Church?

3. Discuss the words "forget" and "remember" and how they are used in an OT setting. 

4. How does one compare the ancient practices of war in a moral sense with our own modern practices?

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