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Psalm 84


Longing For the Temple Worship
MT Intro
For the choir director; on the Gittith. A Psalm of the sons of Korah
The Blessedness of Dwelling in the House of God Sons Praising Zion as the Longed-for Goal of the Pilgrim Longing for God's House Pilgrimage Sons
84:1-4 84:1-2 84:1-2 84:1-4 84:1-2
  84:3-4 84:3-4   84:3
84:5-7 84:5-7 84:5-7 84:5-7  
84:8-12 84:8-9 84:8-9 84:8-9 84:8-9
  84:10-11 84:10-12 84:10-12 84:10
  84:12     84:12

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Etc.



A. Many have assumed that this Psalm was written by a Levite, who, for some reason, is estranged from the temple.

1. because of sickness

2. because of banishment

3. because the King has fled (cf. Ps. 84:9) and he has gone with him

B. In this Psalm, fellowship with Israel's God is connected to the temple.

1. Your dwelling places, Ps. 84:1a - BDB 1015, cf. Ps. 43:3; 132:5

2. the courts of YHWH, Ps. 84:2a - BDB 346, cf. Ps. 65:4; 84:10; 96:8 100:4; 116:19; 135:2

3. Your altars, Ps. 84:3c - BDB 258

4. Your house, Ps. 84:4a

5. the highways to Zion, Ps. 84:5b, cf. Ps. 86:11; 122:1

6. appears before God in Zion, Ps. 84:7b, cf Ps. 42:2; Exod. 34:23; Deut. 16:16

7. Your courts, Ps. 84:10a, cf. #2

8. stand at the threshold of the house of my God (Eloah), Ps. 84:10b - BDB 706, KB 765, Hithpoel infinitive construct (used of "gatekeeper" in 1 Chr. 23:5)

C. Notice the different names/titles for Deity.

1. Lord of hosts (YHWH Sabaoth), Ps. 84:1,3,12a

2. Lord (YHWH), Ps. 84:2a,8a,11b

3. the loving God (El), Ps. 84:2b, cf. Deut. 5:26; Ps. 42:2

4. My King, Ps. 84:3d

5. My God (Elohim), Ps. 84:3d

6. God (El - Elohim, lit. "God of gods" or with a change of vowels, "before God"), Ps. 84:7b

7. God (Elohim) of hosts, Ps. 84:8a

8. God (Eloah) of Jacob, Ps. 84:8b, cf. Ps. 46:7

9. God (Elohim), Ps. 84:9a

10. My God (Eloah), Ps. 84:10b

11. Lord God (YHWH Elohim), Ps. 84:11a

Many of the Psalms of Asaph have multiple names/titles of God. See Special Topic: Names For Deity. Each of these, and their combinations, had connotations for Israelites.

D. This Psalm is similar in many ways to Psalm 42. The sons of Korah, apparently a family of Levitical singers, also wrote it. The father was Kohath, the choirmaster under David. They wrote Psalms 42-49; 84-85; 87-88.



 1How lovely are Your dwelling places,
 O Lord of hosts!
 2My soul longed and even yearned for the courts of the Lord;
 My heart and my flesh sing for joy to the living God.
 3The bird also has found a house,
 And the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young,
 Even Your altars, O Lord of hosts,
 My King and my God.
 4How blessed are those who dwell in Your house!
 They are ever praising You.  Selah.

84:1 "lovely" This adjective is literally "beloved" (BDB 391). Jerusalem, the city of the Great God, is beautiful, but even more, it is "beloved," was is Israel (cf. Ps. 127:2).

▣ "Your dwelling places" This is a parallel poetic relationship with Ps. 84:2. Therefore, it must refer to the courts of the temple in Jerusalem (cf. Ps. 43:3; 46:4), where God Himself chose to dwell (cf. Deut. 12:5,11,14,18,21,26; 14:23-25; 15:20; 16:2,6,11,15; 17:8,10; 18:6; 26:2; 31:11).

84:2 This verse has three verbs that describe how the psalmist feels about YHWH. It is very similar to another Psalm of Korah—Psalm 42 (also note Psalm 63).

1. My soul longed - BDB 493, KB 490, Niphal perfect

2. my soul even yearned - BDB 477, KB 476, Qal perfect, cf. Ps. 119:81

3. my heart and my flesh sing for joy - BDB 943, KB 1247, Piel imperfect, cf. Ps. 51:14

This emotive language is very powerful. It reminds faithful followers of the wonderful personal side of fellowship with God. The goal is to be with Him! For Israelites that was linked to the temple. For NT believers it is linked to Jesus, the new temple (cf. John 2:18-22)!

▣ "the living God" This is a word play on the meaning of YHWH ("I Am Who I Am," cf. Exod. 3:14). The God of Israel is the ever-living, only-living God! (cf. Ps. 42:2).


84:3 "bird" This can refer to two things, one literal and one symbolic. The symbolic would mean that the psalmist longs to be close to God in the temple—to dwell with God. The small helpless bird symbolizes a person. The literal would mean that the birds have free access even to the holiest places in the temple.

▣ "My King" YHWH was the true "king" of the covenant people (cf. 1 Sam. 8:7). Biblical faith is not a democracy but a theocracy! Jesus put it well in Luke 6:46, "Why do you call Me, 'Lord, Lord,' and do not do what I say?" See SPECIAL TOPIC: THE KINGDOM OF GOD.

84:4 "How blessed are those who dell in Your house" This Psalm is structured around the three uses of the term "blessed" (BDB 80, Ps. 84:4,5,12). It basically means "happy" (cf. Ps. 9:1). It could refer, in this context, to priests or to guests (cf. Ps. 23:6; 27:4-6; 65:4).

▣ "They are ever praising You" Praise characterizes YHWH's true followers (cf. Ps. 42:5,11).

"Ever" (BDB 728) is used often in this section of the Psalms (cf. Ps. 77P:7; 78:17,30,32; 83:4). There is an eternal aspect to fellowship with YHWH!

▣ "Selah" See notes at Ps. 3:2

 5How blessed is the man whose strength is in You,
 In whose heart are the highways to Zion!
 6Passing through the valley of Baca they make it a spring;
 The early rain also covers it with blessings.
 7They go from strength to strength,
 Every one of them appears before God in Zion.

▣ "How blessed is the man whose. . ." This is terminology of Wisdom Literature. "Blessed" (BDB 80) is used 26 times in Psalms and 8 times in Proverbs. See note at Ps. 1:1.

▣ "In whose heart are the highways to Zion" Many commentators (and BDB) interpret this as a reference to pilgrims approaching the temple. Male Jews over the age of 21, who lived close enough and were able, were commanded to attend three annual feasts at the temple (i.e., Leviticus 23 and Exodus 23).

▣ "highways" This term (BDB 700) has wonderful connotations of restoration, both physically (i.e., from exile) and spiritually (i.e., coming of YHWH's special deliverer, Messiah).

The following is my note from Isaiah 19:23.

Isaiah 19:23 There will be a free-flowing movement between nations for the purpose of worshiping YHWH. The nations have come!

It is interesting how many times Isaiah uses the imagery of a highway.

1.a highway for the exiled Jews to return, Isa. 11:16; 57:14

2.a highway for Gentile worshipers to come, Isa. 19:23

3.a highway of holiness, Isa. 26:7; 35:8; 43:19; 49:11; 51:10

4. a Messianic highway, Isa. 40:3; 42:16


84:6 "Baca" The term (BDB 113) means "weeping." Some take this literally and apply it to a valley close to Jerusalem (i.e., 2 Sam. 5:22-24). Others take it symbolically as the problems encountered on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem or a return from exile.

▣ "spring" This term (BDB 745), like "Baca," is taken by some as a literal site of water and by others as a metaphor of God's care on the journey.

▣ "early rain" The LXX and the Vulgate translate this (BDB 435) as "lawgiver" (cf. NASB margin note at Joel 2:23), which would be an allusion to YHWH's Sinaitic covenant (cf. Exodus 19-20). In this context it refers to the temple in Jerusalem.

▣ "blessings" The MT has "blessings" (BDB 139), but the KJV has "pools" (BDB 140), parallel to the term "spring." This involves only a vowel change.

84:7 "from strength to strength" The NASB interprets these terms as provisions for the journey. It is possible to translate these consonants as "height to height," meaning ridge to ridge as one approaches Jerusalem. One of my favorite commentators, Derek Kidner, Tyndale OT Commentaries, vol. 116, p. 336, says he thinks it refers to the excitement that pilgrims have as they come to the final phase of the journey to the temple.

▣ "Every one of them appears before God in Zion" Again, the NASB and NKJV are interpreting this as a pilgrim's journey. It is possible to translate these consonants as "The God of gods (lit. El Elohim, NRSV) will be seen in Zion" (LXX, Peshitta).

 8O Lord God of hosts, hear my prayer;
 Give ear, O God of Jacob!  Selah.
 9Behold our shield, O God,
 And look upon the face of Your anointed.
 10For a day in Your courts is better than a thousand outside.
 I would rather stand at the threshold of the house of my God
 Than dwell in the tents of wickedness.
 11For the Lord God is a sun and shield; 
 The Lord gives grace and glory;
 No good thing does He withhold from those who walk uprightly.
 12O Lord of hosts,
 How blessed is the man who trusts in You!

84:8-9 There are four imperatives used in two parallel lines.

1. hear - BDB 1033, KB 1570, Qal

2. give ear - BDB 24, KB 27, Hiphil

3. behold - BDB 906, KB 1157, Qal

4. look - BDB 613, KB 661, Hiphil

These are prayer requests for YHWH to restore access to temple worship. Notice how the plurals of Ps. 84:4-7 return to the singulars of Ps. 84:2-3!

Psalm 84:8-9 is a prayer for a person's restoration to temple worship and for this to come about by God strengthening and empowering Israel's king (Ps. 84:9b)!

84:8 "God of hosts" "Sabaoth" (BDB 838) usually has a military connotation (i.e., Joshua), "God, the commander of the heavenly army." In a Babylonian astral idolatry context it refers to the "stars." YHWH is the creator and controller of all heavenly lights.

84:9 "our shield" This is a title for God (cf. Gen. 15:1; Deut. 33:29; Ps. 18:2; 115:9-11) or Israel's king.

▣ "Your anointed" This could refer to the High Priest (cf. Lev. 4:3; Zechariah 3-4), but probably the King (cf. Ps. 2:2; 132:17; 1 Sam. 2:35; 16:6; 2 Sam. 19:21). In Ps. 89:18 both "shield" and "king" are used of the King of Israel.

For "anointed" see Special Topic: OT Titles of the Special Coming One.

84:10 "For a day in Your courts is better than a thousand outside" This is the use of the term "thousand" in a symbolic way (see Special Topic: Thousand [eleph]). The comparison is not fully stated, "One day with YHWH in His temple is better than a thousand days anywhere else!" (i.e., Ps. 27:4).

▣ "the threshold" It is true that in the ancient world, the threshold (BDB 706) was viewed as potentially demon filled, especially in Roman culture. However, in this context it seems obvious that this is a comparative statement. The psalmist would rather be at the outskirts of the temple than in the plush comfort and hospitality of the wicked.

Some commentators try to make "threshold" (BDB 706) a title for the Levite gatekeepers (cf. 1 Chr. 9:19,22; 2 Chr. 23:4). I think "threshold" (cf. Jdgs. 19:27; 1 Kgs. 14:17; 2 Chr. 3:7) fits this context best.

▣ "tents of wickedness" This is an anachronism from the nomadic days of Israel. The opposite is expressed in Ps. 27:5-6.

84:11 "a sun" The Aramaic Targums interpret "sun" (BDB 1039) as "bulwark" ("sun," שׁמשׁ, BDB 1039; "battlements," שׁמשׁתיך, BDB 1039, cf. Isa. 54:12). Battlement fits the parallelism with shield better. The OT was reluctant to use "sun" in connection with YHWH because of the widespread worship of the sun in the ANE. If "sun" is original, then it is a metaphor that focuses on light, truth, health, revelation, blessing, etc. Deity is described in this way in Isa. 60:19-20; Mal. 4:2; Rev. 21:23. He is the true, eternal light.

84:11-12 This is a summary of the believer's worldview. God is with us and for us, even when we are physically separated from the designated place of worship. To faithful followers YHWH

1. is sun and shield

2. gives grace and glory

3. withholds no good thing (cf. Ps. 34:10b)

4. blesses those who (conditional element)

a. walk uprightly

b. trust Him



This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Why was the psalmist away from the temple?

2. How is this Psalm related to Psalm 42?

3. Is the reference to "highways" (Ps. 84:5) literal or symbolic?

4. Why is Ps. 84:6 so hard to translate?

5. To whom does the term "anointed" (Ps. 84:9b) refer?

6. In what way(s) is YHWH like the "sun"? Why is this analogy rare in the OT?

7. List the two conditions mentioned in Ps. 84:11-12. Is the covenant conditional or unconditional?

Psalm 85


Prayer for God's Mercy Upon the Nation
MT Intro
For the choir director. A Psalm of the sons of Korah
Prayer That The Lord Will Restore Favor to The Land Prayer For Deliverance From National Adversary A Prayer For the Nation's Welfare Prayer For Peace and Justice
85:1-3 85:1-3 85:1-3 85:1-3 85:1-2
85:4-7 85:4-7 85:4-7 85:4-7 85:4-5
85:8-13 85:8-9 85:8-9 85:8-9 85:8-9
  85:10-13 85:10-13 85:10-13 85:10-11

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Etc.



A. Notice that

1. Ps. 85:1-3 has all perfects (i.e., completed action, usually past)

2. while Ps. 85:4-7 has all imperfects (i.e., ongoing action, the current state of YHWH's anger toward Israel)

3. Ps. 85:5-6 contain a series of three questions).

B. Several major theological terms are personified in Ps. 85:10-13 (cf. positive in Isa. 58:8; negative in Isa. 59:14-15).

1. lovingkindness, Ps. 85:10 - Special Topic: Lovingkindness (hesed)

2. truth/faithfulness, Ps. 85:10,11 - Special Topic: Believe, Trust, Faith and Faithfulness in the OT

3. righteousness, Ps. 85:10,11,13 - Special Topic: Righteousness

4. peace, Ps. 85:10 (cf. Ps. 85:8) - Special Topic: Peace (OT)

C. The land is affected in both positive and negative ways by how God's people live (cf. Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 27-30). Human choices have consequences, but so do YHWH's grace and mercy!



 1O Lord, You showed favor to Your land;
 You restored the captivity of Jacob.
 2You forgave the iniquity of Your people;
 You covered all their sin.  Selah.
 3You withdrew all Your fury;
 You turned away from Your burning anger.

85:1-3 Notice the powerful parallelism which denotes the character and redemptive actions of YHWH.

1. You showed favor - BDB 953, KB 1280, Qal perfect

2. You restored the fortunes - BDB 996, KB 1427, Qal perfect, cf. Ps. 14:7

a. forgiveness

b. restoration to Canaan

3. You forgave the iniquity - BDB 669, KB 724, Qal perfect

4. You covered all their sin - BDB 491, KB 487, Piel perfect

5. You withdrew all Your fury - BDB 62, KB 74, Qal perfect

6. You turned away Your burning anger - BDB 996, KB 1427, Hiphil perfect; notice

a. this same verb in #2

b. the imperative form in Ps. 85:4

c. the Qal imperfect used in a jussive sense in Ps. 85:8

YHWH has kept His covenant promises even when His covenant people did not deserve it. Sin has consequences (cf. Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 27-30), but grace also has lasting effects because of the character of God (cf. Exod. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Deut. 4:31; Neh. 9:27; Ps. 86:15; 103:8; 145:8)!

85:1 "Your land" Notice the different ways to refer to God's people.

1. Your land, Ps. 85:1a

2. Jacob, Ps. 85:1b

3. Your people, Ps. 85:2a


85:2 "Selah" See note at Psalm 3:2.

85:3-4 "all" The use of "all" (BDB 481) is significant. All their sin is covered and all God's fury is withdrawn. What inclusive good news!

85:3 "Your fury" Notice the different words that refer to YHWH's reaction to human disobedience (cf. Ps. 78:49).

1. fury, Ps. 85:3a - BDB 720

2. burning anger, Ps. 85:3b - BDB 354 construct BDB 60 I

3. indignation, Ps. 85:4b - BDB 495

4. angry, Ps. 85:5a - BDB 60, verb

5. anger, Ps. 85:5b - BDB 60, noun

How different these expression of God's character are with

1. Ps. 85:1-2


 4Restore us, O God of our salvation,
 And cause Your indignation toward us to cease.
 5Will You be angry with us forever?
 Will You prolong Your anger to all generations?
 6Will You not Yourself revive us again,
 That Your people may rejoice in You?
 7Show us Your lovingkindness, O Lord,
 And grant us Your salvation.

85:4-7 This strophe starts out with two prayer requests ("restore" - BDB 996, KB 1427, Qal imperative; "put away" - BDB 830, KB 974, Hiphil imperative) and ends with a prayer request ("show" - BDB 906, KB 1157, Hiphil imperative).

It then follows with a series of questions related to that call for restoration.

1. Will You be angry with us forever? cf. Ps. 74:1; 79:5; 80:4

2. Will You prolong Your anger to all generations?

3. Will You not Yourself revive us again? cf. Ps. 71:20; 80:18

Israel could not understand how YHWH allowed them to be invaded and exiled (cf. Habakkuk 1)! They were His people and His witness in this world. The problem was covenant disobedience. The wrong message was being communicated to the nations (cf. Ezek. 36:22-36).

85:7 "lovingkindness" See note at Contextual Insights, B.

▣ "Your salvation" In Ps. 85:4 the psalmist calls YHWH "O God (Eloah) of our salvation" (BDB 447). See SPECIAL TOPIC: SALVATION (OLD TESTAMENT TERM) (OT).

 8I will hear what God the Lord will say;
 For He will speak peace to His people, to His godly ones;
 But let them not turn back to folly.
 9Surely His salvation is near to those who fear Him,
 That glory may dwell in our land.
 10Lovingkindness and truth have met together;
 Righteousness and peace have kissed each other.
 11Truth springs from the earth,
 And righteousness looks down from heaven.
 12Indeed, the Lord will give what is good,
 And our land will yield its produce.
 13Righteousness will go before Him
 And will make His footsteps into a way.

85:8-12 This strophe is the answer to the psalmist's prayers. He wants God to speak to him ("Let me hear," BDB 1033, KB 1570, Qal cohortative). He will pass on the message/vision.

1. peace to

a. His people

b. His godly ones (BDB 339)

2. His salvation is near

3. glory will dwell in their land (i.e., YHWH's personal presence, like the Shekinah cloud, but here in the temple, cf. Ps. 63:2; 102:15-16)

4. lovingkindness and faithfulness have met together

5. righteousness and peace have kissed each other

6. faithfulness springs from the earth

7. righteousness looks down from heaven

8. YHWH will give what is good

9. righteousness will go before

But notice the conditions.

1. let them not turn back to folly (BDB 493) - BDB 996, KB 1427, Qal imperfect used in a jussive sense

2. to those who fear/revere Him (Special Topic: Fear)

It is even possible the "to His godly ones" of Ps. 85:8b is also a condition for peace. There is no peace apart from a right relationship with God and then others.

Also Ps. 85:11 speaks of faithfulness as a condition for God's righteousness (i.e., God Himself) to look from heaven.

Psalm 85:10-11 is such powerful imagery of God's person. These attributes are personified as coming together to accomplish His purposes.

1. restoration from exile

2. breaking a drought

3. eschatological culmination (Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan)


85:8 "God the Lord" This is El plus YHWH. Usually it is YHWH Elohim, as in Gen. 2:4 (YHWH Elohim). The NJB sees these two names for God as introducing parallel lines.

"What is God's message?"

"Yahweh's message is peace."

This same approach is followed by AB (p. 285).

▣ "But let them not turn back to folly" This reflects the MT. The LXX understands the phrase as "and to those who turn to him their hearts." The UBS Text Project (p. 345) gives the MT a "C" rating (i.e., considerable doubt).

85:12 The promise of agricultural abundance was tied to covenant obedience (i.e., Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 27-30). AB sees the Psalm as a pre-exilic call for rain amidst a drought. The Jewish Study Bible (p. 1377) sees the Psalm as a plea for restoration of God's people to Canaan. This is based on

1. "land" in Ps. 85:1, 9-12

2. "restore the fortunes," as used in Jer. 30:3,18; Amos 9:14

3. Ps. 85:7, referring to a restored temple


▣ "good thing" To what does this refer?

1. deliverance - Exod. 18:9

2. blessings - Ps. 34:10

3. Canaan - Exod. 3:8; Deut. 1:35; 3:25; 4:21-22; 8:7,10; Jos. 23:13

4. unspecified goodness from YHWH to those who obey His covenant - Ps. 84:11

Maybe it is purposeful ambiguity that means God's provision in every needed area. Here, agricultural abundance (cf. Ps. 67:6).

85:13 The OT often uses the imagery of a "way," "road," "highway" to denote the actions of God and humans (i.e., Ps. 25:4,8,9,10,12,15). The spiritual life was characterized as "a way"!

Righteousness is again personified (cf. Ps. 85:10-11) as a herald (cf. Ps. 85:8) who goes before Israel shouting the good news of YHWH's love, care, protection, and presence with His people after exile or drought. The Jerome Bible Commentary (p. 591) sees it as possibly an eschatological reference.


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Is it possible to detect the historical setting? If so, list the three options.

2. How do the verbs of Ps. 85:1-2 relate to the verbs of Ps. 85:3?

3. Does Ps. 85:8 refer to the psalmist or a prophet?

4. Why is Ps. 85:10-11 such powerful, moving, encouraging imagery?

5. How does Ps. 85:11 deal with both divine sovereignty and human free will?

6. Define "good" in Ps. 85:12.

7. Explain the imagery of a "path" or "way."

Psalm 86


A Psalm of Supplication and Trust
MT Intro
A Prayer of David
Prayer for Mercy, with Meditation on the Excellencies of the Lord Prayer for Deliverance from Personal Enemies A Prayer For Help Prayer in Time of Trial
(Verse numbers from LXX)
86:1-5 86:1-5 86:1-7 86:1-2 86:1-2b
86:6-10 86:6-7   86:6-7  
  86:8-10 86:8-11 86:8-10  
86:11-13 86:11-13   86:11-13 86:11
    86:12-13   86:12-13
86:14-17 86:14-15 86:14-17 86:14-17 86:14
  86:16-17     86:16b-17

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.



A. This is categorized as a "personal lament." A righteous follower of YHWH calls on his righteous God to act on his behalf.

1. righteous author, Ps. 86:1,2,3,4

2. righteous God, Ps. 86:5,6

B. This Psalm has a surprising universal element in Ps. 86:9 (cf. Ps. 22:27; 46:10; 47:9; 57:5,11; 64:9; 65:8; 66:1-7; 67:2-5; 98:23; 99:2-3 102:15). This verse is the theological center of the chiasm (i.e., a Hebrew poetic structure).

C. A possible outline would be:

1. author's theological complaint, Ps. 86:1-7

2. hymn of praise to God, Ps. 86:8-10

a. His transcendence

b. His uniqueness (monotheism)

3. hymn of praise to God, Ps. 86:11-17, for His immanence

D. There are 15 imperatives of request in this Psalm.

1. incline Your ear, Ps. 86:1 - BDB 639, KB 692, Hiphil imperative, cf. Ps. 17:6; 31:2; 71:2; 102:2; same verb in imperfect in Ps. 88:2

2. answer me, Ps. 86:1 - BDB 772, KB 851, Qal imperative

3. preserve my soul, Ps. 86:2 - BDB 1036, KB 1581, Qal imperative, cf. Ps. 25:20

4. save, Ps. 86:2 - BDB 446, KB 448, Hiphil imperative, cf. Ps. 28:9; 31:16; 59:2; 71:2

5. be gracious, Ps. 86:3 - BDB 335, KB 334, Qal imperative

6. make glad the soul, Ps. 86:4 - BDB 970, KB 1333, Piel imperative

7. give ear, Ps. 86:6 - BDB 24, KB 27, Hiphil imperative

8. give heed, Ps. 86:6 - BDB 904, KB 1151, Hiphil imperative

9. teach me, Ps. 86:11 - BDB 34, KB 436, Hiphil imperative, cf. Ps. 25:4,12; 27:11

10. unite my heart, Ps. 86:11 - BDB 402, KB 405, Piel imperative

11. turn to me, Ps. 86:16 - BDB 815, KB 937, Qal imperative

12. be gracious to me, Ps. 86:16 - same as #5

13. grant strength, Ps. 86:16 - BDB 678, KB 733, Qal mperative

14. save, Ps. 86:16 - same as #4

15. show me a sign, Ps. 86:17 - BDB 793, KB 889, Qal imperative

E. Notice the vocatives.

1. O Lord (YHWH), Ps. 86:1, 3, 6, 11, 17

2. O You my God (Eloah), Ps. 86:2

3. O Lord (Adon), Ps. 86:4, 5, 8, 9, 15

4. O God (Elohim), Ps. 86:10,14

5. O Lord my God (Eloah), Ps. 86:12; Eloah also in Ps. 86:2

6. O grant (no name/title) giver, Ps. 86:16b

The other names/titles used are

1. God (El), Ps. 86:15

2. Your name (BDB 1027), Ps. 86:9, 11, 12

These all reflect a vibrant prayer for help to Israel's Deity!

F. The structure of individual Psalms is difficult to categorize. If this Psalm is an acrostic (see NASB Study Bible, p. 829), then Ps. 86:9 is the central key verse. To me, Ps. 86:8 is theologically the key verse and Ps. 86:9 is the logical extension. Monotheism was the uniqueness of Israel in the ANE (with two brief exceptions, one in Egypt and one in Assyria). See Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan, and Special Topic: Monotheism.



 1Incline Your ear, O Lord, and answer me;
 For I am afflicted and needy.
 2Preserve my soul, for I am a godly man;
 O You my God, save Your servant who trusts in You.
 3Be gracious to me, O Lord,
 For to You I cry all day long.
 4Make glad the soul of Your servant,
 For to You, O Lord, I lift up my soul.
 5For You, Lord, are good, and ready to forgive,
 And abundant in lovingkindness to all who call upon You.

86:1 "Incline" This is a metaphor derived from the verb "to bend" or "to turn" (BDB 639, KB 692). It calls on YHWH to hear His servant's plea (cf. Ps. 86:3,4,6,7).

▣ "O Lord" This is YHWH (i.e., the name is defined in Exod. 3:14, see Special Topic: Names for Deity). This is the covenant name for Deity. It is a form of the verb "to be."

There is a play between YHWH (Ps. 86:1,3,6,11), Elohim (Ps. 86:2,10,12) and Adon (Ps. 86:4,8, 9,12). These represent different concepts of deity.

1. YHWH - God as Savior, Redeemer

2. Elohim - God as Creator, Sustainer, Provider

3. Adonai - God as master, owner, husband


▣ "answer" This was not a prayer for information but the assurance of God's personal presence and care. The psalmist has experienced this and, for whatever reason, does not now! It is a plea for God to act in a visible way.

1. to deliver (Ps. 86:7)

2. to witness (Ps. 86:8-10)


▣ "For I am afflicted and needy" This phrase (BDB 776 and BDB 2) could be understood in a spiritual sense to refer to the faithful remnant (see SPECIAL TOPIC: THE REMNANT, THREE SENSES, cf. Ps. 34:6; 35:10; 40:17; 70:5). In this Psalm it is possibly a reference to the King.

86:2 "preserve my soul, for I am a godly man" There are two terms used to describe the psalmist.

1. soul - lit. nephesh, BDB 659, cf. Ps. 86:4 (twice), 13,14; see notes online at Ps. 3:2 and Gen. 35:18

2. godly one/man - BDB 339, see notes online at Ps. 16:10; 50:5

This begins a series of reasons why God should act on the psalmist's behalf.

1. he is godly, Ps. 86:2 (hasid, BDB 339, faithful to the covenant, related to hesed, BDB 339)

2. he trusts in YHWH, Ps. 86:2

3. he prays to YHWH, Ps. 86:3,4,5

4. because God is also hesed, Ps. 86:5,15.

In the OT, death was not seen as a reunion with God but a place of silence and joylessness. The psalmist wants to praise God in worship. The concept of what happens in the afterlife is developed (i.e., progressive revelation) in the NT. Thank God for Jesus and the NT!

▣ "save" In the OT this referred to physical deliverance. See SPECIAL TOPIC: SALVATION (OLD TESTAMENT TERM) (OT).

▣ "who trusts in You" See notes online at Ps. 4:5.

86:3 "to You I cry all day long" This referred to prayer throughout the day (cf. Ps. 22:2; 25:5; 88:9).

86:4 "I lift up my soul" This is an idiom for recognizing YHWH's place of power (i.e., on high, in heaven, cf. Ps. 123:1) and offering one's total self to Him (cf. Ps. 25:1; 143:8; Lam. 3:41).

The cultural background could be

1. sacrifices were lifted to YHWH

2. Jewish prayer was offered with the head, eyes, and hands lifted to heaven


86:5 This is a summary of the character of YHWH (cf. Ps. 86:10,15). There are several of these summaries throughout the OT (cf. Exod. 34:6; Jonah 4:2; Neh. 9:17; Joel 2:13; Ps. 86:15; 103:8; 145:8).

Man's hope is in the settled, loving character of YHWH. He is

1. good - BDB 373 II (cf. 1 Chr. 16:34; 2 Chr. 5:13; 7:3; 30:18; Ezra 3:11; Ps. 25:8; 34:8; 100:5; 106:1; 107:1; 118:1,25; 135:3; 136:1; Jer. 33:11; Nah. 1:7)

2. ready to forgive - BDB 699, adjective found only here (cf. Neh. 9:17; Ps. 130:4 for usages for the related noun)

3. abundant in lovingkindness - BDB 912 I construct BDB 338 (cf. Exod. 34:6; Neh. 9:17; Ps. 103:8; 145:8; Joel 2:13; Jon. 4:2), see SPECIAL TOPIC: LOVINGKINDNESS (HESED)

4. great, Ps. 86:10 - BDB 152 (cf. Ps. 77:13)

5. do wondrous deeds, Ps. 86:10 - BDB 810, see Special Topic: Wonderful Things

6. merciful, Ps. 86:15 - BDB 933

7. gracious, Ps. 86:15 - BDB 337

8. slow to anger, Ps. 86:15 - cf. same parallel verses as #3

9. abundant in faithfulness/truth, Ps. 86:15 - cf. same parallel verses as #3


▣ "to all who call upon You" The scope of YHWH's love and offer of acceptance is surprising in an OT Psalm. The same universal promise is repeated in Ps. 86:9. God welcomes all who approach Him in faith and worship. See Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan.

"Calling upon" God was an act of faith expressed in public worship in Joel 2:32 and quoted by Paul in Rom. 10:9-13. See Special Topic: What Does It Mean to "Receive," "Believe," "Confess/Profess," and "Call Upon?"

 6Give ear, O Lord, to my prayer;
 And give heed to the voice of my supplications!
 7In the day of my trouble I shall call upon You,
 For You will answer me.
 8There is no one like You among the gods, O Lord,
 Nor are there any works like Yours.
 9All nations whom You have made shall come and worship before You, O Lord,
 And they shall glorify Your name.
 10For You are great and do wondrous deeds;
 You alone are God.

86:6-7 These are parallel to Ps. 86:1. They express the psalmist's confidence in YHWH's personal presence and care.

86:7 "In the day of my trouble" The psalmist's plight is described further in Ps. 86:14. These enemies are described in several ways.

1. arrogant men have risen up against me

2. an assembly of violent men have sought my life (nephesh, see note online at Gen. 35:18)

3. they have not set You before them

4. those who hate me, Ps. 86:17b


86:8 "There is no one like You" This is an affirmation of monotheism (cf. Ps. 86:10b), see SPECIAL TOPIC: MONOTHEISM. This reflects Exod. 15:11.

▣ "among the gods" This is the Hebrew term elohim, used of spiritual beings (angels). This term is also used of human judges in the OT. See SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY.

▣ "Nor are there any works like Yours" YHWH is the God of creation. He is the only creator, all other beings are created. He is the God who acts. The idols of the nations cannot see, hear, or act!

86:9 "All nations whom You have made shall come" If there is only one creator God and all humans are made in His image (Gen. 1:26-27) and God has promised to redeem all fallen humans (Gen. 3:15), then God's love for all humans must be the focus of God's redemptive activities. See Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan.

This verse expresses the assertion that YHWH created the nations (cf. Deut. 32:8 in the LXX, which asserts YHWH gave each nation a national angel, cf. Deut. 29:26; Daniel 10).

▣ "they shall glorify Your name" Gentiles responding in faith and worship will glorify YHWH's love and redemption (cf. Isa. 66:23c).

If Ps. 86:14-15 refers to rebellious Jews, the contrast with believing Gentiles is even more powerful!

 11Teach me Your way, O Lord;
 I will walk in Your truth;
 Unite my heart to fear Your name.
 12I will give thanks to You, O Lord my God, with all my heart,
 And will glorify Your name forever.
 13For Your lovingkindness toward me is great,
 And You have delivered my soul from the depths of Sheol.

86:11-13 This stanza calls on YHWH (two imperatives) to provide what His faithful follower needs—instruction and a united, pure heart. In return the follower will "teach," "walk," "fear," "give thanks," and "glorify" YHWH. This is the covenant order: God provides, faithful followers respond.

▣ "Your way. . .Your truth. . .Your name" These are obviously in a parallel relationship. Biblical faith is

1. a daily lifestyle

2. cognitive truth

3. a person to completely trust in/on

I usually say it is a person (Jesus) to welcome; truths about that person to believe (the Bible); and a life like that person's to live! All of these elements are necessary for a full, complete, and mature biblical faith!

86:11,12 "unite my heart. . .with all my heart" This is a Hebrew idiom for total allegiance and dedication (i.e., Jer. 24:7; 32:39; Ezek. 11:33; 18:31; 36:26).

86:12 "I will give thanks. . .I will glorify" These two verbs are cohortatives.

1. give thanks - BDB 392, KB 389, Hiphil imperfect used in a cohortative sense

2. glorify - BDB 457, KB 455, Piel cohortative


▣ "Your name" Calling on YHWH's name (i.e., His person, character) goes back to Gen. 4:26 (cf. Gen. 12:8; 21:33; Ps. 80:18; 145:1-2; Dan. 9:19; Joel 2:32; Acts 2:21; Rom. 10:9-13). These are acts of faith, worship, and thanksgiving. Faithful followers publicly call out to the invisible God of creation and redemption. See Special Topic at Ps. 86:5 and Special Topic: "The Name" of YHWH.

▣ "forever" See Special Topic: Forever ('olam).

86:13 "delivered my soul from the depths of Sheol" The verb (BDB 664, KB 717) is a Hiphil perfect and, therefore, could be understood as past, present, or future (only context can determine). Sheol is the holding place of the dead. The Jews buried their loved ones, therefore, it was viewed phenomenologically as being in the center of the earth. See Special Topic: Where Are the Dead?

The psalmist's reference has been understood in several ways.

1. sickness

2. covenant enemies (fellow Jews)

3. external enemies (the surrounding nations)

4. future end-time sense (eschatological)

The term "depths" is literally the adjective "lowest" (BDB 1066, cf. Deut. 32:22).

 14O God, arrogant men have risen up against me,
 And a band of violent men have sought my life,
 And they have not set You before them.
 15But You, O Lord, are a God merciful and gracious,
 Slow to anger and abundant in lovingkindness and truth.
 16Turn to me, and be gracious to me;
 Oh grant Your strength to Your servant,
 And save the son of Your handmaid.
 17Show me a sign for good,
 That those who hate me may see it and be ashamed,
 Because You, O Lord, have helped me and comforted me.

86:14 God's faithful followers have enemies! Who these are is uncertain. Whoever they are, they do not know nor recognize God or His people (cf. Ps. 54:3, similar in Ps. 36:1).

86:15 See notes at Psalm 86:5.

86:16 This is parallel to Ps. 86:1 and 3.

▣ "save the son of Your handmaid" This is an idiom for a godly family who serves YHWH (i.e., Ps. 116:16).

86:17 Does this verse imply a plea for those of Ps. 86:14 to repent or is it a call for public justice? Psalm 112:10 may relate to this verse.


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. How does the psalmist describe himself in Ps. 86:1-3?

2. Explain how Ps. 86:8 fits Israel's unique view of the oneness and onlyness of YHWH.

3. Explain the universal emphasis of Ps. 86:9.

4. List the names for deity used in this Psalm and their theological significance.

5. Define monotheism and its implication to Ps. 86:5 and 9.

6. List the characteristics of YHWH in Ps. 86:5, 10, 15.

Psalm 87


The Privileges of Citizenship in Zion
MT Intro
A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. A Song
The Glories of the City of God Sons Praising Zion As the Mother of Believers Everywhere In Praise of Jerusalem Zion, Mother of Nations
87:1-7 87:1-3 87:1-3 87:1-3 87:1-2
  87:4 87:4 87:4 87:4
  87:5-6 87:5-6 87:5-7 87:5
  87:7 87:7    

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.



A. This Psalm praises YHWH's choice of a people to reveal and represent Himself to the other nations.

B. The imagery used is one of nations (cf. Ps. 87:4). YHWH set the boundaries of all the nations (cf. LXX, Deut. 32:8, i.e., He is in control of geography and history).

The covenant nation was made up of

1. descendants of Abraham (cf. Gen. 12:1-3; Deut. 7:6-8)

2. descendants of the Patriarchs (Isaac, Jacob/Israel)

3. a special land, Canaan

4. a special city, Jerusalem

5. a special mountain, Moriah (i.e., the temple, cf. Deut. 12:5,11,21; 14:23,24; 16:2,6,11, etc.)

C. This special nation (cf. Exod. 19:5-6) is crucial for reaching all nations (see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan.

D. As I read this Psalm I ask myself, "Is this still God's special place?" I struggle with this; please take a moment and read the Special Topic: OT Predictions of the Future vs. NT Predictions. The NT has universalized the OT promises to the world. The gospel, not Israel, is the full revelation of YHWH!

E. Psalm 87:4 implies an eschatological period where all people are part of God's people (i.e., Isa. 2:2-4; 12:4-5; 25:6-9; 42:6-12; 45:22-23; 49:5-6; 51:4-5; 60:1-3; 66:23).

F. The UBS Handbook, p. 757, brings up the question of who the speaker is in Ps. 87:4 and 5. It suggests, and I agree, that Ps. 87:4 must be God (because Deity is mentioned in the first person, "Me"), while Ps. 87:5 is the psalmist (because Deity is mentioned in the third person, also Ps. 87:6).



 1His foundation is in the holy mountains.
 2The Lord loves the gates of Zion
 More than all the other dwelling places of Jacob.
 3Glorious things are spoken of you,
 O city of God.  Selah.
 4"I shall mention Rahab and Babylon among those who know Me;
 Behold, Philistia and Tyre with Ethiopia:
 ‘This one was born there.'"
 5But of Zion it shall be said, "This one and that one were born in her";
 And the Most High Himself will establish her.
 6The Lord will count when He registers the peoples,
 "This one was born there."  Selah.
 7Then those who sing as well as those who play the flutes shall say,
 "All my springs of joy are in you."

87:1 "foundation" This Hebrew root (BDB 414) has several connotations.

1. used in Ezra 7:9 as the beginning of something

2. foundation of a city - Ps. 137:7; Lam. 4:11; Micah 1:6

3. laying a foundation in a figurative sense - Isa. 28:16

4. creation of the earth - 2 Sam. 22:16; Ps. 18:16; 78:69; 82:5; Isa. 24:18; 40:21; Jer. 31:37

5. imagery related to mountains - Deut. 32:22; Ps. 18:7

6. from the day of the foundation of the temple - 2 Chr. 8:16 or its side chambers - Ezek. 41:8


▣ "the holy mountains" Mountains symbolize

1. permanence

2. stability

3. closeness to God (Ps. 121:1)

4. pillars of the earth

In this context it obviously is imagery connected to

1. Jerusalem/Zion (cf. Ps. 2:6; 48:1)

2. the temple

3. the covenant people

The plural may relate to the fact that Jerusalem was built on seven hills. For "Zion" see notes online at Ps. 2:6; 9:11 and 20:2.

YHWH is linked to several mountains.

1. Mt. Sinai/Horeb (Exodus 19-20)

2. Mt. Seir/Paran (Deut. 33:2; Hab. 3:3)

3. Mt. Moriah (Genesis 22; Ezek. 20:40)

4. a mountain in the north (cf. Ps. 48:2; Isa. 14:13; Ezek. 28:14,16)


87:2 This refers to Jerusalem/Zion and Judah (cf. Ps. 78:67-68). Judah was to be the tribe of the Messiah (cf. Gen. 49:8-12). "Jacob" refers to all the tribes that descended from Jacob/Israel. It became a collective term for the covenant people.

▣ "The Lord loves" YHWH's love for Jerusalem is also specifically stated in Ps. 78:68. It is His chosen place (cf. Ps. 132:13).

▣ "city of God" This refers to Jerusalem (cf. Ps. 46:4; 48:8). See Special Topic: Jerusalem.

▣ "Selah" This term seems to close a literary unit, see Ps. 87:6. For full note on the suggested meanings see Ps. 3:2.

87:4 "I shall mention" This verb (BDB 289, KB 269, Hiphil imperfect) can be understood as "record" (BDB 271, #4, as the title of a public officer who records (cf. 2 Sam. 8:16; 20:24; 1 Kgs. 4:3; 2 Kgs. 18:18,37; 1 Chr. 18:15; 2 Chr. 34:8; Isa. 36:3,22), thereby linking it to the idea of a city registry (Ps. 87:5-6).

▣ "among those who know Me" This implies that Gentiles from these countries have become believers and followers of YHWH. They are now citizens of the new eschatological city of God, "New Jerusalem" (cf. Revelation 21).

See Special Topic: Know.

87:4-5 The psalmist lists several nations.

1. Rahab (i.e., Egypt, cf. Ps. 89:10; Isa. 30:7)

2. Babylon (one wonders why Assyria is not mentioned, possibly giving an indication of the date of the Psalm's composition)

3. Philistia

4. Tyre (i.e., Phoenicia)

5. Ethiopia (i.e., Cush)

The purpose of their being mentioned is to compare their origins. In a sense all the nations came from God's sovereignty (cf. LXX, Deut. 32:8), but Israel was His special people (cf. Exod. 19:5-6; Rom. 9:4-5).

87:5 The first line of Ps. 87:5 is difficult but in context of the universal emphasis of Ps. 87:4, I think it refers to believers in YHWH having their citizenship transferred to God's holy city—Zion.

87:6 "registers" The imagery is that of the list of citizens kept by ANE cities. In a symbolic way it will show Israel was from Zion, God's special city, the unique place of the worship of YHWH (cf. Ps. 87:7).


87:7 "springs" The term (BDB 745) is used in the symbolic sense of origins or the source of God's people (cf. Deut. 33:28).

Psalm 88


A Petition to Be Saved From Death
MT Intro
A Song. A Psalm of the Sons of Korah. For the choir director; according to Mahalath, Leannoth. A Maskil of Heman the Ezrahite
A Cry for Help Desperate Prayer for Healing in Sickness A Cry for Help Prayer in Great Distress
88:1-9 88:1-2 88:1-2 88:1-2 88:1-2
  88:3-7 88:3-7 88:3-7 88:3-5
  88:8-9 88:8-12 88:8-9 88:8-9
88:10-12 88:10-12   88:10-12 88:10-12
88:13-18 88:13-18 88:13-18 88:13-18 88:13-16

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Etc.



A. This Psalm is characterized by

1. a series of questions related to the author's sense of rejection by God, cf. Ps. 88:10-12,14. This Psalm ends with no hope or relief in sight! This is a "dark" Psalm!

2. a series of titles/names for the afterlife

a. Sheol, Ps. 88:3b - BDB 982, see Special Topic: Sheol

b. the pit, Ps. 88:4a - BDB 92 I

c. among the dead, Ps. 88:5a - BDB 559

d. who lie in the grave, Ps. 88:5b - BDB 868

e. whom You remember no more, Ps. 88:5c

f. cut off from Your hand, Ps. 88:5d, cf. Lam. 3:54

g. the lowest pit, Ps. 88:6a - BDB 1066

h. dark places, Ps. 88:6b - BDB 365

i. the depths, Ps. 88:6b - BDB 846 (g, h, i are parallel)

j. the dead, Ps. 88:10a - BDB 559

k. the departed spirits, Ps. 88:10b - BDB 952 I

l. the grave, Ps. 88:11a - BDB 868

m. the place of destruction, Ps. 88:11b - lit. abaddon - BDB 2

n. the darkness, Ps. 88:12a - BDB 365, cf. 1 Sam. 2:9; Job 10:21; 17:13; 18:18

o. the land of forgetfulness, Ps. 88:12b - BDB 75 construct BDB 674 (unique to this Psalm, cf. Ps. 6:5)

p. darkness, Ps. 88:18b - BDB 365

B. Notice the different words used to describe God's rejection.

1. Your wrath, Ps. 88:7a - BDB 404

2. Your waves, Ps. 88:7b - BDB 991, cf. Ps. 42:7; 69:1,14-15; Jonah 2:3

3. You reject, Ps. 88:14a - verb, BDB 276 I, KB 276, Qal imperfect

4. You hide Your face, Ps. 88:14b - verb, BDB 711, KB 771, Hiphil imperfect

5. Your terrors, Ps. 88:15b - BDB 33

6. Your burning anger, Ps. 88:16a - BDB 354

7. Your terrors, Ps. 88:16b - BDB 130 (only here and Job 6:4)

C. It is hard from this brief Psalm to know if the psalmist is

1. sick (possibly leprosy because of his abandonment by family and friends)

2. suffering from judgment

3. feeling a sense of being alone

4. fearful of life's circumstances



 1O Lord, the God of my salvation,
 I have cried out by day and in the night before You.
 2Let my prayer come before You;
 Incline Your ear to my cry!
 3For my soul has had enough troubles,
 And my life has drawn near to Sheol.
 4I am reckoned among those who go down to the pit;
 I have become like a man without strength,
 5Forsaken among the dead,
 Like the slain who lie in the grave,
 Whom You remember no more,
 And they are cut off from Your hand.
 6You have put me in the lowest pit,
 In dark places, in the depths.
 7Your wrath has rested upon me,
 And You have afflicted me with all Your waves.  Selah.
 8You have removed my acquaintances far from me;
 You have made me an object of loathing to them;
 I am shut up and cannot go out.
 9My eye has wasted away because of affliction;
 I have called upon You every day, O Lord;
 I have spread out my hands to You.

88:1 "O Lord" This Psalm uses the covenant name for Deity, YHWH, in a vocative sense three times. See SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY.

▣ "the God of my salvation" This title for Deity (cf. Ps. 24:5; 27:9) is descriptive of what the psalmist wants YHWH to do for him, "save," "deliver," "act on his behalf." This opening verse is the most "positive" line of the Psalm. YHWH is the Covenant God and the psalmist prays but senses no response. He even feels God has purposefully caused his plight!

▣ "I" Notice the number of first person singular pronouns and second person singular pronouns ("You"). This is a very personal cry from a believer to his God.

▣ "I have cried out" This verb (BDB 858, KB 1042) is the first of many perfect verbs. The psalmist is asserting his diligent seeking of God but God has not yet responded (cf. Ps. 88:13-18).

▣ "by day and in the night" This phrase is the psalmist's way of asserting his constant prayer (cf. Ps. 22:2; 25:5; 86:3).

88:2 This verse has two parallel requests.

1. let my prayer come before You - BDB 97, KB 112, Qal imperfect used in a jussive sense (cf. Ps. 18:6); the psalmist felt his prayer was not being heard (cf. Ps. 88:9,13,14)

2. incline Your ear to my cry - BDB 639, KB 692, Hiphil imperative (cf. Ps. 17:6; 31:2; 71:2; 86:1; 102:2)


88:3-9 The psalmist lists the reasons why God should hear and respond (the perfect describes a settled condition). 

1. his soul (BDB 659) is full (another perfect) of troubles, Ps. 88:3a

2. his life (BDB 313) has arrived (another perfect) near to Sheol (see Special Topic: Where Are the Dead?), Ps. 88:3b

3. he is reckoned (another perfect) among those who go down to the pit (cf. Ps. 28:1; 143:7), Ps. 88:4a

4. he has become (another perfect) like a man without strength (i.e., helpless, BDB 33, only here in the OT; Aramaic loan word), Ps. 88:4b

5. he has been forsaken "among the dead"; the adjective translated "forsaken" is lit. "freed," BDB 344, Ps. 88:5a

NKJV "adrift"

TEV, JPSOA "abandoned"

NJB "left alone"

The MT has "freed" and seems to refer to the freedom from all the responsibilities of life (cf. USB Text Project, p. 350).

6. he whom You remember (another perfect) no more, Ps. 88:5c

7. he whom You cut off (another perfect) from Your hand, Ps. 88:5d

8. he whom You have put (another perfect) in the lowest pit, Ps. 88:6a

9. he whom You have put in dark places, in the depths, Ps. 88:6b

10. he on whom Your wrath has rested (lit. "lies heavy," another perfect) Ps. 88:7a (this verb BDB 701, KB 759 is mostly used of YHWH upporting someone but here, the antithesis)

11. he whom You have afflicted (lit. "overwhelmed," another perfect) with all Your waves, Ps. 88:7b

12. he whom You have removed his acquaintances far away (another perfect), Ps. 88:8a

13. he whom You have made an object of loathing (another perfect), Ps. 88:8b

14. he whom You have shut up, Ps. 88:8c

15. his eyes have wasted away (another perfect), Ps. 88:9a

16. he has called upon You every day (another perfect), cf. Ps. 88:1b, 9b

17. he has spread out his hands (i.e., prayer, another perfect) to You, Ps. 88:9c

Notice the combination of

1. the psalmist's acts

2. the things he asserts that God has done to him


88:7 "Selah" See notes at Psalm 3:2.

88:8 "acquaintances" This (BDB 393, KB 390) is a Pual participle from the verb "to know" (see Special Topic: Know). The same form is also in Ps. 88:18 along with

1. lover - BDB 12, KB 17 Qal participle

2. friend - BDB 945

This man felt totally alienated from God and other humans!

88:9 Psalm 88:9 is similar in content to Ps. 88:1 and may be an example of inclusio.

 10Will You perform wonders for the dead?
 Will the departed spirits rise and praise You?  Selah.
 11Will Your lovingkindness be declared in the grave,
 Your faithfulness in Abaddon?
 12Will Your wonders be made known in the darkness?
 And Your righteousness in the land of forgetfulness?

88:10-12 This strophe describes the general OT view of the joyless, silent existence of the conscious soul/person/self in the afterlife.

1. God did not deliver ("save") from the dead

2. the dead do not praise God (cf. Ps. 6:5; 30:9; 115:17; Isa. 38:18)

3. God's faithfulness is not declared in the grave (cf. Isa. 38:18)

4. God's acts of deliverance (BDB 810, see Special Topic: Wonderful Things) are not declared in the darkness

5. God's righteousness (i.e., His acts of salvation) is not declared in the land of forgetfulness



NASB"the departed spirits"
NKJV, TEV"the dead"
REB"the shades"
NJB"the shadows"

This Hebrew root (BDB 952) has two connotations/usages.

1. race of giants (see Special Topic: Terms Used for Tall/Powerful Warriors or People Groups) - Gen. 14:5; 15:20; Deut. 2:20; 3:11; Jos. 17:15; 1 Chr. 20:4

2. the departed/the conscious dead - Job 26:5-6; Pro. 2:18; 9:18; 21:16; Isa. 14:9; 26:11-19; this usage is common in Wisdom Literature (see SPECIAL TOPIC: WISDOM LITERATURE)

Because of Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28 it is possible to see these as departed kings and powerful humans, now in Sheol, their power and prestige gone. There is a detailed discussion of this term in NIDOTTE, vol. 3, pp. 1173-1180.

▣ "Selah" See notes at Psalm 3:2.

 13But I, O Lord, have cried out to You for help,
 And in the morning my prayer comes before You.
 14O Lord, why do You reject my soul?
 Why do You hide Your face from me? 
 15I was afflicted and about to die from my youth on;
 I suffer Your terrors; I am overcome.
 16Your burning anger has passed over me;
 Your terrors have destroyed me.
 17They have surrounded me like water all day long;
 They have encompassed me altogether.
 18You have removed lover and friend far from me;
 My acquaintances are in darkness.

88:13-18 This repeats the emphasis of the previous verses. The psalmist feels estranged from God and family and friends! He is alone! This Psalm ends in despair (cf. Ps. 88:14)! He does not understand what is happening to him, either physically or spiritually!

88:15 Does this verse imply that the psalmist has been sick from his youth and is near death or is this imagery of a prolonged sense of abandonment by God?

The verb in the MT (BDB 806, KB 918, Qal imperfect) can be from one of two roots.

1. אפונה - BDB 67, either (1) "to be helpless," (2) "to be confused," or (3) "very, very much"

2. פון - found only here and meaning uncertain

3. פוג - "to grow numb" (NET Bible)

This verse is difficult to translate because the MT is difficult (JPSOA footnote)

LXX "and after being exalted,

I was humbled and became perplexed"

Peshitta "I have been proud, but now I am humbled and crushed"

88:18 "in darkness" The same consonants can mean "withholding" (Peshitta). JPSOA takes the MT "darkness" and translates it as "cannot see."


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. As you read this Psalm what is your first impression?

2. What is the psalmist's problem?

3. Why does he feel God has abandoned him? Does he express any hope? How?

4. Describe the OT view of the afterlife.

5. Why is Ps. 88:4 so painful?

6. Does the psalmist express any hope that God will hear, come, help?

Psalm 89


The Lord's Covenant with David, and Israel's Afflictions
MT Intro
A Maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite
Remembering the Covenant with David, and Sorrow for Lost Blessings A King Prays for Deliverance From His Enemies A Hymn in Time of National Trouble Hymn and Prayer to God the Faithful
89:1-4 89:1-2 89:1-2 89:1-4 89:1-2
  89:3-4 89:3-4   89:3-4
89:5-10 89:5-10 89:5-18 89:5-14 89:5-6
89:11-18 89:11-18     89:11-12
      89:15-18 89:15-16
      God's Promise to David 89:17-18
89:19-29 89:19-23 89:19-37 89:19-29 89:19
  89:24-29     89:24-25
89:30-37 89:30-37   89:30-34 89:30-31
      Lament Over the Defeat of the King 89:36-37
89:38-45 89:38-45 89:38-45 89:38-45 89:38-39
89:46-48 89:46-48 89:46-48 89:46-48 89:46-48
89:49-51 89:49-51 89:49-51 89:49-51 89:49-51
89:52 89:52 89:52 89:52 89:52

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Etc.



A. This Psalm affirms YHWH's permanent choice of Abraham and his descendants by covenant promise (cf. Gen. 12:1-3; 15:12-21). These covenant promises are fully embodied in David and his royal Judean seed (cf. 2 Samuel 7; 1 Kgs. 8:16).

B. YHWH is the creator and sustainer of His people (Ps. 89:11-18). He is the leader of the heavenly council (Ps. 89:5-10,19), which exists to accomplish His purposes.

C. But a tragedy has occurred: His people and their leaders are not faithful, not obedient (Ps. 89:38-45). Now there is a problem.

1. God has made promises

2. His people have failed

What will He do (Ps. 89:46-48,49-51)?

D. It is interesting that this Psalm, unlike most Psalms, does not focus on Jerusalem (but Ps. 89:1-2,15 implies temple worship) and the temple, but on the Davidic seed. It is surely drawing from 2 Samuel 7, which is about both

1. the building of the temple

2. the continuing of the Davidic dynasty

Number 1 is not even specifically mentioned in this Psalm.

E. Just a note about how the NT reinterprets these OT promises to Israel. Please see my commentaries online ( on Romans 2:28-29; 9:6; Gal. 3:7-9,26; 6:16; 1 Pet. 3:6! The NT has widened the promises of God to include all the children of Adam (see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan).

F. On the theological tension between conditional and unconditional covenant promises, see notes at Ps. 89:30-37.



 1I will sing of the lovingkindness of the Lord forever;
 To all generations I will make known Your faithfulness with my mouth.
 2For I have said, "Lovingkindness will be built up forever;
 In the heavens You will establish Your faithfulness."
 3"I have made a covenant with My chosen;
 I have sworn to David My servant,
 4I will establish your seed forever
 And build up your throne to all generations."  Selah.

89:1-4 This strophe in NASB is divided into two strophes (Ps. 89:1-2, 3-4) by NKJV, NRSV, NJB because there are two speakers.

1. the psalmist in Ps. 89:1-2

a. I will sing - BDB 1010, KB 1479, Qal cohortative

b. I will make known - BDB 393, KB 390, Hiphil imperfect used in a cohortative sense

c. I have said. . . - BDB 55, KB 65, Qal perfect

2. YHWH Himself in Ps. 89:3-4

a. I have made a covenant - BDB 503, KB 500, Qal perfect

b. I have sworn - BDB 989, KB 1396, Niphal perfect

c. I will establish - BDB 465, KB 464, Hiphil imperfect

d. I will build up - BDB 124, KB 139, Qal perfect with waw (links to perfects in a and b)


89:1 There are three words that occur several times in this Psalm.

1. lovingkindness, Ps. 89:1,2,14,24,28,33,49 - see SPECIAL TOPIC: LOVINGKINDNESS (HESED)

2. forever, Ps. 89:1,2,4,28,37,52 - see Special Topic: Forever ('olam)

3. faithfulness, Ps. 89:1,2,5,8,24,33,49 - see Special Topic: Believe, Trust, Faith and Faithfulness in the OT

They establish the hope of Israel in God's call, grace, protection, and provision forever.

The term "forever" is parallel to "all generations" (Ps. 89:1b, 4b).

89:3 "covenant" See Special Topic: Covenant.

▣ "My chosen. . .David" This probably refers to

1. the choice of David as king over Saul, 1 Samuel 16; 2 Sam. 7:8

2. the promise to David about his descendants, 2 Sam. 7:12-17


▣ "My Servant" This becomes an honorific title (some examples).

1. Moses - Num. 12:7; Jos. 1:2

2. Joshua - Jdgs. 2:8

3. David - 1 Kgs. 8:24,25,26; Ps. 89:20

4. Solomon - 1 Kgs. 8:28

5. Messiah - Isa. 42:1; 52:13-53:12

6. Israel - Isa. 41:8; 42:19; 43:10; 44:1,21


89:4 This is an allusion to 2 Samuel 7. This Psalm has several allusions to YHWH's promise to David and his descendants.

1. Ps. 89:4 - 2 Sam. 7:13,16

2. Ps. 89:22 - 2 Sam. 7:10

3. Ps. 89:23 - 2 Sam. 7:9

4. Ps. 89:29 - 2 Sam. 7:13,16

5. Ps. 89:33 - 2 Sam. 7:15

6. Ps. 89:35 - 2 Sam. 7:8-17


▣ "your throne to all generations" This same promise is made in Isa. 9:7; Dan. 2:44; 7:14,18,27; Luke 1:33. YHWH has an eternal redemptive plan for all humans. See Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan.

The term "generations" is used of

1. promise to Noah - Gen. 9:12

2. promise to Abram - Gen. 17:7,9

3. promise to Israel - Deut. 7:9

4. promise to David - Ps. 89:4 (reflecting 2 Sam. 7:13,16)


▣ "Selah" This occurs at the end of Ps. 89:4, 37, 45, 48. It often serves to close a strophe. On the meaning of the word (BDB 699) see note online at Ps. 3:2.

 5The heavens will praise Your wonders, O Lord;
 Your faithfulness also in the assembly of the holy ones.
 6For who in the skies is comparable to the Lord?
 Who among the sons of the mighty is like the Lord,
 7A God greatly feared in the council of the holy ones,
 And awesome above all those who are around Him?
 8O Lord God of hosts, who is like You, O mighty Lord?
 Your faithfulness also surrounds You.
 9You rule the swelling of the sea;
 When its waves rise, You still them.
 10You Yourself crushed Rahab like one who is slain;
 You scattered Your enemies with Your mighty arm.

89:5-10 This strophe has two themes.

1. YHWH is the leader of the angelic council (Ps. 89:5-8)

a. the heavens - personified angelic council, Ps. 89:5a

b. the assembly of the holy ones, Ps. 89:5b - BDB 874 construct BDB 872

c. the sons of gods, Ps. 89:6 - BDB 119 construct BDB 42, see notes at Ps. 29:1 and 82:1

d. the council of the holy ones, Ps. 89:7a - BDB 691 construct BDB 872

e. all those who are around Him, Ps. 89:7b

f. for a good discussion of the Hebrew terminology see Millard Erickson, Christian Theology, 2nd ed., p. 412

2. YHWH as creator (i.e., over watery chaos) and holy warrior for Israel (i.e., over Egypt and Canaan, Ps. 89:9-10)

There are two Special Topics that help clarify the use of "son"


2. Special Topic: The Sons of God (Genesis 6)

Also note the excellent article in NIDOTTE, vol. 1, pp. 671-677, esp. 676.

89:5 "the heavens" This is either

1. a personification of

a. earth

b. God's abode (parallel to "who in the skies")

2. another way to refer to the angelic council (see note above)


▣ "O Lord" Notice the number of names/titles for Deity in this strophe.

1. Lord, Ps. 89:2, 5, 6 (twice), 8 - YHWH

2. God, Ps. 89:7 - El

3. God of hosts, Ps. 89:8 - Eloah Sabaoth

4. O mighty Lord, Ps. 89:8 - Yah (cf. Ps. 68:4); the adjective "mighty" (BDB 340) is found only here in the OT


89:6-8 These questions are often used in two senses.

1. an affirmation of monotheism, see Special Topic: Monotheism

2. a way of depreciating the pagan idols (possibly Ps. 82:1)


89:8 "Your faithfulness also surrounds You" This phrase is difficult to understand. Some possibilities:

1. faithfulness is like a robe wrapped about YHWH

2. He is faithful in all things (TEV)

3. He is constant (NJB, i.e., to His word)


89:10 "Rahab" This (BDB 923) can refer to

1. watery chaos monster (cf. Ps. 74:12-17, i.e. Babylonian creation accounts, see my notes online on Intro. to Genesis 1-11)

2. Egypt (i.e., it's defeat by YHWH and the exodus, cf. Isa. 51:9-11)


 11The heavens are Yours, the earth also is Yours;
 The world and all it contains, You have founded them.
 12The north and the south, You have created them;
 Tabor and Hermon shout for joy at Your name.
 13You have a strong arm;
 Your hand is mighty, Your right hand is exalted.
 14Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne;
 Lovingkindness and truth go before You.
 15How blessed are the people who know the joyful sound!
 O Lord, they walk in the light of Your countenance.
 16In Your name they rejoice all the day,
 And by Your righteousness they are exalted.
 17For You are the glory of their strength,
 And by Your favor our horn is exalted.
 18For our shield belongs to the Lord,
 And our king to the Holy One of Israel.

89:11-18 This strophe praises YHWH and expresses how blessed His people are.


a. the heavens are His

b. the earth is His because He founded them (i.e., YHWH as creator, cf. Ps. 24:1-2; 78:69b; 102:25; Isa. 51:13,16)

c. the north and south were created by Him (imagery similar to Job 26:7)

d. the mountains of Tabor and Hermon are personified and shout at His name (cf. Ps. 65:12; 98:8)

e. His power (i.e., hand or arm, cf. Ps. 89:10, see SPECIAL TOPIC: HAND) to act is praised

(1) He has a strong arm 

(2) His hand is mighty

(3) His right hand is exalted

f. four of His characteristics are personified as characterizing His person and reign (cf. Ps. 97:2)

(1) righteousness (see Special Topic: Righteousness)

(2) justice (see Special Topic: Judge, Justice, Judgment)

(3) lovingkindness (see Special Topic: Lovingkindness [hesed])

(4) truth/faithfulness (see Special Topic: Believe, Trust, Faith and Faithfulness in the OT)

g. He is "the Holy One of Israel" (cf. Ps. 71:22; 78:41: Isa. 1:4; see SPECIAL TOPIC: THE HOLY ONE)

2. His people

a. blessed are those who hear the trumpet (i.e., temple worship)

b. walk in the light of His countenance (lit. "face," which denotes YHWH's personal presence, cf. Ps. 90:8)

c. rejoice all day in His name (i.e., worship setting or military victory)

d. exalted by YHWH's righteousness (i.e., holy character and revelation)

e. YHWH is their glory and strength (cf. Ps. 28:8)

f. horn (i.e., power, prestige)

g. protection (lit. "shield") is YHWH (cf. Ps. 47:9)

h. the king is also of YHWH

The pronoun "our" in Ps. 89:17-18 shows that YHWH uses the king of Israel as His "protecting/victorious horn and shield" (i.e., f-h).

89:12 "the north and the south" It is possible these two terms are the names of two more mountains (i.e., Zaphon, i.e., the name of the Mt. of Ba'al, north of Ugarit; and Yamin or the emendation linking Amana, a mountain in southern Turkey, cf. Sol. 4:8). This would form a parallel with Tabor and Hermon.

Most translators take them as opposite points of the compass showing YHWH's universal reign as creator.

89:16 "Your name. . .Your righteousness" These are parallel and both refer to YHWH Himself.

9:17 "horn" This is an idiom of power (cf. Ps. 75:10; 89:24; 92:10; 148:14), taken from the animal realm.

89:18 "shield. . .king" These could both refer to YHWH or they could refer to the Davidic king (cf. Ps. 89:19-29; Ps. 84:10), God's anointed one to accomplish His purposes.

 19Once You spoke in vision to Your godly ones,
 And said, "I have given help to one who is mighty;
 I have exalted one chosen from the people.
 20I have found David My servant;
 With My holy oil I have anointed him,
 21With whom My hand will be established;
 My arm also will strengthen him.
 22The enemy will not deceive him,
 Nor the son of wickedness afflict him.
 23But I shall crush his adversaries before him,
 And strike those who hate him.
 24My faithfulness and My lovingkindness will be with him,
 And in My name his horn will be exalted.
 25I shall also set his hand on the sea
 And his right hand on the rivers.
 26He will cry to Me, ‘You are my Father,
 My God, and the rock of my salvation.'
 27I also shall make him My firstborn,
 The highest of the kings of the earth.
 28My lovingkindness I will keep for him forever,
 And My covenant shall be confirmed to him.
 29So I will establish his descendants forever
 And his throne as the days of heaven."

89:19-29 This strophe is specifically about King David and his royal Judean descendants (cf. 2 Samuel 7). He becomes a type/symbol of the Messiah (see SPECIAL TOPIC: MESSIAH).

YHWH has spoken to His people (lit. Your godly/faithful [BDB 339] ones) about His special choice for the King of Israel (Ps. 89:19).

1. he was exalted, Ps. 89:19

2. he was chosen from among the people, Ps. 89:19

3. he was found, Ps. 89:20

4. he was anointed, Ps. 89:20 (cf. 1 Sam. 16:1-13; this is the Hebrew verb from which the title "Messiah" comes, see SPECIAL TOPIC: OT TITLES OF THE SPECIAL COMING ONE)

5. he was established, Ps. 89:21

6. he was strengthened, Ps. 89:21

7. he will not be deceived (BDB 674 II) or afflicted, Ps. 89:22

8. his adversaries will be crushed, Ps. 89:23

9. YHWH's personified characteristics (i.e., faithfulness and lovingkindness) will accompany him, Ps. 89:24

10. YHWH's name will exalt his horn, Ps. 89:24

11. he will control his territory, Ps. 89:25 (i.e., from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates River, cf. Exod. 23:31; Deut. 1:7-8)

12. he will call God in intimate ways, Ps. 89:26

a. my Father (see SPECIAL TOPIC: FATHERhood of God and SPECIAL TOPIC: FATHER)

b. my God (El)

c. the rock of my salvation (cf. Ps. 95:1)

13. He will be appointed (no sexual generation) the honorific title "My firstborn" (cf. 2 Sam. 7:14; 1 Chr. 17:13; 22:10; 28:6; Ps. 2:7), Ps. 89:27

14. he will be made the highest of the kings of the earth (cf. Ps. 72:11, obviously a Messianic title, cf. 1 Tim. 6:15; Rev. 1:5; 17:14; 19:16, a title for YHWH from Dan. 2:47; the kingdom will be universal, cf. Micah 5:4), Ps. 89:27

15. like #9, another personified characteristic of YHWH, will keep him forever, Ps. 89:28

16. YHWH's covenant will confirm him, Ps. 89:28 (cf. Ps. 89:3,34)

17. his descendants will be established and reign forever, Ps. 89:29 (cf. Ps. 89:4; 2 Samuel 7)


89:19 "Once You spoke in visions" This refers to Nathan speaking to David in 2 Sam. 7:14-17.

▣ "I have given help" The verb (BDB 1001, KB 1438, Piel perfect) means to set or to place.

The word "half" (עזר, BDB 740 I) is understood by some translators as

1. "diadem" - Godspeed

2. "crown" - NRSV, NAB

The term "crown" would involve an emendation to the MT, by changing the first letter, i.e., נזר, BDB 634, cf. Exod. 29:6; 39:30; Lev. 8:9; 21:12; 2 Sam. 1:10; 2 Kgs. 11:12; Ps. 89:39; 132:18; Pro. 27:24; Zech. 9:16.  The UBS Text Project gives "help" an A rating (very high probability, p. 354).

 30"If his sons forsake My law
 And do not walk in My judgments,
 31If they violate My statutes
 And do not keep My commandments,
 32Then I will punish their transgression with the rod
 And their iniquity with stripes.
 33But I will not break off My lovingkindness from him,
 Nor deal falsely in My faithfulness.
 34My covenant I will not violate,
 Nor will I alter the utterance of My lips.
 35Once I have sworn by My holiness;
 I will not lie to David.
 36His descendants shall endure forever
 And his throne as the sun before Me.
 37It shall be established forever like the moon,
 And the witness in the sky is faithful."  Selah.

89:30-37 This strophe is the shocking contrast to the wonderful plans and purposes of YHWH for His people (note "if" at Ps. 89:30 and 31).

1. they left His law, Ps. 89:30

2. they did not walk in His judgments, Ps. 89:30

3. they profaned His statutes, Ps. 89:31

4. they did not keep His commandments, Ps. 89:31

Yet YHWH makes a series of statements about what He will and will not do, even in light of Israel's failure to be faithful. He is faithful!

1. I will punish them for their sin, Ps. 89:32

2. but I will not break off My lovingkindness, Ps. 89:33

3. but I will not deal falsely because of My faithfulness, Ps. 89:33

4. I will not violate My own covenant, Ps. 89:34

5. I will not alter My words, Ps. 89:34

6. once I have sworn, I will not lie to David, Ps. 89:35

a. his descendants (lit. "seed") will endure forever, Ps. 89:36

b. his throne is as secure as the sun, moon, sky, Ps. 89:36b-37 (for the secure order of creation see Jer. 31:35-37)

This illustrates the tension between conditional and unconditional promises. I have discussed this issue in two places.


2. Crucial Intro. to Revelation, see Special Topic: OT Predictions of the Future vs. NT Predictions, especially the "third tension" 

This same tension between a conditional and unconditional promise is illustrated by the contrast between Isaiah's emphatic statements that Jerusalem would never fall (Isaiah 37) and Jeremiah's insistence that it will fall because of Judah's idolatry and covenant disobedience.

The best guess at the historical crisis that elicited this Psalm is the exile of the Davidic King, either by Pharoah Necho II or Nebuchadnezzar II. This is only a guess; the Psalm itself does not clearly indicate the historical setting. Some kind of divine judgment has affected the Davidic king.

89:30-31 "law. . .judgments. . .statutes. . .commandments" These are all parallel terms for YHWH's revelation in Scripture. See SPECIAL TOPIC: TERMS FOR GOD'S REVELATION.

 38But You have cast off and rejected,
 You have been full of wrath against Your anointed.
 39You have spurned the covenant of Your servant;
 You have profaned his crown in the dust.
 40You have broken down all his walls;
 You have brought his strongholds to ruin.
 41All who pass along the way plunder him;
 He has become a reproach to his neighbors.
 42You have exalted the right hand of his adversaries;
 You have made all his enemies rejoice.
 43You also turn back the edge of his sword
 And have not made him stand in battle.
 44You have made his splendor to cease
 And cast his throne to the ground.
 45You have shortened the days of his youth;
 You have covered him with shame.  Selah.

89:38-45 In light of YHWH's statements about His faithfulness to the covenants (esp. Abraham and David) He has judged His people for their sin (cf. Ps. 89:32). This judgment was severe and seemingly unexplainable to Israel (series of perfects).

1. He cast off His anointed

2. He rejected (rare word, BDB 611, KB 658, cf. Lam. 2:7) His anointed

3. He is full of wrath for His anointed

4. He spurned the covenant of His servant

5. He profaned his crown

6. He broke down the walls (of Jerusalem)

7. He brought his stronghold to ruin

8. He allowed foreigners to plunder him

9. He allowed him to become a reproach to his neighbors

10. He exalted the power of his enemies

11. He made his enemies rejoice

12. He allowed him to be defeated

13. He allowed his splendor to cease (see note below)

14. He cast his throne to the ground

15. He shortened his life (cf. Ps. 102:23)

16. He covered him in shame

Wow! What a judgment! Thank God for Ps. 89:33-37. Thank God for the NT, the gospel, the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus!


NKJV, Peshitta"glory"
NJB"scepter from his hand"

The term (מטהרו, BDB 372, UBS "A" rating) appears only here in the OT. The masculine noun's basic meaning is "clearness" or "luster," which comes from the verb. The UBS Text Project (p. 356) suggests that NASB or LXX be followed. The emendation (מטה) of NRSV fits the parallelism of Ps. 89:44b better.

89:41-48 This strophe asks the questions that have been repeated often in Psalms: "How long?" (cf. Ps. 6:3; 13:1; 74:10; 79:5; 80:4; 90:13; 94:3).

The unique aspect of this strophe is not the questions but the reasons given for YHWH to act (Ps. 89:47-51).

1. remember (Qal imperative) the frailty of human existence, Ps. 89:47-48

2. remember (Qal imperative) Your lovingkindness and faithful oaths to David

3. remember the reproach of Your people among the nations

4. remember that Your anointed has been reproached

There is a larger redemptive plan involving Israel and her Messiah. See Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan.

 46How long, O Lord?
 Will You hide Yourself forever?
 Will Your wrath burn like fire?
 47Remember what my span of life is;
 For what vanity You have created all the sons of men!
 48What man can live and not see death?
 Can he deliver his soul from the power of Sheol?  Selah.

89:46 "fire" See SPECIAL TOPIC: FIRE.

 49Where are Your former lovingkindnesses, O Lord,
 Which You swore to David in Your faithfulness?
 50Remember, O Lord, the reproach of Your servants;
 How I bear in my bosom the reproach of all the many peoples,
 51With which Your enemies have reproached, O Lord,
 With which they have reproached the footsteps of Your anointed.

89:49 "O Lord" This is the term Adon (i.e., Lord, owner, master). Notice it reappears in Ps. 89:50, but is YHWH in Ps. 89:51. The covenant name for God dominates this Psalm (5 times).

 52Blessed be the Lord forever!
 Amen and Amen.

89:52 God will work it out! He will be both just and merciful. He will be true to His word!

This phrase is not part of Psalm 89 but the closing doxology of Book III of the Psalter (i.e., the other books also close with doxologies, Ps. 4:14; 72:18-19; 106:48).



This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Read this Psalm as a whole; what is the subject of the Psalm?

2. Explain the difference between an unconditional covenant and a conditional covenant.

3. Define "lovingkindness" and "faithfulness."

4. How is this Psalm related to 2 Samuel 7?

5. Does the OT use Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Canaanite mythology? If so, why?

6. How is the Israeli king a son of God?

7. Does this Psalm have a Messianic aspect? If so, how?

Psalm 90


God's Eternity and Man's Transitoriness
MT Intro
A Prayer of Moses the man of God
The Eternity of God, and Man's Frailty Prayer for Deliverance From National Adversity Of God and Human Beings On Human Frailty
90:1-2 90:1-2 90:1-2 90:1-2 90:1
90:3-6 90:3-6 90:3-6 90:3-6 90:3-4
90:7-12 90:7-12 90:7-10 90:7-8 90:7-8
      90:9-10 90:9-10
    90:11-12 90:11-12 90:11
90:13-17 90:13-17 90:13-17 90:13-17  

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.



A. This Psalm proclaims YHWH's eternality (i.e., Ps. 90:1-2, 4) and mankind's transitoriness (i.e., Ps. 90:3, 5-6, 9-10).

B. Israel's sins (i.e., Ps. 90:8) caused YHWH to bring judgment to His people (i.e., Ps. 90:7,9,11). They pray for His mercy to return (i.e., Ps. 90:12, 13-17).

C. This Psalm has several words used in doubles.

1. turn back, return - BDB 996, KB 1427, Hiphil imperfect and then Qal imperative, Ps. 90:3

2. be glad. . .make us glad - BDB 970, KB 1333, Qal cohortative and then Piel imperative

3. seen. . .appear - BDB 906, KB 1157, Qal perfect, then Niphal imperfect used in a jussive sense

4. confirm. . .confirm - BDB 465, KB 464, both Polel imperatives

D. Surprisingly the MT introductory note has Moses as the author. These notes do not appear in the Dead Sea Scrolls but they do appear in the Septuagint. They are ancient Jewish traditions but not originally part of the inspired text. Possible reasons this Psalm is identified with Moses are

1. obvious allusion to Gen. 3:19 (i.e., different words for dust but same concept)

2. possible allusion between

a. Ps. 90:2, "birthing" and Deut. 32:6,18

b. Ps. 90:2, the eternality of God and Deut. 32:40

c. Ps. 90:13b, pity and Deut. 32:36

3. In Book IV of Psalms, Moses' name appears several times (cf. Ps. 99:6; 103:7; 105:26; 106:16,23,32) and only once in the first three Books (i.e., Ps. 77:20).

In the whole of the fourth division of the Psalter (Psalm 90-106) only three Psalms have the traditional author given.

a. Psalm 90, Moses

b-c. the Psalms of 103 and 104 are attributed to David

The LXX attributes all but Psalm 90 to David.

E. This Psalm has several words (and phrases) denoting time.

1. in all generations, Ps. 90:1

2. from everlasting to everlasting, Ps. 90:2

3. a thousand years, Ps. 90:4

4. yesterday, Ps. 90:4

5. a watch in the night, Ps. 90:4

6. in the morning, Ps. 90:5,6,14

7. towards evening, Ps. 90:6

8. all our days, Ps. 90:9,14

9. our years like a sigh, Ps. 90:9

10. the days of our lives, Ps. 90:10

11. seventy years, Ps. 90:10

12. eighty years, Ps. 90:10

13. number our days, Ps. 90:12

14. how long will it be, Ps. 90:13

15. according to the days, Ps. 90:15

16. years we have seen evil, Ps. 90:15



 1Lord, You have been our dwelling place in all generations.
 2Before the mountains were born
 Or You gave birth to the earth and the world,
 Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God.

90:1-2 This strophe introduces three theological truths.

1. Israel is and was YHWH's special people (i.e., since the call of Abraham in Gen. 12:1-3).

2. YHWH is the eternal God, no beginning, no end (cf. Ps. 9:7; 29:10; Isa. 41:4; 43:10; 44:6; 48:12; Jude v. 25; Rev. 1:8,17; 21:6; 22:13; see SPECIAL TOPIC: MONOTHEISM).

3. YHWH is the creator of the physical world for His own purposes (see Special Topic: YHWH's Eternal Redemptive Plan).


90:1 "Lord" The NASB 1970 edition had "Lord" (i.e., YHWH) but the MT has Adon (cf. Ps. 90:17). The NASB 1995 edition corrects this. The NKJV, TEV, and REB also have Lord (YHWH), which is found in Ps. 90:13.

NRSV"dwelling place"
REB, LXX"refuge"

The MT has "dwelling places" (מעון, BDB 732 I, cf. Ps. 71:3). The NASB margin mentions "place of refuge" (מעוז, BDB 731, cf. Ps. 27:1; 37:40) as an ancient option. Both concepts are mentioned together in Ps. 91:9 in parallel.

90:2 The first two poetic lines personify physical creation in terms of human birth metaphors.

1. born, cf. Job 15:7; Pro. 8:25

2. give birth, literally "writhe in the pain of child birth," BDB 297, Polel #2; it is used of YHWH birthing Israel in Deut. 32:6,18


▣ "earth. . .world" These are parallel and have no intended distinction (cf. Ps. 19:4; 24:1; 33:8; 77:18). I do not think the second word stands for the universe. The Bible is about this planet. For the first word, see Special Topic: Land, Country, Earth.

▣ "from everlasting to everlasting" This is one of several idiomatic phrases that express the eternality of YHWH. His name, YHWH, means "the ever-living, only-living One, cf. Exod. 3:14).

For "everlasting" (BDB 761) see the Special Topic: Forever ('olam).

I am often asked where God came from. The Bible does not address this question but begins with God's existence and activity in Gen. 1:1. Our curiosity must wait! Be careful of speculation in the absence of revelation!

 3You turn man back into dust
 And say, "Return, O children of men."
 4For a thousand years in Your sight
 Are like yesterday when it passes by,
 Or as a watch in the night.
 5You have swept them away like a flood, they fall asleep;
 In the morning they are like grass which sprouts anew.
 6In the morning it flourishes and sprouts anew;
 Toward evening it fades and withers away.

90:3-6 As the first strophe emphasizes YHWH's eternality, this strophe asserts mankind's transitoriness and frailty. This is highlighted in the third strophe (Ps. 90:7-12) by the reality of YHWH's judgment on Israel. Even the special people of God reap the consequences of sin!

90:3 This verse makes a reality statement (i.e., humans die, cf. Gen. 2:7; 3:14,16) and parallels it with the same word (BDB 996, KB 1427) in an imperative statement. Human death was not the will of God or the natural cycle of His planet but the direct result of human sin! See Millard Erickson, Christian Theology, 2nd ed., pp. 1176-1177.

This current world was not the original intent of YHWH but the result of Genesis 3.

▣ "O children of men" Because of the obvious allusion to Genesis, this could be "children of Adam" (NJB, cf. Ps. 8:4).

90:4 This is idiomatic language for YHWH's eternity (cf. 2 Pet. 3:8). This shows that time indicators can function as figurative idioms (i.e., "day" of Genesis 1, see Special Topic: Day (yom)). Time is not a limiting factor to Deity as it is to humanity!

For "thousand" see Special Topic below.


▣ "watch in the night" In the OT the night was divided into three watches (i.e., military way of dividing the length of time soldiers stood guard). By the NT the Jews of Palestine had adopted the Roman division of four night watches.

1. OT - Exod. 14:24; Jdgs. 7:19; 1 Sam. 11:11; Lam. 2:19

2. NT - Matt. 14:35; Mark 13:35


90:5 "like a flood" Raging water was often used metaphorically of human troubles. However, here the word may be the single usage of a word meaning, "put an end to life" (KB 281 I; NIDOTTE, vol. 1, p. 1150), following an Arabic root and not related to the Hebrew root, "pour out" (BDB 281, KB 281 II).

▣ "asleep" Sleep (BDB 446) is an OT idiom for death. The first occurrences relate to leaders being gathered to their families (i.e., Deut. 31:16). It came to be an idiom for all who die (i.e., Ps. 13:3; Dan. 12:2; Isa. 26:19). This idiom does not imply an unconscious state between death and resurrection.

▣ "Like grass" This is a recurrent metaphor for mankind (cf. Job 14:2; Ps. 102:11; 103:15; Isa. 40:6; 1 Pet. 1:24,25). As seasonal plants appear in spring and disappear in winter, so too, mankind's brief life span!

In some texts it refers to the destruction of the wicked (cf. Job 18:16; Ps. 37:2). Seasonal grass will reappear (i.e., there is hope for faithful followers), but the wicked are gone forever.

It is contextually possible that this Psalm is referring to premature death (i.e., esp. Ps. 90:10d).

 7For we have been consumed by Your anger
 And by Your wrath we have been dismayed.
 8You have placed our iniquities before You,
 Our secret sins in the light of Your presence.
 9For all our days have declined in Your fury;
 We have finished our years like a sigh.
 10As for the days of our life, they contain seventy years,
 Or if due to strength, eighty years,
 Yet their pride is but labor and sorrow;
 For soon it is gone and we fly away.
 11Who understands the power of Your anger
 And Your fury, according to the fear that is due You?
 12So teach us to number our days,
 That we may present to You a heart of wisdom.

90:7-12 This strophe clearly admits that YHWH's judgment on His people is the direct result of their sin. However, His people trust and hope in the basic character of God—mercy! To me, Ps. 103:8-14 is a sure hope in the character of God (cf. Exod. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Deut. 4:31; Neh. 9:17; Ps. 86:15; 145:8).

90:7 "anger" Notice the variety of words used to describe YHWH's reaction to covenant disobedience.

1. anger, Ps. 90:7a,11 - BDB 60 I

2. wrath, Ps. 90:7b - BDB 404

3. fury, Ps. 90:9,11 - BDB 720

Remember, the Bible uses human vocabulary to describe God. It is always metaphorical and limited. See SPECIAL TOPIC: GOD DESCRIBED AS HUMAN (ANTHROPOMORPHISM). Psalm 103 helps me balance His anger and love! Jesus is the ultimate expression of His character and promises!

NASB, NJB"dismayed"
NKJV, TEV"terrified"

This verb (BDB 96, KB 111, Niphal perfect) denotes the fear of death and judgment (cf. Ps. 30:7; 104:29; NIDOTTE, vol. 1, pp. 610-611). Sin has temporal and eschatological consequences!

90:8 "the light of Your presence" Light is a biblical symbol of goodness, revelation, health. God is light (cf. 1 Tim. 6:16; James 1:17; 1 John 1:5). His personal presence is expressed by the idiom of the light of His countenance (cf. Ps. 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 80:3,7,19; 89:15; 104:2; 119:135).

90:11 "according to the fear that is due You" The word "fear" (BDB 432) can be misunderstood. It denotes respect, reverence, piety (see Special Topic: Fear). The frail and transitory acknowledge the eternal, Holy One! Notice how Proverbs uses this concept (cf. Pro. 10:27; 14:26-27; 15:16; 19:23; 22:4; 23:17).

90:12 Once we realize our frailty and His permanence, then and only then, can we live a life of joy, peace, and trust. Our hope is completely in Him. Our service to Him brings meaning to life!

1. teach us - BDB 393, KB 390, Hiphil imperative

2. that we may present - BDB 97, KB 112, Hiphil imperfect used in a cohortative sense



 13Do return, O Lord; how long will it be?
 And be sorry for Your servants.
 14O satisfy us in the morning with Your lovingkindness,
 That we may sing for joy and be glad all our days.
 15Make us glad according to the days You have afflicted us,
 And the years we have seen evil.
 16Let Your work appear to Your servants
 And Your majesty to their children.
 17Let the favor of the Lord our God be upon us;
 And confirm for us the work of our hands;
 Yes, confirm the work of our hands.

90:13-17 This final strophe is full of repentant prayer requests based on YHWH's character.

1. return, Ps. 90:13 - BDB 996, KB 1427, Qal imperative, cf. Ps. 90:3 - we return to dust, He returns to mercy!

2. be sorry for, Ps. 90:13 - BDB 636, KB 688, Niphal imperative

3. satisfy us, Ps. 90:14 - BDB 959, KB 1302, Piel imperative

a. that we may sing for joy - BDB 943, KB 1247, Piel cohortative

b. be glad - BDB 970, KB 1333, Qal cohortative

4. make us glad, Ps. 90:15 - BDB 90, KB 1333, Piel imperative

5. let Your work appear to Your servants, Ps. 90:16 - BDB 906, KB 1157, Niphal imperfect used in a jussive sense

6. Your majesty to Your children, Ps. 90:16 - assumes the same verb as #5

7. let the favor of the Lord our God be upon us, Ps. 90:17 - BDB 224, KB 243, Qal jussive

8. confirm for us the work of our hands, Ps. 90:17 - BDB 465, KB 464, Polel imperative

9. #8 is repeated

Notice how many verbs in this strophe begin with ש

1. return, Ps. 90:13 - BDB 996

2. satisfy, Ps. 90:14 - BDB 959

3. sing for joy, Ps. 90:14 - BDB 943

4. be glad, Ps. 90:14 - BDB 970

5. make us glad, Ps. 90:15 - BDB 970

6. we have seen, Ps. 90:15 - BDB 906

7. be manifest, Ps. 90:16 - BDB 906


90:13 "how long will it be?" This is a recurrent question (cf. Ps. 6:8; 13:1; 74:10). Believers experiencing the pains and problems of this life cry out to God!

Be sure that revelation, not circumstances, define your worldview and trust in God. Circumstances come and go but God remains!

90:14 "lovingkindness" See Special Topic: Lovingkindness (hesed).

90:15 This verse is a prayer request that the years of future blessing will match the years of past afflictions.

Notice the psalmist recognizes that Israel's problems are God-sent because of her sins (i.e., Ps. 31:10; 39:11)!

90:16-17 Notice that Ps. 90:16 focuses on YHWH's works and Ps. 90:17 on the faithful followers' works. YHWH's deliverance allows His people to prosper from generation to generation. Sin destroys everything!


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Why do the ancient Jewish traditions assert Mosaic authorship of this Psalm?

2. List the ways the Psalm is alluding to Genesis 3.

3. In one sentence state the central truth of this Psalm.

4. Is Ps. 90:10 speaking of death at the end of a long life or premature death?

5. List the prayer requests of Ps. 90:13-17.

Psalm 91


Security for the One who Trusts in the Lord
No MT Intro
Safety of Abiding in the Presence of God Meditation on God as the Protector of the Faithful God Our Protector Under God's Protection
91:1-4 91:1-2 91:1-6 91:1-6 91:1-2
  91:3-6     91:3-4
91:5-10       91:5-6
  91:7-8 91:7-8 91:7-8 91:7-9
  91:9-10 91:9-10 91:9-13  
91:11-13 91:11-13 91:11-13    
91:14-16 91:14-16 91:14-16 91:14-16 91:14-16

READING CYCLE THREE (see "Guide to Good Bible Reading")


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Etc.



A. Introduction

1. This is a wonderful Psalm describing God's protection of and presence with His faithful followers (cf. Psalm 16; 23; 62; 121).

2. Often the Psalms speak of the nation of Israel (cf. Psalm 90), but this one is individualized (singular "you").

3. The truths of Ps. 91:1-8 are paralleled by Ps. 91:9-13. God's care and provision are repeated for emphasis and then God Himself speaks in Ps. 91:14-16.

B. Names of Deity used in Psalm 91 (see Special Topic: Names for Deity).

1. Most High (Elyon, BDB 751, KB 832), Ps. 91:1a - descriptive title most often used in poetry

2. Almighty (Shaddai, BDB 994), Ps. 91:1b, 9b, used mostly in Genesis and Job; only twice in Psalms; 68:14 and here - patriarchal name for God (cf. Exod. 6:30; possibly from the Hebrew root "to be strong," NIDOTTE, vol. 1, p. 401)

3. Lord (YHWH, BDB 217), Ps. 91:2a, 9a - the covenant name for Deity, first used in Gen. 2:4; it is from the Hebrew verb "to be" (cf. Exod. 3:14); the rabbis say it describes Deity as Savior, Redeemer

4. God (Elyon, BDB 43), Ps. 91:2b - this is the general name for Deity in the ANE, El; in Gen. 1:1, the plural form, Elohim is used; the rabbis say this describes God as creator, sustainer, and provider of all life on earth

C. This Psalm is dominated by imperfects (28), which denote continuing actions of our God on behalf of the faithful followers.

The two perfects of Ps. 91:14 denote the settled, intimate relationship between God and His faithful followers. The imagery is from married life (cf. Isa. 54:5; Hos. 2:19; Eph. 5:25).

1. "cleave" - cf. Gen. 2:24

2. "know" - Gen. 4:1,17,25; 24:16; 38:26



 1He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High
 Will abide in the shadow of the Almighty.
 2I will say to the Lord, "My refuge and my fortress,
 My God, in whom I trust!"
 3For it is He who delivers you from the snare of the trapper
 And from the deadly pestilence.
 4He will cover you with His pinions,
 And under His wings you may seek refuge;
 His faithfulness is a shield and bulwark.

91:1-4 This strophe uses several names/titles for Deity (see Contextual Insights, B) and several metaphors to describe His care and protection.

1. shelter - Ps. 27:5; 31:20, which denotes the temple, cf. Ps. 27:5; 31:20; 32:7; 61:4

2. shadow - see Special Topic: Shadow as a Metaphor for Protection and Care

3. refuge - see note online at Ps. 5:11

4. fortress - Ps. 18:2; 31:3; 71:3; 144:2; Jer. 16:19

Psalm 91:4 alludes to #2, 3,4 above

The One in whom faithful followers trust (BDB 105, KB 120, Qal imperfect; see note online at Ps. 4:5).

1. delivers them from the snare of the trapper (cf. Ps. 124:7)

2. delivers them from the deadly pestilence (cf. Ps. 91:6; possibly demonic, cf. Hab. 3:5 and Special Topic: The Demonic in the OT)

3. will cover them with His wings (cf. Ps. 36:7; 57:1; 63:7)

4. His faithfulness (see Special Topic: Believe, Trust, Faith and Faithfulness in the OT) is

a. a shield (cf. Ps. 35:2)

b. a bulwark or (RSV) buckler (both military terms, this word [BDB 695, KB 750] is found only here in the OT; NIDOTTE, vol. 3, p. 243)

This is a beautiful and powerful strophe of Deity's character and actions on behalf of His people.

91:1 "shadow of the Almighty" This can refer to

1. the wings of the cherubim over the ark (i.e., covenant protection, cf. Exod. 25:17-22)

2. the wings of a protective mother bird (cf. Ps. 17:8; 36:7 57:1; 61:4; 53:7; 91:4; and Matt. 23:27)

3. protection from the burning heat of the sun (cf. Ps. 121:5; Isa. 25:4; 32:2)


91:2 "in whom I trust" This is the key to a covenant relationship with God (cf. Ps. 4:5; 25:2; 56:4).

91:3 "pestilence" The basic root is דבר (BDB 182-184), which has several usages.

1. word (cf. LXX of Ps. 91:3)

2. speaking (cf. Jer. 5:13)

3. pestilence (cf. Exod. 5:3; 9:15; Num. 14:12; Lev. 26:25; Deut. 28:21; Ps. 78:50)

4. pasture (cf. Micah 2:12)

5. bee or bee sting (NIDOTTE, vol. 1, p. 916)

Because of Ps. 91:5-6 #3 fits the context and parallelism best.

 5You will not be afraid of the terror by night,
 Or of the arrow that flies by day;
 6Of the pestilence that stalks in darkness,
 Or of the destruction that lays waste at noon.
 7A thousand may fall at your side
 And ten thousand at your right hand,
 But it shall not approach you.
 8You will only look on with your eyes
 And see the recompense of the wicked.
 9For you have made the Lord, my refuge,
 Even the Most High, your dwelling place.
 10No evil will befall you,
 Nor will any plague come near your tent.

91:5-10 This strophe continues the imagery of Ps. 91:1-4, esp. "the deadly pestilence" of Ps. 91:3b, which is expanded in Ps. 91:5-6, 10, while the military imagery of Ps. 91:4c is expanded in Ps. 91:7-8.

91:5-6 These things were viewed by the rabbis as elements of the demonic (cf. Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 5, p. 1523). Notice (1) it walks, Ps. 91:6 and (2) the "it" of Ps. 91:7. See SPECIAL TOPIC: THE DEMONIC IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

91:7 This is a hyperbolic expression using military imagery of the believer's personal care, provided by his covenant God.

91:8 As God's people are subject to the attack of the wicked, they will also be an observer of their judgment (cf. Ps. 37:34; 54:7; 58:10).

▣ "the recompense" This form of the basic root (BDB 1024) is found only here in the OT. Similar forms are found in Deut. 32:35; Isa. 59:18 (twice).

91:9-10 This is parallel to Ps. 91:1-2, while Ps. 91:10 is parallel to Ps. 91:5-7.

91:9 This verse in Hebrew seems to first address God (i.e., O YHWH) in line a and then makes a statement directed to a faithful follower who made Him his dwelling place. There are several places this type of mixing of persons occurs. The UBS Handbook (p. 801) suggests that in

1. Ps. 91:1, a priest is speaking

2. Ps. 91:2, the worshiper

3. Ps. 91:3-8, a priest again

4. Ps. 91:9a, the worshiper

5. Ps. 91:9b, the priest again

6. Ps. 91:14-16, God speaks

This solves some of the person problems but raises other grammatical issues. The Hebrew language often changes persons, even gender, for no apparent reason.

 11For He will give His angels charge concerning you,
 To guard you in all your ways.
 12They will bear you up in their hands, 
 That you do not strike your foot against a stone.
 13You will tread upon the lion and cobra,
 The young lion and the serpent you will trample down.

91:11-12 These verses are quoted by Satan in Jesus' temptation experience in the wilderness (cf. Matt. 4:6; Luke 4:10-11). The promise of God's care must not be proof texted into a presumptuous demand. Believers do suffer (cf. Job; Psalm 72 versus Deuteronomy 27-28; and Rom. 8:28-30 versus 8:31-39).

91:11 "His angels" This may be the OT background (note Exod. 23:20) to Matt. 18:10; Luke 4:10-11 (LXX) and Acts 12:15 of the concept of "guardian angels." Also note, if you combine Heb. 1:14 with Ps. 103:21, there seems to be a connection.

▣ "To guard you in all your ways" This is a wonderful promise for those who trust in God and flee to His care. However, this is also a biblical hyperbole. We live in a fallen, evil world. Believers do face trials, sickness, temptation, etc. (cf. Matt. 5:10-12; John 15:18-21; 16:1-3; 17:14; Acts 14:22; Rom. 5:3-4; 8:17; 2 Cor. 4:16-18; 6:3-10; 11:23-30; Phil. 1:29; 1 Thess. 3:3; 2 Tim. 3:12; James 1:2-4; 1 Pet. 3:14; 4:12-16; Rev. 11:7; 13:7).

91:13 This links the previous promises historically to the wilderness wandering period or it may be figurative language for the problems humans face in a fallen world (cf. Ps. 58:3-5; Luke 10:19).

 14"Because he has loved Me, therefore I will deliver him;
 I will set him securely on high, because he has known My name.
 15He will call upon Me, and I will answer him;
 I will be with him in trouble;
 I will rescue him and honor him.
 16With a long life I will satisfy him
 And let him see My salvation."

91:14-16 God speaks and thereby sets up an "if. . .then" covenant blessing relationship (cf. Leviticus 26; Deuteronomy 27-30).

God (then)  Believer (if) God's Blessings

1. deliver him love (lit. "cleave to") God (perfect) be with him in time of trouble

2. set him on high knows God's name (perfect) rescue him

3. answer him calls upon God (perfect) honor him (cf. John 12:26

a. with long life

b. behold God's salvation


91:14 "know" See Special Topic: Know.


This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Explain the OT images of shelter, shadow, refuge/fortress.

2. List and define the names for God.

3. Does Ps. 91:5-7 speak of the demonic, warfare, or sickness?

4. Why does Ps. 91:9-10 repeat the thoughts of Ps. 91:1-2?

5. How did the devil inappropriately use this Psalm in speaking to Jesus?

6. Does this Psalm promise that true believers will never have problems?

7. Explain the concept of "name" in relation to Ps. 91:14-15.

කිතුණු ඇදහිල්ලේ මුලධර්ම-1 බයිබලය, දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය

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ශුද්ධ ලියවිලි: අප බයිබලය ලෙස සලකන්නේ වාචික පෙලඹවීමක් කරනු ලැබු දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය මුල් පිටපත්වල, වැරදි වලින් තොරව සහ, න්‍යායෙහි සහ භාවිතාවෙහි උත්තරීතර අවසන් අධිකාරිත්වය සහිත ලියවිල්ල හැටියටය. පැරඩ් සඟරාවෙහි කාල් සාගන්, ඔහුගේ සිරුරේ තිබු පිලිකාවක් සමග වු අත්දැකීම් පිළිබඳ ලිපියක් තිබුනා. “මේ ජීවිතයෙන් පසු විශ්වාසයක් තමන්ට නොතිබුන බව ඔහු කීවා. කිතුණුවන් මුස්ලිම්වරු, යුදෙව්වරු සහ හින්දුවරු ඔහු වෙනුවෙන් යාඤා කර තිබු බව ඔහු කීවා. දෙවි කෙනෙක් සිටින බව මා නොසිතන විට මා සඳහාවු උන්වහන්සේගේ සැලැස්ම උන්වහන්සේ වෙනස් කරනවා ඇත. මම කිව නොහැකි තරම් කෘතඥ වනවා. කාල් සාගන් තාරකා විද්‍යාව හදාරා තිබුනා. ඔහු එවකට සක්වල මත අධිකාරීව සිටියා. නමුත් ඔහුගේ අධ්‍යයනය ඔහුට මගපෙන්නුවේ මැවුම්කරුට නමස්කර කරනවාට වඩා එවැන්නෙකු ප්‍රතික්ෂේප කිරීමටය. රෝම18:20 කියන්නේ එය නොවේද?

කියවන්න රෝම18:20

මක්නිසාද සත්‍ය අධර්මිෂ්ඨකමින් වලක්වන්නාවු මනුෂ්‍යයන්ගේ සියලු අභක්තියටද අධර්මිෂ්ඨකමටද විරුද්ධව දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ උදහස ස්වර්ගයෙන් එළිදරව්වී තිබේ, මක්නිසාද දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ගැන දැනගන්නට පුළුවන්දේ ඔවුන් තුල ප්‍රකාශව තිබේ. කුමක් හෙයින්ද දෙවියන්වහන්සේ එය ඔවුන්ට ප්‍රකාශ කළ සේක. මක්නිසාද ලෝකය මැවු තැන් පටන් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අදෘෂ්‍යමාන දේ වන උන්වහන්සේගේ සදාකාලිකවු බලය හා දෙවිකම මවන ලද දේවලින් තේරුම් ගොස් පැහැදිලි ලෙස පෙනීයන්නේය.

කියවන්න හෙබ්රෙව්1:1-2

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ආදී කාලයෙහි බොහෝ කොටස් වලින්ද අන්දම් වලින්ද ප්‍රොපේතවරුන් ලවා පියවරුන්ට කථා කරවා, මේ දවස්වල කෙළවරදී තමන්වහන්සේගේ පුත්‍රයාණන් ලවා අපට කථා කෙරවු සේක.දෙවියන්වහන්සේ මොනවගේදැයි උන්වහන්සේ සිතන්නේ දැනෙන්නේ ක්‍රියා කරන්නේ කොහොමද කියා යේසුස්වහන්සේ එළිදරව් කරයි. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අප වෙනුවෙන් බයිබලය තුල වාර්ථාව ආරක්ෂාකර තැබු සේක.දෙවියන්වහන්සේ, ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ, මනුෂ්‍යත්වය, ගැළවීම, ස්වර්ගය, යනු කුමක්ද යන්න ගැන අප විශ්වාස කරන මුලාශ්‍රය බයිබලයයි.

අපේ අධිකාරිත්වය කුමක්ද කියා ප්‍රශ්නයක් තිබෙනවාද? අප බයිබලය විශ්වාස කළයුත්තේ ඇයි? අපට දැනුම් දෙන, අපේ ජීවිත පාලනය කරන, බලය ඇති පොත එය වීමට අපට ඇත්තේ මොන සාක්ෂිද? ග්‍රීක් බසින් ඇති biblos, book; biblia, books යන වචන බයිබලය තුල පාවිච්විවන්නේ නැත. බයිබලය දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ අද්විතීය වචනයයි.දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය අද්විතීය ලෙස බයිබලයෙහි ඇත.

ඒ පිළිබඳ සාක්ෂි තැන් දෙකකින් තිබෙනවා: අභ්‍යන්තරව සහ බාහිරව.

බාහිර සාක්ෂි

1. බයිබලයේ අඛන්ඩතාවය.

වසර 1600 ක් පමණ පුරා කතුවරයින් 40කට වඩා එය ලියා ලියා තිබෙනවා. තවමත් එය පොතකි. පොත් එකතුවක් නොවේ. කතුවරයින් වුයේ රජවරුන්, ගැමියන්, දාර්ශනිකයින්, ධීවරයින්, වෛද්‍යවරයෙක්, බදු අය කරන්නෙක්, රාජ්‍ය තත්ත්‍රිකයින් විද්වතුන්, කවියන් හා ගොවියන්ය.

එය ලියා ඇත්තේ ඉතාලිය, ග්‍රීසිය, බැබිලෝනිය, පර්සියාව, සහ ඉශ්‍රායලය වැනි විවිධ රට වලින්ය. මනුෂ්‍ය කතුවරයින් වෙනස් සංස්කෘතීන් තුල, වෙනස් අත්දැකීම් තුල ජීවත්වු අයයි. ඔවුන් චරිතයෙන් හා පෞරුෂත්වයෙන් වෙනස් අයවුහ. ඔවුන් භාෂා තුනකින් ලිවීය. පරණ ගිවිසුම: හෙබ්‍රෙව්, අරාමික, අලුත් ගිවිසුම: ග්‍රීක්

නමුත් බයිබලය වෙනස් කතුවරයින් විසින් ලියන ලද පොත්වල ගද්‍ය පද්‍ය සංග්‍රහයක් නොවේ. එහි උත්පත්ති පොතෙහි සිට එළිදරව් පොත දක්වා පුදුමාකාර අඛන්ඩතාවයක් හා ඒකත්වයක් ඇත.

උත්පත්ති හි නැතිව ගිය පාරාදීසය එළිදරව්හි පාරාදීසය යලි පිහිටුවීමක් බවට පත්ව ඇති අතර ජීවන වෘක්ෂයටවු දොරටු උත්පත්තිහි වැසී එළිදරව්හි සදහටම තවත් ඇරී ඇත. (Geisler & Nix. Evidence that Demands a Verdict, p. 19)

දර්ශනය නොනැවතී බයිබලය මුළුල්ලෙහි දිගහැරී ඇත. උත්පත්ති 3හි ඉඟිකර ඇති ගැළවීම පරණ ගිවිසුමෙහි පොරොන්දු හා ආදර්ශන මගින් සංවර්ධනය කර, ශුභාරංචි තුල ඉෂ්ඨ කර ඇත. යැවුම්පත්‍ර වල පැහැදිලි කර ඇත. එළිදරව්හි මහිමයේ සම්පුර්ණත්වයට ගෙනවිත් ඇත.

2. බයිබලීය එළිදරව්වේ ප්‍රමාණය

බයිබලයේ සියලුම පොත් ලියා ඇත්තේ කතුවරයන් නවීන සොයාගැනීම් ගැන නොදැන සිටි, මිනිස් දැනුමේ කලින් දිනවලදීය. නමුත් ඔවුන් ලියු දේවල් පසු කලෙක සොයාගැනීම් සමග පටහැනිවුයේ නැත.

යෙසායා40:22 පෘතුවි චක්‍රය මතුයෙහි වැඩ ඉන්නේ උන්වහන්සේය.

එය ලියා ඇත්තේ වසර 2800 කට ඉහතදීය.

යෝබ්26:7 උන්වහන්සේ ගුවන් තලය මතුයෙහි උතුරු ප්‍රෙද්ශය දිග හරින සේක පොළොවද අවකාශයෙහි එල්ලා තබන සේක.

එය ලියා ඇත්තේ අවුරුදු 4000කට ඉහතදීය.

පුරා විද්‍යාව නිරතුරුවම බයිබලීය ප්‍රකාශන තහවුරු කරන සාක්ෂි සපයයි. ( හිත්තිවරු, සාගොන්)

3. බයිබලය ප්‍රකාශයට පත්වීම හා බලපෑම

මෙතරම් භාෂා ගණනකින් ප්‍රකාශයට පත් කර ඇති වෙනත් පොතක් නැත. එය ලෝකයේ තවමත් ඉහළම විකිණීමක් ඇති පොතයි. ප්‍රංශ අධිරාජ්‍යෙයකු වන වොල්ටයිරේ තමාගේ කාලයේ සිට අවුරුදු සියයක් ඇතුලතදී එය යල්පැනගිය දෙයක් වනු ඇතැයිද කිතු දහම පැවැත්මෙන් අතුගෑවීගොස් ඉතිහාසයෙන් බැහැර වනු ඇතැයිද කීවේය. නමුත් වෝල්ටයිරේ ඉතිහාසයෙන් බැහැරවිය. බයිබලය නොනැවතී ලොවපුරා වැඩි වැඩියෙන් පැතිරෙන්නේය. ඇත්තෙන්ම වෝල්ටයිරේගේ මරණයෙන් වසර 50 කට පසු ජිනීවාහි බයිබල් සංගමය ඔහුගේ මුද්‍රණාලය සහ නිවස බයිබල් ඇසිරීමට පාවිච්චි කළේය. (සාක්ෂි පිටුව23)

4. අත් පිටපත් සාක්ෂි

පවතින පුරාණ අත් පිටපත් කීපයක් සංසන්දනය කරන විට දෙවන ශත වර්ශය තරම් කලින් දින සහිතව, නව ගිවිසුමෙහි කොටස් ඇතුලත් අත් පිටපත් 13000ක් ඇත.

බ්‍රිතාන්‍යකෞතුකාගාරයේ ප්‍රධාන පුස්ථකාලයාධිපති මෙසේ කියා ඇත: “එහි අඩංගු දේවලට කල්තියා සාක්ෂි සහිතව අපක්ෂපාතී උගතෙකු විසින් ප්‍රතික්ෂේප නොකළ, හරවත් මෙවැනි පෞරාණික පොතක් අප වෙත ලැබී නැත.

5. බයිබලයේ අගතිගාමී නොවන අධිකාරිත්වය

මනුෂ්‍ය කර්තෘත්වය මනුෂ්‍යයාගේ අනුග්‍රාහිකත්වය නැතිව බිහිවී නැත. හොඳම මිනිසුන්ගේ( ආබ්‍රහම්, මෝසෙස්, දාවිත්, පේත්‍රැස්) පාප සහ දුර්වලකම් බයිබලය වාර්ථා කරයි. සාතන් විසින් මිනිසුන් (යෝබ්ගේ බොරු හා වැරදි ආකල්ප එය වාර්ථා කරයි. එය අද මනුෂ්‍ය වර්ගයාගේ ජන්ම දැනුම අඩංගුව, අතිශයින් අවංකවු වාර්ථාවකි.

6. බයිබලයේ උතුම් චරිතය

බයිබලය දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ පුත්‍රයා තුල ක්‍රියාත්මක කරන පුද්ගලයා සහ දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ මහිමය එළිදරව් කරන අධිස්වාභාවික පොතකි.

යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ වැනි පුද්ගලයෙකු මනුෂ්‍යයාගේ සොයාගැනීමක් කිරීමට කිසි විටෙක හැකිවී නැත.

ග්‍රීක මිත්‍ය කථා වල ඔවුන්ගේ දෙවිවරු ඔවුන් විසින්ම පිළිරූ විශාල කරගෙන තිබීම මෙන් උන්වහන්සේ සොයාගැනීමට අපට පුළුවන් වුනත් එසේ කරන්නේ නැත.

අභ්‍යන්තර සාක්ෂි

2තිමොති 3:16-17 කියවන්න

නව ගිවිසුමෙහි දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ හුස්මෙන් හෙවත් දේවානුභාවයෙන් යයි සදහන් වන්නේ මෙම පදවල පමණය.

ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල දේවානුභාවයෙන් ලියවුවකි.

ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ හුස්මෙන් පිහිටවුවකි. ආශ්වාස කිරීම කතුවරයින්ට වැඩි වශයෙන් යොදන්නේ නැති නමුත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය සදහා යොදවා ඇත. කතුවරයින් වරදින සුළු වන හා වැරදි සහිත වන අතර දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ඔවුන්ගේ මනස තුලට හුස්ම හෙලීමෙන් උන්වහන්සේගේ නොවරදින සුළු වචන ලැබීමෙන් ඔවුන් ලියු දේ නිරවද්‍ය දේව වචනය වුයේය.

මනුෂ්‍ය කතුවරයින්ට කුමක් ලියන්නේද කියා දෙවියන්වහන්සේ කීවේ කෙසේද?

එය යාන්ත්‍රික කියවනවිට ලිවීමක්ම නොවේ.

2පේත්රැස්1:20-21 කියවන්න.

බෝට්ටුවක් එහි මගීන් ගමනාන්තයට ගෙනයාමක් මෙන් වීමට වඩා මනුෂ්‍ය කතුවරයින් දෙවියන්වහන්සේ අදහස් කළ තැනට උසුලාගෙන හෝ ඇදගෙන යාමක් සිදුවනු ලැබුවේය.

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ උන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය සන්නිවේදනය කිරීමට විවිධ මාර්ග පාවිච්චි කළ සේක.

නික්මයාම34:27 මෙම වචන ලියාගන්න

ස්වාමීන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය අනාගතවක්තෘන්ට පැමිණියේය. යෙරමියා1:2 හොෂෙයා1:1

දර්ශන සහ සිහින දානියෙල් 2:1,7:1

එමනිසා ශුද්ධ ලියවිලි යනු දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේම පුකාශනයයි. එය සම්පුර්ණයෙන්ම අධිකාරිත්ව හා උන්වහන්සේ මෙන් සම්පුර්ණ විය යුතුය. එසේ නැතහොත් උන්වහන්සේ ඇත්තේ වැරදීමක් තුල සහ උන්වහන්සේ වැරදිවන සුළුය.

ආනුභාවයේ ප්රමාණය.- සියලු ලියවිල්ල

සියලුම වචන දෙවියන්වහන්සේ ආනුභාවත් කර ඇත. වාචික යනු වචනය, නිෂ්ශේෂ යනු පුර්ණය. එය දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය ප මණක් නොව, එය ඔබට කථා කරන විට වචන පමණක්ම නොවේ. පාවුල් 1තිමොති5:18හි ලුක්10:7 ද්විතීය කතාව 25:4 මෙන් එක අධිකාරිකාරි මට්ටමක තබයි. ලියවිලි දෙකම ඔවුන් කැදවයි.

2පේත්‍රැස්15-16 ලියවිලි ඉතිරි කොටසට සමානව පාවුල්ගේ ලියවිල්ලට යොමු කරයි.

වාචික පුර්ණ ආනුභාවය

අර්ථ දැක්වීම

ආගමට දහමට අයත් ලියවිලිවල යෙදෙන මනුෂ්‍ය කතුවරයින් අධීක්ෂණය කරන ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේගේ අධි ස්වභාවික මෙහෙවර ඔවුන්ට වැරදි වලින් තොරව ඒවා රචනා කිරීමට හා වාර්ථා කර ඒවා මුල් පිටපත් වල තිබු ආකාරයටම මනුෂ්‍යවර්ගයාට එළිදරව් කිරීමට අවෂ්‍ය පෞරුෂත්වක් ඇති කරන සේක.

දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ ආත්මය, මනුෂ්‍ය කතුවරයින් විසින් මුල් ලියවිලි වල තිබු වචන තෝරාගැනීමේදී මග පෙන්වීය. රචකයන්ගේ පෞද්ගලික ගති ලක්ෂණ, රචනා ශෛලිය හා වාග් මාලාව, ඔවුන්ගේ සිතිවිලි මතයන් අවුල් සහගත දේවල් යාඤා හෝ භය ඇතිවීම ආදිය බොහෝවිට ප්‍රකාශයට පත්වීම විවිධ පොත් වලින් පරාවර්ථනය වේ.

ලුක් වෛද්‍යවරයෙක් වු අතර ඔහු වෛද්‍යමය යෙදුම් භාවිතා කළේය.

පාවුල් ග්‍රීක් සාහිත්‍යෙය් විද්වතෙක් හැටියට ග්‍රීක් කාව්‍යමය යෙදුම් උපුටා දැක්වීය( ක්‍රියා17).

දෙවියන්වහන්සේ මනුෂ්‍ය රචකයන් යොදාගත් අතර මෙම මිනිසුන් ඔවුන් ලියන්නේ මොනවාදැයි නිතර දැන සිටියේ නැත. (දානියෙල් 12:8-9) කෙසේ නමුත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ මග පෙන්වීමේ හස්ථය යටතේ ඔවුන් අපුර්ව ඒකත්වයක් සහ ලියන ලද දේ පිළිබදව ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේගේ මග පෙන්වීමේ ක්‍රියාවට නිරතුරුවම සාක්ෂි වෙමින් පොත් 66ක් නිෂ්පාදනය කළෝය.

අනුරූපී අභ්‍යන්තර සාක්ෂිය

බයිබලයෙහි පරණ ගිවිසුම හා අලුත් ගිවිසුම තුල දේව වචනය අනුරූපීව පවතින බව දක්නට තිබේ.

නික්මයාම20:1, ද්විතීය කතාව 6:6,9,17, 2සාමුවෙල්22:

31,23:2, ගීතාවලිය19:7-11,119:11, 18, 89-91,97-100,104,5,130

හිතෝපදේශ 30:5-6, යෙසායා55:10-11, 22:19, මාර්ක්13:31,යොහාන්2:22,5:24,10:35, ක්රියා17:11,2තිමොති2:15, 1පේත්රැස්1:23-25, එළිදරව්1:1-3,22:18

යේසුස්වහන්සේගේ සාක්ෂිය

යේසුස්වහන්සේ සහ පරණ ගිවිසුම

මතෙව්5:18, යොහාන්10:35. ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල කැඩීමට නුපුළුවන.

උන්වහන්සේ පැමිණියේ පරණ ගිවිසුම පරණ ගිවිසුම සම්පුර්ණ කිරීමටය.


ගීතාවලිය110:1 සහ මතෙව් 22:43-44. වචනයට පවා නිරවද්‍යය. ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ සහ දාවිත්

ලුක්24:27- උන්වහන්සේම ගැනවු සියලු ශුද්ධ ලියවිලි පද නිරවද්‍යය. යොහාන්5:39-40

උන්වහන්සේ නව ගිවිසුමෙහි සෑම වැදගත් කොටසක් තුලම,

පරණ ගිවිසුමෙන් උපුටා දක්වා තිබෙනවා. (බොහෝවිට නිදහස් මතධාරීන් විසින් ආරවුල් ඇතිකළ පොත්වල) උදා: ද්විතීය කතාව, යෝනා, දානියෙල්. ද්විතීය කතාව6:16

මතෙව්4:7;යෝනා,මතෙව්12:40; දානියෙල්9:27;12:11; මතෙව්24:15 යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ චරිතය හා සත්‍යතාවය ප්‍රශ්න කරන්නේ නැතිව පරණ ගිවිසුමේ වචන වල ආනුභාවය ගැන ප්‍රශ්න කිරීමට පුළුවන්කමක් නැත.

ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේගේ විශ්වාසනීයත්වය විවාදය ලක්වනවා. නිදහස් මතධාරීන් කර තිබෙන, විවේචන, පරිදි උන්වහන්සේ උන්වහන්සේගේ වයස ගැන වැරදි ආකල්ප ඇතිවීමට ඉඩ නොදෙමින්, “සත්‍යය මමයි කීසේක.

යේසුස්වහන්සේ සහ අළුත් ගිවිසුම

යේසුස්වහන්සේ අළුත් ගිවිසුමේ ලියවිලි ගැන කලින් කියා තිබුනේය: යොහාන්14:25-26, 15:26-27,16:12-13.

ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ පරණ ගිවිසුමේ ලේඛකයින්ට කළ දේම අළුත් ගිවිසුමේ මනුෂ්‍ය ලේඛකයින්ටද කරන්නට ඇත.

බයිබලය සම්බන්ධව යේසුස්වහන්සේගේ සාක්ෂිය ඇත්තෙන්ම නිෂ්චිත කරගත යුතුව ඇත. අප විසින් උන්වහන්සේ පාපයෙන් තොර දෙවියන්වහන්සේ බව විශ්වාස කරනවා නම් , සත්‍යය යනු උන්වහන්සේය කියා අප විශ්වාස කරනවා නම්, ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල පිළිබඳව උන්වහන්සේගේ තක්සේරුව නිරවද්‍ය බව අපට පිලිගැනීමට සිදුවනවා. අපට හැම දෙයක්ම සම්පුර්ණ ලෙස තේරුම් ගැනීමට නොහැකි වන්නට පුළුවන්. එය අත්‍යවශ්‍යම නොවේ. න්‍යෂ්ටික ශක්තිය ගැන කිසිවක් මට තේරෙන්නේ නැහැ. නමුත් මම එය විශ්වාස කරනවා. එහි බලය ගැන සාක්ෂි මම දැක තිබෙනවා. ශුද්ධ ලියවිලි තුල ඇති සෑම දෙයක්ම මට හරියටම තේරෙන්නේ නැතත් ශුද්ධ ලියවිලි තුල ඇති බලය අත්දැක තිබෙනවා. බයිබලයට යෝග්‍ය ලෙස කරන පිවිසුමකට ශුද්ධ ලියවිලි එළිදරව් කරන සියලු දේවල් අපට තේරුම් ගැනීමට නොහැකි බව හඳුනාගැනීමද ඇතුලත්වන නමුත් අපට තේරුම් ගැනීමට පුළුවන් දේවල් අලංකාර ලෙස එකමුතුවී එය දෙවියන්වහන්සේ හා උන්වහන්සේ අදහාගැනීම පිලිබඳව, එකම නිරවද්‍ය දැනුමේ උල්පත බ ව අපට තේරුම්ගැනීමට පුළුවන.

දානියෙල් පොතෙහි අනාගත වාඛ්‍ය ඉෂ්ඨ සිද්ධවු සාක්ෂිය මෙන් යේසුස්වහන්සේගේ සාක්ෂිය සහ ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ ඉතා බලවත් ලෙස එය පාවිච්චි කරන කාරණය ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල සියල්ල දන්නා, සියලු බල ඇති, අපට ප්‍රේම කරන උන්වහන්සේගේ පුත්‍ර යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ තුලින් අප උන්වහන්සේගේම කරගත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ හුස්ම බව තහවුරු කර ගැනීමට බලකරයි. එමනිසා අපට අපේ ඇදහිල්ල හා චර්යාව සඳහා අධිකාරිත්වය බයිබලය බව අපට විශ්වාස කිරීමට පුළුවන.

බයිබලීය අධිකාරිත්වය

අර්ථ දැක්වීම: නිෂ්චිතකමක් හා නිසැකකමක් ඇතිව දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ චරිත ලක්ෂණ හා කැමැත්ත සමග සන්නිවේදනය කිරීමට දිව්‍යමය ලෙස ව්‍යුත්පන්නවු බලයක් සහිත දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනයේ ලිඛිත ආකාරය.

ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල අධිකාරී බලයෙන් යුක්තවීමට හේතු:

1. ඒවා දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ හුස්මෙන් යුක්තවීම.

2. ඒවා ලියන ලද්දේ ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ විසින් ගෙන යනු ලැබු තෝරාගත් මනුෂ්‍යයින් විසින් වීම.

3. ඒවා යේසුස් ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ, දේව සිරසෙහි දෙවන පුද්ගලයා විසින් සහතිකවී තිබීම.

4. ඒවා ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ විසින් යොදවා ගනු ලැබු වචනය. එපීස6:17, හෙබ්‍රෙව්4:12,1තිමොති4:1

5. ඒවායේ අභිමානය වුයේ සම්පුර්ණයෙන්ම දෝෂ හරණය කරනු ලැබීමයි.

නැවත කියවන්න 2තිමොති6:16-17

දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ මනුෂ්‍යයා සම්පුර්ණව, සියලු යහපත් ක්‍රියාවලට සුදානම්ව සිටින පිණිස දේවානුභාවයෙන් දුන් මුළු ලියවිල්ල ඉගැනවීමටත් තරවටුවටත් හික්මවීමටත් ධර්මිෂ්ඨකම ගැන ගුරුකම්දීමටත් ප්‍රෙයෝජනවත්ව තිබේ.

ආගම ධර්මයට අයත් බව පොත් මැන තිබු ප්‍රමිතියකි.

අන්තර්ගතය සඳහා පරීක්ෂා

1 එය අධිකාරිත්වයෙන්යුක්තද? (ස්වාමීන්වහන්සේ කියන සේක.)

2 එය අනාගතවාඛ්යමද? ( එය ලියනලද්දේ දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ මනුෂ්‍යයයෙක්ද?)

3. එය අව්යාජද? (එය සැක සහිත නම් ඉවත දමන්න)

4. එය ගතිකද? (එයට දෙවියනන්වහන්සේගේ ජීවිත පරිණාමනය කිරීමේ බලයක් තිබුනාද?)

5. එය ලැබී, එකතුකර, කියවා, භාවිතා කළාද?-(දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ මිනිසුන් විසින්)

නව ගිවිසුම සඳහා පරීක්ෂා

ප්‍රේරිත අධිකාරිත්වය හෝ අනුමැතිය සඳහා ආගම ධර්මයට අයත්දැයි පරීක්ෂා කිරීම ප්‍රාථමික පරීක්ෂාව විය.


මෙය සත්‍යය නම් දේව චනයට අපේ ප්‍රතිචාරය විය යුත්තේ කුමක්ද? ඇදහිල්ල! එය මුලා නොවන විශ්වාසදායි, අධිකාරීමය බැවින් අප එය විශ්වාස කළ යුතුයි. එයට අවනත වීමට අප ආශාවිය යුතුයි. දෙවියන්වහන්සේ සතුටු කළහැකි එකම විධිය එයයි. එය කියවීම, අධ්‍යයනය කිරීම, හා එය මත භාවනා කිරීම, හා කටපාඩම් කිරීම අත්‍යවශ්‍ය වන්නේ එනිසාය. අපේ මනස දේව වචනයෙන් සංතෘප්ත විය යුතුයි. එවිට එය ඇසෙන විට වැරැද්ද අප හඳුනාගන්නවා ඇත.

ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල අපේ මනස ආරක්ෂා කර රැකබලාගන්නාය. උත්සාහය අපේ කොටසයි. එය එක් වරම සිදුවන්නේ නැත!

ඔබ දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය සමග ස්ථිරව සිටීමේ කාලයෙන් ඉවතට ගැනීමට ඔබට සතුරෙක් ඇත. නමුත් ඔබටත් වචනයෙන් ප්‍රෙබෝධමත් කරන ඔබට තේරුම්ගැනීමට සලස්වන ශුද්ධාත්මයාණන්වහන්සේ සිටින සේක. උන්වහන්සේ ඔබේ සතුරාට වඩා ඉතා බලවත්ය. ඔබට උපකාර කරන පිණිස උන්වහන්සේ මත ර ඳාපවතින්න. ලෝකය කුමක් කීවත් දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය අපේ සිතිවිලි හා හැසිරීම් වල ප්‍රමිතිය පාලනය කළ යුතුය. ජීවිතයේ සෑම අවස්ථාවකදීම ප්‍රතිචාර දක්වන්නේ දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනයට අනුව හෝ අපේමහැඟීම් වලට සහ වෙනත් අයගේ අවවාද වලට අනුවද කියා තෝරාගැනීමට ඇත. ඔබගේ ජීවිතයේ ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ලට අනුව නිවැරදි කරගත් අංග තිබෙනවාද? ඔබගේ ජීවිතයේ දිශාව ඔබ නැවත සකස් කරගෙන තිබෙනවාද? ශුද්ධ ගියවිල්ල ස්වාමීන්වහන්සේට සේවය කිරීම සඳහා යොදාගැනීමට සහ ධෛර්යමත් වීමට ඔබට උපකාරී වේද?

සංස්කෘතිය ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල සමග පටහැනි වන විට, උදා: ගබ්සාව, දුක් නොවිඳ මැරීම, සම ලිංගික ක්‍රියා- ඔබ විශ්වාස කිරීමට තෝරාගන්නේ කුමක්ද?

ඔබේ විවාහයට පෙර හෝ විවාහයෙන් පිටතදී ඔබේ කාමාශාවන් සංසිඳවාගැනීමට පරීක්ෂා කරනු ලබන විට ඔබ කුමන තීරණයක් ගනියිද?

පවුලේ හෝ මිතුරන් සමග සම්බන්ධතාවයන් හසුරුවා ගැනීමේදී දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය කෙසේ උපකාරී වේද?

ඔබ කරන රැකියාවේ ආකාරයට දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය කෙසේ බලපායිද?

වෙනත් කෙනෙකුගේ පාප වලට සමාව දීමට දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනය ඔබට කෙසේ උපකාරී වේද?

ක්‍රිස්තුස්වහන්සේ තුල පරිනත වීමට ඔබට එය කෙසේ උපකාරී වේද?

අප මිනිසුන් අතර වඩාත්ම ආශිර්වාද ලත් අයයි. අවුරුදු 3400ක විශ්වාසනීයත්වයක් ඔප්පු කරනු ලැබු ජීවිත මග පෙන්වීමක් අපට තිබෙනවා. ලෝකයේ තවත් එවැනි පොතක් නැත. දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ වචනයම සදාකල් විශ්වාසදායක නිසා එය කිසිවිටෙක වැටෙන්ට අරින්නේ නැත.

නමුත් අපේ අත්දැකීම් තුල එය විශ්වාස කිරීම හා අවනත වීම මගින් එය සත්‍ය බව සොයාගැනීමට පමණක් යුතුව ඇත. එය ජීවිතයේ ප්‍රීතිය හා සෞභාග්‍යයේ යතුරයි.

අධ්‍යයන ප්‍රශ්න

කියවන්න. රෝම1:18-21

1. මුළු මනුෂ්‍ය වර්ගයාට තමන්වහන්සේම ගැන දෙවියන්වහන්සේ එළිදරව් කරන්නේ මොනවාද? කුමක් තුලින්ද? ඔවුන්ගේ ප්‍රතිචාරය කුමක්ද? දෙවියන්වහන්සේගේ තීන්දුව කුමක්ද?

කියවන්න. 1යොහාන්5:9-12; යොහාන්1:18; හෙබ්රෙව්1:1-4

2. තව දුරටත් උන්වහන්සේම ගැන එළිදරව් කරන්නේ කුමන මාර්ග දෙකෙන්ද?

කියවන්න. 2තිමොති3:16-17

3. ශුද්ධ ලියවිල්ල කෙතරම් හොඳින් දිව්‍ය හුස්ම ගත කර ඇද්ද?

කියවන්න. 2පේත්රැස්1:20-21

4. බයිබලයේ මනුෂ්‍යය කතුවරයින් ලිවිය යුත්තේ කුමක්ද කියා දැනගත්තේ කෙසේද? දෙවියන්වහන්සේ පාවිච්චි කළ ක්‍රම මොනවාද?( නික්මයාම34:27;යෙරමියා1:2;හොෂෙයා1:1; දානියෙල්2:1;7:1,8:17

කියවන්න. මතෙව්5:17-19;යොහාන්10:35;ලුක්24:27

5. පරණ ගිවිසුමේ ශුද්ධ ලියවිලි ගැන යේසුස්වහන්සේගේ දැක්ම කුමක්ද? උන්වහන්සේගේ චරිතයේ ආලෝකය තුල උන්වහන්සේ එය සැලකුවේ කෙසේද කියා දැනගැනීමේ වැදගත්කම කුමක්ද?

කියවන්න මතෙව්1:22-23,4:14,8:17,12:17,15:7-8,21:4-5

6.අනාගතවාඛ්‍යය සම්පුර්ණවීම පරණ ගිවිසුම ගැන කුමක් ඔප්පු කරනවාද? එහි නිරවද්‍යතාවය තුල කෙනෙකුගේ ඇදහිල්ල ශක්තිමත් වන්නේ කෙසේද?

කියවන්න යොහාන් 14:25-26,15:26-27,16:12-13

7. අලුත් ගිවිසුම ලියවෙනු ඇතැයි යේසුස්වහන්සේ කල්තියා කීවේ කෙසේද? කතුවරයා වෙන්නට ඇත්තේ කවුද?

කියවන්න එපීස 6:17; හෙබ්රෙව්4:12

8. වසර සිය ගණනකට පෙර ලියවුන අනෙක් පොත් වලින්(උදා:(ශේක්ස්පියර්) ශුද්ධ බයිබලය වෙනස්වන්නේ කෙසේද? ඒ ගැන එයම කියන්නේ මොනවාද?

9. මේ සියල්ල සත්‍යය නම්, බයිබලයේ අධිකාරිත්වය දෙසට අපේ ආකල්පය විය යුත්තේ කුමක්ද? එය නිරවද්‍ය බවට අපට විශ්වාසය තැබිය හැකිද? එය කොපමණ සත්‍යය හා අධිකාරිත්වදැයි අපට කොතරම් ගණන්ගත හැකිද? එය සමග ඔබ කරමින් සිටිය යුත්තේ කුමක්ද? බලන්න:යෝෂුවා1:8; 1තිමොති2:1; ගීතාවලිය119:11,105;යාකොබ්1:22

Related Topics: Bibliology (The Written Word), Curriculum