Lesson 28: Eternal Life or Judgment? (John 5:24-30)Related Media
September 29, 2013
George Bernard Shaw had it right when he observed, “The statistics on death are quite impressive: one out of one people die.” In light of the certainty of death, you would think that everyone would be very concerned to prepare for what lies beyond. And yet many push it out of their minds and focus on other things that really won’t matter on the day of death. The evangelist, George Whitefield, told of seeing some criminals riding in a cart on the way to the gallows. They were arguing about who should sit on the right side of the cart, with no more concern than children today arguing about who gets to sit in the front seat of the car.
In our text, Jesus is replying to the Jews, who accused Him not only of breaking the Sabbath, but also of claiming to be equal with God (5:19). Rather than responding with horror to such a charge and backing off, Jesus intensified His claims to be God. As we saw in our last study, He claims to be equal with God in His nature (5:17-18), His works (5:17, 19), His love and knowledge (5:20), His sovereign power (5:21), in judgment (5:22), and in worship (5:23). No mere man and no created being could make these claims unless he was crazy. Jesus is clearly claiming to be God!
Now Jesus continues to hammer home His amazing claims. In 5:24, He asserts that there are two categories of people: those who have eternal life and those who are spiritually dead and under judgment. The difference between these two groups is that those who have life have heard Jesus’ words and believed in the One who sent Him, whereas the latter have not. Jesus goes on (5:25-26) to state that He inherently has the power to impart eternal life to dead sinners. Then (5:27-30) Jesus claims that in the future He will raise from the dead everyone who has ever lived and judge them for all eternity. These are mind-boggling claims! Since death and judgment are absolutely certain, our text screams at us:
Since Jesus can impart eternal life and since He will judge all people, make sure that you are right with God through faith in Jesus Christ.
Before we work through the text, note that in 5:20, Jesus said that the Father would show Him greater works than these, “so that you will marvel.” But in 5:28, He tells the Jews not to marvel at what He has just said. Why does He tell them that they will marvel and then turn around and tell them not to marvel? I understand Jesus’ words in verse 20 to be an invitation to the skeptical Jews to believe in Him when they observe the miracles that He would perform. But in verse 28, He is warning them not to be amazed in the sense of scoffing at His claim to judge all people. In other words, amazement at the signs that Jesus did should lead to faith in Him and His claims, not to scoffing. Our text makes three main points:
1. There are only two groups of people: Those who are spiritually dead and those who have eternal life (5:24).
John 5:24: “Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life.” Clearly, when it comes to being alive or dead, there are two and only two categories of people. Maybe some of you would qualify for being half-dead, but technically, you’re alive! What is true physically is also true spiritually: Everyone is either spiritually dead or spiritually alive. There is no in-between category.
What distinguishes these two groups? The difference is that those who have eternal life have heard Jesus’ word and have believed the One who sent Jesus, whereas those who are spiritually dead have not heard or believed. Jesus’ word stands for His entire message or teaching. Hearing Jesus’ word is the same thing as hearing God’s Word, since Jesus only did what He saw the Father doing (5:19) and spoke what He heard from the Father (8:38). And the Father testified of His Son (5:37-38). God sent His Son to be the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world (1:29). He sent Him to be the Savior of the world (4:42).
Hearing Jesus’ word referred to more than just hearing the sound of His voice. Obviously, the Jewish leaders who were challenging Jesus heard the sound of His voice, but they didn’t accept or submit to what He was saying. In spite of witnessing the amazing miracles that Jesus did, the Jewish leaders opposed Him and rejected His claim to be sent to earth from God. In John 10:27, Jesus said, by way of contrast with these unbelieving Jews, that His sheep hear His voice and follow Him. And so to hear Jesus’ word means to hear with faith and obedience. It means to believe that what Jesus says is true and to submit to His lordship.
Jesus adds (5:24) that those who have eternal life also believe “Him who sent Me.” As Leon Morris points out (The Gospel According to John [Eerdmans], p. 316), it is more common to have a reference to “believing in,” rather than just believing and to have Christ as the object of belief, rather than the Father. But, he adds,
All those who believe the Father, who really believe the Father, accept Christ. It is not possible to believe what the Father says and to turn away from the Son. The theme of this whole passage is the unity of the Father and the Son.
Jesus says that the one who hears His word and believes in the One who sent Him “has eternal life.” In 5:21, we saw that Jesus gives life to whom He wishes. That statement emphasizes Jesus’ sovereignty in the matter of salvation, which theologians refer to as the doctrine of election. We are saved because God chose us to be saved. That doctrine gives God all the glory for our salvation.
But I’ve had people ask me, “How can I know whether I am one of the elect?” The answer is in 5:24: Do you believe in Jesus Christ as your Savior from sin and judgment? Do you believe the biblical witness to Jesus as the eternal Son of God who was sent to this earth to bear your sin on the cross and who was raised from the dead by the power of God? If so, you are one of God’s elect, because none but the elect truly believe in Christ.
The Lord here also gives those who believe in Him great assurance. He says that the one who believes “has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life.” Judaism in that day believed that the attainment of eternal life was a future event, not a present reality (Andreas Kostenberger, John [Baker], p. 188). But here Jesus says that eternal life is the present possession of the one who believes His word. That person has moved from spiritual death to spiritual life. And if the life that God gives to those who believe is eternal life, then it isn’t temporary life. Or to put it another way, if you can lose it, then it isn’t eternal. God wants those who believe in Jesus to have the assurance, as Paul put it (Rom. 8:1) that “there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.”
Assurance of salvation is in part a feeling, but it’s a feeling based on fact. The fact is Christ’s promise that those who believe have eternal life and will not come into judgment. Note that Jesus prefaces His words with, “truly, truly,” to underscore what He is saying. Either we trust His word or we don’t.
A man once came to the famous evangelist, D. L. Moody, and said that he was worried because he didn’t feel saved. Moody asked him, “Was Noah safe in the ark?” “Certainly he was,” the man replied. “Well, what made him safe, his feeling or the ark?” Our salvation doesn’t rest on our feelings, but on Christ our Savior. If we’re in Him, we’re secure and protected from the storm of judgment that is coming on the world. Our feelings rest on the absolutely truthful promises of Jesus.
As Leon Morris points out (pp. 316-317), verse 24 is more than a statement of fact. It’s also an invitation or call to hear the words of Jesus Christ and believe in Him. Have you put your trust in Him? If not, why not do it now?
From our Lord’s next words we learn…
2. Jesus is the only one powerful enough to impart eternal life to spiritually dead sinners (5:25-26).
John 5:25: “Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live.”
Jesus again prefaces this statement with “truly, truly,” to affirm the importance and truth of what He is saying. He used the same phrase, “the hour is coming and now is” with the woman at the well when He spoke about worshiping the Father in spirit and truth (4:23). He meant that it was a present reality, but also that there was more to come. In this case, the “more to come” would be the cross, Jesus’ resurrection, His ascension, and the sending of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost. But “now is” meant that as He spoke, Jesus had the power to speak so that the dead would hear and live.
Jesus demonstrated that power physically at the tomb of Lazarus when He called out (11:43), “Lazarus, come forth.” With the command, Jesus imparted the supernatural power for that dead man to hear and obey. Only God has such power (Deut. 32:39; 1 Sam. 2:6; 2 Kings 5:7). But that miracle or sign pointed to the spiritual truth that Jesus has the power to speak to those who are spiritually dead in such a way that they receive eternal life. That is the main focus of 5:25-26. While we all would have been amazed if we had been there at Lazarus’ tomb, we should realize that the miracle of the new birth is just as great, if not greater, than the raising of a dead man. Just as Lazarus was raised instantly at the command of Christ, so dead sinners are instantly saved when they truly hear the voice of the Son of God. With the command to believe comes the power to believe.
In verse 26, Jesus explains why He can impart life to those who hear His voice: “For just as the Father has life in Himself, even so He gave to the Son also to have life in Himself ….” Life is inherent in God. He spoke all life into existence in the original creation. Even so, Jesus says, the Father “gave to the Son also to have life in Himself.”
But what does this mean? No less a theologian than John Calvin understands that the Father granted this power to Jesus in His incarnation (Calvin’s Commentaries [Baker], p. 207). But in John 1:4, John said, “in Him was life,” in His pre-incarnate state as the eternal Word. Thus this act of the Father granting life to the Son must, as D. A. Carson puts it (The Gospel According to John [Eerdmans/Apollos], p. 257), “be an act belonging to eternity, of a piece with the eternal Father/Son relationship ….” Jesus doesn’t say that life comes from the Father through the Son, but rather that just as the Father inherently has life in Himself, so also He granted or ordained that the Son has this same inherent power of life in Himself. It is another claim that Jesus shares full deity with the Father.
At the same time, the verse distinguishes the Father and the Son and shows that the Son is eternally subject to the Father. Through the centuries a heresy called Sabellianism, monarchianism, or modalism has denied the Trinity. It teaches that there is no distinction of persons between the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. God projects Himself at times as the Father, at other times as the Son, or again as the Spirit. These are just three modes revealing the same divine person (C. A. Blaising, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology [Baker], ed. by Walter Elwell, p. 727). The error persists today with the “oneness Pentecostal” movement.
But Athanasius, an early defender of the faith, used verses such as John 5:26 as proof that the Father and the Son are two distinct persons (J. C. Ryle, Expository Thoughts on the Gospels [Baker], 3:297-298). The Athanasian Creed puts it, “We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance [Essence].”
Thus Jesus is teaching that there are only two groups of people: Those who are spiritually dead and those who have eternal life. Also, He is the only one powerful enough to impart life to those who are dead. Thirdly,
3. Jesus will be the one who raises all the dead of all ages and then judges them for all eternity (5:27-30).
By the way, for Jesus’ claims here to be true, He had to be raised bodily from the dead. Our entire faith rests on the fact of Jesus’ resurrection (1 Cor. 15:1-19). There are five important truths here, which I can only touch on:
A. The Father has given the Son authority to judge because He is the Son of Man (5:27).
John 5:27: “…and He gave Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man.” Along with 5:26, this verse explains 5:25. The reference to the Son of Man goes back to Daniel 7:13-14, where the prophet saw one like a Son of Man coming up to the Ancient of Days. He was given everlasting dominion, glory and a kingdom so that all the peoples and nations might serve Him. Jesus is that Son of Man, eternal God in human flesh. He is uniquely qualified to judge humanity because He is both the all-knowing God and at the same time a man who understands by experience what it is like to be human (Heb. 2:17-18; 4:15).
B. Jesus will raise all people to face judgment (5:28-29a).
John 5:28-29a: “Do not marvel at this; for an hour is coming, in which all who are in the tombs will hear His voice, and will come forth ….” I take it that Jesus’ hearers were scoffing at His amazing claims to have life in Himself and to judge all people. So Jesus warns them not to scoff or marvel at this. Then He adds a further claim of His divine power: In the future He will give the command and every dead person from every people group from all ages will arise from the dead! Whether their bodies were drowned or burned or eaten by scavengers or blown apart by a bomb, all will be raised to face judgment.
Other Scriptures indicate that there will be two resurrections. Believers will be raised at the second coming of Christ (1 Thess. 4:13-18; Rev. 20:4). They will not face judgment for condemnation (John 5:24), but they will be judged for rewards in heaven (Rom. 14:10; 1 Cor. 3:13-15; 2 Cor. 5:10). Unbelievers will be raised at the end of the millennium (Rev. 20:11-15). But no one will escape this final roll call.
C. At the judgment, there are two and only two eternal destinies: eternal life or eternal condemnation (5:29).
John 5:29b: “… those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of life, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment.” Jesus is plainly teaching that this life is not the end of our existence. Either there is life beyond the grave for every person—both the righteous and the wicked—or Jesus is wrong. He says that both those who did good and those who did evil will be raised. The teaching that the wicked will be annihilated contradicts Jesus’ teaching. They will be raised for judgment and then “go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life” (Matt. 25:46). If eternal life is forever, then so is eternal punishment.
D. The basis for judgment will be a person’s deeds (5:29b).
John 5:29b: “… those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of life, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment.” I had a Roman Catholic friend in college who was very interested in spiritual things. At my urging, she bought a Bible and began reading the Gospel of John. One day she told me that she had been wondering how a person gets to heaven. Then she said that she had come across a verse that told her how. I thought, “Praise the Lord, she has read John 3:16!” But she turned to John 5:29 and said, “It’s by good deeds!”
So I had to explain to her that verse 29 is describing the lives of those who have received new life from Jesus by faith as opposed to those who have not trusted in Him. She had missed John 1:12, which says that the children of God are those who believe in Jesus’ name. She had missed John 3:16, which says that whoever believes in Jesus has eternal life. She had missed John 3:36, “He who believes in the Son has eternal life….” She had missed John 5:24, “He who believes Him who sent Me has eternal life.” Leon Morris (pp. 321-322) explains verse 29 well:
Judgment, as always in Scripture, is on the basis of works…. This does not mean that salvation is on the basis of good works, for this very Gospel makes it plain over and over again that men enter eternal life when they believe on Jesus Christ. But the lives they live form the test of the faith they profess. This is the uniform testimony of Scripture. Salvation is by grace and it is received through faith. Judgment is based on men’s works.
John Calvin (pp. 209-210) comments on 5:29, “For without the pardon which God grants to those who believe in Him, there never was a man in the world of whom we can say that he has lived well; nor is there even a single work that will be reckoned altogether good, unless God pardon the sins which belong to it, for all are imperfect and corrupted.” He goes on to refute the Roman Catholic error that we gain eternal life through the merit of our works. Then he concludes (p. 210), “And indeed we do not deny that the faith which justifies us is accompanied by an earnest desire to live well and righteously; but we only maintain that our confidence cannot rest on anything else than on the mercy of God alone.”
E. Jesus’ judgment will be just because He does not seek His own will, but the will of the One who sent Him (5:30).
John 5:30: “I can do nothing on My own initiative. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is just, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.” He not only said that He did not do anything on His own initiative, but that He could not. This goes back to the theme of the entire section, His unity with the Father in all things. Jesus will be impartial and completely fair in His judgment of all people. No one will be able to complain that he or she was judged unfairly. Jesus will be completely just or fair when He judges everyone. But you never want to ask God to be fair with you! Plead rather for His mercy!
You’ve probably heard the expression, “going first class on the Titanic.” It describes those who foolishly devote themselves to seeking after pleasure in this life only. This world and all who live for it are headed for judgment. Going first class on a ship that is certain to go down is not wise! Rather, get in the lifeboat while you can! There’s plenty of room for everyone, but you’ve got to get in.
Jesus claims that He can give eternal life to those who are spiritually dead and that He will raise all people for judgment. Either He is crazy to make such claims or He is God and He will do it. Make sure that you have passed out of death and into life because you have put your trust in Jesus Christ and His substitutionary death as your only hope for eternal life!
- In light of these verses, why is it essential to affirm Jesus’ deity? Discuss: Can anyone be saved who denies His deity?
- Some say that we should not talk with unbelievers about God’s judgment, but only about His love. Why is this mistaken?
- How would you explain to a Roman Catholic friend that John 5:29 is not teaching salvation by our good works? What Scriptures would you use?
- Should Christians be concerned about standing before Christ for judgment someday? Consider Rom. 14:10; 1 Cor. 3:13-15; 2 Cor. 5:10; and Matt. 25:11-30 in your reply.
Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2013, All Rights Reserved.
Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation
Lesson 29: The Witnesses to Jesus (John 5:30-40)Related Media
October 6, 2013
How can you know for sure that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God? An old hymn put it, “You ask me how I know He lives? He lives within my heart.” Okay, but that’s pretty subjective. A Buddhist might say that Buddha lives within his heart. How can you verify such a thing? A critic might say that Jesus is just a legend or myth. Or, maybe the apostles embellished stories about Him so that what we read is far from the actual truth. Perhaps He was just a great religious teacher who was tragically murdered because of jealous men who felt threatened by Him.
If you’ve ever sat on a jury or watched a courtroom drama or followed a trial on the news, you know that having multiple witnesses of reputable character who all say the same thing independently of one another is crucial to prove a case. Those who are called on to bear witness in court must swear to tell the truth or be liable for perjury. A witness is not free to make up his own story; he must report the facts as he saw them. If the witnesses are credible people who give consistent witness, the case is pretty secure.
In our text, Jesus continues His defense to the Jews, who were accusing Him of breaking the Sabbath and of making Himself equal with God (5:18). Instead of backing off and responding with horror to such charges, Jesus sets forth His case in even stronger terms by showing that He is one with the Father in all of His actions. He asserts (5:22-23) that the Father “has given all judgment to the Son so that all will honor the Son even as they honor the Father.” He asserts that He has life in Himself and that in the future He will speak and all who have ever lived will come forth from the tombs for a resurrection either of life or of judgment (5:26, 28-29). Clearly, Jesus is claiming to be equal with God.
But, how do we know that these claims are true? What evidence backs them up? Would they hold up in court? In answer to these questions and in deference to Jewish law, which required at least two or three witnesses to establish any legal matter, Jesus gives a number of witnesses to verify His claims.
“Testimony” or “witness” was an important concept to John. He uses the noun and verb 47 times in this Gospel and 30 more times in his epistles and in Revelation (Edwin Blum, The Bible Knowledge Commentary [Victor Books], ed. by John F. Walvoord & Roy Zuck, 2:291). We don’t need to take a blind leap of faith. God has provided adequate testimony that Jesus is the truth.
Actually, there is one main witness, the Father, who uses these various witnesses to testify to the truth of who Jesus is. As John argues (1 John 5:9), “If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater; for the testimony of God is this, that He has testified concerning His Son.” Every day we accept the testimony of men. When you go to the store, you don’t run a chemical analysis of every item that you buy, to make sure that it isn’t contaminated. You trust that the company has followed basic health procedures and that the store has kept the goods from spoilage or contamination. You go to the bank and hand over an endorsed paycheck to a teller whom you don’t know and trust that she really put it into your account. I could go on and on with examples of how you accept the testimony of fallible men, even men that you do not know, every day. So, John argues, why do we not accept the testimony that God has given concerning His Son?
In our text, the Father is the “another” (5:32) who testifies in conjunction with Jesus Himself. Also, the Father used John the Baptist to bear witness to Jesus (5:33-35). The Father used Jesus’ works (miracles) which He gave Jesus to do to bear witness of Him (5:36). The Father used the Scriptures to bear witness of Jesus (5:37-47). Since all of these witnesses line up, the case for Jesus is solid: He is the Christ, the Son of God (20:31).
But before we look at these witnesses to Jesus, I need to touch on two other important matters. First, although we should not have to debate the point, I need to make it clear that there is such a thing as absolute truth in the spiritual realm. Postmodernism argues that either there are no absolute truths, or if there are, we can’t know these truths with any degree of certainty. But that philosophy is self-refuting, because then we can’t know whether postmodernism is true or not!
But John repeatedly emphasizes “truth” in this gospel. As Leon Morris states (The Gospel According to John [Eerdmans], p. 293), “Truth is characteristic of God, and it is only as we know God that we know truth.” He points out (p. 294) that John uses the Greek noun for “truth” 25 times in his Gospel, plus 20 more times in his epistles (as against only once in Matthew and three times each in Mark and Luke). He also uses two other Greek words meaning “true” far more than other New Testament authors do.
Here in our text (5:32, 33), Jesus asserts that the Father’s testimony about Him is true and that John has testified to the truth. Jesus later claims that He is the truth (14:6). He affirmed in His high priestly prayer (17:17), “Your word is truth.” He told the cynical Pilate (18:37), “For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.” So there is absolute truth in the spiritual realm and there is damnable error. The truth centers in the person of Jesus Christ as revealed in the Word of God.
Second, note that Jesus’ aim in this defense of His deity was not to win an argument, but to win souls. He tells the Jews (5:34), “I say these things so that you may be saved.” He laments (5:40), “You are unwilling to come to Me so that you may have life.” When we have opportunity to bear witness, our aim should not be to win an argument, but to win the person to Christ. If he isn’t trusting in Christ, he is spiritually dead and under condemnation. He needs eternal life and that life comes by believing in Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. The point of these witnesses to Christ is to testify to who He is so that people (including you!) will be saved. So the point here is:
The Father bears witness to Jesus through Jesus’ testimony, John the Baptist, Jesus’ works, and the Scriptures so that we may come to Jesus for eternal life.
1. The Father bears witness to Jesus through Jesus’ testimony to Himself (5:30-32).
As we’ve seen, in 5:19-29 Jesus bore witness of Himself. In 5:19, He made the point that it is impossible for the Son to do anything on His own initiative apart from the Father, because the two share the same nature. Now (5:30) He repeats that point to sum up His testimony: “I can do nothing on My own initiative. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is just, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.” In God’s eternal plan, the Father sent the Son to bear our sin and the Son submitted to the Father’s will. Everything that Jesus did while He was on earth He did in submission to the Father. Thus He wasn’t bearing witness of Himself independently of the Father.
But a Jewish lawyer would have said at this point, “Yes, but self-evidence is not admissible in a court of law. There must be outside testimony.” Jewish law required the testimony of two or three witnesses to establish the truth (Deut. 19:15). Jesus condescends to this point in 5:31: “If I alone testify about Myself, My testimony is not true.” Jesus is acknowledging that His testimony would not be valid if He were acting independently of the Father. So He goes on to give other witnesses to His claim. Behind all these witnesses is the Father, to whom Jesus refers in 5:32: “There is another who testifies of Me, and I know that the testimony which He gives about Me is true.”
Later (John 8:13), the Pharisees said to Jesus, “You are testifying about Yourself; Your testimony is not true.” On that occasion, Jesus replied (8:14), “Even if I testify about Myself, My testimony is true, for I know where I came from and where I am going; but you do not know where I come from or where I am going.” So even though self-testimony may not be sufficient in a court of law, it does not follow that it’s not true. This is especially so when it came from Jesus, who was sent to earth by the Father and knew that He would return to the Father after He accomplished the Father’s will. But then Jesus added (8:17-18), “Even in your law it has been written that the testimony of two men is true. I am He who testifies about Myself, and the Father who sent Me testifies about Me.”
A man’s self-testimony depends heavily on his character. If a man is known for lying and manipulating the facts to serve himself, you’re not going to believe him even if he really is speaking the truth. But everything that we know about Jesus points to His integrity. At His trial, the Jewish authorities couldn’t find witnesses to agree about the charges they were leveling at Him. After examining Jesus, Pilate said (18:38), “I find no guilt in Him.” The men who were closest to Jesus, who spent three years watching Him in all sorts of situations, all testify to His sinless character. So Jesus’ point in 5:30-32 is that His self-testimony is true because He never acted independently of the Father. The Father bore witness to Jesus through Jesus’ own testimony about Himself.
2. The Father bears witness to Jesus through John the Baptist (5:33-35).
John 5:33-35: “You have sent to John, and he has testified to the truth. But the testimony which I receive is not from man, but I say these things so that you may be saved. He was the lamp that was burning and was shining and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light.”
God sent John the Baptist in fulfillment of His promise (Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1) to bear witness of Jesus (John 1:6-8, 23). But John was not Jesus’ “key witness” in that he was human. Jesus’ main witness was the Father. But Jesus mentions John here because for a while the Jews were flocking out to hear him and Jesus wants them to be saved. If they would have believed John’s testimony that Jesus was the Lamb of God, sent to take away the sins of the world (1:29), they would have been saved. John was a lamp, not the light, but he bore witness to the Light.
So God had given illumination through John, but the Jews had rejected it. Jesus hits the main problem with the Jews and John with the phrase, “for a while.” John was probably now in prison, so his ministry was over. There was a window of opportunity for the Jews to believe John, but now that window had closed. The Jewish leaders were interested in John when he was popular, but they never took his message to heart. They were like a bunch of moths who hovered near the lamp while it was burning, but flitted back into the darkness after it was extinguished. They should have followed the One to whom John had pointed. The lesson is: Don’t miss the opportunity to be saved when God is speaking His truth to you through His messenger! Today is the day of salvation!
3. The Father bears witness to Jesus through Jesus’ works (5:36).
John 5:36: “But the testimony which I have is greater than the testimony of John; for the works which the Father has given Me to accomplish—the very works that I do—testify about Me, that the Father has sent Me.”
By His “works,” Jesus mainly meant the miracles that He did. His miracles were unique signs that He had been sent by the Father. When the Jews said to Jesus (10:24b), “If You are the Christ, tell us plainly,” He answered (10:25), “I told you, and you do not believe; the works that I do in My Father’s name, these testify of Me.” Later, He said (15:24), “If I had not done among them the works which no one else did, they would not have sin; but now they have both seen and hated Me and My Father as well.” Jesus’ miracles gave abundant testimony that He is the Christ, the Son of God.
J. C. Ryle (Expository Thoughts on the Gospels [Baker], 3:308) points out five distinctive features of Jesus’ miracles:
(1) Their number: they were not a few only but very many indeed. (2) Their greatness: they were not little but mighty interferences with the ordinary course of nature. (3) Their publicity: they were generally not done in a corner but in open day, and before many witness and often before enemies. (4) Their character: they were almost always works of love, mercy, and compassion, helpful and beneficial to man and not mere barren exhibitions of power. (5) Their direct appeal to men’s senses: they were visible and would bear any examination.
Ryle also points out that the Jews never attempted to deny that these miracles had occurred. Rather, they tried to attribute them to Satan (Matt. 12:22-30). Many skeptics today would deny the possibility of miracles because they have never seen one. I just read a Reader’s Digest cover story on “amazing facts” about the human body. The story uses words like “incredible” and “magical” to describe the way the body works. But it never alludes to the Creator. The evidence for miracles is literally right under their noses, but they’re blind to see it!
Thus the Father bears witness to Jesus through Jesus’ testimony to Himself, through John the Baptist’s testimony, and through Jesus’ works.
4. The Father bears witness to Jesus through the Scriptures (5:37-40).
John 5:37-40: “And the Father who sent Me, He has testified of Me. You have neither heard His voice at any time nor seen His form. You do not have His word abiding in you, for you do not believe Him whom He sent. You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; it is these that testify about Me; and you are unwilling to come to Me so that you may have life.”
Jesus continues this point through verse 47, but we only have time to work through verse 40 today. Scholars debate (in 5:37) exactly how the Father had testified of Jesus. It may be a reference to the voice from heaven at Jesus’ baptism (Matt. 3:17), but John does not record that event. The Father also testified of Jesus as His Son on the Mount of Transfiguration (Matt. 17:5), but again that’s not recorded in John. I think that the answer is in the following context, where Jesus mentions God’s Word and indicts them for studying the Scriptures but missing Jesus as the promised Christ. All of the Father’s revelation from the beginning of Creation had pointed to Christ and that revelation is contained in Scripture.
Just after Adam and Eve fell into sin, God promised that the seed of the woman would crush the serpent’s head (Gen. 3:15). God killed an animal and clothed Adam and Eve, giving an object lesson of how the Lamb of God would be slain to cover their sins. God promised Abraham that in his seed, all the nations of the earth would be blessed (Gen. 12:1-3). The sacrificial system that was instituted in the Law of Moses pointed ahead to Jesus, the complete and final sacrifice (Heb. 10:1-14). Many of the Psalms, such as Psalm 22 and Psalm 110, point to Jesus. Isaiah 53 specifically predicts Jesus’ death on behalf of His people at the hands of sinners. As Luke 24:27 describes Jesus’ conversation with the two dejected disciples on the road to Emmaus, “Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures.” How I wish that that conversation had been recorded for us! But the Lord leaves us to dig out those treasures for ourselves as we study the Bible.
Jesus indicts the Jews for three things (Morris, p. 329): (1) “You have [not] heard His voice at any time” (5:37). Moses had heard God’s voice (Exod. 33:11), but Jesus’ hearers were not true followers of Moses (5:46). If they had been true followers of Moses, they would have recognized God’s voice in Jesus (3:34; 17:8). (2) You have not “seen His form” (5:37b). Jacob saw “the face of God” when he wrestled with the angel (Jesus in preincarnate form), but the Jews were not true sons of Jacob or they would have seen God’s form in Jesus (1:18; 14:9). (3) “You do not have His word abiding in you” (5:38). Although they studied the Word (5:39) and many of the rabbis had memorized most of the Word, they had studied it wrongly, because their study had not pointed them to the Word who took on human flesh and dwelt among them (1:1, 14).
Jesus’ last phrase in 5:38, “for you do not believe Him whom He sent,” may be either the evidence for Jesus’ threefold indictment or the cause of it, or both. The reason they did not hear God’s voice or see God’s form or have His Word abiding in them was that they did not believe in Jesus, who was sent by the Father. And their unbelief was evidence that Jesus’ indictment was correct.
Jesus’ words in 5:39-40 show that it is possible to study the Scriptures in the wrong way. If you approach the Scriptures from an academic perspective only, it can lead to tragic results. It can fill you with intellectual pride about how you know more than others. It can lead you to the false hope that you have eternal life because of your great knowledge. The Jews thought that in their knowledge of Scripture they had eternal life. But they missed Jesus! The point of the entire Bible is to lead us directly to Jesus, who alone can impart eternal life (5:21). That leads to the last point:
5. The reason for the Father’s witness to Jesus is so that we may come to Jesus and have life (5:40).
Tragically, Jesus says of the Jews (5:40b), “You are unwilling to come to Me so that you may have life.” C. H. Spurgeon has two sermons on John 5:40, which I encourage you to read (online at www.spurgeon.org/sermons). In the first one, preached when he was only 21 years-old (“Free Will a Slave,” Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit [Pilgrim Publications], 1:395-402), he develops four points: (1) Men by nature are dead. (2) In Christ Jesus there is life. (3) Eternal life is given to all who come for it. (4) By nature, no man will come to Christ, because they are unwilling. On this last point, he explains that no one can come to Christ unless the Father draws him (John 6:44). He argues that no true Christian will say that he came to Christ of his own free will apart from God’s first seeking him and drawing him to the Savior.
Don’t miss Jesus’ point in this discourse (5:34): “I say these things so that you may be saved.” Are you saved? Do you have eternal life? If not, search the Scriptures and look for Christ. Come to Jesus and He will give you eternal life.
I know a man who used to profess to believe the gospel. He was a good Bible teacher. He went on to earn a Ph.D. at Harvard. He is a far more brilliant and accomplished scholar than I am. He is now a professor of New Testament at a liberal graduate school of theology. But in reading the descriptions of his three scholarly books on Amazon.com, I seriously question whether he knows Jesus in a saving way. Like these Jews, he has studied the Scriptures, but he missed coming to Christ so that he may have life.
Don’t be like that! The testimony of the witnesses to Jesus as the Christ, the Son of God, is solid. Jesus spoke these words so that “you may be saved” (5:34). Come to Him so that you may have eternal life.
- Why must our faith ultimately rest on objective testimony, not on subjective experiences or feelings? Is there a legitimate place for such experiences and feelings? If so, what?
- Why is it important when witnessing to aim at seeing people saved rather than at winning an argument (John 5:34)? What can we learn about witnessing from Jesus’ example here?
- I have heard some use texts like John 5:39-40 to belittle theological education. What are the dangers in such studies? What are the advantages? How can the dangers be avoided?
- A skeptic scoffs to you, “I’ve never seen a miracle. If I saw one I’d believe, but I don’t believe that they exist.” How would you respond?
Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2013, All Rights Reserved.
Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation
Lesson 30: What Keeps People from Christ (John 5:39-47)Related Media
October 13, 2013
What keeps people from believing in Christ? Why would anyone not want to have his or her sins forgiven and to have eternal life as a free gift so that they do not come into judgment? There are many reasons. For example, many Muslims reject Christ because they have misconceptions about who He is and what He claimed. Also, if they were to believe in Him, it would bring shame on their family, resulting in their family disowning them. Even worse, they could be targeted for death. So the social pressure against believing in Christ is tremendous.
Others reject Christ because they have been wounded by professing Christians or by the church. Maybe a priest or minister abused them, causing them to conclude that Christianity is a sham. Perhaps their parents professed to be Christians and yet were abusive and didn’t live out the faith at home. Or, the parents were overly strict and tried to force the child into believing. Others get into college and their faith is undermined by atheistic professors. We could multiply many more reasons why people do not believe in Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord.
In John 3:19-21 we saw that people reject Christ because they love their sin and they hate having it exposed by God’s light. Now Jesus directly confronts the religious Jews who were opposing Him, who were unwilling to come to Him for eternal life (5:40). He asks them rhetorically (5:44), “How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another and you do not seek the glory that is from the one and only God?” Martyn Lloyd-Jones (Evangelistic Sermons [Banner of Truth], pp. 39-51) points out how Jesus saved many unlikely and notorious sinners, but these guys were hard cases! He despairs about these religious Jews. He asks (5:44), “How can you believe …?” The Greek verb points to their inability to believe.
He has just given them adequate witnesses to back up His claim to be equal with God, so they didn’t lack evidence. They were zealous students of Scripture, so they didn’t lack knowledge. What was their problem? What kept them from believing in Christ? Why did they eventually murder the Savior whom the Father had sent? I think that we can boil down Jesus’ indictment of their unbelief to one root cause: the pride of outward religiosity:
The pride of outward religiosity as opposed to seeking inward reality with God will keep you from believing in Christ.
Pride is the root sin of all sins. Pride makes us think that we know what’s best for us so that we rebel against God and His ways. Pride deceives us into thinking that we can be good enough to get into heaven. Pride causes us to put up a good outward front to impress others, while we hide the way that we really are in our hearts. It was pride that kept these Jewish religious leaders from believing in Jesus as their Messiah and eventually led to their murdering Him. Their pride comes through in four ways in these verses:
1. Using the Bible to impress others rather than to grow in humility and love for God will keep you from faith in Christ (5:39-42).
John 5:39-40: “You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; it is these that testify about Me; and you are unwilling to come to Me so that you may have life.”
The Jewish rabbis were legendary in their study of the Scriptures. They memorized large portions (sometimes all) of the Hebrew Bible. They copied it with extreme care, for which we can be thankful. Many of them counted the words and letters and could tell you the middle letter of a book or even of the entire Bible!
But the problem was, they took pride in their great learning. We can see this in John 9, with the man born blind, whose eyes Jesus opened. He argued with the Jewish leaders that if Jesus were not from God, He could not do such a miracle. Their response was (9:34), “You were born entirely in sins, and are you teaching us?” That statement reeks of pride! They knew the Bible, but they missed Jesus because they had used their great knowledge to feed their pride.
Jesus confronts their pride here when He adds (5:41-42), “I do not receive glory from men; but I know you, that you do not have the love of God in yourselves.” The transition between verse 40 and verse 41 is puzzling unless you see that Jesus is contrasting His humility with their pride. When He says, “I do not receive glory from man,” He means that He is not a man-pleaser, seeking everyone’s praise so as to build up His image (as they were). Rather, Jesus always lived to please the Father and do His will (5:19, 30). While He was on earth, He always sought to glorify the Father (17:4). But these Jewish leaders were using their knowledge of Scripture to impress others, not to glorify God.
Note Jesus’ words, “I know you.” He could rightly judge their inner thoughts and motives. He knew that they were studying the Scriptures to increase their own glory, not to grow in love for God. When He says, “You do not have the love of God in yourselves,” He means that they did not love God. The connection with receiving glory from men is, “If you loved God, you would seek His glory, as I do. As it is, you love yourselves; you’re seeking your own glory.” They were breaking the first great commandment, to love the Lord with all their heart, soul, and strength (Deut. 6:5).
These verses bring out some reality checks for us. First, are you studying the Scriptures at all? Jesus didn’t need to rebuke these Jews for not studying the Scriptures, but rather because they studied them wrongly. But He might rebuke many modern Christians because they don’t study the Bible much at all!
Second, are you studying the Scriptures to reveal Jesus Christ to your soul? There is nothing wrong and everything right with sound academic knowledge of the Bible. Without it, you’ll be tossed around by every wind of doctrine (Eph. 4:14). Sound biblical scholarship is crucial. But, the ultimate point of Bible study should be to reveal more and more of who Christ is and what He has done for you.
If someone set a fresh peach pie in front of you and you proceeded to run a chemical analysis on the crust and the peaches, you would be missing the point! Taste it! Or, if you went to a lodge that had a magnificent picture window looking out on a spectacular scene and you spent your time analyzing what company made the glass and how it was installed, you’d be missing the point. Enjoy the view! The point of the Bible is to reveal the beauty of Christ to your soul.
Third, is your study of the Bible leading you to greater humility or to greater pride? Studying the Bible properly will show you how great your sin is and how holy God is. It will show you His majesty and His great power. It will humble you as you realize His amazing grace. But if you start thinking that you’re better than other Christians because you know theology and you delight in proving that you’re right and others are wrong, look out! I’ve been around guys who use their knowledge of the Bible like a club. They try to dominate others through their scholarship. Studying the Bible rightly will lead to more humility and graciousness, not to pride.
Fourth, is your study of the Bible causing you to love God more and more? Jesus hits these Jews because they did not love God. They were not seeking His glory and living to please Him. Proper study of the Bible will show you more of His grace. It will reveal His great love in sending His own Son to die for your sins. It will cause you to love Him more and more. But the pride of using the Bible to impress others will keep you from faith in Christ.
2. Making God to be what you want Him to be rather than submitting to Him as He is will keep you from faith in Christ (5:43).
John 5:43: “I have come in My Father’s name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, you will receive him.” Jesus came in His Father’s name, which means that He came in the Father’s authority and He proclaimed who the Father is. He never pulled His punches to please the crowd. He didn’t use the Scriptures to flatter His hearers or to make them think that God was pleased with them if He was not. As the Light, He exposed their sins. Jesus gave them the truth without sugar-coating it.
Also, Jesus never played to the crowds by being the kind of Messiah that He knew they wanted. They wanted a political Messiah who could deliver them from Rome and provide peace and prosperity. If He had pandered to their tastes, Jesus could have been a popular Messiah. After He fed the multitude, He knew that they wanted to come and take Him by force to make Him king. But rather than accept that superficial allegiance, Jesus withdrew to the mountain by Himself alone (John 6:15). He could have ridden that wave of popularity, but He refused. Jesus would not falsely convey who God is or who He is to gain a following.
Keep in mind that Jesus is here addressing a group of Israel’s religious leaders. They knew the Scriptures well. They were devoted to their religion. Yet Jesus is warning them that their rejection of Him made them susceptible to follow false Messiahs who come in their own name. In Deuteronomy 13:3, God told Israel that He permitted false teachers to test their love for Him. Elsewhere, as Jesus spoke about the end times, He warned of false prophets who will arise and lead many astray. Accompanying this deception will be that people’s love for God will grow cold (Matt. 24:11-12).
Why were these religious leaders prone to follow false teachers? It’s because people will follow false teachers who tell them what they want to hear but avoid telling them who God really is. People will follow a man who doesn’t confront sin and who tells them that they’re okay just as they are. Jeremiah (6:14) confronted the false prophets of his day who healed the brokenness of God’s people superficially, saying “‘Peace, peace,’ but there is no peace.” After telling Timothy to preach the Word, which included reproving, rebuking, and exhorting, Paul warned (2 Tim. 4:3-4), “For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires, and will turn away their ears from the truth and will turn aside to myths.” We see the same thing today: Focus on the positive, never confront sin, and you’ll have a large congregation.
When you’re reading the Bible, make sure you read all of it, not just the parts you like! If you only read the parts about God’s love, but skip the parts about His holiness, His judgment, or His sovereignty, you’ll fall into error. Or when you’re looking for a church to attend, look for a pastor who teaches all that the Bible teaches about God and Christ. If he goes along with popular cultural trends, you can fall into pride that your church is “with it.” But the question is, is your church faithfully representing the name (the authority and the character) of the Father? Does the teaching promote godliness on the heart level?
3. Using religion to try to impress others outwardly rather than seeking to please God on the heart level will keep you from faith in Christ (5:44).
John 5:44: “How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another and you do not seek the glory that is from the one and only God?” As I said, the word can refers to inability. Jesus was saying that as long as they sought glory from one another, rather than seeking God’s approval, it was impossible for them to believe in Him. Later John (12:42-43) mentions that some of these Jewish leaders “believed,” but their faith was not genuine for reasons similar to the problem that Jesus uncovers here: “Nevertheless many even of the rulers believed in Him, but because of the Pharisees they were not confessing Him, for fear that they would be put out of the synagogue; for they loved the approval of men rather than the approval of God.”
In Matthew 23:5-7, Jesus also unmasks these religious hypocrites: “But they do all their deeds to be noticed by men; for they broaden their phylacteries and lengthen the tassels of their garments. They love the place of honor at banquets and the chief seats in the synagogues, and respectful greetings in the market places, and being called Rabbi by men.” He charges (Matt. 23:25), “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the dish, but inside they are full of robbery and self-indulgence.” Their religion was an outward show to impress others and to gain recognition. But the Lord was not fooled. He knew their hearts. Inside these religious men were full of self-indulgence.
The pride that is innate in all of us lures us into religious hypocrisy. We want others to think that we’re better than we know ourselves to be. So we focus on appearances. We’re concerned about what others may think of us and we forget that the most important thing is what God thinks of us. Many pastors fall into this sort of thing. They want the church to think that they have a perfect family. Maybe they’ve just had a major blow-up at home on Sunday morning, but they put on their happy faces as they drive into the church parking lot. And their kids can smell the hypocrisy. When they’re old enough, they walk away from the faith.
I’m not suggesting that we hang our dirty laundry out for all to see, but I am saying that we need reality with God and the humility to be genuine about our failures and shortcomings. I don’t quote William Barclay without a disclaimer, since he was heretical on some major issues. But on this point, he is right on. He writes (The Gospel of John, The Daily Study Bible [Westminster Press], rev. ed., 1:199-200):
So long as a man measures himself against his fellow men he will be well content. But the point is not: “Am I as good as my neighbor?” The point is: “Am I as good as God? What do I look like to him?” So long as we judge ourselves by human comparisons there is plenty of room for self-satisfaction, and that kills faith, for faith is born of the sense of need. But when we compare ourselves with Jesus Christ, we are humbled to the dust, and then faith is born, for there is nothing left to do but trust to the mercy of God.
The antidote to the deadly sin of hypocrisy is to deal with God every day on the heart level. Don’t harbor secret sins, as if God doesn’t see them. He knows our every thought (Ps. 139). Don’t put on false spirituality to try to impress others. If you’re struggling, be honest enough to ask for prayer. If you’re angry, don’t pretend that you’re not. Go before God and deal with it before it conquers you (Gen. 4:5-7). If you’re depressed, tell God about it and ask Him to restore your joy (Ps. 42 & 43). If you’ve sinned, confess it to God and ask forgiveness of any that you’ve wronged (Ps. 51, 1 John 1:9; Matt. 5:23-24). If you’ve lied, go to the one you lied to and ask forgiveness. If you’ve yelled at your kids or hit them in anger, humble yourself, ask their forgiveness, and ask God for self-control. In other words, in every area of life deal with God and others so that you can say with Paul (Acts 24:16), “I also do my best to maintain always a blameless conscience both before God and before men.” Don’t use religion to try to impress others. Do business with God on the heart level.
Thus, the pride of outward religiosity as opposed to inward reality with God will keep you from faith in Jesus. This may involve using the Bible to impress others, rather than growing in humility and love for God. It can stem from making God what you want Him to be rather than submitting to Him as He is. It can take the form of using religion to try to impress others outwardly, rather than seeking to please God on the heart level. Finally,
3. Taking pride in your outward religious performance rather than letting God’s law drive you to Christ will keep you from faith in Christ (5:45-47).
John 5:45-47: “Do not think that I will accuse you before the Father; the one who accuses you is Moses, in whom you have set your hope. For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me, for he wrote about Me. But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?” (By the way, note that Jesus, unlike many liberal Old Testament scholars, believed that Moses wrote the Pentateuch [Genesis-Deuteronomy]! To attack the Old Testament is to attack Jesus, because it all points to Him.)
Ironically, these Jews claimed to believe in Moses and they studied Moses extensively, but they missed what Moses was writing about! Jesus says that Moses wrote about Him (see John 1:45; Luke 24:27, 44). As we saw last time, God’s promise in Genesis 3:15 that the seed of the woman would crush the serpent’s head was about Jesus conquering Satan at the cross. God’s clothing Adam and Eve with animal skins was a picture God covering our sins through the death of His Lamb. God’s promise to Abraham that in his seed, all the nations would be blessed, was about Christ. His command for Abraham to sacrifice Isaac and then providing the ram was a picture of God sacrificing His own Son as our atonement. The Passover was about Christ. The tabernacle is an elaborate picture of Christ. The rock that provided water in the wilderness and the manna for food were pictures of Christ (1 Cor. 10:3-4; John 6:31-35). We could go on and on.
The Law of Moses, in which these Jews professed to believe, should have convicted them of their sins and caused them to long for the Savior who would be pierced through for their transgressions and crushed for their iniquities (Isa. 53:5). It should have served as a tutor to lead them to faith in Christ (Gal. 3:24). As Paul wrote (Rom. 10:4): “For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.” But because they focused on their outward performance of only certain aspects of the law rather than on the essence of the law, which was to love God from the heart, they missed Jesus. The very Law, which was one of their greatest privileges (Rom. 9:4) and in which they took great pride, became the source of their condemnation at the judgment.
If you take pride in your Christian performance, rather than glorying in Christ Jesus and putting no confidence in the flesh (Phil. 3:3), you will miss faith in Christ. John Calvin puts it (Calvin’s Commentaries [Baker], p. 222): “He who in reality presents himself before God as his Judge, must, of necessity, fall down humbled and dismayed, and finding nothing in himself on which he can place reliance.” All our hope must be in Christ, not in our religious performance.
I don’t know your heart, but God does. I do know that the sin of pride resides in us all and it often seeks to contaminate the spiritual life. So, as Paul put it (2 Cor. 13:5), “Test yourself to see if you are in the faith; examine yourselves! Or do you not recognize this about yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you—unless indeed you fail the test?” Here are four tests:
- Examine how you use the Bible: Is it to impress others or is it causing you to grow in humility and in love for God?
- Do you gladly embrace who God is as revealed in all of Scripture, rather than who you may want Him to be?
- Ask yourself whether you’re seeking glory from others as opposed to seeking to please God on the heart level.
- And, examine whether you take pride in your outward religious performance rather than boasting in Christ and the cross.
All of these things can keep us from genuine faith in Christ.
- I have heard some argue that studying theology leads to spiritual deadness. Is there any validity to this? Why/why not?
- Why is it important to read and reread the whole Bible and not just your favorite parts (see Ps. 119:160)? What errors have you encountered from Christians who avoid reading all the Bible?
- How honest should we be in sharing our spiritual struggles? Are we being hypocrites if we restrict sharing our problems to certain trusted friends or mentors and not to everyone?
- What are some subtle ways that we can take pride in our religious performance (Bible reading, prayer, church attendance, etc.)? What does it mean to boast in the cross (Gal. 6:14)?
Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2013, All Rights Reserved.
Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation
Lesson 4: Personal Spiritual GrowthRelated Media
The best measure of a spiritual life is not its ecstasies but its obedience. ― Oswald Chambers
There is a Chinese Proverb that says, “The gem cannot be polished without friction, nor man perfected without trials” The Apostle Paul stated: “For I am sure of this very thing, that the one who began a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Christ Jesus (Phil 1:6).” Paul assures us as Christians that what God started in us he will finish. It will be perfected or matured until the Lord Jesus returns. But how does a disciple of Jesus grow in his or her Christian life? What does it take to mature in the faith? What is God doing in the process? What is our role and what does a well-balanced Christian life look like? How can I make the decisions that God wants me to make? These are some of the questions that this lesson is designed to answer. The purpose of this lesson is to encourage us along the path of spiritual maturity.
There are seven aspects of personal spiritual growth that need to be understood as one goes through the process of growing in an intimate relationship with God and others. They are: 1) the cost of discipleship; 2) the larger picture of what God is doing and being Spirit filled; 3) the role of trials and rewards in spiritual growth; 4) basic Christian disciplines in our relationships with God and people, 5) the importance of good works in growth, 6) biblical decision making, and 7) having an eternal perspective.
The Cost of Discipleship
We can start with the definition of a disciple. A disciple is a learner; a disciple of Jesus is one who learns and lives from the teachings of Jesus himself and those whom Jesus directly taught (the apostles). One discipleship ministry called the Navigators gives this definition: “A disciple continues in the Word, loves others, bears fruit, and puts Christ first.”1 Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) was a German pastor who ministered in Germany during the difficult days of Adolf Hitler. His ministry and resistance of the Nazi regime eventually led to his execution toward the very end of the European portion of the war. In his work the Cost of Discipleship he writes, “Christianity without discipleship is always Christianity without Christ. It remains an abstract idea, a myth . . . . The disciple places himself at the Master’s disposal, but at the same time retains the right to dictate his own terms. But then discipleship is no longer discipleship, but a program of our own to be arranged to suit ourselves.”2 The call to spiritual growth is the call to be a disciple of Jesus. It’s a call to be more like Jesus. It’s a call to submit ourselves to the lordship of Jesus. Jesus summarized the cost of discipleship with a vivid metaphor: “Then Jesus said to his disciples, “If anyone wants to become my follower, he must deny himself, take up his cross, and follow me” (Matt 16:24). This leads us to the importance of understanding what God has done and is doing in our life.
What is God doing with a disciple’s life? When considering this, one must understand God’s purpose or goal, that he is moving all Christians towards Christlikeness. Paul explains God’s plan: “those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son”
(Rom 8:29). God is chipping away at the stuff in a Christian’s life that is not like Christ to bring forth an image that is. He is molding us into a perfect piece of pottery so to speak. God is promising every believer in Jesus Christ that he will get him or her to this goal. The theological term for this is sanctification. Sometimes when God chips away and molds his grooves we feel the impact of it. God is using at least three means to propel believers in this direction: 1) the empowerment of the Holy Spirit, 2) trials, and 3) rewards.
The Role of the Holy Spirit. One way that God is conforming believers into the image of Christ is through the work and empowerment or filling of the Holy Spirit. When we were saved we received the “baptism” of the Holy Spirit at which time we were indwelt by the Spirit of God (1 Cor 12:13). This occurs one time. The indwelling Spirit gives us the inner spiritual resources to overcome sin. He gives us the desires and abilities to resist temptation and overcome it. As we submit to God’s commands following the leading of the Holy Spirit, we are “filled” with the Spirit (Eph 5:18). This is a continuous process in which we allow the Spirit to direct and control our actions. On the other hand when we sin we stifle the blessing of the Spirit’s activity in our lives. Paul states, “Do not quench the Spirit” (1 Thess 5:19; NASB) and again, “Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption” (Eph 4:30).
The Role of Trials. God uses trials to produce spiritual growth in our lives. James writes: “My brothers and sisters, consider it nothing but joy when you fall into all sorts of trials, because you know that the testing of your faith produces endurance. And let endurance have its perfect effect, so that you will be perfect and complete, not deficient in anything” (Jas 1:2-4). How can one possibly be joyful in difficulties? It’s because God is testing our faith and using the trial to bring us to maturity. We can rejoice not at the painful experience of the trial but at the opportunity for growth. One of my mentors once well said that trials can make us better or bitter.
The Role of Rewards. The Bible uses rewards as a motivation for our obedience. Paul writes, “The one who plants and the one who waters work as one, but each will receive his reward according to his work. . . For no one can lay any foundation other than what is being laid, which is Jesus Christ. If anyone builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw, each builder’s work will be plainly seen, for the Day will make it clear, because it will be revealed by fire. And the fire will test what kind of work each has done. If what someone has built survives, he will receive a reward. If someone’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss. He himself will be saved, but only as through fire” (1 Cor 3:8-15). Each one of us has two piles of types of work. One pile is the precious metals and stones; these represent the good works we do that God will reward. The other pile is the pile of materials that is burnable. It represents things we do that are not rewardable, not necessarily bad things but things that God does not give us a reward for. So the question we have to ask ourselves as we live our life is what pile are we building on? Are we building on the pile God rewards or the one that will be burned up in the end?
Basic Christian Disciplines
Dawson Trotman was the founder of the discipleship ministry called the Navigators. One illustration that he developed and this group has long used to explain the disciplines of Christian growth is called the Wheel Illustration.
The Wheel Illustration
At the center or hub of the wheel is Christ. He represents what is powering the wheel. For the wheel to roll the hub must supply the power. For the wheel to run smoothly balance is needed between the spokes. The vertical spokes on the wheel represent our relationship with God through prayer and the Word. The horizontal spokes represent our relationship with people by witnessing to nonchristians and fellowship with Christians. As the Christian is obedient to God’s commands and maintains balance in these Christian disciplines, while relying on the power of Christ, the wheel will roll.
Let’s develop the four Christian disciplines related to this illustration a little more. One of the disciplines related to our relationship with God is the absolutely necessary of the Bible. The Word of God is a catalyst for Christian growth. Peter writes, “And yearn like newborn infants for pure, spiritual milk, so that by it you may grow up to salvation” (2 Peter 2:2). The spiritual milk that Peter is talking about is God’s word. How can we get the Word of God more involved in our lives? The more we feed on it, the more we will grow. There are many ways to do this and all of us should be involved in more than one: Quiet time (Just a few minutes each day in the Word and prayer can help us make that personal connection with God), Bible memorization, Bible reading, Bible study, listening to good expository preaching (Sunday morning church, internet posted sermons, Christian radio, etc). D. L. Moody, the 19th century American evangelist once stated, “The Bible will keep you from sin, or sin will keep you from the Bible.”
The second Christian discipline related to our relationship with God is prayer. Prayer is our lifeline to God. Paul states, “constantly pray” (1 Thess 5:17). What kind of prayers should we pray: 1) praising God for who he is, 2) praising and thanking God for what he has done, 3) confessing our sins, 4) praying for others in authority or in our circles of relationship, 5) lastly, making requests for ourselves including God’s guidance. One missionary friend of mine was working in a difficult area to share the gospel. He had a plaque over his desk which stated, “Prayer Changes Things.” It was a reminder and encouragement for him to pray every day. E. M. Bounds, Civil War chaplain, pastor, and author summarized the importance of prayer, “Prayer succeeds when all else fails.”
The third Christian discipline, which is related to people, is witnessing or evangelism. We need to share the good news of salvation with others. Paul explains, “I am a debtor both to the Greeks and to the barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish. Thus I am eager also to preach the gospel to you who are in Rome. For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is God’s power for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek” (Rom 1:14-16). Family, friends, fellow workmates are all people that God has brought into our lives and many of them need exposure to the gospel. Think of the person who shared the gospel with you. Aren’t you glad that they did? Billy Graham stated his goal in life, “My one purpose in life is to help people find a personal relationship with God, which, I believe, comes through knowing Christ.”3
The fourth Christian discipline, also related to people, is fellowship. We need to make a commitment to fellowship with other Christians committed to living out God’s commands. The author of Hebrews emphasizes this. He writes, “And let us take thought of how to spur one another on to love and good works, not abandoning our own meetings, as some are in the habit of doing, but encouraging each other, and even more so because you see the day drawing near” (Heb 10:24-25). We need to all be involved with a local church. If the church is large, we especially need to be in a small group with a spiritual emphasis.
In one exchange with the Pharisees Jesus was once asked, “What is the most important commandment?” What is interesting is that when Jesus was asked for one commandment he gave them two. Love God and love your neighbor as yourself (Matt 22:34-40).4 These two commandments are inseparable. You cannot obey one without the other. We love God by growing in our relationship with him though the Word and prayer. We love our neighbor as ourselves when we share the gospel with the lost and fellowship and grow with other Christians.
The Importance of Good Works
Good works have sometimes been downplayed by Protestant evangelicals due to teachings that have tried to make them as the basis or condition of salvation. While this concern is valid, one should not downplay them in the context of the Christian life, rather they need to be emphasized. While we are not saved by good works we are saved for good works. Paul writes, “We are his workmanship, having been created in Christ Jesus for good works that God prepared beforehand so we may do them” (Eph 2:10). James adds to this concept pointing out that there is a relationship between faith and works in that good works mature our faith. “You see that his faith was working together with his works and his faith was perfected by works . . . . For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so also faith without works is dead”
(Jas 2:22, 26). Years ago, the Salvation Army was holding an international convention and their founder, General William Booth, could not attend because of physical weakness. He cabled his convention message to them. It was one word: “OTHERS.” When we shift our focus of life from our self to others, good works will naturally flow out of a life empowered by God.
Biblical Decision Making
How do I make decisions in my Christian life? Josh McDowell has a helpful pattern for us to follow which can be referred to as the four Cs.5 The first C is 1) Consider the choice. What is right and wrong and who determines this? God is the one who determines what is right and wrong. The Old Testament prophet Micah states, “He [God] has told you, O man, what is good, and what the LORD really wants from you” (Micah 6:8). Other people may give advice, some of it good and some of it bad, but we have to come to grips with the fact that God alone has the ultimate authority of what is the right course to take. The second C is 2) Compare it to God’s Word. What does the Scripture have to say about what God want you to do? Since the Scripture is God’s revelation to man it is the message that God wants us to follow. In the Psalms we read, “Your word is a lamp to walk by, and a light to illumine my path” (Ps 119:105). The third C is 3) Choose the biblical way. Make a commitment that you will follow the biblical way as the way that God wants you to go. “Who is the man who fears the LORD? He will instruct him in the way he should choose” (Ps 25:12). The fourth and last C is 4) Count on God for protection and provision. As we follow God’s path, we can trust him for the outcome and blessing that he wants for us. Moses wrote, “All these blessings will come to you in abundance if you obey the LORD your God” (Deut 28:2).
Concluding Eternal Perspective
Lastly, Christians need to be able to see beyond the here and now to the reality of what lies ahead. We need to be able to live in view of the light at the end of the tunnel. If we have an eternal perspective, understand what God is doing with us and where we are heading, we will be in a good position to grow in the grace that God has given us being conformed to the image of his Son. Paul writes, “Therefore we do not despair, but even if our physical body is wearing away, our inner person is being renewed day by day. For our momentary, light suffering is producing for us an eternal weight of glory far beyond all comparison because we are not looking at what can be seen but at what cannot be seen. For what can be seen is temporary, but what cannot be seen is eternal” (2 Cor 4:16-18).
- In its historical context, why do you think Jesus used the concept of “taking up the cross” as a metaphor for discipleship (Matt 16:24)?
- Should we as Christians obey out of love only or is the concept of rewards a good motivation to serve God as well?
- What has worked for you and what has not worked in trying to have a quiet time?
- What has worked for you and what has not worked in trying to have a prayer life?
- Why don’t some Christians go to church?
- In sharing the gospel, have did you ever have a really good experience doing it? Explain or share.
- In sharing the gospel, have you ever have a really bad experience doing it? Explain or share.
- How does focusing on eternity help us in this present life?
1 Church Discipleship, Vol 11, No 1, the Navigators.
2 Dietrich Bonhoffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 64, 66.
3 Billy Graham, (Date accessed November 27, 2012).
4 Now when the Pharisees heard that he had silenced the Sadducees, they assembled together. And one of them, an expert in religious law, asked him a question to test him: “Teacher, which commandment in the law is the greatest?” Jesus said to him, “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’ This is the first and greatest commandment. The second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ All the law and the prophets depend on these two commandments” (Matt 22:34-40).
5 Adapted from the 4 C’s from Josh McDowell, “Setting You Free to Make the Right Choices,” Leaders Guide, 9-10.
Lesson 5: The Study of the BibleRelated Media
The Bible is alive, it speaks to me; it has feet it runs after me; it has hands, it lays hold of me. ―Martin Luther
It is often rightly said that the Bible is the best-selling book of all time. Just looking at the distribution of Bible by the United Bible Societies for 2011 they distributed over 32.1 million Bibles.1 This amounts to about 88,000 Bibles per day. The Bible has been translated in whole or in part in over 4800 languages and this work is still ongoing.2 Scribes have spent countless hours over the course of history to bring forth accurate copies of the biblical manuscripts. William Tyndale died by a fiery execution in his efforts to translate the Bible into English. The Bible has had an amazing history and an amazing impact.
What is the nature of the Bible? Is the Bible without error? Is the Bible authoritative and how did Jesus view the Bible? How did we get it? Who decided what books went into the Bible and why? Why are there differences in Bible translations? The theological term for the study of the Bible is referred to as bibliology. This lesson will survey these critical issues surrounding the book that we base our entire faith and salvation on.
The Nature of the Bible
The Bible itself claims to be inspired by God. Paul states, “Every scripture is inspired by God”
(2 Tim 3:16) and also Peter, “No prophecy of scripture ever comes about by the prophet’s own imagination, for no prophecy was ever borne of human impulse; rather, men carried along by the Holy Spirit spoke from God (2 Pet 1:20-21). In essence, we can say that the Bible is “God breathed.” Also, sometimes the inspiration is referred to as verbal and plenary. That is, inspiration applies to all the individual words of the entire Bible. One good theological definition of inspiration is articulated like this, “The act of the Holy Spirit in which He superintended the writers of Scripture so that, while writing according to their own styles and personalities, they produced God’s Word, written, authoritative, trustworthy, and free from error in the original writings.”3
There are two implications of the doctrine of inspiration. The first is that the Bible is a human book. The authors used their own language, writing methods, style of writing and literary forms of writing. For example, the Old Testament was written in Hebrew and Aramaic and the New Testament in Greek. These were the common human languages of the authors. They used writing materials such as scraped animal skins. Also, the human authors wrote to an audience in a specific historical context for a specific purpose. Moses wrote the law for the nation of Israel as they were about to enter the promised land. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians to address certain problems in a church in Greece. In addition, the Bible is influenced by the culture in which the author wrote. Jesus is engaging the Jewish culture; Paul largely is dealing with the Roman and Greek cultures on his missionary journeys. The Bible has over 40 authors and was written over a time period of 1500 years.
The second implication of inspiration is that the Bible is a divine book. As such the Bible is inerrant and authoritative. Also, the Bible has unity of a coherent and consistent message and can be compared with itself for proper interpretation. In addition the Bible has an element of mystery. Some passages may be hard to understand. Lastly, the Bible has an interpretation to it that is intended by God.
A good example of the dual authorship of the Bible can be seen in the example of Matthew 1:22-23 who is citing the Old Testament prophet Isaiah: “This all happened so that what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet would be fulfilled: ‘Look! The virgin will conceive and bear a son, and they will call him Emmanuel.’” Notice that the Old Testament passage of Isaiah was spoken “by the Lord,” which indicates the divine ultimate source of what was said. This passage was also spoken “through the prophet,” which indicates a human intermediate source in this case Isaiah. It’s by the Lord and though the prophet. In other words the prophet is the human messenger by which God spoke.
Inerrancy and Challenges to It
A theological definition of inerrancy can be stated as follows, “The teaching that since the Scriptures are given by God, they are free from error in all their contents, including doctrinal, historical, scientific, geographical, and other branches of knowledge.”4 The inerrancy of the Bible is derived from Scripture itself. Deductively one can say that if God is true (and he is; Heb 6:18) and the Bible is inspired as God’s word (which it is; Mark 7:13), then this leads to the doctrine of inerrancy which means that the Bible in its entirety is without error.5 Jesus stated himself that the Scripture cannot be broken (John 10:35) and that even the smallest part of it would be fulfilled (Matt 5:18). Paul saw interpretive significance in a singular word as compared to a plural (Gal 3:16).
Despite the view though of many evangelicals, overtime there has been many challenges to inerrancy and these can be divided into three general categories: 1) alleged contradictions of the Bible with science, 2) alleged contradictions of the Bible with history, and 3) alleged contradictions of the Bible with itself. Let’s just take a look at a few examples of these common objections.
Evolution is often stated as a scientific contradiction to the Bible showing that the Bible is not without error in terms of the science of our origins. But while there is natural variation within species, macro-evolution (e.g., one species evolving to another species) is a theory and not a fact. It has never been observed and is not subject to the scientific method. The most that one can say is that the Bible is not consistent with a theory but this does not prove the Bible has an error when it speaks of the world and man’s origins. Some theologians have tried to reconcile the Bible with evolution by arguing for theistic evolution. Theistic evolution views that God created living things through the evolutionary process itself as understood by science. But this is a difficult exercise that is hard to square with all of the biblical data. For example, in the Bible plants are created on the third day but light is created on the fourth day (Gen 1). The existence of plants before light does not fit into any evolutionary scheme.
Another example sometimes given to argue that the Bible is not scientifically accurate is the case of the mustard seed found in Matthew 13:31. “He [Jesus] gave them another parable: ‘The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his field. It is the smallest of all the seeds, but when it has grown it is the greatest garden plant and becomes a tree, so that the wild birds come and nest in its branches.’” The problem that some people have pointed out is that a wild orchid seed is smaller than the mustard seed. The Bible is then said to be inaccurate. What would a response be to this? Well for one thing, if this is true not only would the Bible be in error, but there would be a larger problem that Jesus spoke the error as well. While various solutions to this dilemma have been given, perhaps the simplest is to look at the statement in context and see that Jesus is referring only to sown seeds. Jesus speaks of a seed “sowed in a field.” The wild orchid is not a sown agricultural seed. Also, within the Judean world view and in their context it was the smallest seed.6
Alleged historical discrepancies have also sometimes been cited as an argument against the inerrancy of the Bible. Prior to the advent of the archeological era of the 19th and 20th centuries, critics often called into question the historicity of the Bible especially the Old Testament in terms of places, peoples and events. However, over time archeological discoveries have often silenced specific historical criticism. One can cite three examples of alleged or once alleged historical inaccuracies that have later been validated by archeological finds: 1) the Hittite Empire: In 1876 and later in 1906 evidence of the Hittite capital and language was discovered at Boghazkoy in modern Turkey; 2) the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah: starting in 1924 excavations were done in the area of the Dead Sea and evidence of cities which had been burned is present during the time of the biblical account; and 3) King David: In 1993 at Tel Dan in Northern Israel a 9th century BC inscription was discovered referring to the “King of Israel” and the “House of David.”7
William Albright was a prominent archeologist and professor at John Hopkins University (1930-1958). He stated, “There can be no doubt that archaeology has confirmed the substantial historicity of Old Testament tradition.”8 Nelson Glueck, archeologist and President of Hebrew Union College gave his overall perspective: “It may be stated categorically that no archaeological discovery has ever controverted a Biblical reference. Scores of archaeological findings have been made which confirm in clear outline or exact detail historical statements in the Bible. And, by the same token, proper evaluation of Biblical description has often led to amazing discoveries.”9
The third area that the Bible’s inerrancy has been challenged on is alleged contradictions with itself. In other words if the Bible claims to be the word of God there should be no real factual contradictions in comparing one passage with another because if there were then one of the passages would be in error. But one has to realize that differences in parallel passages do not necessarily mean there are actual contradictions. Harmonization and understanding the nature of historical reporting most often provides good solutions to differences. For example in a football game on a pass interference play one reporter states the cornerback bumped the receiver while another states the receiver bumped into the cornerback. Both statements while different may be true because they are being reported from a different perspective.
Let’s look at a difference in a parallel passage between Matthew 10 and Mark 10. Are there two blind men or one blind man? Matthew writes, “As they were leaving Jericho, a large crowd followed them. Two blind men were sitting by the road. When they heard that Jesus was passing by, they shouted, “Have mercy on us, Lord, Son of David!” (Matt 10:29-30). But Mark writes, “They came to Jericho. As Jesus and his disciples and a large crowd were leaving Jericho, Bartimaeus the son of Timaeus, a blind beggar, was sitting by the road. When he heard that it was Jesus the Nazarene, he began to shout, ‘Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!
(Mark 10:46-47).’” Can these passages be harmonized? That is, can both of these accounts be reconciled as true or does one have to be false? Matthew writing to a Jewish audience may wish to confirm the testimony of the blind men (Jesus = the son of David = a Messianic title) by the Jewish required number of at least two (Deut 17:6). Mark chooses to focus on one of the blind men naming him. The fact that Mark reports that one blind man was healed does not preclude that another blind man was also healed on the same occasion. Therefore both accounts can be true even though they contain differenes.
How does one explain the following differences in Peter’s confession at Caesarea Phillipi? The question Jesus asks is slightly different: In Matthew 16:13 Jesus states, “Who do people say the Son of Man is?” In Mark 8:27 it’s reported as “Who do people say I am?” And in Luke 9:18, “Who do the crowds say I am?” Peter’s answer in Matthew 16:16 is, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” In Mark 8:29 it’s, “You are the Christ.” And in Luke 9:20 the reply is reported as, “The Christ of God.” Can one reconcile these differences and if so how? Sometimes the Bible’s authors condense or summarize speeches and events. It does not mean the condensation is inaccurate. This is the nature of historical reporting. For example when the President of the United States gives the annual State of the Union address that lasts one hour, there is a verbatim speech of what he gave. But a reporter comes on the TV and gives a five minute accurate summary of what was said. The summary is correct but is condensed from the entire verbatim speech. This practice is considered accurate reporting of what was said. It’s not erroneous.
The Authority of the Bible
If the Bible is God’s word then the implication is that as God has authority over his creation, then his Word would also have authority over us. The term Sola Scriptura comes from the Latin which means, “by Scripture alone.” This was one of the major themes of the Protestant Reformation. Simply it means that the Scripture alone is our supreme authority to all other authorities in matters of faith and practice. The author of Hebrews writes, “For the word of God is living and active and sharper than any double-edged sword, piercing even to the point of dividing soul from spirit, and joints from marrow; it is able to judge the desires and thoughts of the heart” (Heb 4:12). As Martin Luther said, “The true rule is this: God’s Word shall establish articles of faith, and no one else, not even an angel can do so.”10 How did Jesus view the Bible? Jesus appealed to the authority of the Bible when he was tempted in the wilderness and in his arguments in citing the Old Testament stated “it is written” (Matt 4:1-11). Jesus declared, “I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth pass away not the smallest letter or stroke of a letter will pass from the law until everything takes place (Matt 5:18).” And “If those people to whom the word of God (= Old Testament Psalm) came were called `gods’ (and the scripture cannot be broken)”(John 10:35). These verses suggest that Jesus believed even the smallest portion of Scripture down to the letter or even the part of a letter would come to pass; none of it can be broken or nullified. The Scripture is what is authoritative in regard to truth and how that truth relates to us.
The Canon of the Bible
The term canon is from the Greek word kanon meaning reed or straight rod thus a “standard.” By the 4th century A.D. for the New Testament, it is what was applied to a list or a collection of books that met a prescribed standard recognized by the church. Now in a theological sense, the canon refers to the closed collection of Jewish and early Christian writings that are divinely inspired and authoritative Scripture for the beliefs and practices of the church.
Principles of the Canonicity of the Bible
The basic guideline for whether a book was included in the Old Testament canon was if it had a prophetic origin (Deut 18). The Old Testament canon is divided between the Law (or Torah), Prophets (or Neviim) and Writings (or Kethuvim). This is referred to as the Tanakh. For the New Testament the basic guideline was and is apostolic origin or association. For the Gospels, Matthew and John were apostles while Mark was an associate with Peter and Luke was an associate with Paul (cf. also Acts). For the Epistles Paul, Peter, Jude, James, John, the author of Hebrews11 and Revelation (John) were either apostles or associates of them. Other factors for New Testament canonicity included universality that is that the writings applied to the whole church (geographical and time); orthodoxy: that the writing in agreement and not conflict with the teaching of Jesus, the apostles and with the rest of the canon; and traditional usage: whether the book was used in the early first century church.
One historical factor that led to a formal list of the canon was heretical writings and groups who were making competing claims for authority. An example is the abridged canon of the heretic Marcion (A.D. 140) who left Jewish elements of the Bible out. He abandoned the Old Testament and only accepted Paul’s writings (except the pastorals letters of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus) and Luke. There was also the expanded Canon of Montanus, who wanted his prophecies to be included and be elevated to canonical status.12 It is best to understand that the church recognized what the canon was as opposed to determining it. In some cases, it took some time for the entire church to recognize the entire collection of books.
What about books written between the Old Testament and New Testament (mostly 250 BC-AD 100) that are referred to as the Apocrypha? There are 15 books in this category: 1 & 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (Ben Sirach), Baruch, Letter of Jeremiah, Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Manasseh and 1&2 Maccabees. The church father Jerome included them in the Latin Vulgate but separated them from the canon describing them as “Deuterocanonical.” In response to the strong position against these books by the reformers in 1546 the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent declared them all canonical (except the Prayer of Manasseh and 1&2 Esdras). The Apocryphal books should not be part of the canon because: 1) they are not accepted in the New Testament as authoritative as seen by the fact there are no direct quotations from them; 2) they never make the claim to be inspired or say, “Thus says the Lord” like the Old Testament does; 3) they are not part of the Hebrew Bible and the Jews never viewed the books as authoritative or canonical and they wrote them; and 4) the Council of Trent in 1546 was the first official proclamation on the matter for their canonicity and this was 1500 years after the books were written.13
Why the Canon is Closed
Perhaps the strongest argument for the canon’s close is that there is no longer the apostolic office to originate or validate the writings (cf. 1 Cor 9:1–2; 2 Cor 12:11; Eph 2:20). An important criteria to be an apostle is that one had to have seen the resurrected Jesus and been appointed by him. Paul states that these men as well as the prophets formed the foundation for the church, which has already been laid.
How We Received the Bible
Most of the Old Testament is written in Hebrew. It was written over a period of over 1400 years from Moses (and probably before) to the last book of the Old Testament Malachi. The text was transmitted by Jewish scribes, experts in the Old Testament. The Masoretic Text refers to the Hebrew Old Testament text that Jewish scribes14 in the Middle Ages received with consonants only and they added vowels to it. These vowels aided in the pronunciation and interpretation of the text. The Dead Sea Scrolls contained Old Testament biblical manuscripts some of which were 1000 years earlier than other manuscripts that we previously had. Some sections of the Old Testament were originally written in Aramaic (Gen 31:47; Jer 10:11; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26); Dan 2:4b-7:28). The entire New Testament is written in Koine Greek which was a period of Greek language that last from about the time of Alexander the Great (300 BC) to Constantine (300 A.D.). The New Testament text was transmitted by Christian scribes and there are over 5600 Greek manuscripts (2nd to 15th A.D).
An example of a Hebrew Old Testament Verse (Genesis 1:1)
בּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ
An example of a Koine Greek New Testament Verse (John 14:6)
λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς· ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ δι᾿ ἐμοῦ.
Early Bible Translations
The purpose of Bible translation is to get the Bible into a native language that people can understand. There were many early Bible translations that preceded any effort to get one into English. For the Old Testament some of these early translations were the Koine Greek Septuagint (LXX) which was started in the 3rd Century B.C., the Syriac Peshitta, the Aramaic Jewish Targums and the Latin Vulgate done by Jerome 400 A.D. Early translations of the New Testament were also done starting in the second century A.D. in Coptic (Egyptian), Latin, and Syriac.
Brief History of the English Bible
John Wycliffe (1330-1384) is credited as being the first person inspiring the effort toward a complete English translation though his followers did the actual work15. It was translated from the Latin Vulgate. Here is a verse from the Wycliffe translation. Matt 22:37-40: Thou schalt love thi Lord God of al thin herte, and of al thi soule and of al thi mynde, and thi neighebore as thi self, for in these twey comaundements hangith al the lawe and prophetis. The Wycliffe translation was copied by hand as it preceded the development of the printing press. In 1415, Wycliffe was condemned by the church, his followers were jailed and Wycliffe’s bones were dug up, burned and ashes scattered in a river. William Tyndale (1492-1536) was the first to use Greek and Hebrew manuscripts for an English translation. He explained that the reason he did it was for the common man: “I will cause a boy that drives a plow to know more of the Scripture than a learned scholar.”16 Many modern renderings of English Bible phrases can be traced back to Tyndale. John 14:6: “Iesus sayd vnto him: I am the waye verite and lyfe. Noman cometh vnto the father but by me.” He was the first to complete a printed edition of English Bible and six thousand printed copies of the English Bible were smuggled into England. Tyndale was hounded and eventually burned at the stake for the translation and prayed as he was being burned, “Lord open the King’s eyes.”
God answered Tyndale’s prayer and later the English King began to allow the English Bible into the church. Following Tyndale’s translation there was: The Coverdale Bible (1535); Matthew’s Bible (1537); The Tavner Bible (1539); The Great Bible (1539); The Geneva Bible (1560; Bible used by the Pilgrims); The Bishops Bible (1568); The Douai-Rheims Bible (1609-10). These were largely revisions of each other. In 1603 King James I took the throne of England. He was unhappy with the Calvinist notes in Geneva Bible and the anti-protestant notes in the Douay-Rheims Bible. The King wanted to have one standard Bible for the English church. So he supported 50 scholar/translators to complete the King James Bible, which they did in 1611. The King also controlled the English presses which helped to ensure the translation’s widespread use. The King James Version underwent revisions in 1629, 1638, 1762, 1769 (Current KJV), and 1982 (New King James Version (NKJV)).17 Starting with the English Revised Version in 1885, many other English translation followed: 1901 American Standard Version; 1952 Revised Standard Version (RV) (1971; Protestant); 1989 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) (Protestant); 1958 The Phillips Bible (Evangelical.); 1960/95 The New American Standard Bible (NASB) (Evangelical.); 1966 Jerusalem Bible (JB); 1985 New Jerusalem Bible (NJB) (Catholic); 1971 The Living Bible (LB) and 1996 New Living Translation (NLT)(Evangelical); 1979 New International Version (NIV) (1984; 2005 TNIV; 2011 (Evangelical); 1993 The Message (Evangelical); 1995 Contemporary English Version (CEV)(Evangelical); 2004 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB) (Evangelical); 2005 The NET Bible 2001; and The Evangelical Standard Version (2007, 2011; Evangelical).18
Types of Bible Translations
Many people who read different Bible translations wonder why there are differences in Bible translations. One of the main reasons for these differences is differing translation philosophies. The three major translation philosophies are termed Dynamic Equivalence, Word Equivalence, and Paraphrase. Dynamic Equivalence translations seek to express the meaning of the text in a way that is idiomatic in English. It is more concerned about good stylistic English and willing to forgo some literalness to accomplish this objective. It usually results in translations that are easier to read and understand. These types of translations are also more interpretive to what the translators think the text means. Examples of Dynamic Equivalent translations are: NIV, NLT, CEV, (NET and HCSB in part). Word Equivalence translations are more literal to the language structure of the original text. The translations seek to produce the semantic equivalence of each word and represent it in the translation. This type of translation is usually harder to read. Also, sometimes these may confuse what the author means with an unfamiliar idiom. They are generally less interpretive in translation and allow for more interpretive options translating what text says not what it means necessarily. Examples of Word Equivalent translations are: NASB, NKJV, RSV (NET and HCSB in part). Paraphrases are not translations from the original language, but someone putting something in their own words as to how they would say it. Examples of Paraphrases are the Living Bible and The Message. Below is a comparison of how different types of translations render Psalm 1:1.
Comparison of Ps 1:1
How blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked, nor stand in the path of sinners, nor sit in the seat of scoffers.
How blessed is the one who does not follow the advice of the wicked, or stand in the pathway with sinners, or sit in the assembly of scoffers!
How happy is the man who does not follow the advice of the wicked, or take the path of sinners, or join a group of mockers.
How well God must like you– you don’t hang out at Sin Saloon, you don’t slink along Dead-End Road, you don’t go to Smart-Mouth College
Notice how the word equivalence rendering of the NASB translated the Hebrews words very literally as “walk”, “stand” and “sit”. The NET keeps two of three of these renderings but on the first one translates, “follow” for a more literal “walk.” The HCSB renders all three terms in a dynamic equivalence fashion “follow” for “walk”, “take” for “stand” and “join” for “sit”. The Message speaks for itself.
The Bible has an amazing history of how it came to be and how it came to us. It is the inspired and inerrant Word of God. People, some of them to the point of death, have dedicated themselves to get the Bible into our hands. John Wycliffe states the importance of God’s word: “God’s words will give men new life more than other words that are for pleasure. O marvelous power of the Divine Seed which overpowers strong men in arms, softens hard hearts, and renews and changes into godly men, those men who had been brutalized by sins and departed infinitely far from God.”
- If we as Christians believe the Bible is inspired by God and inerrant how should this affect our interaction with it?
- What challenges to the reliability of the Bible have you encountered? How have you responded?
- What are some questions you have about what books are included in the canon and what books are not? Are you comfortable with it?
- Are there any differences in the Bible that you think are very difficult or cannot be reconciled? What are they?
- What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of having so many Bible translations?
- What Bible translation do you like and why?
- How does the fact that Tyndale died to get the English Bible completed and distributed help you appreciate the Bible we have?
1 (Date accessed November 27, 2012).
2 (Date accessed November 27, 2012).
3 Paul Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology (Chicago: Moody Press, 2008), 715.
4 Paul Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology, 713-714.
5 See Norm Geisler, (Date Accessed Nov 28, 2012).
6 Other less attractive solutions have been to see the statement as proverbial or as seeing the reference to the seed as “very small” as opposed to “smallest”. But in any case the different possibilities are a demonstration that a scientific error what Jesus said cannot be proved.
7 See Patrick Zukeran, (Date accessed Nov 27, 2012).
8 William F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religions of Israel (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1956), 176.
9 Nelson Glueck, Rivers in the Desert (New York: Farrar, Strous and Cudahy, 1959), 136.
10 Martin Luther, Smalcald Articles II, 15.
11 Even though we do not know for sure who wrote Hebrews it seems clear that at least he had an association with the apostles (Heb 2:3-4).
12 James Davis, “Class Notes Critical Issues and Bible Backgrounds – New Testament Portion,” Capital Bible Seminary, 2009; Köstenburger, Kellum, and Quarles, The Cradle, the Cross and the Crown (Nashville: Broadman Holman Publishers, 2009) 8-10.
13 Credit is given to Dr. Todd Beall for most of the ideas in this paragraph. Todd Beall, “Class Notes Critical Issues and Bible Backgrounds- Old Testament Portion,” Capital Bible Seminary, 2004.
14 The Jewish scribes of this historical era were called Masoretes which means “tradition.” See .
15 F. F. Bruce, The English Bible A History of Translation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961), 12-13.
16 F. F. Bruce, The English Bible A History of Translation, 29.
17 Arthur L. Farstad, The New King James Version in the Great Tradition (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1993) 9-18.
18 Andreas Köstenburger and David A. Croteau, eds, Which Bible Translation Should I Use? (Nashville: Broadman Holman Publishers, 2012), vi.
19 Peterson notes that the Message was not intended to be a replacement for other translations: “When I’m in a congregation where somebody uses [The Message] in the Scripture reading, it makes me a little uneasy. I would never recommend it be used as saying, “Hear the Word of God from The Message.” But it surprises me how many do.” Eugene Peterson, “I didn’t Want to Be Cute,” Christianity Today (October 2002) (http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2002/october7/33.107.html?start=2) (Date accessed March 5, 2013).
20 The HCSB editors prefer to term their translation approach as “optimal equivalence” using word equivalence where they can but dynamic equivalence when deemed necessary. Andreas Köstenburger and David A. Croteau, eds, Which Bible Translation Should I Use, 117.
6. Our Fierce Faithfulness (Matthew 25:14-30)Related Media
Jesus and Our Stuff (part six)
The way we define success will explain the direction of our lives. Our world weighs, measures, and counts the wrong things to determine one's level of success. We can sometimes be enticed to chase after the world's success, with the result that our priorities get shuffled. Instead, we should invest our time, our abilities, and our resources in a manner that would please the One who gave us these things in the first place. This perspective helps us properly define success using one very important word: It is required of a steward that he be found "faithful."
Issue 014. 2013 November Bible.org Translator's Newsletter
This last month has been a slow one for translation posting, but we are thankful for the interactions that we have had and for the translations that are currently in process!
If you are not currently working on a translation I would encourage you to consider perusing the site (or our ) to find one that looks interesting and helpful. Just a small commitment each week will result in a resource that millions can use.
Hints and Tips
Tip: have you ever wondered how to handle Greek or Hebrew text that is within an article you are translating?
If there is a downloadable Word document with the article that you are translating, then you can simply copy and paste the Greek or Hebrew into the correct location in your translation. If no Word document is available then simply copying and pasting from the web page will work as well. Sometimes there may be more font or style issues with that kind of cutting/pasting. So please feel free to let us know if it looks like there are any issues that we should keep an extra eye out for in our final formatting.
Know someone else who is bilingual?
If you know of anyone else who would have the time and skills to translate articles for Bible.org please consider recommending this ministry to them. Sometimes the most obvious gifts (like preaching or being a leader) are not the ones with the most impact or need. This is a real opportunity to meet a need and impact thousands and thousands of people with the truth of God’s Word.
Need help, have questions, or prefer to meet in real time?
I am available and would love to answer any questions you might have. We do have a section on our Group page, but you can always send me an email! I can also be available through Skype for a voice or chat conversation. Simply let me know through email that you would like to talk and we will get it worked out.
I look forward to hearing from you!
Related Topics: Administrative and Organization
7. Our Eternal Endowments (Luke 16:1-9)Related Media
Jesus and Our Stuff (part seven)
Jesus taught us to be faithful with all that God has entrusted to us. That involves using our minds while investing wisely with an eternal perspective, knowing that such investments yield the greatest return. Our generosity should extend beyond believers to include those who are lost without the Gospel. We can earn an audience with them by conveying that they are more valuable than our earthly property. Sacrificing our stuff for the sake of another's soul should be an easy decision. Let us seize every opportunity to invest earthly belongings for the sake of the lost that we might be welcomed into their eternal homes one day.
The Net Pastor's Journal, Eng Ed, Issue 9 Fall 2013
Fall 2013 Edition
Produced by ...
Dr. Roger Pascoe, President,
The Institute for Biblical Preaching
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada
“Strengthening the Church in Biblical Preaching and Leadership”
Part I: Preaching: The Preparation Of The Preacher
“The Preacher and the Work of God” Pt. 3
By: Dr. Roger Pascoe
The Institute for Biblical Preaching
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada
In the Spring and Summer 2013 editions of this Pastors Journal (published on this website), we discussed the spiritual and personal preparation of the preacher. We are continuing that subject again in this edition. What we are learning is that before you can preach the Word with power, accuracy, and credibility, you need to be spiritually and personally qualified to do so. The person who is qualified to preach the Word is called a “man of God” by the apostle Paul.
We also noticed that, in order to be qualified for the privilege of serving the Lord in ministry, the four main areas that we need to give priority to are: (1) guarding your moral life; (2) directing your home life; (3) nourishing your inner life; and (4) disciplining your ministry life. Last time we completed our discussion of “Guarding Your Moral Life”. In this edition we are going to look at the other three aspects of being a man of God.
Directing Your Home Life (1 Tim. 3:5)
A man’s true character, values, and lifestyle are shown at home. That’s where he is truly himself. John MacArthur says: “Since the pastor is to be a leader of the Lord’s church and a loving parent to the family of God, what better way can he qualify than by proving his spiritual leadership in his own family?” 1 If a man cannot relate well and properly to his wife and children, and if he cannot “rule” his household well, how can he lead the church? (1 Tim. 3:5). Godly leadership in the home is a pre-requisite for leadership in the church. The same sacrificial, servant leadership you would expect from someone leading the church must be evident at home.
Therefore, your family life must be characterized by balance, happiness, submission to the Word, discipline, obedience, love, spontaneity, service, sacrifice for others, mutual respect etc. So, devote adequate and meaningful time and attention to your spouse and family and take responsibility for the spiritual tone and direction in your home by setting the example of spirituality. You are responsible to set the spiritual priority and focus of your home. Since you preach and counsel the priority of the Scriptures and obedience to God in your ministry life, make sure you are an example of that in your family life.
If you do not set the example for, and command the respect of, your spouse and children at home, how can you do so in the church, or mission agency, or para-church ministry?
So let me encourage you to set aside adequate and appropriate time for your spouse and your children. Don’t put them in second place to your ministry or the church. You would probably criticize someone else in your congregation for doing that, so don’t do it yourself. Show your family that you are prepared to set aside other pressing matters because you value them highly. Be accessible to them, be available to them in your presence, your mind, and your emotions.
Take responsibility for the spiritual, physical, emotional, and mental well-being of everyone in your home. If you don’t take this responsibility at home, how can you do it in your ministry with any degree of credibility or success?
So men of God must be loving and faithful husbands and fathers.
1. Be A Loving And Faithful Husband (1 Tim. 3:2; cf. Eph. 5:22-33)
I would encourage you to let your wife develop and establish her own identity, exercise her own gifts, rather than deriving her identity from you and your vocation as a pastor. Nonetheless, she needs to be supportive of you in your role as a pastor and her life must enhance what you do, not detract from it.
There are so many sources of stress for pastors’ wives:
- They sometimes feel like they take second place to their husband’s ministry demands, and this may lead to resentment.
- They may feel isolated, with no close friends in the church, which can lead to loneliness.
- They may see their husbands receiving attention from other women in the church, which may lead to jealousy and suspicion.
- They often feel pressure to appear perfect, which leads to them trying to keep up a false appearance, attempting to please everybody.
- They live in a spiritual “fishbowl” at church, which can lead to spiritual fatigue.
- Sometimes pastors do not earn much money, which can cause their wives to resent the financial pressures.
- Sometimes, there is a breakdown of intimacy and togetherness in the marriage as well as lack of mutual support due to the demands of ministry, which can lead to coldness, anger, anxiety, depression, and sexual withdrawal.
All of these sources of stress can lead to marital difficulties. So let’s be loving, sensitive, supportive, and faithful to our wives.
2. Be A Loving And Faithful Father (1 Tim. 3:4; Eph. 6:4)
Be kind and gentle to your children (cf. 1 Thess. 2:7, 11). By your relationship with their mother and your Christian testimony show your children what it is to be a godly, consistent Christian. If you expect to be used by God to be the spiritual leader of the church, start by being the spiritual leader of your children.
Remember to never use your children as illustrations from the pulpit, not even if they agree to it. Children tend to easily agree to such things but when they are publicly spotlighted they may secretly resent it.
Don’t neglect spending time with your children. There is no such thing as “quality” time that somehow makes up for lack of “quantity” of time. What your children need is your time and attention.
Your family is of paramount importance. It’s a responsibility you are charged with when you have children. You can’t get out of it. So step up and take that responsibility as a godly leader.
Don’t ever let your children feel that they take second place - not even to ministry – or they will quickly resent it. If ministry and family responsibilities are in conflict on a regular basis, simply adjust your ministry schedule.
Give your children space as they grow up to become the individuals God has created them to be. Often, children raised in pastors’ homes feel pressured to be perfect. If your wife feels like she is living in a fishbowl, how much more do your children! So, let’s not add to that pressure by making them conform to other people’s expectations. We can help them deal with that by maintaining privacy in our homes and by helping them live as normal a childhood as possible.
Finally, let’s protect them from becoming cynical by not discussing church problems in front of our children.
Nourishing Your Inner Life
In ministry you expend a tremendous amount of emotional, spiritual, mental, and physical energy. Not only does ministry make its demands on the total personality, but it easily becomes all-absorbing. Before you know it, you have no life or interests outside your ministry. For this reason, you must discipline yourself to take care of your personal well-being, to set aside time for:
1. Spiritual Restoration
If you are a local church pastor, you are giving out to your congregation all the time – encouraging, exhorting, warning, counselling, preaching, teaching. If you do this long enough without being fed spiritually yourself, you will eventually run dry. On one occasion Jesus told his disciples to come apart into a desert place for a period of rest.
You need to be fed spiritually. How can you do this? One way is to have someone else minister to you. Listen to other preachers, read devotional books, attend conferences, or invite guest preachers on a regular basis to preach for you - it’s good for the church and for you. Whatever way you decide to receive spiritual restoration, discipline yourself to engage in it regularly so that your spiritual batteries don’t run down.
2. Mental Rejuvenation
A healthy mental life requires mental relaxation as well as stimulation. Mental relaxation may take different forms such as regular vacations, walks with your spouse, an evening of good fellowship with friends with whom you can relax and be yourself. And don’t forget to schedule time to be alone – solitude is good, especially for mental relaxation.
The opposite is also needed - mental stimulation. The apostle Paul wrote: “Whatever things are true, noble, just, pure, lovely, of good report, if there is any virtue and if there is anything praiseworthy – meditate on these things” (Phil. 4:8). “These things” stimulate your mind with good thoughts and challenging subjects that will edify you.
Don’t become lazy or defiled in your thinking. You can keep your mind alert and stimulated by:
- Reading good books on a variety of subjects
- Associating with like-minded people with intellectual ability and spiritual maturity, who can engage in stimulating conversations about topics that have substance
- Listening to good music that can minister to you
- Listening to or reading good sermons
- Continuously upgrading your professional skills by attending seminars and courses – particularly those on preaching and church leadership
3. Physical Recreation
In 1 Timothy 4:8, the apostle says: “Bodily exercise profits a little” – i.e. it is of some value. Every pastor needs to take time out for manual and physical recreation to compensate for the mental and spiritual demands of preaching. Make no mistake about it, preaching and pastoral ministry are hard work. Spending all day in meetings, counselling, administration, and study means that you must schedule time to do something active.
Physical activity is good not only for your body but also for your mind. Looking after our bodies is a stewardship that is just as important as the stewardship of our money, time, and spiritual gifts. Paul taught that the body is to be dedicated (Rom. 12:1); preserved (1 Thess. 5:23), exercised (1 Tim. 4:8), and disciplined (1 Cor. 9:24-27). And remember, “your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit” (1 Cor. 6:19-20). Therefore, we must take care how we use it. We must keep it pure for the glory of God. We must maintain its health. And we must “glorify God in your body and in your spirit which are God’s” (1 Cor. 6:20).
Part of the process of taking care of our body is engaging in some form of physical exercise in order to keep it fit and healthy. Try to discipline yourself to do this. As you get older you will be glad you did.
4. Emotional Recuperation
Pastors are very visible and audible – everyone sees what we do and hears what we say. Some things we say and do will generate:
- Criticism from those whose consciences react to what we say
- Conflict and perhaps condemnation from those who disagree with us
- Concern for those whom we care for physically, emotionally, and spiritually
Conflict and criticism take a great toll on us emotionally. Therefore, from time to time we need to recuperate emotionally. How can we do that? Some suggestions are:
- Enjoy fellowship with friends who encourage you and help you to laugh
- Meet with other pastors who can give you counsel on how to deal with difficult situations
- Read books on pastoral ministry – you’ll find that you are not alone; even the prominent preachers suffer from conflict and criticism
Disciplining Your Ministry Life (2 Tim. 2:1–6, 15)
A godly leader / preacher has the solemn responsibility to “be diligent to present yourself approved to God, a worker who does not need to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2 Tim 2:15)
This standard for biblical preaching is described earlier in the chapter through three word pictures of disciplined endeavour - the daily discipline and commitment of a soldier, an athlete, a farmer (2 Tim. 2:1-6). The pictures that are drawn in these verses depict discipline, duty, and devotion, which, when displayed, bring reward.
1. Godly Leaders Must Have The “Singular Focus” Of A Soldier (2:3-4)
Firstly, the singular focus of a soldier is to always be willing and ready to suffer (2:3) – to “endure hardship.” Suffering is to be expected in ministry because of spiritual warfare (cf. Eph. 6:1-20) and ill treatment.
Secondly, the singular focus of a soldier is always to be willing and ready to sacrifice (2:4a). You cannot be preoccupied with the “affairs of this life” in order to be always on duty and available. This is a call to sacrifice – to disentangle yourself from any other duties that would distract you from your main task. It’s not that there is anything wrong with the “affairs of this life,” but if they have the tendency to entangle us, they must be cast aside. Anything that would rob us of the necessary time with God (in prayer and the Word) and time for God must be sacrificed.
Thirdly, the singular focus of a soldier is to always be willing and ready for service (2:4b) - “to please him who has enlisted (you) to be a soldier.” As soldiers of Jesus Christ, we must be ready to serve the One who has enlisted us in his service. We are always on duty.
A genuine soldier is marked by wholehearted devotion to duty, complete commitment, nothing held back. A soldier’s reward is the approbation of his superior officer. That’s what we work for – the Lord’s approval.
2. Godly Leaders Must Have The “Strenuous Effort” Of An Athlete (2:5)
An athlete displays strenuous effort in training and competing. In order to win an athlete must strive toward three objectives:
- Strive for excellence. This involves exertion, exercise, effort, training, diligence, commitment, competition, doing it well. Preachers need to do their task with excellence and diligence.
- Strive lawfully. This refers to obeying the rules, honesty. Knowing the rules and following them, even when no one is looking. Preachers must have such integrity.
- Strive to win. The reward is to be crowned, to be victorious, seeking only the Lord’s approval. The preacher’s reward is the Lord’s approbation now and his crown then. An athlete must have wholehearted discipline in order to compete and win lawfully. And the reward is to be “crowned” the victor.
3. Godly Leaders Must Have The “Steady Perseverance” Of A Farmer (2:6)
The farmer labours long and hard without any sign or assurance of success. This takes great self-discipline, steadfastness. After preparing the soil and planting the seed, then he must wait for the crop. This takes trust – trust in God, for only God can make a seed grow and produce a harvest. Farmers need wholehearted labour and dependence.
Godly preachers can prepare the best of sermons and Bible lessons and deliver them with great fervour but the results belong to God to bring to life those who were dead (Eph. 2:1).
Only through hard work, wholehearted commitment, and self-discipline can we present ourselves “approved to God” workers who do “not need to be ashamed” (2:15). It is so easy in ministry to become lazy, lose commitment, and become discouraged.
Let’s discipline ourselves to put in the time and the energy necessary to get the job done well. Let’s conduct ourselves so that people see that we are committed to our Christian testimony and ministry. Don’t be half-hearted about your Christian life or satisfied with mediocrity in your ministry. Preaching and church leadership are hard work! All that we do must be done for God’s glory and that means we do it with all our might and with excellence.
At a personal level, the measure of Christian ministry for the man of God means on the one hand, being diligent to present yourself approved to God, and on the other hand, being a workman who does not need to be ashamed.
At a practical level, the measure of Christian ministry for the man of God means accurate, appropriate, and authoritative preaching and teaching – rightly dividing the word of truth.
Part II. Leadership: Being A Godly Role Model
“Your Personal Holiness”
By: Dr. Roger Pascoe
The Institute for Biblical Preaching
We continue the topic of personal holiness from our last edition of the NET Pastors Journal. Last time we discussed purity in our social lives. In this edition, we are going to look at purity in our thoughts, motives, and words.
Purity In Thought (2 Cor. 10:5)
Our thoughts can be so subtle and sinful, can’t they? Sometimes you wonder where certain thoughts come from. Undoubtedly they spring from our sinful nature, prompted by Satan and the temptations he puts in our way.
To maintain purity in our thoughts we must be careful what we think about. We need to discipline our minds in order to control the thoughts that we entertain. When our thoughts are uncontrolled, fantasies can so easily take over. And fantasies that are uncontrolled tend to become reality. The Bible says, “As a man thinks, so is he” (Prov. 23:7). Our thoughts shape our character and our behaviour. Every action or habit begins with a thought.
So, let’s be careful what we think about. If you find yourself thinking unhealthy or sinful thoughts, pray for God to banish them from your mind. It works! God delivers us from evil, for the power of God is greater than Satan or any earthly temptation.
Our thoughts are often generated by things we have read or seen. So be careful what you look at, because what you look at enters your heart and impacts your desires. “When desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and when sin is full-grown, it brings forth death” (James 1:15). That’s the pattern if our thoughts go unchecked.
Probably what goes on in the mind is the most dangerous of all (more so than even outward actions) because nobody can see your thoughts. No one can hold you accountable for what you are thinking because they don’t know. But remember what Jesus said: “Out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies. These are the things which defile a man” (Matt. 15:18-20). What goes into your mind will come out – whether good thoughts or bad. And those thoughts will form the basis of who you are and what you do.
Purity In Motive
Impure motives are when we do the right things for the wrong reasons - doing something to achieve a desired result but for the wrong reason. So, let’s ask ourselves: Why do we do ministry? What is our motivation? We must do the right things and for the right reasons.
In Rev. 2:2-3 the church at Ephesus did the right things but with an impure motive - namely, they were not doing it out of love for Christ. The warning is that if they would not repent of their impure motives, God would remove their lamp-stand (their public testimony as a church). What do we do ministry for? What are we living for?
Do we do ministry for our own self-glory like those who “commend themselves,” who, measuring themselves by themselves and comparing themselves among themselves, are not wise” (2 Cor. 10:12)?
Are we living for our own personal gain, like those who “suppose that godliness is a means of gain” (1 Tim. 6:5)?
Are we seeking our own self-promotion? Jesus said “I am among you as one who serves” (Lk. 22:27). Paul said that he had “served the Lord with all humility, with many tears and trials” (Acts 20:19).
In his book, “Shepherding the Church,” Joe Stowell writes: “Those who serve for His glory and His gain find their greatest joy not in the affirmation that may come at the door after the sermon, but in a life that, over time, is functionally changed through the ministry of proclamation. In a life that now brings more glory to God than in days gone by. In a life that gives credit to God – not us – for what God has done in their lives through us.” 2 Yes!
Pure motives cause us to serve for Christ’s glory and the benefit of his kingdom. Paul’s motive for ministry was that “Christ be magnified in my body, whether by life or by death. For to me, to live is Christ and to die gain” (Phil. 1:20). Paul said, “I am the last of the apostles and do not deserve to be called an apostle” (1 Cor. 15:9). John the Baptist’s motive was that Jesus Christ “must increase but I must decrease” (Jn. 3:30).
Let’s check our own hearts for what our motives are as leaders of God’s people.
Purity In Word (1 Tim. 4:12; Tit. 2:7)
Our speech is an area that can be the most dangerous and the one most easily slipped up on. What we say (the words and phrases we use) and how we say it (body language, tone of voice) can either empower our leadership role or immobilize it. You can give totally different meaning to the words you use just through emphasis on different words or body language.
We need to be careful about our choice of words. I’m noticing more and more inappropriate secular words and expressions coming from Christians (and preachers), that once would never have been used by believers. I have heard pastors and Christian leaders say things that make me cringe. Sometimes they use expressions that are common in our society but which ought not to be part of our communication. I hear leaders in the church using slang words all the time that are derivatives from curse words (and I don’t think they even know it).
Words slip out so easily and they cannot be retracted. When they come out, they are like water spilled on the ground – it can’t be gathered back up (2 Sam. 14:14). When the wrong words are said, it’s too late, the damage is done.
Words are the stock-in-trade for Christian leaders. Our craft revolves around the use of words. Therefore, it is incumbent upon us to be experts in their use – not only in the pulpit but in all our interactions. We are to be wordsmiths, carefully choosing the words we use so that they accurately convey what we want to say.
But accuracy and truthfulness are not sufficient. “Let your speech be always with grace, seasoned with salt” (Col. 4:6). “Speak the truth in love” (Eph. 4:15). “Be slow to speak and swift to hear” (James 1:19).
So, try to avoid vernacular or slang – it will get you into trouble. Don’t use harsh or coarse words (Eph. 5:4) – it’s not Christ-like. Try not to use words with double meanings. Wherever possible, be conscious to use polite, positive, constructive, well-chosen words.
Beware of gossip, slander, lying, deceit, inferences, innuendos, seduction, murmuring, complaining, boasting, exaggeration. They all stem from the wrong use or application of words (cf. Eph. 4:25, 29, 31; 5:4; Col. 3:8-9; 4:6; Matt. 15:11, 17-20). Stay away from words that can have impure connotations.
Let us use “sound speech”(Tit. 2:8) that is a testimony to others of the “gracious words” that proceeded out to the Lord’s mouth, of the purity of speech that we want others to adopt, and of the kind of words that point others to Christ.
Teachers used to say to us: “Sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never harm me” - not true! Words spoken in anger, jest, teasing, criticism can hurt a lot longer than physical hurts and cause untold hurt in Christian relationships. The words we use are important, so choose them carefully.
Part III. Devotional Thoughts
“The Ministry of Earthen Vessels, Pt. 2: The Motivation for Ministry” (2 Cor. 4:16-5:9)
By: Dr. Roger Pascoe
The Institute for Biblical Preaching
Cambridge, Ontario, Canada
In the Summer edition of this journal, we began studying the subject of “The Ministry of Earthen Vessels” (2 Corinthians 4:7-5:21). We looked at 2 Corinthians 4:7-16, which deals with the topic of “The Nature of Ministry.” Now we continue with the next section, 2 Corinthians 4:16-5:8, which deals with the topic of “The Motivation for Ministry.” The apostle points out three motivations for ministry: (1) the motivation of future transformation (4:15-5:8); (2) the motivation of accountability to God (5:10-13); and (3) the motivation of Christ’s love (5:14-17). In this edition of this Pastors Journal, we will cover only The Motivation Of Future Transformation (4:16-5:9).
The apostle develops this subject of the ministry of earthen vessels around four paradoxes of ministry. Last time we noticed the first paradox of ministry: the weak messenger vs. the powerful message. Now, in connection with the motivation for ministry (specifically, the motivation of future transformation) we have the next three paradoxes.
The second paradox of ministry is: outward decay vs. inward renewal (4:16-17). For the Christian the paradox is that “Even though our outward man is decaying, yet our inward man is being renewed day by day” (16b). There is a difference between the outward and the inward – the outward is decaying and the inward is being renewed. On the one hand, we suffer from the progressive decay of our physical being. Our “outward man” (i.e. what is visible - our physical body and faculties) is “decaying” (i.e. steadily and irreversibly heading toward death). On the other hand, our inner being is progressively being renewed in God’s image. Our “inward man” (i.e. what is invisible - our new life in Christ, our spiritual being, our Christ-likeness) “is being renewed day by day” (i.e. being sanctified, transformed into Christ’s image).
The reality for the non-Christian is petrifying. They experience only outward decay without any inner renewal, because they have no spiritual life. “For” introduces the explanation of this paradox of outward decay vs. inner renewal “our light affliction which is but for a moment, is working for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory” (17). Note the contrasting elements of the Christian paradox:
- Present suffering for Jesus’ sake = light and momentary troubles
- Future glory in Jesus’ presence = an eternal glory that far outweighs all our present suffering or troubles
Paul is not teaching that physical suffering is rewarded with spiritual merit. He is not endorsing asceticism. Rather, Paul is still dealing with the issue of how the glory and power of God are displayed in earthen vessels (7); the issue of spiritually (and perhaps physically) dying with Jesus (10a); the issue of the life of Jesus manifested in us (10b); the issue of being delivered to death for Jesus’ sake that the life of Jesus may be manifested in us (11).
“Paul’s theme throughout this epistle is that the frailty of the human frame and the affliction which it sustains in the cause of the gospel magnify, by reason of the astonishing contrast, and provide the opportunity for experiencing, the all-transcending glory and power and grace of Almighty God.” 3 No matter how severe our physical suffering may be “for Jesus’ sake” (i.e. suffering that is endured and incurred for Jesus’ sake in the cause of the gospel), it is “light” and “momentary” compared to the “eternal glory” which is reserved for us in heaven.
The third paradox of ministry in this passage is: the visible vs. the invisible (4:18). The eye of faith is not preoccupied with what is seen but with what is not seen. “We do not look at the things which are seen but at the things which are not seen.” We do not focus on our human weakness, suffering, dying (i.e. the decay of our outward, physical existence), and difficult circumstances, but rather, we look at “the things which are not seen.” The non-Christian is focused on the physical, the outward, and the present (treasures on earth, perishable things), but the Christian is focused on the spiritual, the inward, and the eternal. We are focused on spiritual realities (e.g. truth, life in Christ). We are focused on inner power, the renewal of the Holy Spirit. We are focused on eternal glory – a future, heavenly perspective, when we will be fully and finally like Christ. We are pressing forward not looking back (Phil. 3:14). We endure the present in the assurance of the future. We know that the transient will give place to the permanent. We look for the temporal afflictions to be replaced by eternal glory.
The fourth paradox of ministry is: our earthly tent vs. our heavenly building (5:1-8). The explanation for the previous paradox now follows: “For we know…” The basis of our perspective on present suffering and decay is our knowledge of future glorification, the redemption of our bodies as well as our souls, the certain hope of glory. The only uncertainty is whether we will die before Jesus comes – “…if our earthly house, this tent (lit. our tent-dwelling on earth) is destroyed…” (5:1).
The body in which we now live is temporary and transient, not our permanent dwelling place. But even if it is destroyed in death, “…we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.” The imagery of a “tent” vs. a “building” is an allusion to the Israelites’ tabernacle in the wilderness vs. the permanent temple in Jerusalem (cf. Heb. 11:8ff.). Like them in the wilderness, we are pilgrims and strangers on the earth, just passing through - our citizenship is in heaven. And when we get to heaven, we will have bodies suited to that heavenly existence - “not made with hands” (not this-world, earth-bound creations), not temporary, not subject to decay, not affected by sin, but permanent, eternal, glorified, resurrection bodies like Christ’s glorious body (Phil. 3:21).
“For” (explanation of v. 1) “in this (body) we groan (cf. Rom. 8:23) earnestly desiring to be clothed with our habitation which is from heaven...” (2). In our present earthly tent-dwelling we groan (because it is subject to decay, suffering, pain). That’s why we long for our glorified bodies (our habitation which is from heaven), which are viewed as being put on like clothes over our earthly bodies (cf. 1 Cor. 15:53) so that there is both continuity and transformation – our earthly bodies will be covered and changed by our glorified bodies. What we really long for is the possibility (“...if indeed”, v. 3) of receiving our glorified bodies without dying (“...having been clothed”) - to be alive at Christ’s coming so that, “having already been clothed” with our glorified bodies, “we shall not be found naked” (3). The hope expressed here is that we shall not be stripped of our bodies at death, that we never experience a disembodied state at all, that we do not die before we receive our glorified bodies, “clothed with our habitation (dwelling) which is from heaven” (2b).
“For” (further explanation) we who are in this tent (this temporary, decaying physical existence) groan, being burdened, not because we want to be unclothed, but (because we want to be) further clothed, so that mortality may be swallowed up by life” (4). We groan because of the burden of our present bodies, not because we want to die (i.e. be unclothed and our bodies go back to dust) but because we want to be further clothed by our glorified bodies (bodies suited to glory), so that our mortal bodies (our present, decaying bodies) may be swallowed up by (taken over by, absorbed in, clothed with) eternal life at Christ’s return, so that we never die and experience corruption.
This is what will happen to those who are alive at Christ’s coming. We will not be “unclothed” (naked, disembodied) but “further clothed” by putting on our glorified bodies over our mortal bodies. When that happens, our mortal, earth-bound bodies will be instantly absorbed by and transformed into our glorified state, so that our mortal flesh (our living, earthly but mortal bodies) will be “swallowed up” (disappear inside, absorbed, integrated into, digested) “by (what will be really) life.”
So, the imagery in 5:1-4 is that our mortal bodies are like a garment that covers the soul, which at death becomes naked because it will be separated from the body. On the other hand, our immortal bodies are likened at Christ’s coming to a garment that re-clothes (or covers) our souls, or, for those who are alive at that time, “further clothes” us - i.e. is put on over top of our mortal bodies.
“Now He who has prepared us for this very thing is God” (5a). God himself has fashioned us for the reception (clothing) of our glorified bodies. This final transformation into our glorified state is entirely and solely the work of God. This gives us assurance because it is not dependent on us but God and thus it will surely come to pass. What God has begun, He will complete (Phil. 1:6), for He “…also has given us His Spirit as a guarantee” (5b). Not only do we have the apostle’s instruction on this future certainty that God will accomplish our final transformation, but right now we have the internal deposit (the down payment) of the Spirit as the guarantee that God will surely do it (cf. Eph. 1:14; cf. Rom. 8:11ff.). The Holy Spirit constantly and continuously reassures us that the power that raised Christ from the dead will raise us up in glory (Eph. 1:9-20).
What confidence and motivation this gives us, particularly in suffering and old age! Our outward bodies are decaying, we suffer from our mortality, but more specifically for Jesus’ sake. But all that is lost in the assurance and hope of our future transformation into Christ’s likeness, for it does not compare to the glory which shall be. “So” (as a result of this assurance that God will do it and has given us his Spirit as our guarantee), “we are always confident…” (6a) – our confidence in God’s fulfillment of our transformation is unshakeable and constant – “...knowing that (confidence is based on knowledge) while we are at home in the body…” (living in this earthly tent) “…we are absent from the (presence of the) Lord. For (because) we walk by faith, not by sight (cf. Heb. 11:1). We are confident, yes, well pleased rather to be absent from the body (i.e. to die) and to be present with the Lord” (6b-8) – i.e. when sight will replace faith. Though death is our final enemy, it does not cause us to fear. Rather, we are full of confidence and motivation.
God is in control both in life and in death. The Spirit of God gives us inner assurance that God will complete our transformation. Our temporal life is our constant reminder that we are not yet in the presence of the Lord – indeed, in this state we live by faith not sight. Our desire is to leave our present earthly life and be with the Lord even though we would enter a period of nakedness, waiting to be clothed with our new bodies. This is not a death wish but an expression that the desire to be with Christ overshadows the obstacle of death (cf. Phil. 1:21).
But the best of all circumstances would be to be alive at his coming, transformed and translated to be with Christ without death (cf. Phil. 1:21-13).
Conclusion: “Therefore, we make it our aim, whether present or absent, to be well pleasing to Him” (9). No matter what happens, whether we are here at home in the body at the time Christ comes or absent from the body at the time Christ comes, our aim and the motivation for our ministry is to be well-pleasing to the Lord.
Part IV. Sermon Outlines
John 4:19-42, Jesus’ Dialogue With The Samaritan Woman, Pt. 2
Title: The Master’s Approach to Evangelism, Pt. 2
Subject: Overcoming spiritual and social barriers in evangelism
(Continued from point #3 in the last edition of this journal...)
Point #4: Point the person to God (4:19-24)
1. Through an awakened response (19-20)
a) About who Jesus is (19)
b) About finding God (20)
2. Through an enlightening reply (21-24)
a) About where God is found (21)
b) About how God is worshipped (22-24)
Point #5: Reveal Jesus’ Deity (4:25-26)
1. By finding out what they know about him (25)
a) About his coming again
b) About his revelation of truth
2. By revealing what they don't know about him (26)
Point #6: Develop faith in others (4:27-38)
1. Develop faith in others through your personal testimony (28-30)
a) By demonstrating that God changes lives (28)
b) By inviting others to see for themselves (29a)
c) By declaring what Christ has done (29b)
d) By pointing to who Christ is (29c-30)
2. Develop faith in others through a proper theology (31-42)
a) That God’s work in the world is Christ’s mission (31-34)
- to do God’s will
- to finish God’s work
b) That God’s work in the world is an “unlikely” mission (35)
- spiritual harvest spring up at the most unlikely times
- spiritual harvests spring up in the most unlikely places
c) That God’s work in the world is a team mission (36-38)
- God’s team is composed of sowers and reapers
- all members of God’s team are equally important
- all members of God’s team labour for the same result
Point #7: Conclusions - the results (4:39-42)
1. Some will believe through your personal testimony (39-40)
2. Many more will believe through God’s word (41-42)
1 John A. MacArthur, Rediscovering Pastoral Leadership (Dallas: Word, 1995), 91.
2 Joseph Stowell, Shepherding the Church, 233.
3 Philip Hughes, 2 Corinthians in “The New International Commentary on the New Testament,” 157.
Related Topics: Pastors
8. Our Soul Owner (Mark 8:34-35, 12:13-17)Related Media
Jesus and Our Stuff (part eight)
God owns it all. We've learned that. But that means that He owns more than just our stuff. He also has a rightful claim on our very lives. This proves to be an unpopular message in a world preoccupied with their entitlements and rights. It probably sounds shocking to many people that we do not belong to ourselves. We belong to God. In addition to giving an account of our faithful stewardship of our stuff, we're also going to be asked to give an account of our lives. Do you live your life for the One who gave His life for you?