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James 1:1

James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the 12 tribes scattered among the nations: Greetings. — NIV

James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting. — KJV

James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, To the twelve tribes in the Dispersion: Greetings. — ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:1 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
Iaeiros [2385] James theos [2316] God kai [2532] and kurios [2962] Lord, Master, Sir iesous [2424] Jesus christos [5547] anointed, messiah, Christ doulos [1401] slave ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) dodeka [1427] 12 phule [5443] tribe ho [3588] the en [1722] preposition denoting place: such as in, at, of, through… ho [3588] the diaspora [1290] dispersion, scattering chairo [5463] greetings, God speed, fairwell, hello, etc. (friendly salutation to greet or part company).

1.1.0 Introduction to James 1:1

Verse 1 is a welcome providing an introduction to the author, his position in Christ, and states who the letter is addressed to. The author is generally accepted to be James, the half-brother of Christ.

1.1.1: Who was James?

The author identifies himself as James. This James is generally accepted to be the biological half-brother of Jesus (Jn 7:2-5). Mt 13:55 “Is not this the carpenter’s son? Is not his mother called Mary? And are not his brothers James and Joseph and Simon and Judas?” This verse tells us about a James who is not the Apostle James who was with Jesus through his ministry. This James didn’t even get along with Jesus while he was alive in the flesh. Obviously he came into his salvation at a later time, almost certainly after the resurrection. He became well known and a leader of church council in Jerusalem - Ac 15:13, 2:8, Jude 1, Gal 1:19, 2:9. Secular records indicate he was martyred 62 AD. There’s some debate, but many scholars hold that he probably wrote the book around 45-50 AD. This makes it one of the earliest books. The Apostle James was martyred earlier than this period.

There was some debate in the early church as to whether this book was authentic, but after much deliberation and the weight of available evidence at the time this book was accepted as cannon some time in the second or third century AD. Much of the debate came from the perception that this book has a very “Jewish” flavor with greater emphasis on the practical outward display of works than most other New Testament writings. The book refers to God or Lord while Jesus is only mentioned by name in this first verse. This lead some to believe it was an older Jewish writing adapted for new Christians. While this is something of a curiosity, there are several reasonable explanations. I believe this deep and extended study will only serve to support the balance of old and new testament scriptures. The perfect agreement we shall discover only serves to validate the presumption this book is the inspired work of our Lord and God Almighty.

If I had to sum up the book with one sentence it would be: “The Book of James – An Operator’s Manual for Christianity.”

1.1.2: How does James identify himself?

James 1:1 “James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the 12 tribes scattered among the nations: Greetings.” James here identified himself as a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ. Assuming he was the Lord’s half-brother, it seems telling to me that he identified himself in this way and didn’t use his clout as Jesus’ sibling. Of course how could we expect otherwise? With this opening remark it seems he is placing himself at a level equal to other believers and below the level of his pseudo-sibling - God incarnate.

1.1.3: What are the qualities of a servant?

A servant serves, of course. A servant is in the employ of a master. The servant DOES what the master requests. The 4th chapter of James talks about this, and it is a common theme throughout the entire bible.

Jn 4:34 Jesus said to them, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work.” Jesus said he came to work.

1 Cor 1:10 “I appeal to you, brothers, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you agree and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be united in the same mind and the same judgment.” Here we see that servants share a common purpose with their master. Jesus’ own words confirm this in Jn 5:17 But Jesus answered them, “My Father is working until now, and I am working.” In the passage Romans 13:1-7 we are given instructions about servanthood, both worldly and Godly. Ro 13:4 For he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer. This is very telling with regard to the “other side of the coin.” It is a stark warning to be faithful in service. If God gives the sword to our earthly masters to punish us for wrongdoing, how much more so will God punish those who fail to serve him?

Jn 4:24 “God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.” A servant of God will worship in spirit and truth.

Rev 2:23 and I will strike her children dead. And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you as your works deserve. This verse makes it startlingly clear that we cannot hide what is in our hearts any more than Adam could. Service not done from our hearts (spirit and truth) is of no value and will be “repaid.” Notice in Rev 2:23 that our “deeds” are repaid based on what is in our hearts. I find this intensely sobering.

1 Pe 1:13 Therefore, preparing your minds for action, and being sober-minded, set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ. Peter offers guidance and hope in light of what we just read. To be a good servant, we must prepare our minds, be self controlled, and put our hope in Jesus. If we put our hope in anything else, our hearts will follow it to the wrong places.

Perhaps my favorite verse on the subject is Jn 12:26. “Whoever serves me must follow me; and where I am, my servant also will be. My father will honor the one who serves me.” I think people take this the wrong way and think that where they go Jesus will also be. That’s just plain wrong. It clearly says we must follow him. He will be with us because we’re where he, and this is because we followed him there. The great part is the promise that we won’t be forgotten, that we will be “honored” by God for our service - service offered with the right heart.

1.1.4: What about humility?

Humility is the foremost character trait of a servant. This main question is actually comprised of several smaller questions:

a) Was James humble? James identified himself as a servant. James did NOT identify himself in a way which showed he had a special relationship with Jesus, though as far as know he was Jesus’ half-brother. In v2 he refers to fellow believers as brothers, placing himself at the same level as them, once again not as a brother of Jesus. Personally, I think James was a no-nonsense kind of guy, privately humble, but unafraid to be bold publicly for Christ.

b) What did James have to say on the subject of humility? Jas 4:10 says “Humble yourselves before the Lord and he will lift you up.” In fact, the whole principle of the 4th chapter is humility to God, what it is, and what the benefits are, and the dangers of turning from humility. We’ll spend time on this chapter when we get there, but feel free to go ahead and skim over it so you’ll be able to put James’ humility into perspective with this opening verse.

c) Is humility Christlike? Col 2:16-19, in particular v18, addresses this question nicely. There’s a lot of meat in this passage, but with regard to humility in particular v 18 reads Let no one disqualify you, insisting on asceticism and worship of angels, going on in detail about visions, puffed up without reason by his sensuous mind… Verse 19 goes on to say that this indicates the person has lost their connection to “the Head”, aka God. You have only to read the gospels and the account of Jesus washing Peter’s feet to gain a better understanding of Jesus’ humility; not to mention dying on the cross.

d) How does humility help us with respect to one another? Eph 4:2 says with all humility and gentleness, with patience, bearing with one another in love. Humility makes it possible to get along, and more than that it allows us, in mutual submission to a common master, to be of a like mind and to be effective in service. After all, it was the subject of Service that sparked this conversation on humility.

As for myself, I hope I am humble in this study. I hope and pray I am not like the person described in Col 2:18. I hope God blesses each and every reader of this. I hope together we are all growing closer to Christ. I encourage you to test yourself, test me, and in so doing test the spirits to see that they are of God (and immediately discard any which are not of God).

1.1.5: Why does James differentiate God and the Lord Jesus Christ?

This is admittedly a touchy subject, but since James brought it up, we must deal with it. I know many God fearing Jesus loving Christians who struggle with the concept of the Trinity, the divinity of Christ, and the whole supernatural aspect of who and what Jesus really is.

1 Cor 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist. This verse is similar to Eph 4:6 and 1 Tim 2:5 identifying God as a lone supreme being.

Jn 1:1-4 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. This passage describes Jesus by addressing his divinity.

Jn 1:14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. John ties together the divine with the human in this verse.

We know all scripture is divinely inspired, we know God doesn’t lie, so we therefore know that no matter how some passages may appear to our eyes to be in conflict, the conflict lies in our understanding rather than God’s word.

It is interesting to note the word “trinity” does not appear in scripture. Rather, this is a man-made term to try and capture an understanding of the essence of God the Father, God incarnate as the Lord Jesus Christ, and God the Holy Spirit. It seems that God presents himself in each of these capacities so that we might better know him in totality. To try to divide God is a common error. God is larger than our ability to comprehend, so he gives us what we can comprehend. The spiritual family (Father, Son, Spirit) are one, yet presented in scripture as three. In our minds it is a three-way experience, but God is not nearly so limited. God has many names in the bible. The simplest, the one God used with Moses (Ex 3:14) was also used by Jesus (Jn 8:58): I AM. Jesus himself made it clear he was God when he spoke of himself this way, albeit living in human flesh for his divine purpose.

1.1.6: Who is the Message For?

James 1:1b (NIV) “to the 12 tribes scattered among the nations: Greetings.”

James 1:1b (KJV) “to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.”

James 1:1b (ESV) “To the twelve tribes in the Dispersion: Greetings.”

James uses the phrase “12 tribes” to describe his target audience, however each of the three versions of scripture above describe these tribes differently. James was basically running the church in Jerusalem, so if he was writing a letter it stands to reason it would be to someone some distance away. To have become a book of the bible at all it had to have been mass produced and copies distributed far and wide. There are lots of other requirements as well I’m sure, but this is enough for now. Let’s break this down a bit…

a) To the Jews only? Ro 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. Paul provides good perspective here. The message went to the Jews first, but certainly to the gentile believers also. Don’t get caught up here thinking James is limited only to Jews.

b) Who then are the 12 tribes? This is not a fight worth having. Again, Paul explains this nicely in Ro 2:9-11 There will be tribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek, but glory and honor and peace for everyone who does good, the Jew first and also the Greek. For God shows no partiality. The message is addressed to the Jews because the Jews were to receive it first, but not only. It isn’t implicitly stated, but I think it is also obvious that James is writing firstly to fellow believers. The persecution of the early church came primarily from the Jews, so certainly it wasn’t to all the Jews or just Jews. The remainder of the letter feels like it is written specifically for the benefit of all believers, not just Jews or Jewish believers in general. On close examination James only serves to confirm Paul.

c) What were the “12 tribes” doing? Mt 28:19-20 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age. Carrying out The Great Commission is the paramount thing that they were doing, or at least supposed to be doing. These were “scattered” people. That’s what the early Christians did, they spread the Good News to all the world. True enough that only the Lord could manage such a structure, but through James He expressed himself with this wonderful, practical, and pertinent letter to all the new believers as far as the letter could be carried.

d) Where were they? Scattered, of course. They were spreading out all over the civilized world and beyond. Ps 24:1 says, “The earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it, the world and all who live in it.” God is a global God. Gen 1:1 declares the beginning and His mighty hand in making the majesty that is greater than the capacities of all the hard drives on all the universities of the world to hold. Ps 67:1-2 further explains the purpose of this letter James wrote: “May God be gracious to us and bless us and make his face shine upon us that your ways may be known on earth, your salvation among all nations.”

The ESV translation accurately translates the Greek word diaspora as Dispersion. The spreading of the believers equaled the spreading of the Gospel, fulfilling the Great Commission. Some argue they were forced to scatter due to persecution in Jerusalem and some argue they took off on their own in direct obedience. Even if you doubt the motivation of the individuals, there can be no denial that God’s purpose was accomplished.

e) Does God play favorites? If you looked up Ro 2:11 you already know the answer. Here’s another reference - 1 Tim 5:21 says, “I charge you in the sight of God and Jesus Christ and the elect angels, to keep these instructions without partiality, and to do nothing out of favoritism.” This last question is one we must look in the mirror to answer. Do you follow the same instructions given to Timothy? Who wants to see a bum off the street walk into their service? Are you frustrated by the disruption of a crying baby? Maybe the boss in the corner office doesn’t need your witness because he’s too important or has too much money. Who do you NOT tell them the Good News? Why? What are your prejudices?

1.1.7 How are you at telling the good news?

The following are a series of personal questions for you to ask yourself… Who have you shared the Good News with lately? How did you first hear it? Do you feel different now? Are you involved in any international missions? Do you think it is fair if God has favorites yet we’re not supposed to? Who do you serve?

Now I know why vampires hate the mirror. When God looks through your eyes into a mirror, He can see right through you.

1.1.8 Summary of James 1:1

James 1:1 James, a servant* of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, To the twelve tribes in the Dispersion: Greetings. (ESV) *or slave or bondservant

In this verse of our study we learned the author was most likely James the half-brother of Jesus. James didn’t get along with Jesus prior to the crucifixion, but later became an important figure in the Jerusalem church. This was probably one of if not the first NT book written. It was written to aid the early Christians, at that point primarily Jews, who had by this time left Jerusalem in obedience the Great Commission issued by Jesus (Mt 28), helped along by persecution of the Jewish leaders.

James 1:2

2 Consider it pure joy, my brothers, whenever you face trials [temptations] of many kinds, 3 because you know the testing of your faith develops perseverance. 4 Perseverance must finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything. — NIV

2 My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; 3 Knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience. 4 But let patience have her perfect work that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. — KJV

2 Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, 3 for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. 4 And let steadfastness have its full effect, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing. — ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:2 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
pas [3956] all, any, every chara [5479] joy, gladness, cheerfulness, delight hegeomai [2233] deem, consider, esteem, count, command, lead adephos [0080] brother, sibling (connected by womb, literal or figurative) mou [3450] I, me, my hotan [3752] when, while, till poikilos [3986] various, diverse, motley, of uncertain derivation peirasmos [4045] prove by: experiment, temptation, or adversity peripipto [4164] fall into or among, be surrounded with poikilos [3986] various, diverse, motley, of uncertain derivation

1.2.0 Introduction to James 1:2

In this verse James begins his letter in earnest. The very first subject he addresses is the difficulty of life. He smacks the reader upside the head with the instruction to take joy in all sorts of hard times. In our study of verse 2 we will explore this instruction in depth.

1.2.1 What is a brother?

James uses the phrase My brethren (or my brothers) to begin the body of the letter. Of course the nature of the sentence structure allows this phrase to go nearly anywhere inside verse 2, but I would prefer to cover the subject of brotherhood before going into other things. The Greek word used for brother is adelphos. It means from the same womb, nation, nature; of equal rank and dignity; associate. It could be translated as either “brothers” or “brothers and sisters.”

We know the term brother, as used here, is not limited to the males only. I don’t think it literally means the same womb, either, although (if we assume this James was Jesus’ half-brother) we know James did share the same womb with Jesus. James did not make his physical relationship with Jesus an issue, and in fact was effectively nullifying his half-brother physical status in favor of his brotherhood with fellow believers. James knew Jesus wasn’t just a man, He was divine. He was God wrapped in flesh.

Ro 8:14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. Of course we are not equal to Jesus, but we are in a brotherhood, sharing at least a bit of the nature of God by having the indwelling Spirit. We are of the same “nation” as God by having our home in the eternal. We are aliens here, as Abraham noted. Be cautious with this, though. Some would be tempted to say we are made in God’s image, and that justifies our brotherhood. This is not so. We are the clay. We can share brotherhood only in as much as the amount of the Spirit of God is put into our pot. It is a supernatural pot filled with its creator. The pot is not a “brother” unless it is filled with the stuff making it so. Don’t fall for a lie here. If you are full of the world, there’s no room in your pot. It is empty if you try to fill it with anything but the Water of Life (Jesus). We will speak much more on the authentic vs. inauthentic later.

Proverbs 17:17 A friend loves at all times, and a brother is born for adversity. This Proverb adds another interesting angle, one which I think is a wonderful comfort. Jesus referred to us as friends as well as brothers. Earlier we talked about being servants. This verse supports the one where Jesus says there’s no greater friend than the one who lays down his life for another. Jesus called us his friends. That’s better than being a servant, don’t you think? Now we have as part of our identity being brethren together, of the same Spirit of God, children together of God. We get more than a gold watch for our service, we get a piece of inheritance. Praise God!!! As to this Proverb, it says a brother is born for adversity. If you have a sibling, or know anyone who has a sibling, you know siblings tend to fight amongst themselves at times. You also know that’s okay until someone else picks on a brother, then whoa to the outsider. Jesus and the Holy Spirit indwelling and outpouring comfort us in adversity, help us in various ways, and lead us through difficulties to something better.

1.2.2 Why did James appeal to fellow Christians by calling them brothers?

Do you think it was to suck up? Do you think it was just a common manner of speech? Do you think he was trying to identify with other believers away from Jerusalem? Was he simply trying to get their attention? Maybe he was trying to make it clear this message was directed at fellow believers and not merely wannabes?

I think part of this does have to do with James’ unique position of being Jesus’ half-brother. He was demonstrating that he was no better, or that other believers were no worse (depending on whether you’re a glass half-full or half-empty kind of person.

Another advantage of launching this way is its diplomatic effect. They say people don’t care what you know until they know you care. James started the letter in a very friendly and personal way. We already saw there are plenty of scriptures to sustain the concept of fellow Christians being brothers with each other and being children together of God. In light of this phrase from James’ letter my attention was brought to Mt 5:9 “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the sons of God.” Are you a peacemaker?

1.2.3 Are fellow Christians your brothers?

This question is really two…

a) Do you feel close to fellow Christians, as like brothers?

This is a personal question. For me, I feel an immediate kinship with someone I recognize as a fellow believer. After asking this question of others I know many people do not quickly accept others as siblings in Christ. There’s at least something we all have in common. I don’t expect to agree on politics or even theological details, but Jesus Christ doesn’t change, nor his Lordship or Sovereignty.

b) Do you think of them as brothers?

This is kind of the same question, but rather than the subconscious feeling, do you make it conscious? Philemon 16: no longer as a slave but more than a slave, as a beloved brother—especially to me, but how much more to you, both in the flesh and in the Lord.

1.2.4 Regarding family problems…

Again, this is a multi-faceted question:

a) Do you always get along with your brothers and sisters in Christ?

Its not a perfect world - not yet anyway. The closer we draw to Jesus, the closer we will draw to each other, I think. Historically, it is sad to note that the church (little ‘c’) is often referred to as the only army which shoots its own wounded. This is a sarcastic stereotypical view of christianity (little c), but unfortunately it is well earned. Christians are called to take care of their own first and foremost, and to then share that kindness with others. Now this can easily be taken the wrong way, so don’t think I’m saying its supposed to be some exclusive club. I’m just saying we need to always be mindful of our family and take care of them. Don’t let a brother or sister languish in pain if you can help them. Don’t let them be hungry or naked. Don’t put them down and prevent them working. Help them avoid getting into a position of ridicule for their own foolish mistakes.

b) What about when I have problems with a ‘brother’?

There’s a wealth of scriptures that deal with brotherhood. Mt 5:23-24 helps with this question: So if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. There are others, but this one speaks to the importance of dealing with personal conflicts. I think our purpose for being in this world is to help others with their journey in this world. If you have a personal problem with a ‘brother’ then it stands to reason you need to work that out, not let it fester. Those kinds of things get in the way of your relationship with Jesus. The wisdom of this passage in Matthew to me is that you’ll find peace and help another wounded person if you take care of the issue sooner rather than later. It will please the Lord and make your offering more acceptable.

c) How does it affect you if you’ve got a problem with a brother?

1 John 2:9-11. “Anyone who claims to be in the light but hates his brother is still in the darkness. Whoever loves his brother lives in the light, and there is nothing in him to make him stumble. But whoever hates his brother is in the darkness and walks around in the darkness; he does not know where he is going because the darkness has blinded him.” Perhaps a discussion of the meanings of love and hate are in order, and if you feel the need to discuss it that’s what the comments are for. I’m going to leave off this and let the verse stand on its own merits as an answer to this question.

1.2.5 Are we really supposed to find joy during trials and temptations?

This is kind of a bogus question. James 1:2 tends to be a poorly understood passage because of the word “when.” Many people somehow think you should enjoy the experience of a trial or temptation. That is not what James is saying. It is more appropriate to think of the word “when” as referring to the result of the trial, not necessarily the experience as it is happening. The trial isn’t the joyful part, rather it’s the result of the trail.

I know people who have a lot of trouble with God because they think they’re supposed to be happy when they get hit in the face with five flavors of crap slung by five different people. Some get from verse this that God gave them the hard way to go and they’re supposed to be happy anyway. Nonsense. God has a magnificent way of taking manure and turning it into something beautiful. Satan destroys, but God creates. It takes fertilizer to grow a flower. If you only had sunshine, would the crops ever yield? You don’t have to like the rain, and you don’t have to like the crap, and you don’t have to like to the trials and temptations. God uses (not necessarily creates) problems we face to make us grow in our faith, to grow closer to Him. If we react as we’re instructed in this passage we will grow in our perseverance and we will one day lay hold of the prize.

Rev 3:18 I counsel you to buy from me gold refined by fire, so that you may be rich, and white garments so that you may clothe yourself and the shame of your nakedness may not be seen, and salve to anoint your eyes, so that you may see.

Mal 3:2-3 But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can stand when he appears? For he is like a refiner’s fire and like fullers’ soap. He will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and he will purify the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, and they will bring offerings in righteousness to the Lord.

Certainly being the silver or gold going through the refinement isn’t a lot of fun. It’s the high quality product at the end of the process God is interested in (and therefore WE should be interested in). God seeks perfection. We aren’t perfect. When we love God and let him refine us and accept his refining process, we become purified, his Grace being the staple of this, the atoning blood of Jesus providing the opportunity for grace.

1.2.6 What is meant by the term diverse temptation (trials of many kinds)?

According to my interlinear and other sources I checked, the Greek words “poikilois peirasmos” translate directly to “diverse temptation.” Diverse meaning “of many kinds” and the word for temptation also having possible connotations as trial or difficulty.

The Greek words poikilois peirasmos are the words translated here. I struggled with the different languages of NIV vs KJV, but with a little help from an online interlinear I gleaned a few things to help clarify.

The Greek word poikilois is translated as “diverse” in KJV and as “of many/varied kinds” in the NIV/ESV. These are all reasonable.

Greek word peirasmos is translated in KJV as “temptation,” but in NIV and ESV as “trial.” It was used more often in the NT mostly as what we traditionally think of as temptation, as from the devil. Some other places used include Mt 6:13, Mt 26:41, Lk 4:13, 1 Co 10:13, 1 Ti 6:9, to name a few. Here’s the literal translation:

Peirasmos:

1. an experiment, attempt, trial, proving: the trial made of you by my bodily condition, since condition served as to test the love of the Galatians toward Paul.

2. the trial of man’s fidelity, integrity, virtue, constancy

1. an enticement to sin, temptation, whether arising from the desires or from the outward circumstances

2. an internal temptation to sin 1b

3. of the temptation by which the devil sought to divert Jesus the Messiah from his divine errand

1. of the condition of things, or a mental state, by which we are enticed to sin, or to a lapse from the faith and holiness

2. adversity, affliction, trouble: sent by God and serving to test or prove one’s character, faith, holiness

4. temptation (i.e. trial) of God by men

1. rebellion against God, by which his power and justice are, as it were, put to the proof and challenged to show themselves

The Greek word more commonly translated as “trial” is “dokime.” It literally means proving, trial, approved, tried character, or a proof - as in a specimen of tried worth. In James 1:2 it seems either trial or temptation is acceptable, though later in James 1 the subject of temptation is dealt with in more detail. Temptation makes more sense in a no-nonsense view of what God wants to tell us. Trial, however, is more all-inclusive to the overall message James is conveying in this paragraph. Since either word is arguably valid we shall discuss both. We need to look for the good that comes from difficult challenges, whether presented by men, Satan, or God. Trials or temptations aren’t typically fun in and of themselves, but certainly when we persevere the gold we’ve purchased was well worth the price (ref Rev 3:18).

1.2.7 Do you feel pulled in many directions? Lots of distractions? Is it difficult to focus on God?

Phil 3:13-14 Brothers, I do not consider that I have made it my own. But one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead, I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus. Paul framed his fleshy experience walking in the world for Christ as a metaphor, in this case of a race. Paul used sports because races were popular. The first Olympics were during that era. Races were something people could relate to. I mention it in relation to the words of James because the antidote for distractions is to focus. Paul didn’t say it was easy to focus, in fact he said he strained (kicked at the goads). He didn’t say it was automatic, either. He said he was pressing toward the goal to with the prize he felt called toward, and in fact said he didn’t feel he’d yet taken hold of that prize.

We can become cocky if we think our salvation is secure on any given day of the week. Jn 15:4 Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me. Jesus warns us to remain in him, speaking about the vine and branches. The world is one gigantic distraction. Cars, TV, work - these are the innocuous things that distract us, never mind the more overt temptations like sex, money, gluttony, and so forth. I spend a lot of time and effort breaking down these verses and doing commentary. Lots of details. My goal isn’t to dissect in great detail, but to grow closer to my Master and share Him with anyone willing. It is a temptation to me to focus on these fine details and forget the reason for the message - to reach a lost world with a message of hope.

Jn 11:25-26 Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?” Jesus declares he is the source of eternal life.

Rev 21:4 gives enough of a glimpse at what this life will be like to know it is worth any price. He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning nor crying nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.

The good news of Eph 2:8-9 is that the price was paid by another and for us it is free. For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast.

Jn 3:18 Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God. John makes it clear that there is a string attached: “believe.” This is a verb, and it requires action. Jn 15:5 tells us to abide in Jesus. Jn 5:14 warns us to stop sinning - our sin has consequences. Jn 15:6 gives us a glimpse as to what those consequences are. Focus on the goal, and press on.

1.2.8 What is joy?

Joy is often confused with fun or happiness. My pocket explanation is as follows: Fun is pleasure, physical and light hearted. Happiness is the external expression of pleasure. Joy is internal, spiritual, deep, and consuming. From the dictionary:

Fun:

1.      A source of enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure.

2.      Enjoyment; amusement: have fun at the beach.

3.      Playful, often noisy, activity.

Happiness:

1.      Characterized by good luck; fortunate.

2.      Enjoying, showing, or marked by pleasure, satisfaction, or joy.

3.      Being especially well-adapted; felicitous: a happy turn of phrase.

4.      Cheerful; willing: happy to help.

5.      Characterized by a spontaneous or obsessive inclination to use something. Often used in combination: trigger-happy.

6.      Enthusiastic about or involved with to a disproportionate degree. Often used in combination: money-happy; clothes-happy.

Joy:

1.      Intense and especially ecstatic or exultant happiness.

2.      The expression or manifestation of such feeling.

3.      A source or an object of pleasure or satisfaction: their only child, their pride and joy.

1.2.9 How do you feel about having to face trials and/or temptations? How do you “count it joy” when things are tough?

Ro 8:28 And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose. For starters, know God is calling you and your journey will include carrying a cross. Ultimately, however, it all works out in the end.

Neh 8:10 Then he said to them, “Go your way. Eat the fat and drink sweet wine and send portions to anyone who has nothing ready, for this day is holy to our Lord. And do not be grieved, for the joy of the Lord is your strength.” Joy is a source of strength. That isn’t obvious, but experience only proves God’s word given in this verse.

Ro 5:3-5 More than that, we rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, and hope does not put us to shame, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us. This passage reads almost as though Paul were quoting James, though Paul puts a little different spin on the subject. The source of joy is the Holy Spirit. This is why I think of joy as internal and spiritual rather than external.

Col 1:9-12 And so, from the day we heard, we have not ceased to pray for you, asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, so as to walk in a manner worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him, bearing fruit in every good work and increasing in the knowledge of God. May you be strengthened with all power, according to his glorious might, for all endurance and patience with joy, giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified you to share in the inheritance of the saints in light. Yet another example of Paul standing in firm agreement with James, amplifying his words, but in no way taking away or changing the meaning of God’s message. Joy here is tied to patience and endurance, strength, knowledge, and obtaining the ultimate prize in eternity.

Happiness is contingent upon exterior conditions. Joy is contingent upon interior conditions. If we count it joy (internal) to fall into diverse temptations (external), we are able to persevere in the Lord (internal) during the trials (external). ’When’ denotes inevitability. Even the non-believer faces diverse trials/temptations. James 1:2 is a preparation verse, girding the saint for what lies in his path. Over time you can grow in faith to the point where trials aren’t distractions dividing you from the Lord, but rather they are the things that propelled you toward the Lord.

And so, the question above looms: Are you able to find the joy?

1.2.10 What is temptation?

In an earlier question we looked at the Greek word peirasmos translated “temptation” in the KJV and “trial” in the NIV and ESV. For now we are going to concentrate on temptation.

Websters defines “temptation” (n) as the act of tempting or the state of being tempted, or as an enticement. The root word, tempt (v), means to entice to do wrong by promise of pleasure; it also means to make a trial of a test; to provoke, to induce; to cause to be strongly inclined.

Lk 4:1-13 illustrates the Temptation of Christ that took place in the desert at the start of Jesus’ ministry: And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the wilderness for forty days, being tempted by the devil. And he ate nothing during those days. And when they were ended, he was hungry. The devil said to him, “If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread.” And Jesus answered him, “It is written, ‘Man shall not live by bread alone.’” And the devil took him up and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time, and said to him, “To you I will give all this authority and their glory, for it has been delivered to me, and I give it to whom I will. If you, then, will worship me, it will all be yours.” And Jesus answered him, “It is written, “‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.’” And he took him to Jerusalem and set him on the pinnacle of the temple and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here, for it is written, “‘He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,’ and “‘On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone.’” And Jesus answered him, “It is said, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’” And when the devil had ended every temptation, he departed from him until an opportune time.

Jesus went straight from his water baptism by John to the desert where he fasted 40 days, preparing for his encounter with Satan. Satan tried three times to tempt Jesus. First with food. Second with power. Finally to tempt him to prove who he was. There are probably a hundred lessons we can take from this passage, but in context with our study we see that what Satan did met the textbook definition of temptation. The same Greek word used for temptation in this passage of Luke is also used by James.

While Jesus overcame the temptation, in Acts 5:1-10 we see an example of a temptation that wasn’t overcome by Ananias and Sapphira, and the result. James 1:13-15 explains the process of how temptation becomes sin, but we’ll discuss that later.

1.2.11 Who Tempts Us?

James 1:13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am being tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted with evil, and he himself tempts no one. Satan is the ultimate – if not direct – source of temptation. God does not tempt. Temptation is not just an enticement to do wrong in exchange for pleasure. The pleasure is a lie because after you’ve sinned you always feel empty, dirty, sick, and there is no pleasure. Most people would call this your conscience. The promise of pleasure was a lie. Duh: it was Satan making you the promise. What else did you expect?

Heb 12:7 It is for discipline that you have to endure. God is treating you as sons. For what son is there whom his father does not discipline? The source of discipline is God. Discipline may seem unpleasant at the time, but the results are good – unlike temptation which is manifested in sin. (Heb 12:11 For the moment all discipline seems painful rather than pleasant, but later it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it.)

Tests/trials may be of God, of Satan, or of man. Not necessarily enjoyable themselves, still God uses for good what was intended for evil. We are told to test (prove – KJV) all things and hold onto the good (1 Thess 5:21), so testing can certainly be humanly induced. Testing (proving) is the kind of righteous judgment we are authorized to undertake. Testing by God divides good from bad, like the pruning of Jn 15. Satan is also judgmental, but he’s looking for prey. Unrighteous judgment is a tool, in fact a temptation, he uses to lure us into division.

 

Discipline

Test/Trial

Temptation

From

God

God/World/Satan

Satan

Result of

Disobedience/Ignorance

Following God

Pride/Exposure

How to tell

Fits Crime

Proves Faith

Leads Astray

Feeling

Painful

Challenging

Enticing

Right Response

Repent

Persevere

Resist

Do Not

Make Light of

Shine Back

Fall Into

God Says

We’re Sons

His Name’s in Us

Flesh is Weak

Ends With

Fear & Holiness

Death & Glory

Sin or Victory

1.2.12 Why does Satan try to tempt us?

1 Peter 5:8 Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. This verse makes it clear the devil is looking for prey. He will steal our souls if we let him (Mk 13:22). Short of that he’ll do whatever he can to prevent us from being effective in our service to our Master (2 Pe 1:3-15). At every turn he will try to steal our joy (2 Cor 12:7).

The bible calls Satan a deceiver (Rev 20:8), an accuser (Rev 12:10), and a tormentor (2 Cor 12:7). Satan does so well because he looks so good (2 Cor 11:14). One of Satan’s greatest successes was in the garden (Gen 3). One of his greatest failures was in the desert (Lk 4).

James 1:15 Then desire when it has conceived gives birth to sin, and sin when it is fully grown brings forth death. Temptations play on our carnal desires. If the lies can be sold to us through convincing deception (and our nature is to want to hear what we want to hear) we let the desire turn into sin. If Satan could cause the fall of the perfect creation of God (Gen 1:31, 3:6), don’t you think he can get to us? Especially if we don’t seek (Jn 15:7) a “hedge” of protection from God (Job 1:10).

I heard it said that Satan is just trying to make us ineffective, that he can’t harm us directly. Don’t be deceived! Remember the parable of the seeds (Lk 8)? They all got the same seeds, but Satan can try and all too often succeeds at taking away the faith. Do you think you can’t fail in faith? Then you have already accepted a lie. The warning is 2 Pe 2:21. No faith, no salvation (Jn 3:18).

1.2.13 Are we alone when we face temptation?

1 Peter 5:9 Resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same kinds of suffering are being experienced by your brotherhood throughout the world. Do you ever feel like you’re fighting the good fight, but you’re doing it all by yourself and there’s nobody else out there on the same team? You’ve heard it said that misery loves company. While I take that as a worldly euphemism, I think its true for many that comfort and strength can be drawn from knowing that you are not alone in your struggles. Jesus faced temptations (Lk 4), too. Aside from Christ, none of the prophets or disciples were perfect, they all struggled, and most of them had it pretty bad. Whatever you are struggling with today, abide in the company of the Lord (Jn 15:5) and you will find help (Ps 121) when you ask (Jn 15:7).

1.2.14 What should we do about temptation?

Before I even try to answer, let me tell you there’s a big difference between what to do about Satan and what to do about temptation. People tend to get confused about this, so I’ll try to be as clear as possible. There are two basic choices: fight or flight. Which is right?

Avoid it. 1 Thess 5:22 “Avoid every kind of evil.” Make every effort not to be put into a bad position.

Abstain from it. 1 Peter 2:11 “Dear friends, I urge you as aliens and strangers in the world, to abstain from sinful desires, which war against your soul.” As Nancy Reagan liked to say, “Just Say No.”

Flee From it and Replace it. 2 Tim 2:22 “Flee the evil desires of youth, and pursue righteousness, faith, love, and peace, along with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart.” This verse is extremely good because it contains two parts, and the second is the real key, in my humble opinion. Like the other verses above it tells us to run away from the bad, but this one states what should be obvious - run to what is good. Replace the desires of the flesh with a desire for the Lord. If you’re concentrating on what is good, it will be more difficult for the selfish desires to get hold of you. 1 Cor 6:18 and 10:14 also provide instructions to flee temptation.

Deny Self. Lk 9:23 “Then he said to them all, ‘If anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me.’“ This verse, like the one above it, essentially says to turn from your self (your selfish desires which capitalize on temptation) and seek the Lord instead. I think this is the distilled essence of repentance.

Put your confidence in the Lord. 1 Cor 10:13 “No temptation has seized you except what is common to man. And God is faithful; he will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear. But when you are tempted, he will also provide a way out so you can stand up under it.” Solomon said there’s nothing new under the sun. I just love that saying.

Nowhere in scripture does it tell you to fight temptation. Nowhere does it say use willpower to stand up to temptation. The word tells us to avoid it, escape it (flee), replace it with what is Godly. In fact, in my bible’s concordance it lists the word ‘flee’ 6 times, 5 of those are about fleeing temptation (the other says you can’t flee God). Don’t give temptation a foothold to get inside your tent.

1.2.15 What should we do about Satan?

First, consider this: What are we supposed to do about God? Well, chiefly we are to worship him. What does God do? Among other things, God creates. As part of the creation, we like it and therefore worship him. We don’t worship creation, do we? No, we accept and appreciate and cohabitate with the rest of creation, but worship is reserved for God alone.

As to Satan, we know he doesn’t worship. He lies and destroys. If someone came into your home and tried to kill your children, wouldn’t you fight them? If you wanted to reduce the risk of this happening, you would move to a better neighborhood, get a good set of door locks, get an alarm system, join a neighborhood watch, and so forth. You would take preventative action. Yesterday when we spoke of temptation and what to do, we were taking preventative actions. With regard to Satan’s attacks, we shift from the passive action of preventing a problem to facing and dealing with a problem in progress.

Jas 4:7b Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. With temptation we were told to flee. With Satan, we are told to resist. Resist is an interesting word. It implies a defensive confrontation. We aren’t instructed to pick a fight, rather to defend ourselves when the enemy presents himself.

Eph 6:10-18 Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his might. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places. Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand firm. Stand therefore, having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and, as shoes for your feet, having put on the readiness given by the gospel of peace. In all circumstances take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming darts of the evil one; and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, praying at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints… This is known as the “Whole Armor of God” passage. It is included here in its entirety so you can see for yourself what it entails. God wins, not us. Satan schemes against us. Our enemy is not merely men. Most of the armor is defensive. Only the “Spirit, which is the word of God” is an offensive weapon of attack. Of all the components, this item is purely God and not at all human. Finally, we are instructed to use constant prayer to maintain communication with the battle commander. If we stop communicating with God, we then take matters into our own hands. Of what value is our only offensive weapon if we cannot wield it?

We don’t do battle against temptation because it is unrealized sin. We avoid sin by avoiding temptation. Satan seeks to devour (1 Pe 5:8), so him we have to face and fight.

Dt 31:6 Be strong and courageous. Do not fear or be in dread of them, for it is the Lord your God who goes with you. He will not leave you or forsake you. We aren’t alone. If we don’t “abide” in Jesus, can we expect to have God’s help and his authority to make Satan flee? No, I don’t think so. None of this scripture stands alone. It must be taken as a whole and in context to understand the full gravity of what is going on. That’s why we need the full armor of God. We can’t win alone.

Various authors say not to give Satan authority he doesn’t have. I would say don’t be deceived about the authority he already has (Gen 3, Ro 5, Eph 6:12, Rev 12:9). We don’t need to give him authority because God already has done that. I’ve also heard that Satan can’t be everywhere at once and he doesn’t attack and tempt us directly all the time. Be very careful if that’s what you think. We don’t know how quickly Satan can move from place to place and we don’t know what God permits Satan to do in any given situation (remember Job?). We know Satan isn’t alone. There’s plenty of demons who do the same work and we have no idea how many of them there are - all are classified as “devil” as far I can tell. And, the “dark principalities and powers of this world” are the men who do the bidding of Satan (evil). They’re certainly lurking all around us, too, and they’re visible!

The desire to sin already lies in our flesh. In Romans 5 we see a sinful nature is passed down from Adam, brought to him courtesy of Satan, thus we are susceptible to temptation and sin. Satan doesn’t have to be personally and directly involved for you to “feel” temptation. He is the ultimate author of sin and lies. The world (property of Satan) provides plenty of common temptations courtesy of its author.

Why must we deny the self and pick up our cross daily and follow Christ if not to fight?

1.2.16 Should we fear Satan?

2 Tim 4:18 The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed and bring me safely into his heavenly kingdom. To him be the glory forever and ever. Amen. It is worth noting that the rescue might be more like Stephen’s case where you are “rescued” to heaven (Acts 7:54-60) rather than Peter’s escape from prison (Acts 12:1-17). Either way, God makes provisions according to His will. We aren’t taught to fear Satan, but to resist him. Resist implies defensive fighting rather than offensive, but it is still fighting. We are only told to fear God (Pr 1:7). Fear him because he can more than kill you, he can throw you into hell (Lk 12:4-5).

Short answer: No.

James 1:3

2 Consider it pure joy, my brothers, whenever you face trials [temptations] of many kinds, 3 because you know the testing of your faith develops perseverance. 4 Perseverance must finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything. — NIV

2 My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; 3 Knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience. 4 But let patience have her perfect work that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. — KJV

2 Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, 3for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. 4 And let steadfastness have its full effect, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing. — ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:3 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
ginosko [1097] know, be certain, feel, perceive hoti [3754] that, which… (conjunction) ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) dokimion [1383] determination of trustworthiness through: testing, try, trial humon [5216] you, your, yourselves ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) pistis [4102] belief, assurance, faith, fidelity, moral conviction, system of religious truth katergazomai [2716] accomplish, finish, perform, work out hupomone [5281] endurance, constancy, perseverance, patience while waiting

1.3.0 Introduction to James 1:3

This verse continues the flow of thought from the previous verse by adding a purpose to the perplexing problems of life. While studying this verse we shall explore the concepts of faith, testing, and perseverance.

1.3.1 Why are we subjected to testing?

Zech 13:9 And I will put this third into the fire, and refine them as one refines silver, and test them as gold is tested. They will call upon my name, and I will answer them. I will say, ‘They are my people’; and they will say, ‘The Lord is my God.’” Surely if it’s the work of God, it is for the best possible purpose. That’s a good reason to find joy in your struggles.

Actually, James 1:3 answers the question quite nicely without the help of Zechariah, although it illustrates with poetic beauty of what perseverance, patience, or steadfastness is really all about.

1.3.2 How can we determine if something is a temptation toward evil or test to develop Godliness?

First, let’s understand the word translated as “testing” in NIV/ESV or “trying” in KJV. This particular word in the Greek is transliterated dokimion. It appears only twice in NT scripture: here and 1 Pe 1:7 so that the tested genuineness of your faith—more precious than gold that perishes though it is tested by fire—may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ. NIV translates dokimion as “prove”. The word appears to have the same basic meaning when read in context, regardless of the version.

To paraphrase Webster’s, a “test” essentially is a critical observation, examination, evaluation, or procedure to prove or disprove something supposed. A trial may also be defined similar to test, which is to say a trial proves or disproves something.

Ro 5:4-5 and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, and hope does not put us to shame, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us. Romans 5:1-5 needs to be read to see the entire context, but verses 4-5 are critical to supporting and expounding on James 1:3. God’s tests prove us to be his, and cleanse us along the way, making us better (more Godly) people, and strengthens our relationship with our Lord and thus our hope in the prize which we strive for.

1 Thess 5:21 but test everything; hold fast what is good. I’m kind of turning the question around here, but I think it’s also a valid approach. If we want to know the source of a test, then we must test the test, so to speak. If it is good, or rather if the results are good, then we are proving God’s work. Again I would refer you to Zech 13:9, or you can look up “refine” in your concordance. See also Gal 5:22-23, the “fruit of the spirit” passage.

If something results in our falling into sin, it was probably a temptation and we were probably suckered. If the test was of God and we still failed, its because Satan was offering us the wrong answer – which probably looked easier and better and right to our minds – when our minds aren’t focused as they should be on God. I don’t think God sets us up for failure. God promises not put more on us than we can handle. But still, Satan will take advantage of our weakness for harm just as God will use our weakness to Glorify himself.

1.3.3 What about when we flunk a test?

Heb 12:5b-6 (quoting Prov 3:11-12) “My son, do not regard lightly the discipline of the Lord, nor be weary when reproved by him. For the Lord disciplines the one he loves, and chastises every son whom he receives.” This is a loaded question. To be fair, I don’t think we “flunk” tests. If God knows all, then He knows the outcome of the test before it happens. He still allows it because it fits in with His divine purpose. Whether or not we choose what is right in a situation, we grow from the experience.

Pr 12:1 Whoever loves discipline loves knowledge, but he who hates reproof is stupid. We already know why God tests us. It isn’t a matter of pass or fail. It always comes back to the condition of our heart. In Luke 10:27 Jesus speaks very clearly when he says, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself.”

1.3.4 May we test God?

Lk 4:12 And Jesus answered him, “It is said, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’” Here is speaking directly to Satan during the wilderness temptation. This verse seems to say No.

1 Thess 5:21 but test everything; hold fast what is good. This verse seems to say yes.

1 Jo 4:1-2 Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, This verse helps put the other two in perspective.

There’s a big context difference between the verses I quoted from Luke and 1 Thessalonians. In Luke Jesus is speaking directly to Satan. Satan already knows who Jesus is. Satan wasn’t trying to determine whether Jesus was good or evil. To think so would be absurd. The reference from Paul is an instruction to determine the source of things. It isn’t saying put God on trial, its saying find out if something is from God. Its only after you know something’s from God that you tread thin ice by testing further. The reference from 1 John is a practical aide in making such judgments and even goes so far as to explain why its important to do so.

Test things to determine (prove) whether they are from God. More than a good idea, this is an explicit instruction. See also 1 Cor 12:9.

Do not put God on trial or tempt him, so to speak. See also Ps 77:13, Dt 32:4, Isa 55:8, Job 23:10. The Lord proclaims his way is right. Who are we to judge? The real issue is doubt versus faith. Once you determine something is from God, you display a lack of faith if you test God further and outright sin if you disobey.

1.3.5 Is it fair that God tests us and we’re not supposed to test him?

Zech 13:9 And I will put this third into the fire, and refine them as one refines silver, and test them as gold is tested. They will call upon my name, and I will answer them. I will say, ‘They are my people’; and they will say, ‘The Lord is my God.’” We’re tested to be refined. God needs no refinement. He tests us because of His love for us. God proves Himself in His faithfulness to us all the time.

Ro 9:20-21 But who are you, O man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, “Why have you made me like this?” Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for honored use and another for dishonorable use? We are merely the clay and must never forget this. It is an essential understanding, not just to grasp the concept of testing, but the very concept of salvation itself. If we seek to place God on trial, we do as Satan suggested Eve do. Satan told Eve she would be like God. She bought the lie. If we buy the lie, then we forget we are the molded clay. The first step toward salvation is the realization we are imperfect created beings, not sovereign unto ourselves, and in need of the perfect sacrificial salvation courtesy of God’s grace – the unearned free gift of our loving creator.

James 1:4

2 Consider it pure joy, my brothers, whenever you face trials [temptations] of many kinds, 3 because you know the testing of your faith develops perseverance. 4 Perseverance must finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything. (NIV)

2 My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; 3 Knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience. 4 But let patience have her perfect work that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. (KJV)

2 Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, 3 for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. 4 And let steadfastness have its full effect, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing. (ESV)

Greek Transliteration of James 1:4 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) de [1161] and, but, now… (conjunction) hupomone [5281] endurance, constancy, perseverance, patience while waiting ergon [2041] toil, work, labor, doing, deed, act telieos [5046] complete, full age, perfect echo [2192] hold, accompany, count, next hina [2443] in order that, because, lest, so that o [5600] may, might, can, could, would should… telieoi [5046] complete kai [2532] and, also, even, so then, too holoklaria [3648] integrity, physical perfection en [1722] preposition denoting place: such as in, at, of, through… medeis [3367] none, not, nothing leipo [3007] leave, fail, absent, lack, destitute

1.4.0 Introduction to James 1:4

Verse 4 continues the flow again from the preceding verses. It instructs us to utilize what we gain from our adversities for maximum benefit and expounds with even more good reasoning. While studying this verse we will dig deeper into the concepts of patience, perseverance and steadfastness. That is followed by an extended look at maturity and completeness.

1.4.1 What are patience (KJV), perseverance (NIV) and steadfastness (ESV)?

Patience may be a virtue, but you don’t get it overnight. This isn’t fast food faith here, and we’re not going to rush patience. In the last verse we focused on testing. We saw, among other things, that the positive result of testing is patience/perseverance. As we move into this verse we’re going to explore a bit this concept of patience/perseverance. The definitions below are from http://dictionary.reference.com, the online interlinear resource I use is Patience may be a virtue, but you don’t get it overnight. This isn’t fast food faith here, and we’re not going to rush patience. In the last verse we focused on testing. We saw, among other things, that the positive result of testing is patience/perseverance. As we move into this verse we’re going to explore a bit this concept of patience/perseverance. The definitions below are from http://dictionary.reference.com, the online interlinear resource I use is http://bible.crosswalk.com/InterlinearBible, and an older Interlinear Greek translation (Dr. George Ricker Berry, 1943).

Patient (The definition of patient is required to fully understand patience):

1.      Bearing or enduring pain, difficulty, provocation, or annoyance with calmness.

2.      Marked by or exhibiting calm endurance of pain, difficulty, provocation, or annoyance.

3.      Tolerant; understanding: an unfailingly patient leader and guide.

4.      Persevering; constant: With patient industry, she revived the failing business and made it thrive.

5.      Capable of calmly awaiting an outcome or result; not hasty or impulsive.

6.      Capable of bearing or enduring pain, difficulty, provocation, or annoyance: “My uncle Toby was a man patient of injuries” (Laurence Sterne).

Patience

1.      The capacity, quality, or fact of being patient.

2.      Chiefly British. The game solitaire.

Synonyms: patience, long-suffering, resignation, forbearance These nouns denote the capacity to endure hardship, difficulty, or inconvenience without complaint. Patience emphasizes calmness, self-control, and the willingness or ability to tolerate delay: Our patience will achieve more than our force (Edmund Burke). Long-suffering is long and patient endurance, as of wrong or provocation: The general, a man not known for docility and long-suffering, flew into a rage. Resignation implies acceptance of or submission to something trying, as out of despair or necessity: I undertook the job with an air of resignation. Forbearance denotes restraint, as in retaliating, demanding what is due, or voicing disapproval: “It is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love, and charity towards each other” (Patrick Henry).

Persevere

To persist in or remain constant to a purpose, idea, or task in the face of obstacles or discouragement.

Perseverance

1.      Steady persistence in adhering to a course of action, a belief, or a purpose; steadfastness.

2.      Christianity. The Calvinistic doctrine that those who have been chosen by God will continue in a state of grace to the end and will finally be saved.

Steadfast

1.      marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable; “firm convictions”; “a firm mouth”; “steadfast resolve”; “a man of unbendable perseverence”; “unwavering loyalty”

2.      firm and dependable especially in loyalty; “a steadfast ally”; “a staunch defender of free speech”; “unswerving devotion”; “unswerving allegiance”

Synonyms: firm, steady, unbendable, unfaltering, unshakable, unwavering, staunch, unswerving, faithful The root word, stead, literally means fixed, as fixed in place.

Greek: hupomone

The interlinear transliteration of the word rendered patience (KJV), perseverance (NIV), and steadfastness (ESV) in James 1:4 is hupomone. The word appears 31 times in the NT. I don’t have a good resource to know about NIV without actually looking up each reference, but I’m not sure it really matters. The ideas conveyed by the word perseverance seem to be consistent with that of patience. Both terms speak to enduring a difficulty while remaining steadfast in one’s purpose and belief. In fact, my own interlinear bible actually translates the Greek word hupomone as endurance.

I think it is absolutely critical that we understand the words we are using if we what to know completely what this passage is really saying. That said, as we go through the next few questions I may use the terms perseverance, patience and endurance interchangeably.

1.4.2 Why do we need patience/perseverance/steadfastness?

Prov 14:29 Whoever is slow to anger has great understanding, but he who has a hasty temper exalts folly. The Proverb is a very practical reason for needing patience. The patient person isn’t seen as a fool. They are thought of as thoughtful and wise. Of course how God sees us and how people see us are different, but certainly if you’re going to be an effective witness to others you need to be respected.

Eph 6:13 Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand firm. If you are wondering why I chose this verse as a reference, consider what it takes to stand up to adversity. Does adversity come quickly and leave quickly? Well, it may seem to come quickly but rarely are problems solved as quickly. It takes perseverance/steadfastness to see through a troubling situation to the end and come out standing tall on the other side. It takes patience to deal with all the crap along the way and not loose your cool, thus your footing, and become the man of folly from the Proverb above.

Ro 15:4 For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. I think this verse is both relevant and interesting with regard to our question. God is eternal and so His perseverance, steadfastness, and endurance are indeed perfect and eternal. If the Word of God is real, then it stands to reason that the Word is likewise eternally steadfast. It is unchanging and error free.

1.4.3 What can cause us to loose our perseverance/steadfastness?

James 1: 2-8 Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. And let steadfastness have its full effect, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing. If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him. But let him ask in faith, with no doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea that is driven and tossed by the wind. For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord; he is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways. Doubt is unbelief. It makes you wishy-washy. Certainty of faith makes you steadfast – completely unshakable and stubborn for the Lord.

When I am certain of something, I’m very steadfast about it. Or, as my lovely wife will attest, I am stubborn. When I doubt, though, I am more easily tripped up. Both Paul (Ro 9:33) and Peter (1 Pe 2:6-8) reference Isaiah 8:14 speaking of Jesus as the stone which causes stumbling of the unbelieving, but is a cornerstone to those who do believe. The opposite of belief (and the killer of belief) is doubt! James explains very clearly and eloquently in 1:6-8 what the doubter faces. Just like Paul and Peter, James explains in his own words the critical importance of having a faith that is deep, sure, and true. It must be based on the Rock, Jesus Christ, and it must be devoid of doubt. If your faith is solid and you are sure of what it is you believe in, you will be very stubborn indeed about it, and you will not fall when you are pushed by the world.

1.4.4 How do we become equipped to persevere?

2 Tim 3:16-17 “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work.” God’s Word seems to be a pretty good place to start.

1 Chron 28:9 (David speaking to his son, Solomon) “And you, Solomon my son, know the God of your father and serve him with a whole heart and with a willing mind, for the Lord searches all hearts and understands every plan and thought. If you seek him, he will be found by you, but if you forsake him, he will cast you off forever.” (Emphasis added.) The carrot always seems to have a stick behind it, but key part for now is in bold. Start in the word, then go to the Lord in person (i.e. in prayer).

Lk 9:23 And he said to all, ‘If anyone would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me.’ This verse impacts so many subjects, and here it is again. Once we learn, and we’ve gone to the Lord and we have that personal relationship, we must step out in trust and obey him. True enough: we are saved by grace; but we were also created to do good things (Eph 2:8-10). When we deny ourselves and take up his cross we are putting actively developing perseverance. Can you learn the piano by studying a book or speaking with the teacher? No, those are important steps and can’t be skipped, but they’re not enough to make you a pianist. You must practice. You’ll need the teacher’s help, and you will need sheet music, but you absolutely must put your hands on the instrument and play in order to truly learn and be good enough to play a real song. Oh, this is such a fine analogy, I hope I don’t need to go on.

If you go back and review the definitions from question 1.4.1 you will see that perseverance is developed over time through action. The action is guided by the Master, directed, and made possible by the Lord. Still, we are the performers. His stage, his audience, his “piano,” but we are the players. He will clap when we succeed, and lovingly correct us when we miss a note. As we get better we will be able to play beautifully for the most horrendous crowd and will not be distracted by the hecklers. Don’t fret, because God is holding the cue cards for the audience. Just trust him, and go out there and play.

1.4.5 What are we persevering against?

1 Tim 4:1-2 Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons, through the insincerity of liars whose consciences are seared. If you were thinking ahead I bet you were expecting me to quote Eph 6:12. And that would be another great verse to use, but I like what Paul is telling Timothy because it is so very practical. It illustrates exactly what the passage in Eph 6 is talking about. The point is, we are persevering against the lies and the liars. Of course the first, greatest, and father of lies is Satan, but we also oppose the natural man living in his sinful selfish nature. The sins of Adam carry down to us all, so we ought not get haughty and think ourselves above our flaws or we become the hypocrite. We must persevere against the lies and the liars. When we persevere, we stand and are not pushed or fooled by the world and its lying liars.

1.4.6 How long must we persevere?

1 Thess 4:15-17 For this we declare to you by a word from the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord.

Until then. That’s how long.

This passage is one of great mystery and beauty to me. It identifies clearly (if not plainly) what we have our hopes set upon. Rev 21:4 also speaks to me of what it is I am hoping for. I can’t explain the form and function beyond the scriptures, I can only trust God to keep his word about all the other stuff he says in his instruction manual. He will keep his word about what we are looking forward to.

1.4.7 What is meant by ‘mature and complete’?

Mt 18:3-4 Truly, I say to you, unless you turn and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Whoever humbles himself like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. This verse wouldn’t seem to be describing maturity or completeness, but it does. It is the very most essential aspect of spiritual maturity. It is the utter acceptance of those who know that they don’t know anything, that they are just a babe, and that they look with awe and wonder and absolutely devoted trust and faith to their loving father. God said he would confound the wise. Are you confounded?

1 Cor 13:11 When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I gave up childish ways. In this passage Paul is speaking of childishness, not the characteristics of being childlike. Childish and childlike are utterly different concepts. When we first believe we are spiritual newborns, thus in our faith we are childlike. As our spirituality matures, we grow in faith and wisdom.

1 Pe 2:2 Like newborn infants, long for the pure spiritual milk, that by it you may grow up to salvation — This verse talks of craving milk as a newborn (new convert). Hebrews 5:11-14 expounds on this by telling believers that you can’t remain a babe in the spirit: About this we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing. For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the basic principles of the oracles of God. You need milk, not solid food, for everyone who lives on milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, since he is a child. But solid food is for the mature, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil. Just as your flesh matures, your spirituality is expected to mature. Verse 14 even tells you why. Mature so that you can tell good from evil. If you can do that, it is much easier to endure the pushing of the world and remain standing. When you mature the opportunities for doubt diminish and you are less likely to be blown about, and you will be stable. Maturity means you will be able to earn rewards (fulfilled expectations) from the Lord (Jas 1:7)

1.4.8 What are some benefits of maturing?

Maturity is the absolute faith and loyalty of a child, but without the childish (selfish) behavior that goes with being a literal child. Okay, so what’s the big deal?

Heb 5:13-14 for everyone who lives on milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, since he is a child. But solid food is for the mature, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil. I know we referenced this in the previous question, but this time it’s the primary answer. When you become more mature you get solid food. If you’re a baby then maybe you only want milk. Is that the kind of faith you want to have? Do you want only the soft stuff? I want to grow and be strong. I want meat and potatoes. I want to chew, and grow tall. I want to be able to stand. The rain falls on the just and the unjust alike. The wind blows in the same fashion. The world pushes. The liars lie, and the lie is the same whether you are strong are weak. Better to be strong so as to endure, and at the end to be standing. If you can’t tell good from evil, you probably won’t be standing when the wave rolls back.

1.4.9 How are maturity and completeness demonstrated?

Maturity: Gal 5:22-25 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law. And those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires. If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit. A lot of people can quote v22-23, but how many have v24-25 memorized as well? These are much more challenging words to accept and hold dear, but they are no less important. The fruit demonstrate maturity, to be sure. But foundational is the crucifixion of our natural selves, the selfish people who we were as when unregenerated. The old man was crucified when the seed was planted in us, but if we are actually walking in step with the Spirit then we must surely enjoy the benefit of our carnal passions and desires being displaced by the Holy Spirit.

Completeness: Jn 15:4 Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me. We are complete when we are grafted into and remain in Christ. The sapling doesn’t bear good fruit, but the mature plant is complete and it bears fruit. If grafted to the good vine it bears good fruit. That’s complete.

1.4.10 Perfect or Mature?

Telios: The Greek word is telios is defined as: 1. brought to its end, finished; 2. wanting nothing necessary to completeness; 3. perfect; 4. that which is perfect: 4a) consummate human integrity and virtue; 4b) of men: full grown, adult, of full age, mature

The term translated “mature” in NIV is translated “perfect” in every other version I’ve looked at including KJV, NASB, and ESV. Given the context and the definition of the Greek word provided by my online Greek lexicon, “mature” is at least a possible rendering. As such, the study of maturity from the last few days is not completely out of place. In context with the balance of the paragraph and the chapter as a whole, I’m okay with the word mature.

The word “perfect” is also a very acceptable word and is likewise suitable in context. To those of us steeped in the English language, however, the word “perfect” tends to have a different atmosphere to it. Perfection is something unattainable outside of God, therefore it stands to reason we need God in order to even approach perfect. To me, maturity implies seniority. Perfection implies being utterly and completely remade and new, whole, and complete. Is it just me, or does maturity not seem to be something less than perfect?

I then looked up the word translated “complete” (holokleros). This word is translated complete in every version except KJV, which uses the word “entire.” Okay, I’ll buy that. Combined with telios, holokleros adds emphasis to the concept of fullness of being.

Finally, the phrase “lacking in nothing,” or “not lacking anything,” or “wanting nothing” all mean pretty much the same thing. It means you don’t need anything else in order to be complete, whole, mature, or as I like to say: in the fullness of being.

In context with the balance of the passage, James is talking about how God uses the challenges we face to show us how to persevere, which refines us, thus making us whole and complete. When we are made whole, through life experiences walking with God, through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, through study of God’s Word, and through the shedding of what is worldly within us, we are purified, perfected, made whole, we lack nothing, and have nothing extra which is unnecessary.

It is this last concept I want to dwell only a moment longer. We talked earlier about the refinement process, how God uses trials and tests to refine us as gold or silver. These elements are found in the earth as ore. Most of the time the ore, while it contains what is pure, also contains a lot of other rock which must be burned away in order to obtain a sample which is only made of the pure elemental substance. Being whole, entire, complete, mature, and perfect all imply that the debris (all the impurities) have been removed. Please do not let this aspect be lost on you when considering what James is telling us.

The perfecting work of God is not only to add all that which is good, but to remove all that which is bad.

1.4.11 Summary of James 1:2-4

James 1:2-4 2 Count it all joy, my brothers, when you meet trials of various kinds, 3 for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. 4 And let steadfastness have its full effect, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing. (ESV)

James begins his letter by consoling the believers about the difficulties they face. He explains that God uses those difficulties to make us stronger in faith, more mature as believers, and pure. These are things to be happy about in spite of the hardships involved with attaining those qualities. He encourages the reader with a message of joy, even in the face of it all. He lets the reader know that while yes, we are tested, that testing is a good thing and has good results. Steadfastness, perseverance, and patience - whichever word you prefer - are all good an noble qualities, but most importantly they are qualities that make it possible for the believer to endure hardships through the course of life and to be able to lay hold of the eternal life which they’ve hoped for all the while. As for me, I think stubborn might be just as good a word. I want to be stubborn for God.

By examining and comparing different versions we were also lead to study and gain a better understanding of the nature of temptation, trials, discipline, and tests. While these terms seem on the surface to be nearly equivalent, we learned by looking deeper into scripture and seeking a better understanding of both modern English and ancient Greek that there are some very important lessons to be taken from the nuances. Satan is the father of lies and God cannot lie. Satan tempts, God does not. Discernment is needed, and it is a gift from God to be discussed in the study of upcoming verses.

Another fine nuance found in the forth verse is “let.” It is a very important word and one of two direct and specific instructions given in this paragraph. The first is “count.” They are both verbs, both direct, both commands. We must let (i.e. allow, not prevent) the stubbornness (e.g. steadfastness / perseverance / patience) take over. That’s when we are pure. In other words, James is saying we need to stubbornly let the Holy Spirit do its job and we reap the reward of purity and joy.

The question has come up about what appears to be a doctrine of works held forth by James whereas Paul preaches a doctrine of grace by faith. I see no difference. In fact, I see perfect agreement - albeit with complimentary (not counter) instructions. As we progress through the balance of James, particular when we someday get to the part about “faith without works is dead” we will come to understand the deeper meanings and if you stay with us that long, I believe we will together come to a much deeper appreciation of what the Holy Spirit does through us, that we are incapable of doing it ourselves, and that no works of human hands are worthy. The works James speaks of are those performed by the Spirit, not our hands alone. Ah, but I don’t mean to spoil the joy to come...

James 1:5

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lacks wisdom, he should ask God who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to him. 6 But when he asks, he must believe and not doubt, because he who doubts is like a wave of the sea, blown and tossed by the wind. 7 That man should not think he will receive anything from the Lord; 8 he is a double-minded man, unstable in all he does.” — NIV

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed. 7 For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord. 8 A double minded man is unstable in all his ways.” — KJV

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, with no doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea that is driven and tossed by the wind. 7 For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord; 8 he is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways.” — ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:5 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
ei [1487] if, whether, that (conditional participle) de [1161] and, but, now… (conjunction) tis [5100] anyone, anything, someone, something, somewhat humon [5216] you, your, yourselves leipo [3007] leave, fail, absent, lack, destitute sophia [4678] wisdom aiteo [0154] ask, beg, crave, desire, require para [3844] near ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) didomi [1325] give theos [2316] God pas [3956] all, whole haplos [0574] bountifully kai [2532] and, also, even, so then, too me [3361] not, no, none, never oneidizo [3679] reproach, chide, defame, taunt, revile, upbraid kai [2532] and, also, even, so then, too didomi [1325] give autos [0846] her, his, it, them (possessive 3rd person pronoun)

1.5.0 Introduction to James 1:5

Verse 5 launches a new stream of ideas beginning with wisdom and ending with foolishness. James often uses stark comparisons to make vivid points. This passage is one of many examples. Verse 5 starts with a recommendation to seek wisdom by asking it of God. James assures us God will be generous in his answer to such a request. Verse 5 does not stand alone, however. Verse 6 establishes a specific requirement directed to us. In our study of Verse 5 we will explore wisdom, asking God for things, the nature of prayer and answers to prayer, and giving.

1.5.1 What is wisdom?

The word translated as wisdom in this passage is the Greek word “sophia.”

According to an online Greek Lexicon, “sophia” is found 49 times in the New Testament. According to this lexicon it means: wisdom, broad and full of intelligence; used of the knowledge of very diverse matters

1. the wisdom which belongs to men: a) spec. the varied knowledge of things human and divine, acquired by acuteness and experience, and summed up in maxims and proverbs b) the science and learning c) the act of interpreting dreams and always giving the sagest advice d) the intelligence evinced in discovering the meaning of some mysterious number or vision e) skill in the management of affairs f) devout and proper prudence in intercourse with men not disciples of Christ, skill and discretion in imparting Christian truth, the knowledge and practice of the requisites for godly and upright living

2. supreme intelligence, such as belongs to God a) to Christ b) the wisdom of God as evinced in forming and executing counsels in the formation and government of the world and the scriptures

From an online dictionary, the word “wisdom”:

1. The ability to discern or judge what is true, right, or lasting; insight.

2. Common sense; good judgment: “It is a characteristic of wisdom not to do desperate things” (Henry David Thoreau).

3a) The sum of learning through the ages; knowledge: “In those homely sayings was couched the collective wisdom of generations” (Maya Angelou).

3b) Wise teachings of the ancient sages.

4. A wise outlook, plan, or course of action.

5. Wisdom - Bible. Wisdom of Solomon.

1.5.2 How valuable is wisdom?

Prov 3:13-18 Blessed is the one who finds wisdom, and the one who gets understanding, for the gain from her is better than gain from silver and her profit better than gold. She is more precious than jewels, and nothing you desire can compare with her. Long life is in her right hand; in her left hand are riches and honor. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to those who lay hold of her; those who hold her fast are called blessed. There can be little doubt that wisdom is highly prized, a thing of great value to God, which is why God gives it freely and generously to those who ask.

Prov 9:10 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and the knowledge of the Holy One is insight. If the “fear of the Lord” is the beginning of wisdom, then this “fear” must be even more valuable that the wisdom itself. The word translated fear has additional meanings which include reverence, respect, and piety. This verse is much more well known than understood. It is central to the understanding of salvation and salvation is certainly of greater value than wisdom. I say it is central because, if you consider Jesus’ encounter with Nicodemus (Jn 3) and again with the woman at the well (Jn 4), in both cases the point Jesus made was that he was in fact Lord. The woman didn’t fully comprehend it in theological terms, but she quickly grasped the concept that the man she encountered had both power and authority and, as a benevolent power, she was more than happy to submit to Jesus’ authority. With regard to Nicodemus, Jesus’ dialog with him was according to what he understood. There was no mistake in either his or the woman’s mind who Jesus claimed to be, nor was there any doubt that Jesus required acknowledgment and submission to that authority.

1.5.3 How do we get wisdom?

Jn 14:14 “If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it.” Method 1: Ask for it. As if our feature verse wasn’t enough. Read the context of Jn 14:14 for a full understanding.

Dan 1:17 “As for these four youths, God gave them learning and skill in all literature and wisdom, and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams.” Method 2: God knows you need it, so He imparts it whether you seek it or not. In this case, those who received were called by God for a specific purpose and the giving of special insight was necessary for them to carry out the assigned task. I think there are many great examples of this in scripture. Noah comes to mind as another good example. Information was certainly thrust upon all sort of people in the bible. Of course, they were almost always people God was using, people who were seeking God. They found him, all right.

Gen 3:6 “So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise1, she took of its fruit and ate, and she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate.” {(1) or to give insight} Method 3: We get it for ourselves, from sources not intended by God. That’s pretty common. In fact, there’s a lot in the bible about false teachers and false prophets and such. Satan is the father of lies. You don’t have to encounter Satan in person to encounter lies. Of course the tree of knowledge had God’s good fruit on it, but the wisdom Eve came by was the result of listening to a lie. She wasn’t supposed to have it. But when we seek and accept knowledge from sources other than God, we will find lies in place of God’s true wisdom. When we find truth through unintended sources, it’s usually referred to as losing innocence.

Ps 111:10 “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom; all those who practice it have a good understanding. His praise endures forever!” Method 4: Seek God and you will start the process of obtaining wisdom. Remember Prov 3:18 from the previous question? The key part was “She is a tree of life to those who lay hold of her.” Certainly wisdom, at least a form of wisdom, is imparted with true salvation. Wisdom is part of the package deal with the indwelling Holy Spirit. The ultimate fruit? Eternal life.

1.5.4 How much wisdom can we get?

1 Ki 4:29 “And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding beyond measure, and breadth of mind like the sand on the seashore.” This verse illustrates what is available. The passage in context goes on at length to describe a few areas of Solomon’s expanded wisdom, but suffice it to say God is God, and he can give as much as he sees fit to whom and when he sees fit.

We know there are various ways to acquire wisdom. Since we know there’s plenty to be had, then ask yourself, how much wisdom do you need? Consider Solomon’s life. He enjoy a great gift from God. Still, in his latter years he grew headstrong with his gift, taking about 1000 women as wives and concubines and such, and drifted further and further from the Lord. He was morose and depressed, and his writings expressed these sentiments. As for me, I seek to know what the Lord wants me to know. I seek discernment. I seek to know and to the degree possible understand his will. I seek to share what knowledge and wisdom I receive. I seek to give him the glory for what I receive, and for being that much wiser to know what not to give me. The free gift most valuable of all is the gift of eternal life, and that comes by faith, not wisdom. Wisdom comes from God, to those with faith, and it is not the other way around (Jas 1:6-7).

1.5.5 What do we do with wisdom?

Phil 4:13 I can do all things through him who strengthens me. Imagination is probably the biggest limitation. That said, some things are more worthwhile than others. Here’s a few I’d suggest:

Mt 28:19-20 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age. Certainly the most important work we can do in service to our Lord is to share the good news of his gift with other so that they too might share.

1 Pe 3:15 but in your hearts regard Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; This is where the rubber hits the road, so to speak. Every person is unique and every situation is different. Wisdom in necessary in order to adapt to situations and people, to communicate with them in a way they understand, and to demonstrate love in the most meaningful way possible to that individual so that they will open their hearts to receive the good news. For us as individuals this means being prepared with the armor of God and being skilled like a surgeon with your sword, which is the Word of God.

1 Jn 4:1 Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world. (Read v1-6 for the full context.) While service to others is the most noble endeavor, and being prepared for the task of sharing the gospel is the most useful application, discernment is also essential for each of us as individuals. We must be able to discern Truth so that we cannot be fooled and lead astray, lost to temptation, or drawn into arguments of circular logic or otherwise drawn away from telling the complete and accurate message of the good news.

I would summarize discernment as a type of wisdom specific to dealing with incoming information, regardless of the form of sensory perception used.

1.5.6 What kind of responsibility does wisdom entail?

Jas 4:17 So whoever knows the right thing to do and fails to do it, for him it is sin. It seems one could define wisdom as the opposite of sin. Maybe that’s why wisdom is so important.

1.5.7 To whom is wisdom available?

Referencing our focus verse, the answer seems to lie within. Speaking to the believers scattered about, James says “if any of you…” From this we know at a minimum, believers can receive divine wisdom because that is to whom his letter was addressed. James then instructs us to ask God. So, perhaps it is only to the believers who ask. Well, we know from one of our earlier questions that divine wisdom comes from God for various reasons and in various ways. Requesting it, however, does ensure availability. Next, James says God “gives generously to all.” You might jump on this and say God’s wisdom is then available to anyone, whether they believer or not, only for the asking. I’ve got three problems with such a thought. First, the word “all” modifies the “him” who is asking. “All” does not stand on its own in this sentence. My second problem is derived from the passage in Jn 14:13-14 where Jesus assures the believer that requests made “in his name” would be granted. Third, and most important, is to continue reading James 1:6 and beyond for the full context of these few words we are concentrating on today. James 1:6 says, But when he asks, he must believe and not doubt, because he who doubts is like a wave of the sea blown and tossed by the wind. This definitely places a bit of a restriction on availability. In fact, it clearly confirms and conforms to the first two issues I brought up.

When we ask God for something, we are communicating with Him. Prayer takes a lot of forms. Making requests is one of those forms. We are given plenty of instructions about how to pray. Jesus said to worship in spirit and in truth (Jn 4:24). Jesus also proclaimed he was Truth (Jn14:6). Mt

But that’s not all, folks. James goes on to say “gives generously to all without reproach.” KJV uses the words “giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not.” Knowing the limitations of “all,” you also need to remember divine wisdom is a gift. Like salvation, it cannot be earned, only requested. The request is valid only when made in true faith. When the request is made in true faith, God does promise to answer in the affirmative such a request. In fact, more than answer yes, we are promised a generous (liberal) share. So, the news only gets better!

The phrase “without reproach” or “upbraideth not” says to me that God not only will say yes, but he is seeking us to make this request. He longs to provide us with divine wisdom, if only we will ask. Certainly, the act of physically making the request is not always required, but the only sure way to get the gift is to ask.

Finally, will notice a subtle change in this lesson. I’ve been referring to “divine wisdom” rather than simply wisdom. I think there are different kinds of wisdom. All have value. Divine wisdom, unlike worldly wisdom or simply acquired information (knowledge), is special because it isn’t something we can lay hold of without supernatural involvement. I wanted to make this very clear because it is easy to be confused.

1.5.8 How does wisdom differ from knowledge?

Knowledge (as defined by Dictionary.com):

1.      The state or fact of knowing.

2.      Familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience or study.

3.      The sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned.

4.      Learning; erudition: teachers of great knowledge.

5.      Specific information about something.

6.      Carnal knowledge.

To me, knowledge means to have a certainty about information.

To me, wisdom is essentially putting information to work by discerning and making the best possible choices based on available information (certain or otherwise).

Prov 1:20-22 Wisdom cries aloud in the street, in the markets she raises her voice; at the head of the noisy streets she cries out; at the entrance of the city gates she speaks: “How long, O simple ones, will you love being simple? How long will scoffers delight in their scoffing and fools hate knowledge? Godly wisdom cries out for the lost. It begs for the lost to come and know the Lord. If you know the Lord, if you understand salvation, of what value is it if you do not stretch out your hand with your information as a gift to those who need it? They may resist, longing to remain carnal, but the wise will cry out, weeping for the lost, seeking to teach them about the Lord and Savior.

Prov 8:12 I, wisdom, dwell with prudence, and I find knowledge and discretion. Wisdom is seeking. Wisdom not only seeks to share itself with the lost, but to grow and increase itself along the way. There is no way to fully know everything there is to know about God. But, that does not excuse us from making the effort to grow in our knowledge, love and obedient service of him every day.

We’ve looked at wisdom many ways and could surely write a book exploring it, but to what avail? Would it be wise to use so much time learning about wisdom rather than growing our wisdom? I think not.

James 1:6

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lacks wisdom, he should ask God who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to him. 6 But when he asks, he must believe and not doubt, because he who doubts is like a wave of the sea, blown and tossed by the wind. 7 That man should not think he will receive anything from the Lord; 8 he is a double-minded man, unstable in all he does.” — NIV

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed. 7 For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord. 8 A double minded man is unstable in all his ways.” — KJV

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, with no doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea that is driven and tossed by the wind. 7 For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord; 8he is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways.” — ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:6 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
aiteo ask, beg, crave, desire, require de [1161] and, but, now… (conjunction) en [1722] preposition denoting place: such as in, at, of, through… pistis [4102] credence, moral conviction, reliance on Christ, belief, faith, fidelity medeis [3367] none, not, nothing diakrino [1252] withdraw from, oppose, discriminate, contend, discern, doubt, judge, be partial ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) gar [1063] verily, therefore, yet, no doubt, as, because that diakrino [1252] withdraw from, oppose, discriminate, contend, discern, doubt, judge, be partial eiko [1503] resemble, be like kludon [2830] rush or surge of the sea, raging wave thaddaios [2281] Thaddaeus (one of the Apostles) anemizo [0416] toss or drive with the wind kai [2532] and, also, even, so then, too rhipizo [4494] breeze up, agitate waves, toss

1.6.0 Introduction to James 1:6

Verse 6 adds a critical clause to verse 5 by stating in effect that doubt voids the promise in verse 5. One could think of this as a technicality or loop hole, but the simple fact is that faith in our Lord is required for salvation and our eternal hope, so it only seems reasonable to require faith for anything we seek from our Heavenly Father. James also paints a wonderful picture with words here as he describes the nature of one whose faith is insecure. Verse 6 explores faith and how to makes request of God.

1.6.1 What is faith?

Heb 11:1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen.

“Faith” — from Dictionary.com:

1.      Confident belief in the truth, value, or trustworthiness of a person, idea, or thing.

2.      Belief that does not rest on logical proof or material evidence. See Synonyms at belief. See Synonyms at trust.

3.      Loyalty to a person or thing; allegiance: keeping faith with one’s supporters.

4.      often Faith Christianity. The theological virtue defined as secure belief in God and a trusting acceptance of God’s will.

5.      The body of dogma of a religion: the Muslim faith.

6.      A set of principles or beliefs.

It is pretty obvious from this passage James is instructing us to ask with faith in God. Not ourselves. Not others. Certainly not Satan. We are asking God for wisdom, it is in God we should have our faith. James goes on to proclaim that God doles out wisdom generously and will not be unhappy with such a request, nor will he be picky about who he gives this gift to. One of my personal favorite verses is 1 Thess 5:24, which states “He who calls you is faithful; he will surely do it.”

1.6.2 Faith: Sell, Tell, or Do?

Gen 25:29-34 Once when Jacob was cooking stew, Esau came in from the field, and he was exhausted. And Esau said to Jacob, “Let me eat some of that red stew, for I am exhausted!” (Therefore his name was called Edom.) Jacob said, “Sell me your birthright now.” Esau said, “I am about to die; of what use is a birthright to me?” Jacob said, “Swear to me now.” So he swore to him and sold his birthright to Jacob. Then Jacob gave Esau bread and lentil stew, and he ate and drank and rose and went his way. Thus Esau despised his birthright. Faith can be sold. I agree it’s not a good idea, though.

Mt 7:21 Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. Do tell of your faith, but live your convictions else your words will not be heard by man or God.

Heb 11:8-9 By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to a place that he was to receive as an inheritance. And he went out, not knowing where he was going. By faith he went to live in the land of promise, as in a foreign land, living in tents with Isaac and Jacob, heirs with him of the same promise. Faith isn’t to be sold or told. It is to be lived. By living, I mean doing. By doing, I mean acting upon your convictions. To say you believe something (to tell) means nothing if you aren’t living the life of which you speak. Of course the great commission commands us to go forth and spread the good news, but even in the going we are acting in faith. The act of telling is an act, I admit. Even so, the telling presupposes a lifestyle of action, living out the articles of what you believe. Else the telling is just wind rustling the leaves.

1.6.3 Have you asked for wisdom or something else you thought God should honor and not received it? Why Not?

There could be more than one answer. Everyone is unique, and God treats us all as such. These are some answers I found. If you know of others, please add them to the list…

Ps 69:13 But as for me, my prayer is to you, O Lord. At an acceptable time, O God, in the abundance of your steadfast love answer me in your saving faithfulness. Sometimes it’s a matter of timing.

Ro 8:26 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words. Sometimes God knows our request isn’t what is best for us. This is usually because we are making requests outside his will. It is wonderful that the Spirit knows us better than we know ourselves, and God knows not only our needs, but the needs of others and his own divine plan. Sometimes we are too weak to make the right request - whether weak in knowledge or wisdom or body or spirit or faith. This is not a license, rather it is insurance.

John 4:23-24 But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. How we make petitions is as in important as what we petition for. God already knows our hearts and our needs. He awaits our requests in expression of our faith. We need to come humbly, though, and say our prayers with the fullest honesty of our hearts, with an attitude of worship as well as faith.

Mt 21:21 And Jesus answered them, “Truly, I say to you, if you have faith and do not doubt, you will not only do what has been done to the fig tree, but even if you say to this mountain, ‘Be taken up and thrown into the sea,’ it will happen. Doubt is the biggest reason prayers go unanswered.

1.6.4 How do we ask?

The passage itself does nicely answering several important aspects of this question. For one thing, don’t be doubting. That’s a sure fire way to miss God’s ear with your request. Faith is critical to receiving wisdom or just about anything else we request. Here are a few other supporting verses…

1 Jo 5:14 And this is the confidence that we have toward him, that if we ask anything according to his will he hears us. We need confidence in Him (faith again) to be heard, but we also need to be making requests that are in accord with His will.

Jn 15:14-16 You are my friends if you do what I command you. No longer do I call you servants, for the servant does not know what his master is doing; but I have called you friends, for all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you. You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide, so that whatever you ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you. In this passage Jesus is revealing to his disciples not only the honor of being able to make requests with expectations of an answer, but the surrounding verses reveal a great deal about our end of the bargain. For one thing, Jesus is telling the disciples that they are more than mere servants, they are also friends. He declares them as friends because they DO what Jesus has requested of them. He also indicates that the divine revelations of knowledge are of God (spoken through the very mouth of Jesus thus far, but later also through the Holy Spirit) are given to them for their friendship. These guys were selected as friends because up to that point they obeyed, the Lord knew he could expect them to continue in obedience, and had specific missions for them to perform in the future. For the purpose of carrying out the missions given by God, God promises to equip them with anything they need to get their jobs done by simply asking.

There’s a lot of meat to this passage from John 15, more than we have time to explore, but consider this example from real life. If you work for an employer, you exchange your time and effort in exchange for pay. You are assigned specific duties. Isn’t it reasonable to expect the boss to give you the things you need to get the job done? Would you be a receptionist and not be given a phone? Sometimes our bosses don’t know what we need to do our jobs, they overlook things, they are trying to penny-pinch, or they just want to see if we can figure out what we need on our own. God isn’t quite like any of those, but He does want us to rely on him because he is true and dependable, he wants a relationship beyond boss-slave. He is faithful to us and only seeks the same courtesy to be returned. He will give us what we ask so that we might be what we were designed to be, the workmanship of his hand to do the good work he has for us (Eph 2:10). We are not saved by works, but we were designed to live out works, performed in love and obedience, fully equipped as sewers of the good seed.

Mt 6: 9-13 Pray then like this: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. The Lord’s Prayer is useful to this discussion for several reasons, but my focus will on the mood. The prayer Jesus uses as an example is gushing with humility. We must realize that if we are making a request, it is because we are asking for something we cannot obtain on our own and we need the Lord. We must indeed be dependent and broken, asking wholly in faith. Why would you pray for something if you could get it or make it or do it yourself?

1.6.5 Why does God answer NO?

I’m first going to summarize a few points about how we get to the point of God having something to answer. First, there’s the asking. Ask something outside of God’s will you generally get a big fat NO. Ask for something out of selfishness, again you will probably get a NO. Ask for something and not believe God will hear you or answer, another likely NO. If you get a yes to any of these, either the answer didn’t come from God, or God has a plan that happened to include what you wanted in spite of you.

Then there’s the tough ones like illness, injury, and “Paul’s thorn.” Sometimes we have very real problems. That’s how we see them, anyway. We may have all the faith to move a mountain and all the patience to ask a million times, but we just don’t recognize how something could be outside God’s will. We pray in faith, we pray in the spirit, and we believe, and still get zilch. Here’s some hope for you…

Isaiah 55:8 says, For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, declares the Lord. Our field of vision is limited. We aren’t all knowing. We aren’t all seeing. We aren’t all powerful. These are all good reasons to be asking, but they are also all good reasons to for a NO answer. This leads to the next scripture reference…

2 Cor 12:9 But he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” Therefore I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may rest upon me. Sometimes God has a higher purpose for what we think of as a problem. We want the problem fixed because we perceive it to be a weakness. In our limited minds we think God could better use us if we weren’t so broken. This very well may not be the case at all. It isn’t up to us how God uses us, it is up to Him. It is still okay to ask, but we should find joy in our trials when he uses those trials for His glory. Our weakness is for His sake, but it is also for ours. We just don’t see it that way. Would we realize our need for God if we were already perfected in this life? As for me, I’m not sure I would say yes.

1 Cor 13:11-12 When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I gave up childish ways. For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I have been fully known. We start our walk with the Lord as children, new creations, born again. Children ask many questions. We do our best to answer them. Children often don’t understand, or at least don’t fully understand the answers we give. Sometimes we give a NO answer to a child to protect them from harm or to protect their innocence. Sometimes we say NO because we have something better we want to give them. Sometimes we say NO because their birthday is coming up and its already been purchased as a present for them. I think God does a lot of things like that, but I also know that just as Paul says here, we can look forward with hope to having full understanding when we are in the Lord’s presence. Another aspect to consider is our spiritual maturity. As we grow, we learn. We learn what to ask and how. Our faith grows. Our love grows. Our discernment grows. Our wisdom grows.

Rev 21:4 He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning nor crying nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away. This to me says that the hard things will be dealt with, though perhaps not in this life. The day will come when every tear will be wiped away. Maybe you find this comforting and maybe you find it frustrating. For me it is a comfort.

As for what you asked for: Some things, like wisdom, are promised without strings (James 1:5), except of course for asking in faith. What draws us toward God is pretty much a given. What distracts us from God is not.

1.6.6 How much faith is required in order to receive?

– Mt 17:20 “Because you have so little faith, I tell you the truth, if you have faith as small as a mustard seed you can say to the mountain move here to there and it will be moved. Nothing will be impossible for you.” To put this in context, the disciples asked Jesus why they were unable to drive out a demon. This was Jesus’ reply. If it only takes the faith of a mustard seed to drive out a demon, it seems unlikely the Lord would require any greater faith to answer a prayer for something he wants to give you, like wisdom.

In the dialog between Jesus and the woman at the well in Jn 4, Jesus speaks of worshipping in spirit and truth (v. 23-24). Ro 8:26 speaks of how the spirit intercedes with groanings too deep for words. I bring these items up because the overall context of this paragraph from James has to do with the central concept of making a request to the Lord for wisdom. Communication with God can take many forms, but to me it is all prayer. To come with a right attitude, humbly, to acknowledge the sovereignty of God (Lk 11:1), is the essence of worship. When we make requests, to be “in spirit and truth” they are by definition within the will of God. Even they the Lord may not answer as quickly as we like or exactly in the manner we would like, but still he will provide for us what is best for the Kingdom.

1.6.7 What is doubt?

Based on the combined definitions of the English word doubt from the dictionary and the Greek word translated doubt or wavering, in layman’s terms I would say doubt is an active skepticism, an unbelief in something that would prevent trusting or taking action based on what is doubted.

From the dictionary:

(Verb form) 1. To be undecided or skeptical about: began to doubt some accepted doctrines.

2. To tend to disbelieve; distrust: doubts politicians when they make sweeping statements.

3. To regard as unlikely: I doubt that we’ll arrive on time.

Archaic. To suspect; fear.

4. To be undecided or skeptical.

(Noun Form) 1. A lack of certainty that often leads to irresolution. See Synonyms at uncertainty

2. A lack of trust.

3. A point about which one is uncertain or skeptical: reassured me by answering my doubts.

4. The condition of being unsettled or unresolved: an outcome still in doubt.

No Doubt: Certainty, Probably.

From a Greek lexicon:

Greek transliteration - Diakrino

NT Usage - 18 times - doubt 5, judge 3, discern 2, contend 2, waver 2, miscellaneous 5

Definition

1. to separate, make a distinction, discriminate, to prefer

2. to learn by discrimination, to try, decide

3. to determine, give judgment, decide a dispute

4. to withdraw from one, desert

5. to separate one’s self in a hostile spirit, to oppose, strive with dispute, contend

6. to be at variance with one’s self, hesitate, doubt

1.6.8 Why is doubt such a poison to our prayers?

Ro 14:23 But whoever has doubts is condemned if he eats, because the eating is not from faith. For whatever does not proceed from faith is sin. The second sentence here is the focus. We know the law stands. We know that Jesus fulfilled the requirements of the law on our behalf. We know that while works are important and have their place, it is grace alone which saves because our works cannot perfect us. While Paul was speaking of food in the first sentence, the second sentence here seems to stand on its own and would also seem to apply universally.

I bring up this verse from Paul because faith appears to me to be in almost every sense the opposite of faith. Just as faith leads to good works, doubt leads to bad works. James does an excellent job of presenting contrasts throughout the first chapter of his letter. We will see many more examples as we go.

How faith and doubt are similar: Just like faith, doubt in and of itself is an intangible. It is like a psychological seed. What we think, we do. What we believe, we act upon. Also, both faith and doubt are related to how we respond to information presented to our various senses. For example, if you read a newspaper, we can believe or doubt the weather forecast. The information was presented, we read it, and we elect our response. Faith and doubt are both decisions.

How faith and doubt differ: The difference is our response to information. The actions of the response are the outer works resulting from our inner decision. Faith is the seed which grows into works based on an affirmative hope in the good news of Jesus. The seed of doubt grows into active denial of the Lord and His grace.

Doubt poisons because: Faith and doubt cannot both hold our attention at the same time. Ro 14:23b (For whatever does not proceed from faith is sin) indicates the obvious. Faith and doubt are mutually exclusive. Since faith is the requirement for salvation, if doubt crowds out faith there’s no salvation.

1.6.9 Why do people doubt Jesus? (Are you one of them?)

– Jn 20:24-25 Now Thomas, one of the Twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, “We have seen the Lord.” But he said to them, “Unless I see in his hands the mark of the nails, and place my finger into the mark of the nails, and place my hand into his side, I will never believe.”

Based on the definition given earlier and the various things scripture has to say about doubt, I would say that the reason for doubting the good news of Jesus Christ can be summed up as refusal to accept the information as fact and trust it to be accurate. The real question then is, why is the information (gospel message) not trusted?

1 Thess 5:24 but test everything; hold fast what is good. The information comes from an unknown or dubious source. There is nothing wrong with taking steps to verify the accuracy of a message. Be sure God is speaking. If you find it is in fact God speaking, then you have no excuse for not obeying. If you find it to be a false source, then you need to use your armor.

Jn 8:14 Jesus answered, “Even if I do bear witness about myself, my testimony is true, for I know where I came from and where I am going, but you do not know where I come from or where I am going. Not enough information. At some point things have to be taken on faith. That said, if you simply don’t have enough information, how can you make a good decision? The modern church is riddled with “easy believism” theology. Many flocks are not being fed with the nutrients needed to grow strong and stand firm. If the gospel were presented in its complete and raw form, some would find Christ who were not convinced by the simple messages while some of the simple message lovers would be shown for who they are.

Lk 22:60 But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about.” And immediately, while he was still speaking, the rooster crowed. Fear. It is natural to fear the unknown. Throughout scripture we are chastened to fear the Lord. That isn’t quite the same as fearing a snake or a spider. Fearing God is like fearing your father’s belt — it is more like respect. In this case, Peter was afraid for his life. He forgot the promises of Jesus and reacted out of fear rather than faith. Peter forgot the words of David in Ps 118:6 The Lord is on my side; I will not fear. What can man do to me?

Lk 23:34 And Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.” And they cast lots to divide his garments. Denial. Sometimes we are in denial because we like how things are and we refuse to accept something new and different. The guards casting lots we eye witnesses of God’s power. They saw the signs.

Mt 19:21-22 Jesus said to him, “If you would be perfect, go, sell what you possess and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.” When the young man heard this he went away sorrowful, for he had great possessions. Difficulty. When we realize we have to do something that isn’t easy, sometimes we give up. The rich young man in this encounter is a prime example.

Isaiah 28:21 For the Lord will rise up as on Mount Perazim; as in the Valley of Gibeon he will be roused; to do his deed—strange is his deed! and to work his work—alien is his work! Strangeness. God is a mystery. He does things we can’t fathom. Some just can’t grasp the gospel because it too foreign to the worldly things they do understand.

2 Jn 1:7 For many deceivers have gone out into the world, those who do not confess the coming of Jesus Christ in the flesh. Such a one is the deceiver and the antichrist. Competing Information. Many would dilute or modify the good news of Jesus Christ. The world itself offers a great many things (temptations) to also serve as distractions. Satan uses every means at his disposal to try and keep us from obedience.

1 Tim 4:12 Let no one despise you for your youth, but set the believers an example in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith, in purity. Bad Examples. It is no wonder we aren’t successful in communicating the good news when we don’t give an example of its value to the world.

1.6.10 What command does Jesus give regarding doubt?

Jn 18:17 The servant girl at the door said to Peter, “You also are not one of this man’s disciples, are you?” He said, “I am not.” To put Thomas into perspective, we will examine Peter’s example of doubt. Peter illustrated perfectly the fruit of doubt. Peter expressed doubt through action whereas Thomas expressed doubt in words. Thomas is often looked down upon by modern Christianity, but he was honest enough to admit he doubted and explained what it would take to remove the doubt. Peter, on the other hand, said one thing and did another. Doubt became sin when Peter denied knowing Jesus.

Jn 20:8 Then the other disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went in, and he saw and believed This verse takes place immediately after the girls find the tomb empty and they’ve called the men to see the empty tomb. We cannot be certain who the “other disciple” was, but we know that for them, seeing meant believing.

Jn 21:17 He said to him the third time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” Peter was grieved because he said to him the third time, “Do you love me?” and he said to him, “Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him, “Feed my sheep.” Jesus forgave Peter for his moment of doubt. Just as Peter’s doubt was an act rather than mere words, Peter was given specific work to do in order to act in faith.

Jn 20:27 Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe.” First, Jesus revealed himself just as he did to the other disciples following the resurrection. It was only after Jesus removed the excuse for doubt that he told Thomas to stop doubting and believe.

In word and deed, Jesus commands that we put aside doubt and replace it with belief.

1.6.11 How do you suppose God feels about doubt?

Jn 20:29 Jesus said to him, “Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”

Lk 24:36-40 As they were talking about these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, “Peace to you!” But they were startled and frightened and thought they saw a spirit. And he said to them, “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself. Touch me, and see. For a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have.” And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.

Both with Thomas and with those gathered and waiting, there was doubt. In both cases Jesus recognized the doubt and took away their excuses for it. To me this indicates a great deal of mercy from one who obviously doesn’t need to stoop to our level. Rather, Jesus – the divine manifestation of God in the flesh – proactively addressed doubt directly. I am grateful for the testimony of mercy given here, because without the loving mercy, our all powerful almighty God would have no reason not to squash us like bugs and dispose of us like vermin. Surely God doesn’t have much use for doubt because he admonishes us to turn from doubt to belief. That’s the summary of his mission on earth. He proved his mercy and in so doing sought to return our attention and trust to His glory rather than our own.

1.6.12 How should you treat someone who has doubts?

Jude 22 “And have mercy on those who doubt.” Just as the Lord takes mercy on us in our doubt, actively intervening in our lives to overcome our doubts, he wants us to be merciful toward fellow believers who doubt. This does not mean we accept doubt, but rather we should follow Christ’s example of dealing with doubt by demonstrating the truth and removing all excuse for doubt. Love them, help them, show them, teach them challenge them and get them to think deeply and independently as you have. As they grow, go with them until they can persevere on their own. Don’t enable, don’t do it for them, but encourage and motivate them so they will succeed. I think this is a great way to show God’s love, and love covers a multitude of sins.

1.6.13 What does doubt cause you to do?

Our focal passage (Jas 1:5-8) speaks nicely to this question. It says doubt causes us not to receive anything from the Lord. This question ties together the all the other questions previous raised about doubt. Doubt was defined as essentially the opposite (or absence) of faith. If one doubts God, they lack faith and in fact are in a condition of unbelief. Without belief we cannot be saved (ref Jn 3:16) and we will act in disobedience (ref Heb 4:6). James says that the doubter is double-minded and unstable. He essentially says the doubter is wishy-washy and gullible. The doubter is a sucker. W. C. Fields said “There’s a sucker born every minute.” Sadly he was right. If we are true believers, no small part of our obedience to our Lord is to reveal our Lord accurately to non-believers and believers who have doubt.

If you doubt and are therefore unstable in your values, you will be easy prey for temptation. Temptation begets sin which begets death (ref James 1:14-15). Doubt is like the AIDS virus. It doesn’t kill directly, but makes you susceptible to death by common disease (common temptation).

1.6.14 Do you think doubt is the same as worry?

Some people confuse doubt and worry. Doubt is the opposite or absence of faith.* Worry means to be anxious, which is to say being troubled with cares. While the two concepts are unique, worry tends to lead to doubt. We can worry about a lot of things, but aside from reducing our productivity, when we worry we tend to dwell on the “what if” scenarios in our minds. Worry may generate fear, but it may just as easily cause us to start justifying our concerns and taking control away from God. When we do this, we do the same thing as Eve – we presume to become like God in our superiority, doubting God’s authority by replacing it with our own.

To illustrate worry, consider Mt 6:27 in the following translations:

ESV: And which of you by being anxious can add a single hour to his span of life?

KJV: Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?

NIV: Who of you by worrying can add a single hour to his life?

Each of these popular translations conveys the concept of worry differently. After researching the Greek further I would be satisfied to accept any of the three renderings of the verse, though in this case KJV does a more accurate job of rendering cubits to stature as opposed to the other versions which render hours to life. The word translated worry (NIV) and thought (KJV) appears to be most accurately translated as anxious (ESV).

Okay, forget all the technical stuff. The point is no, doubt and worry aren’t the same, but odds are favorable that worry could lead to doubt.

*Someone pointed out to me that momentary doubt is okay, we can grow either faith or sin from moments of doubt. I disagree completely for several reasons. For one, if we doubt, it is only when we decided to trust that the doubt is overcome by faith. For this to happen, by grace the excuse for doubt is removed and facts are accepted so that our doubt is replaced by faith, even for a moment. The second reason I disagree is that in times of stress our genuine selves are exposed. When we have time for calm and composure its easier to say or do the “right” thing. Under stress, however, what we really think and feel and believe tends to be exposed. If we say we’re believers, any doubts we have are exposed in the moments of stress. I don’t believe in momentary doubt, only momentary exposure of the doubt. God tests us in order to expose the doubt. If He can reveal it, we can see it, then He can refine us into faith by revealing himself in ways that remove the doubt and strengthen our faith. If our faith grows after expressing doubt, it is the supernatural effect of God refining us and releasing us from the doubts. Doubt, left on its own, is always a negative.

1.6.15 Why the sea analogy?

Isaiah 43:1-2a But now thus says the Lord, he who created you, O Jacob, he who formed you, O Israel: “Fear not, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by name, you are mine. When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overwhelm you;

Have you ever been to sea? The ocean can be a violent and dangerous place. I spent four of my six years in the Navy at sea, stationed aboard the USS Tinosa (SSN-606). Submarines are strange vessels. For one thing, they’re designed to sink. We had this saying: “A sub really only belongs one of two places – either tied to the pier or at least 400 feet below the surface.” For all you land lubbers out there, this means you don’t want to be sitting on the surface in a vessel shaped like an oblong bobber. The depths of the ocean are always stable, but on the surface, even in relatively mild seas, the boat is constantly shifting under your feet. In heavy seas it can be difficult to remain standing. I remember once when we came to periscope depth in the North Sea, I woke up in a bunk across the isle from my own and one level lower after being ejected by the power of the waves against the hull.

The waves of the sea are pushed about according to whatever winds are pressed upon the waters. To survive the force of the sea, a vessel must be well made, which is to say solid and secure, something that will persevere and be steadfast in spite of the storms. Anyone can flail about out there in the waves, and those out there in the waves will only go where the winds take them, for only in Christ do we have a secure vessel that can carry us safely home. Remain in the safe ship (Christ) and you will make it to port (heaven).

James 1:7

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lacks wisdom, he should ask God who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to him. 6 But when he asks, he must believe and not doubt, because he who doubts is like a wave of the sea, blown and tossed by the wind. 7 That man should not think he will receive anything from the Lord; 8 he is a double-minded man, unstable in all he does.” — NIV

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed. 7 For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord. 8 A double minded man is unstable in all his ways.” — KJV

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, with no doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea that is driven and tossed by the wind. 7 For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord; 8 he is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways.” — ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:7 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
me [3361] not, no, none, never gar [1063] verily, therefore, yet, no doubt, as, because that oiomai [3633] make like ones self, suppose, think, image, be of the opinion ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) anthropos [0444] human, certain person ekeinos [1565] he, it, that… hoti [3754] that, which… (conjunction) lambano [2983] accept, attain, bring, have, hold, obtain, take up away tis [5100] anyone, anything, someone, something, somewhat para [3844] near ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) kurios [2962] Lord, Master, Sir

1.7.0 Introduction to James 1:7

After describing the catch to receiving promises from God in verse 6, verse 7 spells it out very plainly. If you lack faith your requests will go unfilled. In this verse we look more deeply into why doubt is a reason not to receive from God. We also look at what it means to receive.

1.7.1 Why should the doubter not expect anything from the Lord?

Nu 21:4-9 From Mount Hor they set out by the way to the Red Sea, to go around the land of Edom. And the people became impatient on the way. And the people spoke against God and against Moses, “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and we loathe this worthless food.” Then the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died. And the people came to Moses and said, “We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord and against you. Pray to the Lord, that he take away the serpents from us.” So Moses prayed for the people. And the Lord said to Moses, “Make a fiery serpent and set it on a pole, and everyone who is bitten, when he sees it, shall live.” So Moses made a bronze serpent and set it on a pole. And if a serpent bit anyone, he would look at the bronze serpent and live. Passage provided for context.

Nu 21:4 the people became impatient on the way. (ESV). KJV says and the souls of the people became much discouraged because of the way. Either rendering seems to imply the people doubted Moses and, by extension, God. The doubt (lack of faith) caused the Lord to send the snakes (serpents) to bite them with poisonous venom. God made a provision, though, so as they were dying they had the choice to look upon the bronze serpent and live. The doubters couldn’t expect to live, but the ones with enough faith looked and did live. Truly it takes a tiny amount of faith to find salvation, but you have to fix your gaze upon the true source of salvation. I also like this passage because it illustrates how faith can be restored and the doubt overcome. The grace of a God who allows us to return to him after wandering away in our consumption with self-pity, worry and doubt is humbling and remarkable.

1.7.2 What does receive mean?

The dictionary has a rather lengthy answer to this question which I will distill as follows: to take or acquire, get; to hear or see information; to have bestowed on oneself; to meet with or experience; bear the weight or force of, support; take or intercept the impact of; take in, hold or contain (such as a tank); to admit; greet or welcome; perceive or acquire mentally; regard with approval or disapproval; listen to and acknowledge formally and authoritatively.

In context with James 1:7, the question really has to do with receiving from God. As there is nothing we can earn from God, per se, anything we receive from Him is a gift. This includes anything from wisdom (v5) to salvation. In keeping with the context of our focal passage, receiving does depend on first asking, and then with a stipulation (faith).

The word “receive” is very important. Any gift isn’t a gift until given. The giving isn’t complete until the gift is received. Until the gift is used, it isn’t fully received. It takes faith to use what God gives (see Nu 21 discussion from previous question). God offers wisdom, even to the point of writing a book and putting in our hands, but until we open that book and read it, we have not received it. How much faith does it take to simply open a book and read it? The same could be said of hearing the Word through preaching, observation of creation, or anything else.

What God says must be more than heard (or read), it must be obeyed. Obedience is the culmination of receiving, the full use of any gift given by God. This explains why obedience (deeds) is so closely associated with faith. When the snake bitten people looked at the bronze snake (Nu 21:9), they were obedient, thus demonstrating faith, thus the gift of salvation from the poison was received.

James said faith without works is dead (James 2:7). Some would say his teaching is contrary to Paul’s, but they are wrong. In Eph 2:8-9 Paul preached the very important message that we must have the right attitude and think rightly, believing. The natural result of believing is obedience (works). James understood this principle. A lot of people ignore Paul’s expression of the same concept in Romans 2:13. Understanding the concept of receiving from God, a topic generated by James 1:7, proves it. Eph 2:10 shows Paul also understood this principle. Faith is the requirement, and the purpose of believing is to become a doer of the Word. Just as faith without works is dead, Paul merely preached that works without faith is dead. The two principles are two sides of the same coin, thus I contend that James and Paul really preached messages which are in total agreement, completely without contradiction.

James 1:8

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lacks wisdom, he should ask God who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to him. 6 But when he asks, he must believe and not doubt, because he who doubts is like a wave of the sea, blown and tossed by the wind. 7 That man should not think he will receive anything from the Lord; 8 he is a double-minded man, unstable in all he does.” — NIV

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed. 7 For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord. 8 A double minded man is unstable in all his ways.” — KJV

James 1:5-8 “5 If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, with no doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea that is driven and tossed by the wind. 7 For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord; 8 he is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways.” — ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:8 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
aner [0435] male individual dipsuchos [1374] double-minded, two-spirited, vacillating akatastatos [0182] unstable, inconstant en [1722] preposition denoting place: such as in, at, of, through… pas [3956] all, any, every ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) hodos [3598] road, route, mode, means, journey, way autos [0846] her, his, it, them (possessive 3rd person pronoun)

1.8.0 Introduction to James 1:8

James completes the paragraph by painting another picture with words. He describes the man lacking faith as double-minded and unstable. In this portion of the study we will look at even more deeply into doubt as well as instability.

1.8.1 How are double-minded and unstable defined?

Lk 16:13 No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money. Although this passage from Luke’s gospel is talking about money, the principle of double-mindedness is well expressed. Jesus says you can’t have it both ways. One who is double-minded is a person who believes they can have it both ways in spite of the Truth that they cannot.

Double-minded. The Greek transliteration is dipsuchos. This Greek word is used only twice and both times by James. It literally means double-minded, uncertain, doubting, wavering, and divided interest.

Unstable. The Greek word akatastatos is defined as unstable, inconstant, and restless.

Since each of the major translations bring these words to English the same way, it seems safe to assume they are good words for us to use in this context.

1.8.2 How does worry contribute to this instability?

Mt 6:27 And which of you by being anxious can add a single hour to his span of life?* Worry is a waste of time. Time wasted on fruitlessness means time not spent in obedience. The greater the worry, the greater the waste of time. The more time you waste, the less time available to obey. Excessive worry not only makes you less effectual, it can make you ineffectual to the point of being lukewarm and summarily spat out. Satan loves the worrier because they aren’t serving God, but they are slaves of their own cares.

Mt 6:24 No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money. If you are a worrier, you are given time which belongs to God and wasting it. Your mind is consumed with the world and your life and whatever else it is you worry so much about. Worry seems to have a lot to do with the development of doubt and subsequent instability which in turn leads to susceptibility to temptation, then sin, then – gulp – death. It is a wide road.

*Each of my major translations renders Mt 6:27 very differently, though the concept remains the same. For example, one version says worry and another says thought where ESV says anxious. KJV speaks of adding cubits to your stature where the other versions speak of adding hours to your life. For all you KJV fans out there, your version appears to be closest to the literal Greek on that last part of the phrase.

1.8.3 What can we expect from God if we are distracted by the world?

Jas 1:7 For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord; It only takes a mustard seed’s worth of faith to move a mountain (because we tell it to move in faith that God will move it as we’ve asked), but without faith our requests fall on deaf ears. If doubt means we won’t receive and faith means we do receive, it only stands to reason that doubt opposes faith. Belief unites us into one body in Christ, but doubt divides us. Division causes instability. James merely reinforces this reason prayer goes unanswered by expounding in verse 8, explaining instability through doubt (double-mindedness), or if you prefer he’s explaining doubt through instability.

1.8.4 What exactly does “ways” mean?

Greek [odios], syn.: road, progress, route, journey

Jn 14:6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” James use of the phrase “in all his ways” is the most compelling part of the passage for the argument that he speaks of a prolonged condition of doubt being the root cause of instability and unanswered prayer. We are instructed to ask God questions, seeking Him and His wisdom, so it is important not to confuse doubt (skepticism) with questioning. A question is asked when the answer isn’t known. Doubt is disbelief of the answer. A moment of doubt may be thought of as a brief reluctance to accept an answer, and in some cases this may be true. The doubt which James speaks of, however, is certainly a state of mind which permeates the conscious mind and renders their faith null. Just as an instability in a bridge will cause it to fracture and collapse, doubt causes faith to become unstable and collapse.

1.8.5 What is the remedy for the doubter?

Jn 20:27-28 Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe.” Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!” Thomas confessed his doubt before this encounter with Jesus. Jesus responded by taking away Thomas’ excuse for doubting. Jesus commanded him to not disbelieve, but believe. Thomas then responded to Jesus in the only way that makes any sense at all. He exclaimed the divinity of Jesus and the full impact of Jesus’ identity must have struck him to the quick. I can only imagine Thomas falling to his knees in abject humility. Jesus wasn’t scolding Thomas in this encounter, rather he demonstrated incredible grace by giving Thomas the very thing he was bold enough to ask for: proof of Jesus authority, divinity, power, and mercy. In that moment Thomas came to know Jesus as his Lord. Is Jesus that real to you? Do you bow humbly before him as your Lord and Master? Yes, he is our friend. Yes, we are granted permission to cry Abba Father. But with that familiarity we must not loose perspective and forget that Jesus is Lord of Lords and King of Kings.

1.8.6 Summary of James 1:5-8

In the framework of these few verses we have learned a great deal. Wisdom was a topic that could have been the subject of its own book, but the important things to remember are that true wisdom comes from God, he gives generously, and he gives without prejudice.

We learned about how to make requests of God, and about requesting wisdom in particular. This lead to discussing the chief requirement made of us when asking, and that is faith. James explains to us the nature of doubt and its impact on requests made of God, even of something as basic and as freely available as God’s wisdom.

Faith is also the single requirement of salvation (Jn 3:16), though as we will learn later in the study of James, faith is not passive and it is not an intellectual knowledge. It takes substance in the form of behaviors which are based on core beliefs and values.

Worry distracts, making it easy to doubt, doubt leads to susceptibility to temptation, temptation to desire, desire to sin, and sin to death. The vaccine for this process is faith.

James 1:9

James 1:9-11 9 Let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is exalted: 10 But the rich, in that he is made low: because as the flower of the grass he shall pass away. 11 For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away in his ways. – KJV

James 1:9-11 9 The brother in humble circumstances ought to take pride in his high position. 10 But the one who is rich should take pride in his low position, because he will pass away like a wild flower. 11 For the sun rises with scorching heat and withers the plant; its blossom falls and its beauty is destroyed. In the same way, the rich man will fade away even while he goes about his business. – NIV

James 1:9-11 9 Let the lowly brother boast in his exaltation, 10 and the rich in his humiliation, because like a flower of the grass he will pass away. 11 For the sun rises with its scorching heat and withers the grass; its flower falls, and its beauty perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in the midst of his pursuits. – ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:9 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
kauchaomai [2744] boast, glory, joy, rejoice de [1161] and, but, now… (conjunction) ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) adephos [0080] brother, sibling (connected by womb, literal or figurative) ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) tapeinos [5011] base, depressed, cast down, low degree, humble en [1722] preposition denoting place: such as in, at, of, through… ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) hupsos [5311] elevation, altitude, the sky; or be exalted, high degree autos [0846] her, his, it, them (possessive 3rd person pronoun)

1.9.0 Introduction to James 1:9

This passage beginning with verse 9 continues through verse 11. Here James contrasts the high with the low, again using word-pictures, to illustrate how high and low socio-economic stature relate to spiritual conditions. Verse 9 talks about how the believer in a low social or financial status can rejoice in his high place with the Lord. While studying verse 9 we will concentrate on the nature of the “lowly brother.”

1.9.1 What does James mean by “lowly” brother?

The Greek word tapeinos is rendered low degree (KJV), humble circumstances (NIV), or lowly (ESV). Tapeinos literally means not rising far from the ground and metaphorically means a) as a condition: lowly, of low degree b) brought low with grief, depressed c) low in spirit, humble d) in a bad sense, deporting one’s self abjectly, deferring servilely to others. This word is used 8 times in the New Testament and in each case has a fundamentally similar rendering in English.

In context, James appears to be speaking of one’s societal or economic status more than their state of mind, particularly when you see James go on to contrast against the rich man in verse 10. When you step further back and look at this statement in context with the whole of the NT and consider the audience (James 1:1), the societal status of being rejects of the Jewish leadership places almost all of the believers in the category of lowly brothers. If you think of it this way, the rich might also mean those rich in religion, but poor in spirit whereas the lowly Christian brother is beneath the contempt of the Sanhedrin yet is rich in spirit.

1.9.2 What exaltation can a lowly brother boast about?

James 2:5 Listen, my beloved brothers, has not God chosen those who are poor in the world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom, which he has promised to those who love him? From this reference it would seem that God favors the poor. This cannot be the right understanding, though, because we have specific instructions not to be prejudiced based on social status, and that includes the wealthy. Instead, I am reminded of the passage in 1 Peter 2 where Peter talks about Jesus as the cornerstone of our faith, yet also as the stumbling block of non-believers.

In Mt 9:13 Jesus says to the Pharisees: Go and learn what this means, ‘I desire mercy, and not sacrifice.’ For I came not to call the righteous, but sinners. Jesus offers something we must realize we need. Those who realize they are sinners in need of salvation are the ones who realize their low position. These are the people who humble themselves before God.

Mk 10:31 But many who are first will be last, and the last first. James merely reinforces what Jesus said. The exultation (lifting up) of the lowly is chiefly salvation, but extends to understanding and wisdom, receiving the Holy Spirit, and other features and benefits you receive as a part of the body of Christ.

Prov 28:11 A rich man is wise in his own eyes, but a poor man who has understanding will find him out. They say beauty is in the eye of the beholder. The same can be said of wealth. The man who is rich in his own eyes is near sighted because he doesn’t see beyond his worldly wealth. If a man can see beyond his own wealth to the wealth of God in the form of salvation, which is to say living in the eternal presence of the Lord in Heaven, he would be akin to the man Jesus describes in Mt 13:46-56 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant in search of fine pearls, who, on finding one pearl of great value, went and sold all that he had and bought it. Whatever we have in this world is nothing. When we realize that, when we allow ourselves to be poor in this world and reckon ourselves as such, then we may be exalted.

1.9.3 How is exultation or high position defined?

Greek: Hupsos. Defined as height 1) of measurement; 2) of place, heaven; 3) metaphorically rank or high station. The Greek word hupsos appears 6 times in scripture and in KJV is rendered “be exalted” only once, here in James. In the other cases it is rendered high, on high, or height.

In Lk 1:78, Lk 24:49, Eph 4:8 the hupsos used to describe a location. In Eph 3:18 and Rev 21:16 it is used to describe physical dimensions. James 1:9 is the only instance where hupsos is used metaphorically to describe a person’s condition.

As we have seen several times already and will undoubted see many more times in our study, James artfully illustrates points by comparing and contrasting opposites. In this passage (James 1:9-11), James compares the lowly brother to the rich man. James compares the high or exalted position of the lowly man to the humiliation of the rich man. It seems logical that hupsos would, in context, mean the opposite of tapeinosis, the Greek word in James 1:10 translated as low (KJV and NIV) or humiliation (ESV). If one uses high for one, then low would be the reasonable contrast. If one uses exalted, then humiliation would be the reasonable contrast.

English definitions:

Exalt:

1.      to raise in rank, character, or status; to elevate.

2.      to glorify, praise, or honor.

3.      to increase the effect or intensity of, heighten.

4.      to fill with sublime emotion - elate.

High:

1.      having a relatively great elevation; extending upward.

2.      extending a specified distance upward.

3.      far from a reference point.

4.      being at or near the peak or culminating stage.

5.      advanced development

6.      slightly spoiled or gamy or having a bad smell (as spoiled meat)

7.      sound pitch as a large number of cycles per second

8.      latitudes closer to a pole

9.      great importance, rank, status, serious, climax, lofty stirring of events or themes

10.  lofty or exalted in quality or character

11.  greater than usual or expected in magnitude, cost, or degree

12.  favorable

13.  great force or violence

14.  luxurious or extravagant

15.  of or relating to vowels produced with part of the tongue close to the palate as in the long e sound

16.  of or relating to gear configuration as in an automotive transmission producing maximum vehicular to engine speed ratio.

In my humble opinion either word (high or exalted) works. The metaphorical use of the original Greek word in context seems to convey a sense of condition. That condition (v9) shows the elevation of the low person. The first time examining the definitions of exalt and high one might conclude that they mean fundamentally the same thing and would be interchangeable. The word “exalt,” however, seems to convey more of a concept of a transition in progress toward higher position rather than already being at that higher position as with the word “high.” Since we don’t realize the fullness of God’s grace and glory in this life, only tasting it here, we hope for its fullness in Heaven. A person in low physical circumstances, therefore, is a person in the process of traveling along the narrow road to heaven. There can be no greater exaltation than salvation where we can come into the presence of Jesus and be allowed to remain. There can be no greater humiliation than being rejected by the ultimate source of grace. That said, to me the use of low and high as words to describe the conditions of poor and rich men seems insufficient when words like exalted and humiliated are available.

1.9.4 What is an example of the “lowly brother?”

2 Cor 6:10 as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, yet possessing everything. Here Paul was discussing the nature of his ministry. Included in this description he counts himself as poor, yet making many rich. Paul describes himself as poor, having nothing. Paul understood that nothing in this world will last, and that our new bodies will live in a new place. We can’t take anything from here with us, so since we have nothing to keep, we are indeed poor as the world reckons poor. At the same time Paul indicates he possesses everything. This sounds foolish, but if you realize that having obtained salvation means eternal life basking in the love of our Savior where there will be no more tears, then truly he does possess everything he needs eternally. Paul speaks of making many rich. The only work of eternal value is working with the harvest. God will assign the specific work and the season for your labor, but the work is there to be done. The work of making others rich does not mean “working for the man,” but rather sharing the good news with others so that they too may become rich with knowledge of the Lord unto salvation.

James 1:10

James 1:9-11 9 Let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is exalted: 10 But the rich, in that he is made low: because as the flower of the grass he shall pass away. 11 For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away in his ways. – KJV

James 1:9-11 9 The brother in humble circumstances ought to take pride in his high position. 10 But the one who is rich should take pride in his low position, because he will pass away like a wild flower. 11 For the sun rises with scorching heat and withers the plant; its blossom falls and its beauty is destroyed. In the same way, the rich man will fade away even while he goes about his business. – NIV

James 1:9-11 9 Let the lowly brother boast in his exaltation, 10 and the rich in his humiliation, because like a flower of the grass he will pass away. 11 For the sun rises with its scorching heat and withers the grass; its flower falls, and its beauty perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in the midst of his pursuits. – ESV

Greek Transliteration of James 1:10 with [Strong #] and brief definitions:
ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) de [1161] and, but, now… (conjunction) plousios [4145] wealthy, rich en [1722] preposition denoting place: such as in, at, of, through… ho [3588] the (article or indefinite pronoun) tapeinosis [5014] depression (in rank or feeling), made low, low estate, vile, humiliation autos [0846] her, his, it, them (possessive 3rd person pronoun) hoti [3754] that, which… (conjunction) hos [5613] while, even as, as soon as, since, so that… (adv) anthos [0438] flower, blossom chortos [5528] court or garden of vegetation parerchomai [3928] come near, approach, pass by or away; fig: perish, neglect, avert, past, transgress

1.10.0 Introduction to James 1:10

Verse 10 establishes the contrast by introducing the rich man. It offers the rich man hope by instructing him how to come to the same joy as the poor man and why he needs to do so. In the study of this verse we shall examine the nature of riches, pride, and passing away.

1.10.1 How do you define wealth?

Col 2:2-3 that their hearts may be encouraged, being knit together in love, to reach all the riches of full assurance of understanding and the knowledge of God’s mystery, which is Christ, in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. Paul was writing to folks he knew of behalf of other believers who hadn’t actually met him face to face. Paul wanted to share with them the very most important thing he could share. Paul was a very wealthy man in the spirit. Though he certainly had the means to live comfortably in the world, he counted understanding and wisdom of God as more valuable than anything worldly. These treasures he sought to share, and no matter your opinion of Paul, he wrote more words which are today accepted as part of the NT than any other single NT author, and nearly all of them are letters to distant believers with whom he desperately desired to share from the riches of his trove of wisdom poured out to him from the Spirit.

Prov 10:22 The blessing of the Lord makes rich, and he adds no sorrow with it. [1] ([1] alternate: and toil adds nothing to it) I included the sub-note with this verse because it would sound more logical in English this way. For those of you who prefer KJV or NIV, they read like ESV here also, so it isn’t just my translation. The note doesn’t explain the reason for the alternate translation, either. I find the variation is important, however, for the sake of understanding the nature of true Godly wealth. Eph 2:8-9 proclaims grace comes by faith and not by works. This verse from Proverbs explains that the blessings of the Lord not only make us rich, but (using the alternate interpretation) no works we can do will change His blessing of richness. To me this confirms yet again that Jesus never changes, his words are a constant, and that salvation has always been available through unearned grace, requiring faith.

1.10.2 Does God care if you have material wealth?

Mt 19:16-26 And behold, a man came up to him, saying, “Teacher, what good deed must I do to have eternal life?” And he said to him, “Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. If you would enter life, keep the commandments.” He said to him, “Which ones?” And Jesus said, “You shall not murder, You shall not commit adultery, You shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness, Honor your father and mother, and, You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” The young man said to him, “All these I have kept. What do I still lack?” Jesus said to him, “If you would be perfect, go, sell what you possess and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.” When the young man heard this he went away sorrowful, for he had great possessions. And Jesus said to his disciples, “Truly, I say to you, only with difficulty will a rich person enter the kingdom of heaven. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God.” When the disciples heard this, they were greatly astonished, saying, “Who then can be saved?” But Jesus looked at them and said, “With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.” Here Jesus is saying it is hard, but then he says it is possible. The problem isn’t the person having the possession. The problem is possessions having the person.

Looking for examples from scripture to help answer this question, Job is the first person I would look at. Job 1:2-3 says There were born to him seven sons and three daughters. He possessed 7,000 sheep, 3,000 camels, 500 yoke of oxen, and 500 female donkeys, and very many servants, so that this man was the greatest of all the people of the east. Job started out with great material wealth. Job cared for God and for his children. So much so he daily gave offerings on behalf of his children because his heart so yearned that they love God as he did (Job 1:5). God cared about Job, not his things. That’s why he allowed Satan to take everything from Job, short of his life. In the end Job remained faithful to God. He wasn’t perfect, and God did straighten Job out about a few things, but when the test was complete Job was given far more than he’d started with (Job 42:10-17). Through all the ups and downs, Job and God cared more about each other than things or words of other men. Regardless of what rewards might be available to us in this life, if our heart is constantly yearning for and seeking God such that we obey Him in our love, then our ultimate reward will far greater than anything we could hope for in this life.

There are many more examples like this, such as Abraham, Joseph, Moses, even Jonah. People who sought God through various trials and went through ups and downs, but whether they were enjoying a period of earthly prosperity or loss, they kept their eyes on the Lord who saw them through it all.

So to answer the question, I really don’t think God cares how “well we do” in terms of material wealth if we keep our attention on Him. Whatever wealth we have (or don’t have) serves His purpose. We fool ourselves to think our purpose is our own, so we should just simply accept His purpose and embrace it.

1.10.3 What should you do with material wealth?

Mk 10:21 And Jesus, looking at him, loved him, and said to him, “You lack one thing: go, sell all that you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.” Jesus did one thing consistently, and that was to confront people with whatever lie they believed. He always told them what the lie was, and that they must forsake that lie and align themselves with Truth, which is to say accepting the fact Jesus is Lord and submitting accordingly. In this case, Jesus confronted the rich young man with his false god, his wealth. If the man would have turned from his false god (wealth) and accepted the Lordship of Jesus, he would have been happy. Instead, he went away sad. The man might have known Proverbs 10:15 and simply misunderstood it. Or perhaps he felt the money brought him happiness and Jesus wasn’t offering what he thought was better. That’s the flaw discussed in the third reference today (below).

Prov 10:15 A rich man’s wealth is his strong city; the poverty of the poor is their ruin. Most people would read this and think God is saying we need to accumulate wealth in this life as best we can to protect our families and avoid ruin. I confess, I thought the same thing myself when I first read it. Then, with prayer, God revealed something more to me. There are at least two other ways of looking at this passage. First, the spiritual wealth of the Holy Spirit places you in the company of fellow believers, a part of the Body of Christ. There is strength in numbers, and the New Jerusalem is surely going to be a fine city. The poverty of the poor, in contrast, speaks to the spiritually poor who will face ruin in that day. Second: Yet another revelation about this verse can be drawn from the “golden rule.” If you share your wealth, you build a stronger community. Share your material wealth with your fellow believers who are less fortunate and your whole group benefits. It tears down strife and envy and you fulfill what James calls a good religion (Jas 1:27). The poor, and more specifically those who see themselves as having very little, thus are unwilling to share what little they do have and are ruined by their hardened hearts. They are truly ruined.

Rev 3:15-18 I know your works: you are neither cold nor hot. Would that you were either cold or hot! So, because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will spit you out of my mouth. For you say, I am rich, I have prospered, and I need nothing, not realizing that you are wretched, pitiable, poor, blind, and naked. I counsel you to buy from me gold refined by fire, so that you may be rich, and white garments so that you may clothe yourself and the shame of your nakedness may not be seen, and salve to anoint your eyes, so that you may see. In this passage the Lord is speaking to the Church of Laodicea. This passage could be the subject of weeks of study, but I’m going to get to what I think applies to the question at hand. The Lord is telling these people they don’t realize how wretched they are, wallowing in their wealth instead of helping those who really need it. These are people who are well to do and think they’ve gotten what the Lord has to give them. They don’t see they’ve been deceived. Their wealth is a lie, distracting them from true obedience to the Lord’s highest command – to love one another. If they loved one another, they would serve each other while serving the Lord. In fact, they would serve those in need because in doing so, they are serving the Lord. If they would see themselves as God sees them, they would realize the need to zealously help those less fortunate and would step into the mission field right before their eyes. You don’t have to travel 5000 miles to be a missionary. Sometimes 5 feet will be far enough. By repenting (changing their thinking to align themselves to God), they would through their obedience by buying the gold of true wealth, the white robes which cover our shame, and the anointing which allows us to see clearly what is now so dim.

1.10.4 What do you think about these situations (Straw Man Exercise):

1.      If a man steals a million dollars from a bank, should he tithe it?

2.      If you represented the church receiving money from a criminal, would you have any problems accepting the money once you found out where it came from?

3.      Now replace “steals” with “wins”, replace “bank” with “casino”, and replace “criminal” with “winner”. Would it make any difference? Why or why not?

About Theft

Ex 20:15 You shall not steal. This makes the thief a sinner. We know that through the merciful Grace of Jesus that any sin may be forgiven. Forgiveness of sin and erasure of earthly consequences are not the same thing. God doesn’t want to receive the stolen goods (Mal 1:13). It’s a felony. Legally it would be your responsibility to turn in the thief, no matter their intended use for the ill-gotten gain.

About Gambling

Ex 20:17 You shall not covet… I read numerous well written arguments concerning gambling and concluded that gambling violates the tenth commandment. The purpose of gambling is to acquire money through no honest work, and to quickly accumulate that wealth. It is the desire for wealth that drives gambling, circumventing God’s intended methods accumulating wealth.

Isaiah 65:11-12 refers to people who set a table for Fortune and cups of mixed wine for Destiny. Fortune and Destiny were both ancient far east gods representing what amounts to gambling. In that passage the Lord goes on to say death awaits them because they forget the Lord, delighting in evil.

2 Ki 18:23 is part of a passage that speaks of a wager offered by the King of Assyria to King Hezekiah. In context this would seem to support a position against gambling, but it isn’t explicit.

Lottery

Searching for the subject of casting lots I found more than 20 entries. In most cases those casting lots were determining God’s will. Some examples include Aaron, Joshua, Saul, David, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah etc. That seems to run counter to our notions about gambling. Pr 16:33 puts these events in context by explaining why the people of God would gamble for their decisions: The lot is cast into the lap, but its every decision is from the Lord.

Where the casting of lots may be a tool God can use for decision making, casting lots to gamble money is entirely different matter, falling clearly into the purview of Isaiah 65. It is from casting lots that we get our modern term lottery.

Straw Man Summary

The bottom line is the money from theft or from a get-rich scheme such as gambling is tainted and unacceptable to the Lord. To receive such would be like the priests described by Malachi (see 1.10.5). You have civil responsibilities if the money was obtained illegally and a responsibility to God even if it wasn’t illegal. It makes no difference what charity the money goes to, anonymous or otherwise. Until the sinner is reconciled to God the money given would only be an anchor around his neck. Nothing that man can do can repay his sin (Eph 2:8-9). Only grace can preserve life eternally. Of course God can use the money anyway, if He chooses, and since His ways are not our ways it isn’t my place to judge if and how he could turn the tainted into the pure since he certainly has that authority. Beware, dear pastors and church reps, that if you knowingly accept such money, you are as guilty as the sinner who brought it to you.

1.10.5 Does God care how you obtain material wealth?

Malachi 1:13 But you say, ‘What a weariness this is,’ and you snort at it, says the Lord of hosts. You bring what has been taken by violence or is lame or sick, and this you bring as your offering! Shall I accept that from your hand? says the Lord. (For complete context read the whole chapter.) The Lord says stolen goods or money will not be accepted by Him, whether the priests accepted on His behalf them or not. God wants your best, from what is honest and true and pure, whether it is a material offering or an offering of the heart.

1.10.6 How does material wealth affect your faith?

Mk 10:22 Disheartened by the saying, he went away sorrowful, for he had great possessions. The rich young man’s wealth stood between him and what he really needed to believe in. Jesus confronted him with the purest and most stark choice, and he chose to believe in his earthly wealth instead of Jesus. After seeing this example and seeing what kinds of true wealth is available with genuine faith, would you make the same choice as the young man?

Prov 11:28 Whoever trusts in his riches will fall, but the righteous will flourish like a green leaf. This scripture stands in stark contrast with Prov 10:15, proving it must mean something other than what it seems to say on the surface. Prov 11:28 explains that earthly riches are temporary, but Godly riches (in the form of righteousness) are eternal.

Rev 3:17 For you say, I am rich, I have prospered, and I need nothing, not realizing that you are wretched, pitiable, poor, blind, and naked. The rich man, like most people, trusts what he knows. He knows what money can do. Giving up what you know, particularly when you know that thing (wealth) brings you a sense of physical security and comfort, is extremely difficult for most people.

1.10.7 Are you rich?

The Greek word plousios appears 28 times in scripture and every time is translated as the word rich. The literal definition is wealthy, abounding in material resources. It metaphorically means abounding or abundantly supplied, as with Christian virtues or eternal possessions.

Mt 14:16-20 But Jesus said, “They need not go away; you give them something to eat.” They said to him, “We have only five loaves here and two fish.” And he said, “Bring them here to me.” Then he ordered the crowds to sit down on the grass, and taking the five loaves and the two fish, he looked up to heaven and said a blessing. Then he broke the loaves and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. And they all ate and were satisfied. And they took up twelve baskets full of the broken pieces left over.

How much “stuff” do you have? Stuff can include money, time, skills, information, trust, or anything else of value. Are you doing what you should with that stuff? Do you have stuff another person needs? How about the eternal stuff? Do you have enough of that stuff? The great thing about eternal stuff is the more you give away, the more you have left. This is an important aspect of Jesus feeding the 5000. If it is from God, and you obey God and give away what came from God, He – being the creator that He is – will see to it you have more left than you started with. Do you have your mustard seed?

1.10.8 What advice is given to the rich?

1 Tim 6:17-19 As for the rich in this present age, charge them not to be haughty, nor to set their hopes on the uncertainty of riches, but on God, who richly provides us with everything to enjoy. They are to do good, to be rich in good works, to be generous and ready to share, thus storing up treasure for themselves as a good foundation for the future, so that they may take hold of that which is truly life. This passage speaks for itself.

1.10.9 Where is your treasure?

Heb 11:24-27 By faith Moses, when he was grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, choosing rather to be mistreated with the people of God than to enjoy the fleeting pleasures of sin. He considered the reproach of Christ greater wealth than the treasures of Egypt, for he was looking to the reward. By faith he left Egypt, not being afraid of the anger of the king, for he endured as seeing him who is invisible. Moses chose the reproach of Christ over all the wealth of Egypt. His example of treasure is humbling.

1.10.10 Why does James talk about riches in the context of an overall discussion about temptation and trials?

The consistent theme of James as a book is one of determining the substance of faith in the form of action, which is to say how we live our lives. James begins his letter by cutting straight to the issue of testing faith through trials and temptations. Material wealth is certainly a temptation to many. Remember what the temptation of money did to Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5:1-11). Finance is one of the most popular topics in the whole of the bible, touched on to one degree or another by nearly every biblical author. Given the nature of James’ letter, it’s a wonder he didn’t write more on the subject of materialism.

1.10.11 What does James mean by humiliation (ESV), low position (NIV) or made low (KJV)?

The Greek word used is tapeinosis. It appears 4 times in scripture. This is a form of the same Greek word used in James 1:9 to characterize the status of the brother as lowly. (Tapeinos, the form of the word used in James 1:9 was covered by question 1.9.1.) After expanding my research, I learned KJV always translates tapeinosis as some form of the word low. NASB, however, renders tapeinosis as either humiliation or humble state each time it is used in scripture. Grammatically, humiliation or low position is an adjective which modifies the rich man via the preposition translated “in.”

In context, its seems obvious the abundant resources of the rich man are at best a strike against him. From lessons learned through earlier questions we know the rich man will have more difficulty laying hold of salvation than a man of humble means (Luke 18:25). The more of anything a person has, the more God will expect of that person regarding what they’ve been given. This is true of all gifts from wisdom and knowledge (James 3:1) to money (1 Tim 6:17-19), just as Jesus taught in the Parable of the Talents (Mt 24:14-30).

To actually answer the study question, though, the humiliation or low state the rich man is brought to could be metaphorical just as easily as physical. Each person is unique and special, so to each person God may uniquely apply this wisdom, I think. Certainly the best thing is when the heart is humbled and the attitude of the rich man is brought into alignment with the Will of God. When a man’s material wealth is taken, a humbling before God may be the result. I think the Lord would be more pleased, though, if we humble ourselves first and submit to give God what is His first.

1.10.12 Why do people desire material things?

1 Pe 2:11 Beloved, I urge you as sojourners and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh, which wage war against your soul. The key word is passion, and it all goes back to the fall of Adam. We cannot know for sure, but it seems likely neither Adam nor Eve even contemplated disobeying God’s instructions about the trees or anything else until the deceiver came. Satan was able to create a desire in Eve through the introduction of his lie. Desire for things other than God have carried down through all men since. Peter reminds us that our earthly passions war against us. What the body desires, from money to sex, is a natural genetic defect and it opposes God.

Ex 20:17 “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male servant, or his female servant, or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s.” The 10th commandment uses the word covet rather than desire or passion or want, but the idea is the same. People want. Who wants what they already have?

After eating the fruit of knowledge of good and evil, the first couple came to knowledge of their failure, that they were found lacking. As a result of the fall, God was no longer in communion with them as He was before. The false desire to be like God lead to the fall and the subsequent breakdown in the man-God relationship. Since then man has sought to replace what was lost in the fall. The flesh always desires. The unregenerate man lives as a slave to the desires of the flesh, seeking to replace what was lost with things of the world.

The good news is that God came to repair the damage. The healing process began with Christ in his victory over death (Jn 20:19-20) and the coming of the Holy Spirit (Ac 2:1-4) to indwell the believers (Jn 3:16), regenerating them (2 Cor 5:17). The process also ends with Christ (Rev 21:6) returning and bringing the believers to their home (Rev 22:14).

1.10.13 Who will pass away?

Pr 11:4 Riches do not profit in the day of wrath, but righteousness delivers from death. Grammatically it appears James is saying the rich will pass away. This in no way means that the lowly will not also pass away, but rather it speaks to the rich man specifically as a reminder that his wealth will pass from him when he passes away. Though his wealth might help him in this life, his money won’t extend his earthly life or help him with eternity. Only righteousness can be stored up for Heaven.

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