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Lesson 41: The War Within (Romans 7:21-25)

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I recently saw a bumper sticker with the peace symbol around the border. It showed two children with their arms around each other. The caption was, “All the arms we need.” I said to Marla, “What planet do these people live on?” When we dwell on the new earth, when all sin is completely eradicated, we won’t need arms to defend ourselves. But as long as sin is in this world, we need arms not only to hug one another, but also to fight against enemies that seek to destroy us. As unpleasant as it is, the reality of life in this fallen world includes conflict.

That’s also true in the Christian life. We all want peaceful lives. Perhaps you came to Christ because someone told you that in Him, you would find peace. That’s true. In Christ, we experience peace with God (Rom. 5:1). Christ is the basis for peace between believers (Eph. 2:14). As much as is possible, we are to be at peace with all people (Rom. 12:18). And, in Christ we come to know a sense of inner peace, even in the face of tribulation, that we lacked before (John 16:33).

But while the Christian life is one of peace, it’s also one of constant warfare. As we serve Christ and seek to extend His kingdom, we’re at war with the evil powers of darkness (Eph. 6:10-20). We’re engaged in the battle between God’s truth and the lies of Satan that captivate the minds of the unbelieving (2 Cor. 10:3-5). And, as every Christian knows, there is a fierce inner battle that goes on between the flesh and the spirit, the old man and the new (Gal. 5:17). If we do not learn how to overcome the strong inner urge to gratify the flesh, sin will take us captive and enslave us. Paul describes this war within in Romans 7:14-25.

As I explained in the previous two messages, some godly scholars understand these verses to be a description of Paul as an unbelieving Jew, striving but failing to keep God’s law. Others argue that Paul is describing the ongoing battle that he was experiencing as he wrote. Even mature believers have to fight this battle against indwelling sin as long as they live.

While I agree that mature believers must fight a continual battle against indwelling sin (the flesh or the old sin nature), I disagree that such a description adequately explains these verses. Paul is not just describing a battle here, but a losing battle. He describes himself as (7:14), “I am of flesh, sold into bondage to sin.” He is not practicing what he would like to do, but rather was doing the very thing he hated (7:15, 18, 19). He was a prisoner of the law of sin (7:23). As I explained (in the last message), he was on the merry-go-round of sin and he couldn’t get off.

We looked at the first two cycles (7:14-17, 18-20) of sin and defeat. Now we come to the third time around the merry-go-round, which follows the same three-fold progression: Fact, proof, and conclusion:

Fact (7:21): “I find then the principle that evil is present in me ….”

Proof (7:22-23): “For I joyfully concur with the law of God in the inner man, but I see a different law in my members, waging war…”

Conclusion (7:25): “So then, on the one hand I myself with my mind am serving the law of God, but on the other, with my flesh the law of sin.”

I reject the view that Paul is describing his experience as an unbeliever because he says things that are not true of unbelievers. I reject the view that he was writing primarily about his struggle as a mature believer because while mature believers struggle with sin and sometimes lose the battle, they do not live in perpetual defeat and bondage to sin.

I contend that these verses primarily describe an immature believer who has not yet come to understand that he is no longer under the law, but under grace. He has not yet learned to rely on the indwelling Holy Spirit to overcome the lusts of the flesh. (There is no mention of the Spirit here, but much is said of the Spirit in chapter 8.) But at the same time, the war that Paul describes here does go on, even for mature believers. The difference is that while sin is winning the war in chapter 7, Paul through the Holy Spirit is winning against sin in chapter 8. While we can never in this life obey God’s law perfectly, we can learn to obey God consistently. We do not have to yield repeatedly to sin, which is the frustrating cycle that Paul describes here. This third cycle teaches us:

To win the war within, we must understand the magnitude of the inner conflict so that in despair we cry out to God for deliverance.

In 7:24, Paul cries out in despair, “Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from the body of this death?” His exclamation in 7:25 gives us a ray of hope, followed by a summary of the war within: “Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, on the one hand I myself with my mind am serving the law of God, but on the other, with my flesh the law of sin.” Chapter 8 goes on to unfold the deliverance that God gives us over sin through the indwelling Holy Spirit. I see three lessons in our text:

1. To win the war within, we must understand the nature and magnitude of the conflict between indwelling sin and the new man.

The Christian life is a constant battle against the world, the flesh, and the devil. Here the focus is on the flesh. “I find” implies that this was a discovery that came to Paul after some painful failures. He discovered this truth in the school of hard knocks. Even though Paul had experienced a dramatic conversion, it didn’t immediately result in a life of consistent victory over sin. And so he portrays here the two combatants in this battle. We can picture them as boxers:

A. In this corner: The reigning champion, the old man, waging war in my members to make me a prisoner.

Paul uses several terms here to describe the evil within. While they have different nuances, they basically describe the same thing: “the law that evil is present in me” (7:21); “a different law … waging war” (7:23); “the law of sin” (7:23, 25); “the body of this death” (7:24); and, “my flesh” (7:25). All of these terms refer to the old man and its method of operation. The old man is not eradicated at conversion, but continues to be corrupted according to the lusts of deceit (Eph. 4:22). As we saw last time, positionally the old man was crucified with Christ, in order that our body of sin might be done away with (Rom. 6:6). But practically, we have to reckon this to be true in our daily experience by putting it off (Rom. 6:11; Eph. 4:22-24). If we don’t learn to do this, the old man will make us prisoners to the law of sin (7:23). Note how the old man operates:

(1). The old man (the flesh, indwelling sin) operates according to a law.

The word translated “principle” (NASB, 7:21) is literally, “law.” Some commentators argue that it refers to God’s law (as it does in 7:22 & 25), so that in 7:21 the sense is, “I find then that in reference to [God’s] law, evil is present in me .…” While that is possible, the fact that Paul specifies “the law of God” in 7:22 indicates that he is distinguishing it from the law that he has just mentioned in 7:21.

So he is probably using “law” ironically in 7:21, both to compare and contrast the law of sin with God’s law. In this sense, it rules us and with authority tells us how to live (although wrongly!). It promises rewards if we obey it: “You’ll be happier and more fulfilled if you experience the pleasure of this sin.” It threatens us with penalties if we do not obey it: “You’ll miss out on all the fun if you don’t do what I say.” So indwelling sin is powerful. It operates as a law, commanding us, threatening us, and enticing us. (I am indebted to Kris Lundgaard, The Enemy Within [P & R Publishing], pp. 23-26 for some of these insights about the law of sin.)

(2). The old man operates by waging a cunning, relentless war.

Paul says (7:23), “But I see a different law in the members of my body, waging war ….” The war that the old man wages is a guerilla war. It doesn’t wear red coats and come marching towards you in formation, so that you can see it coming. It uses snipers and land mines and hidden roadside bombs and civilians posing as friends when really they’re enemies. In other words, sin is subtle and cunning. It lures you into traps where you get ambushed. And it’s relentless. If it loses one battle, it doesn’t pack up and go home, conceding defeat. It keeps coming at you until it brings you down.

(3). The old man operates through our bodies.

This law operates “in the members of my body” (7:23). Paul laments “the body of this death” (7:24), which refers to his physical body that is under the curse of death. He contrasts the law of sin with “the law of my mind” (7:23).

We need to be careful here or we could fall into an error that became prevalent in the early church. Gnosticism taught that the body is inherently evil, whereas the spirit is good. This led to two different extremes. Some said that since the body is evil, we must treat it harshly by depriving ourselves of food, comfort, and physical pleasure. This is asceticism, which Paul strongly condemns (Col. 2:16-23). The other extreme was that some said that since the body is evil anyway, you might as well indulge it. What the body does is unrelated to the spirit. So you could indulge in sexual immorality, but at the same time claim that your spirit was not in sin.

Since Paul elsewhere clearly denounces these errors, we would be mistaken to take his teaching here in that way. Rather, he is saying that the law of sin works through his physical body and manifests itself in evil deeds. But it takes his entire person captive (7:23, “making me a prisoner”). In this sense, by his members, Paul means his flesh (7:18), which is the old sin nature. Temptation always begins in our minds, but it appeals to and works its way out through our bodies. Thus one strategy against sin is to make it your aim always to glorify God with your body (1 Cor. 6:20).

(4). The old man operates through strong compulsion or feelings, not through reason alone.

Sin uses reason, however faulty, to appeal to us. Satan reasoned with Eve that God surely would not impose the death penalty for eating a little piece of fruit. He also used faulty reasoning to get her to doubt God’s goodness in imposing the command. The fall brought our minds as well as our bodies into captivity to sin.

But in addition to reason, temptation always appeals to our feelings. Leon Morris (The Epistle to the Romans [Apollos/Eerdmans, p. 294) refers to it as “the compulsion to do evil.” It’s not purely rational. In fact, sin is usually irrational. If we were to stop and think about the consequences both for us and for others, we’d resist the temptation. Don Kistler pointed out the irrationality of sin when he astutely observed (in “Why Read the Puritans Today?” referring to Jeremiah Burroughs’ thesis in The Evil of Evils), “Sin is worse than suffering; but people will do everything they can to avoid suffering, but almost nothing to avoid sin.”

So, in the first corner, we have the reigning champion that has dominated the human race ever since the fall: the old man.

B. In the other corner: The new challenger, the inner man, joyfully concurring with the law of God.

Paul wants to do good (7:21). He says (7:22), “For I joyfully concur with the law of God in the inner man.” He says that with his mind he is serving the law of God (7:25). This must refer to the mind of a regenerate man. So by the inner man and my mind, Paul is referring to the new man, which through the new birth “has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth” (Eph. 4:24). Leon Morris (p. 295) calls this “the real Paul.” F. F. Bruce (Romans [IVP/Eerdmans], rev. ed., p. 146) identifies it as “the ‘new nature’ in Christ that is daily being renewed in the Creator’s image.” He adds (ibid.), “In light of 8:7-8 it is difficult to view the speaker here as other than a believer.”

One of the marks of the new birth is that God gives you new desires. You have a new love for Christ, who gave Himself on the cross for you. You love God’s Word and desire it like a newborn babe desires his mother’s milk (1 Pet. 2:2). You long to be holy, just as Jesus is holy. You hate your own sin. You love to be with God’s people and talk about the things of God. And yet, at the same time, you know that in your flesh there is still a strong desire to do evil. In new believers, the desires of the old nature (the reigning champion) often win out over the new desires of the new nature (the new challenger) until the new believer learns how to fight.

That’s the picture of Paul here. He has a new nature that joyfully concurs with God’s law in the inner man, but he’s still dominated by the old nature. Unbelievers do not have two natures warring against each other and they do not joyfully love God’s law in their hearts. But mature believers have learned to put on the new man and put off the old, so that they experience consistent victory over sin. But before we begin to see consistent victory, we often experience frustrating defeats because of the power of the reigning champion, the old man. Let’s examine what deliverance from the old nature looks like:

2. Deliverance in this conflict consists of consistent victory over sin in this life and perfect, permanent victory in the resurrection.

In addition to Paul’s dramatic use of the present tense, one strong argument that he is describing mature believers here is that even mature believers identify with the struggle pictured here. Even after we’ve learned to overcome temptation on a consistent basis and after we’ve walked in obedience to the Lord for years, we still find ourselves sinning. We lash out in anger at our loved ones. We act selfishly with no regard for others. We see a seductive woman and lust floods into our thoughts.

But I do not see Paul describing here a lack of perfection, but rather a lack of obedience. He is not doing what he knows to be right. He is practicing what he knows to be wrong. He is failing completely. I agree with Martyn Lloyd-Jones (Romans: The Law: Its Functions and Limits [Zondervan], p. 222), who argues that Paul’s cry of anguish (in 7:24) is not caused by the fact that he is in conflict against his old nature, but rather by his persistent defeat in yielding to that old nature (7:23). So let me make three observations to try to picture what deliverance looks like:

A. Deliverance does not refer to a state of sinless perfection in this life, but to consistent victory over sin.

In this life, I will never love God as completely as I should, with my entire heart, soul, mind, and strength. I will never love others as much as I love myself (Mark 12:30-31). I will always fall short of these commands. But a lack of perfection is not the same as persistent disobedience. As a new creature in Christ, by God’s Spirit, I can choose to love God by spending time with Him each day in His Word and in prayer, by gathering with His people to worship Him each week, and by honoring Him with the money He entrusts to me. I can love my wife, my children, and others in a self-sacrificing manner. The deliverance that Paul is crying out for (in 7:24) may include the perfection that will come when we get our resurrection bodies. But he wants to be freed from his present enslavement to sin (7:23). He wants to obey God consistently, even if such obedience can never be perfect in this life.

B. Deliverance from sin always creates tension with the growing awareness of your many sins and shortcomings.

There is an irony in the Christian life: As you walk more consistently in obedience to God and grow closer to the light of His holy presence, you see all the more how dirty you really are. When Isaiah saw God in His holiness, he immediately saw how sinful he was (Isa. 6:5). Paul’s cry here may have stemmed partly from this awareness of his sinful imperfection. In that sense, it’s a cry that we will continually echo as we grow in Christ.

But it seems to me that Lloyd-Jones is right when he connects Paul’s cry in this context mainly with his disobedience and defeat, not just with his imperfection (7:24 follows 7:23). Yet at the same time, growing to know Christ and obey Him more always leads to a greater awareness of how sinful you still are. Deliverance from sin’s power does not eliminate this tension of how far short you fall.

C. Deliverance from sin means consistent victory over it, but it does not eliminate the lifelong struggle against it.

After Paul’s jubilant exclamation (7:25), you’d expect him to move on to talk about victory over sin. But instead, he summarizes the war he has just described, in which with his mind he serves the law of God, but with his flesh, the law of sin. It leaves you with the feeling that sin is still consistently winning. Victory doesn’t come until chapter 8. Bishop Lightfoot (Notes on Epistles of St. Paul [Baker], p. 305) says that while Paul’s thanksgiving is out of place, he can’t endure to leave the difficulty unsolved, so he gives the solution parenthetically, even though it interrupts his argument.

But while the struggle against sin is a lifelong battle, when we do learn that we can’t win it in our own strength and when we learn to walk in the Spirit, we can experience consistent victory, which is the flavor of chapter 8. But even when we walk in the Spirit, the daily struggle against sin goes on. The war within of chapter 7 is never eradicated in this life, but the difference is, chapter 7 pictures persistent defeat, whereas chapter 8 pictures consistent triumph and victory, even in the face of severe trials. By God’s grace, we can put the defeat of chapter 7 in the past and experience the consistent victory of chapter 8.

3. To experience consistent victory over sin, we must despair over our sin and cry out to God for deliverance.

As I cited my friend Bob Deffinbaugh last week, the problem with many Christians is not their despair, like that of Paul, but their lack of it. They don’t feel the anguish of their persistent disobedience. They avoid the struggle, often by minimizing their sin as a “personality quirk” or as “just being human.” They excuse it as normal: “Everyone has his faults.”

But you will not gain consistent victory over sin until you first see God’s holy standard and realize how often you’re disobeying that standard. You must also realize, often through repeated failures, that you cannot obey God in your own strength. Then, in despair, you cry out, “Wretched man that I am! Who will set me free from the body of this death?” As you search God’s Word for answers, you learn that “the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and death” (8:2). You learn to walk not according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit (8:4). You begin to experience consistent victory over sin in your daily walk, beginning on the thought level.


Dwight Eisenhower once said, “War is a terrible thing. But if you’re going to get into it, you’ve got to get into it all the way.” Underestimating the power of the enemy is a sure way to lose. The war within will be with us as long as we live in these fallen bodies. It is winnable, not perfectly or permanently, but consistently. But we can’t be half-hearted. If we fully engage the battle using God’s resources, we can consistently win!

Application Questions

  1. Some argue that the way to victory over sin is to see yourself as a saint who occasionally sins, not as a sinner. Why is this at odds with the biblical strategy for victory?
  2. Why is underestimating the power of indwelling sin a sure path to spiritual defeat?
  3. James Boice points out that Christians often avoid the battle against sin by a formula, a new experience that supposedly will give instant victory, or avoidance. To which of these are you most prone?
  4. Why is it important to distinguish between perfection and consistent obedience? What problems result if we don’t?

Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2011, All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation

Related Topics: Hamartiology (Sin), Spiritual Life, Temptation

Lesson 42: Set Free (Romans 8:1-4)

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We come to a chapter that has often been called either the greatest or one of the greatest chapters in the Bible (James Boice, Romans [Baker], 2:781; Martyn Lloyd Jones, Romans: The Law: Its Functions and Limits [Zondervan], p. 258). The Swiss commentator Godet pointed out that it begins with “no condemnation” and ends with “no separation.” Another commentator (C. A. Fox) added that in between there is “no defeat” (cited by Leon Morris, The Epistle to the Romans [Eerdmans/Apollos], p. 299).

Personally, I’ve come to Romans 8 again and again when I’ve been discouraged or depressed. I don’t see how you can read Romans 8 and remain down. If you struggle with guilt, read Romans 8. If you struggle with sin, read Romans 8. If you’re going through trials, read Romans 8. If you don’t know how to pray, read Romans 8. If you’re struggling with assurance of your salvation, read Romans 8. Interestingly, while the flavor of Romans 8 is exhortation, there is not a single command in the chapter. The German Pietist Philipp Spener said that if the Bible were a ring and Romans its precious stone, chapter 8 would be “the sparkling point of the jewel” (F. Godet, Commentary on Romans [Kregel], p. 295).

There is a noticeable shift from Romans 7 to Romans 8. In chapter 7, “I” is frequent, the law is prominent, and sin is dominant. In chapter 8, the Holy Spirit is frequent (18x, more than any other NT chapter), God’s grace and persevering love are prominent, and victory over sin is dominant. There are several ways to outline the chapter; here is one:

1. Justification and sanctification: God’s salvation through Christ and His indwelling Spirit give us life to overcome judgment and sin (8:1-13).

2. Adoption: God’s Spirit assures us of our adoption as His children and heirs (8:14-17).

3. Glorification: Although we (and all creation) now suffer, God will bring us to final glory (8:18-30).

A. Our present sufferings do not compare to our future glory (8:18-25).

B. In our weakness, the Spirit intercedes for us (8:26-27).

C. God will work all things together for our good, because His sovereign purpose for His elect will bring us to glory (8:28-30).

4. Assurance: No attack or hardship can separate God’s elect from His great love (8:31-39).

With that as an overview of the chapter, let’s zero in on 8:1-4, where Paul deals with two very practical issues: guilt and sin. As we saw in chapter 7, believers fight an inner war. With the new man in Christ, they joyfully concur with the holy commandments of God’s law. But, with the old man (the flesh, or indwelling sin), they are prone to be held captive by the law of sin. As I explained, I understand Romans 7:14-25 to refer primarily to immature believers who have not learned of their new identity in Christ. They do not yet reckon themselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ. They have not yet learned to rely on the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit to put to death the deeds of the flesh. They’re living like unbelievers. So sin and guilt are a major problem for them.

Even though mature believers experience consistent victory over sin, they still struggle daily against the flesh and occasionally lose the battle. So they must understand how to deal with guilt and how to overcome temptation. When we do sin as Christians, the enemy comes in to stir up doubts about our salvation: “How do you know that your sins are all forgiven? True Christians don’t do what you just did! You’re hopeless! You might as well admit your hypocrisy in claiming to be a Christian and quit trying to be holy.” It is to those practical issues that Paul directs these opening verses:

God has graciously set free from sin’s penalty and power all who are in Christ Jesus.

Although these are wonderful verses, they’re not easy to interpret. So godly commentators and pastors disagree over many details in the text. Some see verses 1 & 3 as pertaining to justification, with verses 2 & 4 applying to sanctification. But as I’ve wrestled with the flow of thought, I think that Paul is dealing with justification through most of this paragraph, but brings in sanctification at the end to answer his critics who accused him of promoting licentiousness. Note that verses 2 & 3 both begin with “for.” In verse 2, Paul explains what he said in verse 1, which clearly deals with justification. Thus I understand verse 2 primarily to explain justification. Verse 3 explains further verse 2. The first half of verse 4 gives the result of justification (in 8:1-3). Then the last half of verse 4 describes those who have been justified: They do not walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. Verses 5-11 explain the differences between those in the flesh and those in the Spirit, which is applied to believers in verses 12-13.

1. Justification: God has graciously set free from sin’s penalty all who are in Christ Jesus (8:1-4a).

There are three stages in Paul’s thought:

A. Those who are in Christ Jesus can be assured that they will not be condemned at the judgment (8:1).

Romans 8:1: “Therefore there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.” If you have not memorized that simple verse, do it! You will need it over and over again, every time you sin. By the way, the King James Version wrongly includes the phrase from verse 4, “who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.” That rightly belongs at the end of verse 4, but it was probably inserted after verse 1 by a copyist who was worried that the bold statement of verse 1 as it stands would lead readers into licentiousness. But it lacks sufficient manuscript support. Verse 1 ends with the wonderful phrase that Paul uses so often, “in Christ Jesus.”

There are four words or phrases that we must understand to grasp the truth of verse 1: “Therefore”; “no condemnation”; “now”; and, “in Christ Jesus.”

Therefore”: It is not immediately obvious what Paul refers to with “therefore.” Some think that it refers to his exclamation in 7:25, “Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord!” But the intervening summary at the end of that verse makes the connection unclear. Probably, Paul is going back to the entire argument of justification by faith that has dominated the letter from 3:21 onward. But there are two more definite connections. The word “condemnation” (in Greek) only occurs elsewhere in the New Testament in Romans 5:16 & 18, where Paul argued that just as condemnation came to the entire human race through Adam’s sin, so God’s free gift of justification came to us through Jesus Christ. Just as we were under condemnation in Adam, so now we are in Christ, justified by His grace.

Also, in Romans 7:6, Paul said, “But now we have been released from the Law, having died to that by which we were bound, so that we serve in newness of the Spirit and not in oldness of the letter.” He seems to be picking up that truth and elaborating on it here. So “therefore” goes back to sum up the great truth of the gospel of justification by faith alone through God’s grace alone in Christ alone that Paul has laid out earlier in this letter.

No condemnation”: “No” is emphatic and means, “not any,” or “not one.” “Condemnation” is a legal or forensic term that “includes both the sentence and the execution of the sentence” (Morris, p. 300). In Adam, we all stand before God as guilty and condemned to eternal punishment (5:16, 18). We’re on death row, awaiting the execution of the guilty verdict that has been passed. If we died in that condition, we would pass into eternal separation from God, the second death. But since Christ bore the punishment that we deserved, in Him we are set free so that we stand before God justified and acquitted, with all charges dismissed.

This raises the practical question, “As a believer should I feel guilty when I sin?” If there is no condemnation, should we refuse to feel guilty when we disobey God? I would argue that properly understood, believers should feel guilty when they sin. The guilt stems from the fact that I have violated God’s holy Word. I have disobeyed my loving heavenly Father. Rather than loving my Savior, who went to the cross on my behalf, I have loved the sin that put Him there. Feelings of guilt that lead to genuine sorrow and repentance when I disobey God are appropriate.

On the other hand, I should not feel the guilt of condemnation that stems from the accuser’s false charge: “True Christians don’t do what you did. You’re not even a Christian!” If I mourn over my sin and am repentant before God over it, then I must accept His forgiveness and answer the accuser with the blood of the Lamb and the word of my testimony that I trust in Jesus (Rev. 12:10-11; Zech. 3:1-5). To put it another way, the guilt that I feel when I sin is relational, as a child to my Father. It is not forensic, as a criminal before the judge.

The third word is “now”: This refers to the great change that came about in salvation history when God sent His own Son to bear our sins on the cross. Now that Christ has come, we no longer need to bring the blood of sacrificial animals over and over again to atone for our sins. Once for all, Jesus offered Himself as the perfect and final sacrifice (Heb. 10:1-18). But personally, it also applies to the time since you put your trust in Christ as your sin-bearer. Since He bore the full wrath of God, which you deserved, and your trust is in Him, not in any good works of your own, now you stand before God with no condemnation. Even when you sin, you stand before God as His child, not as a guilty criminal. Now should bring you great relief every day, especially when you sin.

Finally, this great blessing of no condemnation is not for everyone. Rather, it is for those who are “in Christ Jesus.” As we saw (in 5:12-21; 6:1-11), there are only two categories of people: Those who are in Adam; and, those who are in Christ. Those who are in Adam are under God’s just condemnation and face His awful wrath for all their sins. Those who are in Christ have been clothed with His righteousness. His death paid the penalty for all of their sins, so that God can be both just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus (3:26). So, as one writer put it, “The unbeliever has his judgment day before him, but the believer in Christ has his judgment day behind him” (Marcus Rainsford, cited by W. H. Griffith Thomas, St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans [Eerdmans], p. 205).

And so it’s no trivial question to ask, “Are you in Christ Jesus?” Have you fled to Christ as your only refuge from God’s judgment? When God destroyed the world through the flood, the only thing that mattered was, were you on the ark? You may have thought that you were a decent person, but if you weren’t on the ark, you perished. You may not have believed that God was going to judge the whole earth, but your not believing it didn’t change the fact. God brought that terrible judgment and the only ones who were saved were those who heeded His warning and got on board the ark. Have you “gotten on board” with Jesus Christ? If you’re in Him, you’re safe from the judgment to come. If you’re trusting in your own ability to swim, you’re under condemnation!

B. Liberation from the law of sin and of death comes through the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus (8:2).

Romans 8:2: “For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death.” “For” explains how it is that there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ. Before Christ, you were under the law of sin and of death. This refers to the strong principle or authority of sin that dominated your life as an unbeliever. Unchecked, that life under sin’s domination was leading you toward death. As I explained in the messages on 7:14-25, I believe it also explains the experience of an immature believer, who has not yet learned to live under the new law of the Spirit of life in Christ (7:23, 25). So in that sense, Romans 8:2 has a secondary application to sanctification, or the process of growing in holiness. Believers are now freed from sin’s domination by the new principle or power of the Spirit of life.

But I think that verse 2 refers primarily to the new life that the Holy Spirit gives to us in regeneration. Jesus told the religious Nicodemus (John 3:6-7), “That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’” He also said (John 6:63), “It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh profits nothing; the words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life.”

Religion, no matter how conscientiously we follow it, cannot deliver anyone from the power of sin and death. All the good deeds in the world will not set you free from the law of sin and death. To be set free, you need new life imparted by God’s Spirit. Along with this new life comes complete justification from all your sins (8:1). But also, this new life means that you are now dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus (6:11). The new law of life in the Spirit frees you from the old law in which sin held you down, just as the law of aerodynamics frees a heavy plane from the law of gravity.

So I understand verse 2 as primarily referring to the new life that the Spirit gives in regeneration. That new life comes to us “in Christ Jesus” and frees us from “the law of sin and of death.” But of course this new life in the Spirit works after regeneration by giving us the power to overcome sin in daily life. Sin still tries to hold us down, but the life that comes from the indwelling Spirit gives us the power to soar above sin and the resulting death.

C. God did what the law could not do: through the substitutionary death of His own Son, He paid the penalty that the law demanded (8:3-4a).

Romans 8:3-4a: “For what the Law could not do, weak as it was through the flesh, God did: sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and as an offering for sin, He condemned sin in the flesh, so that the requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us, …” As Paul has stated, the law brought God’s wrath and resulted in increased sin (4:15; 5:20). The problem wasn’t with the law, which is holy, righteous, and good (7:12). The problem was with our flesh (7:13, 25). The law did not provide the power to keep it, and so was weak through the flesh. Apart from God’s intervention, the law only served to condemn us.

But, thankfully, God intervened! He sent His own Son. Salvation is completely from the Lord. God’s sending His Son implies the pre-existence of the Son. Did you notice the Trinity in our text? God the Father sent Jesus Christ His Son to offer Himself for our sins, so that the Holy Spirit could provide us with new life. God is one God who exists eternally in three distinct persons, each of whom is fully God. The word own is emphatic and shows us God’s great love for us: He sent none other than His own Son (5:8).

When Jesus came, He took on “the likeness of sinful flesh.” There is a fine balance here. Jesus did not come in sinful flesh, in that He was without sin. If He had been born in sin, He would have had to die for His own sin. He did not come in the likeness of flesh, which would mean that He was not truly human. This was the early church heresy known as Docetism. They claimed that Jesus only appeared to be a man. But Jesus came in the likeness of sinful flesh. His body was a real human body, so that He could die for human sins. But He was also sinless, so that He could be the Lamb without blemish, dying as a substitute for sinners.

Also, He died “as an offering for sin.” The literal Greek phrase is, for sin, which may mean, “to deal with the sin problem.” But it is also a technical phrase in the LXX, where in 44 out of 54 occurrences it refers to a sacrifice for sin (Douglas Moo, The Epistle to the Romans [Eerdmans], p. 480, note 48). The result of Christ’s sacrificial death was that “He condemned sin in the flesh.” The phrase might better be rendered, “in the flesh, He condemned sin” (Morris, p. 303). This means that by His sacrificial death, offering His body on the cross, Jesus paid the penalty for our sin. His death was substitutionary—in our place. He died the death that we deserve so that we could be set free from the law of sin and death.

But there is debate over what the next phrase means (8:4a): “so that the requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us, …” Many scholars whom I respect (e.g., Thomas Schreiner, F. F. Bruce, John Piper, Martyn Lloyd-Jones) understand this to refer to the obedience of Christians who walk by the Spirit. The Holy Spirit enables them to obey God’s law. Thus it refers to sanctification.

Others (John Calvin, Charles Hodge, Douglas Moo) point out that even with the Spirit’s power, no believer fulfills the righteous requirement of the law. If you keep the entire law, but stumble in one point, you are guilty of it all (James 2:10). Only Christ completely fulfilled the law by His perfect obedience and sacrificial death. Thus I think that the first part of verse 4 refers to Christ’s perfect righteousness applied to our account through faith. This is the doctrine of justification by faith alone in Christ alone.

But critics have always alleged that that doctrine will lead to licentiousness (Rom. 3:8). If God counts us as totally righteous apart from our good works, then we can sin all we want, so that grace might abound. Paul’s strong response to that charge is (6:1), “May it never be!” Here he counters it by adding the last phrase of verse 4 and then expanding on it in 8:5-13:

2. Sanctification: God has graciously set free from sin’s power all who are in Christ Jesus, who walk in the Spirit (8:4b).

Romans 8:4b: “who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.” Justification (8:1-4a) is the necessary foundation and motivating cause of sanctification (8:4b). Justification frees us from sin’s penalty; sanctification frees us from sin’s power. Because God has forgiven all our sins through Christ’s death and because He has imparted new life to us through the Holy Spirit, we now do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.

Walk implies steady, gradual progress along a path toward a goal. In this life, we will never walk in perfect obedience. Only Jesus did that and His perfect righteousness is credited to our account so that we stand before God with no condemnation. But as we learn to walk daily in the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit, we will make progress in obedience to God’s Word. We will grow in holiness. Our lives will increasingly be distinguished by the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22-23). Salvation by grace through faith alone always results in a life of walking in good works (Eph. 2:8-10).


I leave you with two questions: (1) Are you in Christ Jesus through faith in His blood, shed for the remission of your sins? If so, you can enjoy the assurance that there is now no condemnation for you, because you are in Christ Jesus.

(2) Are you walking according to the Spirit, not according to the flesh? Each day, do you yield to the Holy Spirit and rely on His power, so that His fruit—love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control (Gal. 5:22-23)—are growing in you? Christ died and the Spirit gave you new life to set you free from the law of sin and of death.

Application Questions

  1. Do you agree that believers who sin should feel guilty? If not, why not? If so, explain what you mean.
  2. Why is justification the necessary foundation for sanctification? Why is it important to affirm that justification is the imputation of Christ’s righteousness, not the impartation of righteousness?
  3. Some argue that the requirement of the law being fulfilled in us refers to our sincere obedience in fulfillment of Jer. 31:33. Agree/disagree? Why?
  4. What does it mean practically to “walk in the Spirit”? Describe what it looks like in specific terms.

Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2011, All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation

Related Topics: Grace, Hamartiology (Sin), Soteriology (Salvation)

Lesson 43: Two Groups, Two Destinies (Romans 8:5-6)

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In Faith Works ([Word Publishing], p. 127) John MacArthur tells about reading a book which told about a pastor who had been sent to prison for robbing 14 banks to finance his encounters with prostitutes! The author of this book was fully convinced that this pastor was a true Christian and so he wrote the book to explore how such a thing could be possible. MacArthur writes, “Call me old-fashioned, but I think it is fair to raise the question of whether someone who regularly robs banks to pay for illicit sex is truly saved!” Yes!

In recent years several polls have shown disturbing beliefs and behaviors among those who profess to be evangelical Christians. For example, a Pew Forum poll indicated that 57 percent of evangelical church attenders believe many religions can lead to eternal life (in Arizona Daily Sun [06/24/2008]). Other surveys show that only 9 percent of teens and 32 percent of adults who claim to be born again believe in moral absolutes (Barna Update, 2/12/2002). That means that over 90 percent of “born again” teens and two-thirds of “born again” adults do not believe in moral absolutes!

These shocking numbers may be explained in part by a lack of solid biblical preaching in evangelical churches. But beneath this lack of solid preaching is a basic misunderstanding about the nature of the gospel. We have wrongly assumed that when someone makes a decision to accept Christ as Savior or prays a prayer to invite Jesus into his heart, he is saved. We wrongly think that someone can accept Jesus as his Savior, but not yield to Him as Lord. Or we mistakenly assume that all who profess Jesus as Lord, especially those who serve Him, will go to heaven. But Jesus made it clear that only those who obey Him can expect to be welcomed into heaven (Matt. 7:21-27).

The Bible is clear that salvation is a matter of God’s imparting new life to a person who was dead in his sins. And such new life always manifests itself in changed belief and behavior. This is not to say that those who are truly born again cannot fall into gross sins. But it is to say that they cannot live complacently in sin. While growth in godliness is a lifelong process, there is such growth in the lives of all who have been born of the Spirit.

In Romans 8:1-4, Paul gives assurance that if we are in Christ, we will not be condemned at the judgment. Jesus paid the penalty we deserved on the cross. If we have trusted in His shed blood, the Holy Spirit who gives life has set us free from the law of sin and of death. Paul concludes that section (8:4b) by describing those who have been justified by faith: they “do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.”

Now he explains (“for”) why some walk according to the flesh and others walk according to the Spirit: It is due to their nature. Their spiritual nature of being either “according to the flesh” or “according to the Spirit” determines their spiritual behavior of walking according to the flesh or the Spirit. In 8:5-8, he mainly describes those who are “according to the flesh.” In 8:9-11 he focuses on those who are “in the Spirit.” Griffith Thomas (St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans [Eerdmans], p. 208) summarizes the flow of thought: “Hence, as in verses 1-4, the Apostle has shown that until and unless a man is justified he cannot possibly be holy, so now, in verses 5-11, he will show that if a man is not holy he cannot possibly have been justified.” In other words, justification is always the necessary foundation for sanctification. And sanctification is always the evidence of justification.

So Paul paints a picture of these two distinct groups: those according to the flesh; and, those according to the Spirit. We can apply his point by saying,

Since there are only two groups of people with two very different destinies, make sure that you are“according to the Spirit,” not the flesh.

1. There are two and only two groups of people in the world: Those who are according to the flesh and those who are according to the Spirit.

Romans 8:5: “For those who are according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who are according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit.”

It’s important to understand that Paul is not writing here about two types of Christians, but rather about how non-Christians differ from true Christians. While it’s true that immature believers may yet live in accordance with the flesh (as I believe 7:14-25 describes), and even mature believers at times yield to the flesh (Rom. 8:12; Gal. 5:17), that is not what Paul is describing here. Here, “those who are according to the flesh” describes the spiritual condition of unbelievers. They are characterized by death (8:6). “Those who are according to the Spirit” describes believers, who are characterized by life and peace (8:6). The nature of each group determines their present behavior and their final destiny.

There is a popular but mistaken view that there are two optional tracks for the Christian life. If you’re prone toward masochism, you can sign up for the discipleship track. Under this plan, you give up everything to follow Christ. You have to deny yourself and take up your cross daily. You will suffer hardship, sacrifice, and perhaps even martyrdom. You have to give the control of all of your material assets to Christ. You may be required to take the gospel to a foreign culture, where you’ll live in difficult and perhaps dangerous circumstances. But, your rewards in heaven will be great. This discipleship track is for the super-committed.

The other track, the “cultural Christian track,” is for the rest of us more “ordinary” believers. Under this plan, you can accept Jesus as your Savior (to make sure that you’ll go to heaven), but also pursue your dreams for success and personal fulfillment in this life. You get the best of both worlds without needing to be gung ho, like those on the discipleship track. You can enjoy the fellowship of a good evangelical church and pursue the American dream at the same time. Just drop something in the offering plate once in a while to pay your dues. Once in a while you can volunteer to help out at the church, when it fits in with your busy schedule. Don’t be too hard on yourself about obedience to the Bible. After all, we’re all human. God is gracious and He understands your weaknesses. So accept yourself and don’t think that you have to be all-out for Jesus. That’s just for the fanatics on the discipleship track.

But Jesus made it clear that there is only one track for the Christian life (Mark 8:34-38):

And He summoned the crowd with His disciples, and said to them, “If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, and take up his cross and follow Me. For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel’s will save it. For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world, and forfeit his soul? For what will a man give in exchange for his soul? For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.”

It’s pretty clear that Jesus is talking about eternal life or eternal condemnation. If you want eternal life, you must die to self and follow Jesus. In Paul’s language, that describes a person who is “according to the Spirit.” The other track describes those who are “according to the flesh.” These are the only two groups in the world when it comes to eternal life or eternal death.

2. These two groups are sharply distinguished by different mindsets.

Paul describes the mindset of those who are according to the flesh as “the things of the flesh” (8:5). This mindset is death (8:6); it is hostile toward God, not subject to God’s law (8:7), and not pleasing to God (8:8). On the other hand, the mindset of those who are according to the Spirit is “the things of the Spirit” (8:5). This mindset is life and peace (8:6). By implication, since it is the opposite of the mindset of the flesh, the mindset of those who are according to the Spirit is friendly toward God, subject to His law, and pleasing to Him.

To be “according to” the flesh means to live under the flesh, to make it your rule, or to obey it. To live “according to” the Spirit means to be “ruled and determined by His awakening, regenerating, illuminating presence; characterized by the fact that He dwells in [us]” (H. C. G. Moule, The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans [Cambridge, 1903], p. 141). Let’s look at the two mindsets:

A. Those who are according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh (8:5a).

“Flesh” in the Bible can be used in different ways, depending on the context. It may refer to our human bodies with no moral connotations at all (2 Cor. 10:3; Gal. 2:20; 4:13). It may refer to the weakness of human life as temporal (1 Pet. 2:24). Or it may refer to the sinfulness of human nature after the fall, as expressed in the deeds of the flesh (Gal. 5:16-21). These deeds include sins that we might categorize as sensual (immorality, impurity, drunkenness); but they also include worshiping false gods, strife, jealousy, and anger. So to live according to the flesh is to live independently of God, in dependence on oneself, with self at the center. The fleshly person may be outwardly moral, but his motives and goals are for his own glory or gain or comfort, without regard for the glory of God or the good of others.

Paul makes it clear that being “according to the flesh” has to do with our mindset, or how we think. Martyn Lloyd-Jones (Romans: The Sons of God [Zondervan], p. 5) explains, “The term includes not only thought and understanding, it includes the affections, the emotions, the desires and the objects of pursuit.” That non-Christians set their minds on the things of the flesh not only means that they think about them occasionally, he says, “but that these are the things which they think of most of all; these are the things of which they think habitually, the trend or the bent of their thinking is toward them.”

To set one’s mind on the things of the flesh is much the same as when John says (1 John 2:15-16), “Do not love the world nor the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the Father, but is from the world.” Loving the world or setting one’s mind on the things of the flesh means to live for the temporal things that the world values, in disregard of God and eternity.

B. Those who are according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit (8:5b).

The things of the Spirit are the truths revealed to us in God’s Word concerning who He is, who we are, the great salvation that He has provided in Christ, and how we should live in light of that salvation (1 Cor. 2:6-13). To set your mind on the things of the Spirit does not mean that you go around with your head in the clouds, detached from everyday matters. It does not mean that you must join a monastery and spend hours every day in meditation and prayer. It does not mean that you do not get your hands dirty with mundane things like work, paying bills, cleaning the house, fixing meals, mowing your lawn, or reading the newspaper.

Rather, to set your mind on the things of the Spirit means to relate all of life to God and His Word. God has seen fit in His Word to tell us how to have our sins forgiven and to have eternal life through faith in Christ. That is the most important thing, because you could die at any moment and stand before God. That is why Paul says (Col. 3:1-4),

Therefore, if you have been raised up with Christ, keep seeking the things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth. For you have died and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ, who is our life, is revealed, then you also will be revealed with Him in glory.

So to set your mind on the things of the Spirit means especially to think often about matters of salvation. It means to worship God and commune with Him.

But the Bible also tells us a lot about many practical, down-to-earth matters. In the context of Colossians 3, Paul goes on to talk about sex, greed, anger, abusive speech, and truthfulness. He gives practical commands regarding relationships, marriage, child-rearing, and work. In other places, the Bible says a lot about how to manage money, how to deal with trials, how to relate to civil authorities, and many other practical matters. So to repeat, to set your mind on the things of the Spirit means to relate all of life to God and His Word. It means to develop a biblical worldview, where you think about and process all of life through the lens of the Bible.

At the heart of this process is how you think. In an article on the Greek noun, phronema, which occurs only in Romans 8 (translated “the mind set”), J. Goetzmann points out that there can be no such thing as neutral thinking. We’re always aiming at something. He adds (The New International Dictionary of New Testament Words [Zondervan], ed. by Colin Brown, 2:617):

This passage makes it abundantly clear that the way one thinks is intimately related to the way one lives, whether in Christ, in the Spirit and by faith, or alternatively in the flesh, in sin and in spiritual death. A man’s thinking and striving cannot be seen in isolation from the overall direction of his life; the latter will be reflected in the aims which he sets himself.

In Colossians 3, Paul commands us to set our minds on the things above, but in Romans 8 he describes believers as those who set their minds on the things of the Spirit. While it’s a lifelong process that involves growth, we need to ask ourselves honestly, “Does this describe me? Do I set my mind on the things of the Spirit or on the things of the flesh? Which direction am I heading?”

I’ll give you a clue: If you spend more of your spare time watching television or playing video games or on your computer than you spend reading the Bible, reading Christian books, fellowshipping with other believers, or serving the Lord in some capacity, you’re probably not heading in the right direction. I’m not saying that every spare minute should be spent on spiritual activities. We all need some down time. We all have chores to do. But if you’re not making a concerted, consistent effort to develop a biblical mindset, something is seriously wrong.

Thus there are two and only two groups of people in the world: Unbelievers who live under the domination of the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh. Believers who live under the domination of the Holy Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit. From there, things get even more serious:

3. These two distinct groups are marked by mindsets that lead to two completely different destinies: death or life and peace.

Romans 8:6: “For the mind set on the flesh is death, but the mind set on the Spirit is life and peace.”

Paul is describing the current spiritual state of each group, which explains (“for”) why the first group sets their minds on the things of the flesh and the second group sets their minds on the things of the Spirit. The first group is dominated by the flesh because they are spiritually dead. The second group is dominated by the Holy Spirit because He has given them life and peace with God.

But the scary part is this: If those who are dead in their sins continue in that state until they die physically, they will continue throughout eternity in the awful condition of separation from God, under the penalty of His just wrath. The Bible calls this the second death and it is spent in the lake of fire (Rev. 20:14). The next verse (Rev. 20:15) adds, “And if anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.”

This state of eternal spiritual death does not mean that those in hell are annihilated or cease to exist. That would be a blessing for them! But the Bible is clear that eternal spiritual death means enduring conscious torment forever (Mark 9:43-48; Luke 16:16-31; Rev. 14:10-11). These frightening truths come to us from the Lord Jesus Himself and from John, the apostle of love. If we reject this truth, we are not following Jesus.

The good news is, if you have been given new life through the Holy Spirit, although your physical body will die (Rom. 8:10), God will resurrect your body (8:11) and you will enjoy life and peace with Him and with all the saints throughout eternity. The moment your physical body dies, your spirit goes immediately into the presence of the Lord (2 Cor. 5:6-8; Acts 7:59; Luke 23:43).

Death is never a pretty picture. The mortician can make up a corpse to look its best, but we all know, that person is dead. And death is the spiritual picture of all who are outside of Jesus Christ. In Ephesians 2:1, Paul writes, “And you were dead in your trespasses and sins.” He repeats (Eph. 2:5), “Even when we were dead in our transgressions, [God] made us alive together with Christ ….” The unbeliever may be a good person. He may give generously to charity and devote himself to good deeds. But if he has not been born again by the life-giving Spirit, he is spiritually dead.

But the one who has been born again has life and peace. The life is called eternal life because it is indestructible. It cannot be taken away by any evil force (Rom. 8:33-39). It joins us in living union with Jesus Christ, who once and for all conquered death and who lives and reigns forever. Peace means that we now have peace with God because our sins have been completely forgiven: “Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” (Rom. 5:1). “Therefore there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus” (Rom. 8:1). Even in the midst of life’s trials, we enjoy peace in Christ (John 16:33).


The application of our text is obvious: Make sure that you have new life through God’s Spirit and that you are not living according to the flesh! Don’t deceive yourself by thinking, “I’m one of those worldly or carnal Christians, but I’m going to heaven because I prayed a prayer to ask Jesus into my heart.” The issue is, do you have life and peace with God through the Spirit? Do you set your mind on the things of the Spirit? If not, repent and cry out to God to give you new life! If you’re sure that you’ve been born again, but you’re drifting into the things of the flesh or world, the solution is the same: Repent and don’t rest until your mind and focus are on the things of the Spirit.

Sit down and evaluate your schedule. Do you remember the “big rocks” illustration? A professor came in with a large jar filled to the brim with big rocks. He asked the class, “Is the jar full?” “Yes,” they responded. He poured in some pea gravel and shook it down through the cracks. “Is it full now?” They weren’t so sure. He poured in some sand. Then he added water. The point of the illustration is, if you don’t put the big rocks in first you won’t be able to fit them in at all. Schedule your priorities or they will get crowded out by the urgent but trivial. Your biggest rock is your relationship with God. Set your mind on the things of the Spirit!

Application Questions

  1. Do you agree that there are not two options for followers of Jesus? What bad consequences follow the “carnal” Christian teaching?
  2. How can a person know for sure that he has eternal life? What are the marks of the new birth? Give biblical support.
  3. Is setting our minds on the things above automatic or does it require discipline? How (practically) can we do this?
  4. A professing Christian tells you, “I’ve tried to get into the Bible, but it bores me.” How would you counsel him?

Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2011, All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation

Related Topics: Heaven, Hell, Spiritual Life

Lesson 44: Understanding the Unbelieving Mind (Romans 8:6-8)

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Once in a while people ask why I do not give altar calls, where I invite people to come forward to indicate that they want to receive Christ as Savior and Lord. Due to the influence of Billy Graham and other popular evangelists, many think that if you don’t give an altar call, you have not properly preached the gospel.

The short answer to why I do not give altar calls is that there is no biblical example or command to do so. I assume that Jesus and the apostles, as recorded in the Gospels and Acts, preached the gospel. While they often called on people to repent and believe in Christ (as I also do), there is no indication that they ever invited them to raise their hands or get out of their seats and come forward. That method of evangelism came into vogue in the early 19th century and was later popularized by Charles Finney, who held to some seriously heretical views of human nature. Iain Murray, who chronicles this in Revival and Revivalism [Banner of Truth], says regarding altar calls (p. 186), “Nobody, at first, claimed to regard it as a means of conversion. But very soon, and inevitably, answering the call to the altar came to be confused with being converted.”

Murray shows the damaging effects of “revivalism,” the evangelistic method that emphasizes some external action that the sinner can do to be saved. Gospel preaching that brings sinners to despair over their inability to do anything, driving them to trust in Christ alone, may bring true revival. At the root of the problem (and the longer answer for why I don’t do altar calls) is the biblical understanding of the spiritual condition of unbelievers and the nature of true conversion, which is Paul’s subject in our text.

Charles Spurgeon, who was used of God to bring thousands to genuine conversion through his preaching, understood this even early in his ministry. In a sermon in 1860, when he was only 24, Spurgeon said that the doctrine which leaves salvation up to something that man does exalts the flesh and dishonors God. He labels that view as Arminian. He explained (Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit [Pilgrim Publications], 6:259, also cited by Iain Murray, The Forgotten Spurgeon [Banner of Truth], pp. 87-88, italics Spurgeon’s):

What the Arminian wants to do is to arouse man’s activity; what we want to do is to kill it once for all, to show him that he is lost and ruined, and that his activities are not now at all equal to the work of conversion; that he must look upward. They seek to make the man stand up; we seek to bring him down, and make him feel that there he lies in the hand of God, and that his business is to submit himself to God, and cry aloud, “Lord, save or we perish.” We hold that man is never so near grace as when he begins to feel that he can do nothing at all. When he says, “I can pray, I can believe, I can do this, and I can do the other,” marks of self-sufficiency and arrogance are on his brow.

He goes on to emphasize that you cannot be saved unless God saves you. And so he urges sinners, not to come forward, not to look to their own prayers or faith, but to cry out to God to draw them to Christ by His grace. Only God can take away a sinner’s heart of stone and give a heart of flesh that loves Him. And if anyone complains that he cannot repent or believe, Spurgeon says, these, too, are gifts from God. Cry out to Him to have mercy and save you. Salvation is totally from the Lord, not from us, or we would boast, even about our own repentance and faith!

The frequent result of an emphasis on doing something, such as coming forward, to receive Christ is that it promotes false conversions and gives false assurance to those who did it that they are saved because they went forward or prayed a prayer (Murray, Revival, p. 243). But such a decision alone is no evidence of the new birth. As Paul makes clear in Romans 8, the genuine result of being saved is that we walk according to the Spirit, not the flesh (8:4).

In 8:5, Paul sets forth the contrast between these two groups: “For those who are according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who are according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit.” To be “according to the flesh” means to live under the domination of the flesh and to obey its dictates. It is to live with a self-centered, not a God-centered focus. Another way of saying it is that such people are “in the flesh” (8:8); they live in the sphere of the flesh. Such people may believe in God and be very religious, but they live to please themselves. Godet (Commentary on Romans [Kregel], p. 303) calls the flesh, “the life of the I for itself.” Those in the flesh do not set their minds on the things of the Spirit, which are the truths revealed to us in God’s Word. (See last week’s message for more on 8:5-6.)

In 8:6, Paul explains that the reason those who are according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh is that they are spiritually dead: “For the mind set on the flesh is death, but the mind set on the Spirit is life and peace.” Then, in 8:7-8, he explains further why the mind set on the flesh is spiritually dead and headed toward eternal death: because it is hostile toward God, not subject to His law, and displeasing to Him. These verses reveal Paul’s insight into the unbelieving mind:

The mind set on the flesh is spiritually dead and thus an enemy of God because it does not and cannot submit to Him or please Him.

Note three things:

1. The mind set on the flesh is spiritually dead and headed toward eternal death because it is an enemy of God (8:6a, 7a).

A. The mind set on the flesh is spiritually dead and headed toward eternal spiritual death (8:6a).

Romans 8:6a: “For the mind set on the flesh is death ….” In our last study we saw that outside of Christ, everyone is spiritually dead, and so I only mention this in passing since it’s the foundation for verse 7. To be spiritually dead means to be separated from God and the eternal life that only He can give. In Ephesians (2:1, 5) Paul says that we all were dead in our sins before God graciously imparted new life to us. And if we die in that state of spiritual death, we enter into what the Bible calls “the second death,” eternal separation from God (Rev. 20:14, 15).

Some try to avoid the implications of what it means to be spiritually dead by saying, “It’s only a metaphor and you can’t press it too far.” But the metaphor was not chosen without reason and it does convey something important (which I’ll say more on in a moment), namely, that sinners are spiritually unable to seek God or please Him. Spiritually dead people are cut off from understanding the things of the Spirit, including the gospel (1 Cor. 2:14; 2 Cor. 4:4-6). This is the natural condition of every person (except Jesus) descended from Adam since the fall.

B. The mind set on the flesh is not spiritually neutral, but is an enemy of God (8:7a).

Romans 8:7a: “Because the mind set on the flesh is hostile toward God.” Paul uses the same word (“hostile”) to describe a deed of the flesh (Gal. 5:20) and the perpetual hostility between Jews and Gentiles (Eph. 2:14, 16). It is the opposite of love. Unbelievers do not love God; they hate Him. He is their enemy.

Perhaps you’re thinking, “But I know many unbelievers who don’t hate God. They don’t have anything against Him.” But the Bible draws a line: Either you are a God-lover because He has saved you from your sins; or, you’re a God-hater because you do not want Him to rule over you. Unbelievers may be religious, but invariably, it’s religion as they like it. They pick and choose the kind of “God” that suits their preferences. They come to God on their own terms, by their own good works, and they “use” Him for their own selfish purposes.

So unbelievers are not spiritually neutral. They may be indifferent toward God, but that’s often the worst form of hatred. Spurgeon (MTP, 32:20-21; I’m paraphrasing somewhat) illustrates this by supposing that someone wrote you a letter, but you paid no attention to it. “When did it come?” “Last Monday.” “Have you read it?” “Oh no, I don’t bother to read his letters.” “You’ve had a good many of them, then?” “Oh yes, hundreds of them.” “What have you done with them?” “I haven’t done anything with them. I leave them alone and don’t bother to read them.”

“When you did read one of his letters, what was it about?” “Well, it was about wishing to be at peace with me, and desiring to do me good. He spoke of my being in great danger, and said that he would help me; and of my being poor, and he offered to make me rich.” “He talked like that and yet you’ve never read any more of his letters? You must hate that person very much!” Indifference toward this kind and merciful God is to hate Him.

Also, unbelievers often think that a holy God is too strict and foreboding. They prefer a God who is more cuddly and user-friendly. They think that God’s justice in judging sinners is too severe. They protest, “Sure, I’ve got my faults. But God shouldn’t judge me for being imperfect. That’s not fair!” They think that God’s truth is too inflexible. They wish He would be more tolerant, as they are. They say, “I believe that as long as a person is sincere and does his best, he will go to heaven.” And they even think that God’s mercy through the cross is offensive, because it implies that they cannot save themselves by their own good works (Charles Simeon, Expository Outlines of the Whole Bible [Zondervan], XV:203, suggests the thoughts I developed in this paragraph.) But all of this puts the person who sets his mind on the flesh at odds with God.

You should always be careful before you make an enemy, especially if that enemy is much stronger and smarter than you are! But the problem is, we all are born at enmity with God. You would think that everyone would be scrambling to figure out how to become God’s friend and end the hostility. But instead, unbelievers brazenly defy God and disobey His law. They boastfully oppose God’s truth as revealed in His Word, asserting that they know more about spiritual matters than He does! They remake God in their own image. I’ve even heard of professing Christians who say, “My God isn’t a God of judgment; He’s a God of love!” Okay, but then your “God” isn’t the God of the Bible!

By way of contrast, those who set their minds on the Spirit (believers in Christ) are not God-haters, but God-lovers. We seek to love God with all our heart, soul, mind, and strength. We love the Savior, who left the glory of heaven to suffer and die on the cross in our place. We don’t want to do anything to hinder the fellowship that we now enjoy with Him because of His grace.

So Paul shows that the mind set on the flesh is not spiritually neutral. Rather, it is separated from God (dead) and actively opposed to Him as His enemy. Also,

2. The mind set on the flesh does not submit to God (8:7b).

Romans 8:7b: “for it does not subject itself to the law of God.” God’s law reveals who He is and how He commands us to live. While we’re not under the law of Moses (Rom. 6:14), we are under the law of Christ (1 Cor. 9:21). We are subject to the two great commandments, to love God with our entire being and to love our neighbor as ourselves (Matt. 22:37-40; Rom. 13:9). The New Testament gives many specific commands about how we are to live as believers in Christ. But the unbelieving mind does not subject itself to God’s Word. Its mindset is, “I love my self and its will first and most” (H. C. G. Moule, The Epistle to the Romans [Christian Literature Crusade], pp. 213-214).

Unbelievers often say that they do not believe because of intellectual reasons: “Give me enough proof and I’ll believe.” “If I saw a real miracle, then I’d believe.” Or, “If God would speak to me from heaven, I’d believe.” But God has given sufficient evidence through creation (Rom. 1:18-20) and through the biblical witness to Jesus Christ. But unbelievers suppress the truth in unrighteousness because they do not want to submit to God. The root of unbelief is not intellectual; it’s moral. They do not want God to rule over them. They do not want to obey His Word.

By implied contrast, those whose minds are set on the Spirit do submit to God’s Word. John Calvin describes his own conversion from Catholicism by saying, “God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame” (Calvin’s Commentaries [Baker], preface to the Psalms, p. xl). A good test of whether your mind is set on the flesh or on the Spirit is, “Do I have a teachable heart in submission to God’s Word?” The test of having a teachable heart comes when you encounter some of the difficult doctrines in Scripture, such as the Trinity, hell, predestination, and handling trials. Do you fight God regarding these truths, or do you submit to Him?

Speaking of difficult doctrines, this leads us to a difficult truth which many who profess to know Christ do not accept:

3. The mind set on the flesh cannot submit to God or please Him (8:7c-8).

Paul does not stop by saying that those who are in the flesh do not submit to God’s law. He goes further by saying that they are not even able to do so, adding (8:8), “and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.” Cannot is a word of inability. It goes back to the matter of a sinner’s fallen nature in Adam, which is incapable of obeying God or pleasing Him. Just as a pig is free to act in line with its pig nature, but not in line with a human nature, so fallen sinners are free to act in line with the flesh, but not in line with the Holy Spirit, whom they do not possess.

But many who contend for so-called “free will” argue that God has given all people the ability to choose salvation. This is called “prevenient grace.” I don’t have time to go into the arguments for this doctrine, but they are biblically weak. (For a full refutation of this idea, see Thomas Schreiner, “Does Scripture Teach Prevenient Grace in the Wesleyan Sense?” in Still Sovereign [Baker], ed. by Thomas Schreiner and Bruce Ware, pp. 229-246.)

Suffice it to say that elsewhere Paul also teaches human inability to respond to the gospel apart from God’s gracious enabling power. That is clear from his reference to sinners as dead in their sins (Eph. 2:1-5) and as being blinded by Satan (2 Cor. 4:4). Dead people cannot choose to live. Blind people cannot choose to see. Paul also says that the natural man cannot understand the things of the Spirit of God, which includes the message of the cross, which he says is foolishness to the natural man (1 Cor. 2:14; cf. 1:18-30).

Jesus also taught that no one can come to Him unless the Father grants it and draws him (John 6:44, 65). He pointedly asked the skeptical Jews (John 8:43), “Why do you not understand what I am saying?” He answered His own question, “It is because you cannot hear My word.” Obviously they could hear what He was saying, but they lacked the spiritual ability to hear with obedience.

And since those in the flesh cannot please God and faith pleases God (Heb. 11:6), sinners cannot believe in Jesus Christ for salvation by their own free will, apart from God’s special saving grace. The fallen human will is not free; it’s in bondage. This means that in the order of salvation, regeneration precedes faith. God must impart life to dead sinners so that they can believe the gospel (John 1:13; and, note the Greek verb tenses in 1 John 5:1).

The frequent response to this biblical truth is, “That’s not fair! God commands sinners to repent and believe, but they aren’t capable of repenting and believing unless He grants it!” First, I would say, be careful about accusing the Sovereign of the universe of being unfair (Rom. 9:11-20). God would be perfectly fair to send us all to hell with no opportunity to receive His mercy. Second, let me share a story that speaks to this issue (in Murray, Revival, pp. 373-374). During the 1840’s at a time of revival in Savannah, Georgia, a young man complained to Pastor B. M. Palmer:

“You preachers are the most contradictory men in the world; you say and you unsay, just as it pleases you, without the least pretension to consistency. Why you said in your sermon that sinners were perfectly helpless in themselves—utterly unable to repent or believe and then turned round and said they would all be damned if they did not.”

Pastor Palmer decided that it would be best to reply in an off-hand or seemingly indifferent way, so he said:

“Well, my dear [friend], there is no use in our quarreling over this matter; either you can or you cannot. If you can, all I have to say is that I hope you will just go and do it.”

Pastor Palmer did not raise his eyes from his writing, which he continued to do as he spoke, so he did not know what effect his words had until after a moment’s silence he heard a choking cry, along with the words, “I have been trying my best for three whole days and cannot.” “Ah,” responded Palmer, raising his eyes and putting down his pen, “that puts a different face upon it; we will go then and tell the difficulty straight to God.” He then reports:

We knelt down and I prayed as though this was the first time in human history that this trouble had ever arisen; that here was a soul in the most desperate extremity, which must believe or perish, and hopelessly unable of itself, to do it; that, consequently it was just the case for divine interposition; and pleading most earnestly for the fulfillment of the divine promise. Upon rising I offered not one single word of comfort or advice … So I left my friend in his powerlessness in the hands of God, as the only helper. In a short time he came through the struggle, rejoicing in the hope of eternal life.


The unbelieving mind is spiritually dead and hostile toward God. It does not and cannot submit to God or please Him. This means that salvation is not a matter of the human will, but rather of God’s imparting new life to those who are spiritually dead (John 1:12-13). This means that salvation is not even a joint project between God and sinners. Rather, salvation is of the Lord (1 Cor. 1:30; Jonah 2:9). Since salvation is completely God’s doing, He gets all the glory (Eph. 1:3-12). Two brief applications:

*These truths have important implications for how we share the gospel. Don’t get overly enmeshed in intellectual debates about evolution or the existence of God or the problem of suffering and evil. Rather, zero in on the person’s rebellion and refusal to submit to God. And, while you should be as cogent as possible, salvation is not a matter of convincing someone with persuasive arguments. Rather, it is a matter of God’s opening blind eyes and changing hardened hearts. So pray as you share that God would grant repentance and saving faith (Acts 11:18; Phil. 1:29)!

*These truths pertain to how we evaluate ourselves. Am I reconciled to God as His friend or am I hostile toward Him? Do I subject myself to God’s Word? Do I seek to please Him with my thoughts, my words, and my deeds? Is my mind set on the Spirit, not on the flesh? May God grant that these evidences of His grace would be growing in each of us!

Application Questions

  1. Why is it important to understand that lost people are not just spiritually sick, but dead? What are the implications of this?
  2. An unbeliever tells you that he doesn’t have anything against God. How would you help him see that he is hostile toward God? Why would this be important to do?
  3. Someone says, “If unbelievers cannot repent and believe, it’s not fair of God to demand that they do.” Your response?
  4. In the order of salvation, why must regeneration precede faith?

Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2011, All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation

Related Topics: Hamartiology (Sin), Soteriology (Salvation)

Lesson 45: Do You Belong to Christ? (Romans 8:9-11)

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The most important question that you ever need to answer is, “Do I belong to Christ?” If you belong to Christ, all of God’s promises are “yes” for you in Him (2 Cor. 1:20). If you belong to Christ, you are reconciled to God, your sins are all forgiven, you can enjoy fellowship with Him every day, and you know that if you were to die today, you would be with the Lord in the glory of heaven forever.

So, do you belong to Christ? You may say, “Yes, I invited Jesus into my heart at Vacation Bible School when I was a child.” I’m glad to hear that, but do you belong to Christ? “Yes, I prayed the sinner’s prayer after a campus worker shared the Four Spiritual Laws with me in college.” That’s fine, but do you belong to Christ? “Yes, the worker told me that if I prayed that prayer, I could be assured that I’m going to heaven.” Really? Where does the Bible say that praying a prayer will get you into heaven? You need to make sure that you belong to Christ based on what the Bible says.

One of Paul’s main reasons for writing Romans 8 was to give assurance to us who believe in Jesus Christ that we belong to Him for time and eternity. He begins with the most wonderful statement imaginable (Rom. 8:1), “Therefore there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.” Then he explains (8:2), “For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death.” The new life that the Holy Spirit imparts frees you from the condemnation that resulted from your sin. Jesus, God’s eternal Son, bore the penalty that the law demanded, so that its requirement of perfect righteousness is met in Him (8:3-4a). This is what Paul has earlier called “justification.”

Then Paul describes those who have been justified (8:4b): [they] “do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.” He goes on to describe this contrast further. Those who have not been justified are “according to the flesh” (8:5a). They “set their minds on the things of the flesh.” Those who have been justified are “according to the Spirit.” They “set their minds on the things of the Spirit.” He explains further why this is so (8:6): “For the mind set on the flesh is death, but the mind set on the Spirit is life and peace.” Those who have not been justified are in a state of spiritual death or separation from God. Those who have been justified enjoy new life (from the Spirit of life, 8:2) and peace with God.

Then (8:7-8) he explains further the unbelieving mind, which is set on the flesh: It “is hostile toward God; for it does not subject itself to the law of God, for it is not even able to do so, and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.” Those in the flesh are spiritually incapable even of trusting in Christ for salvation because of their innate rebellion against Him. For them to be saved, God’s Spirit must raise them from spiritual death to life.

Now (8:9-11), Paul turns to those who have experienced the new birth and explains (8:9), “However, you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him.” But perhaps you are concerned for a loved one who died or troubled over the inevitable fact that you are going to die. Does this mean that you do not have new life in Christ? No, Paul goes on to explain (8:10) that although your physical body will die, the Spirit has given you life because you are righteous in Christ. And, although your body will die, the same God who raised Jesus from the dead will one day resurrect your mortal body through His Spirit who dwells in you (8:11). But, all of this depends on the matter, “Do you belong to Christ?” Paul is saying:

If God’s Spirit dwells in you, you belong to Christ; and though your physical body will die, God will raise your body from the dead.

When we trusted Christ as Savior and Lord, we changed realms from living “according to the flesh” to living “according to the Spirit.” We used to be “in the flesh,” living under its ruling influence. Now we live “in the Spirit,” under His rule and the Spirit lives in us.

1. You are in the Spirit if the Spirit of God dwells in you, which is a mark of everyone who belongs to Christ (8:9).

C. H. Spurgeon (Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit [Pilgrim Publications], 19:529) calls verse 9 “one of the most solemn texts in the whole Bible.” He says, “It is so sweeping: it deals with us all…. And it deals with the most important point about us, for to belong to Christ is the most essential thing for time and eternity.” Thus,

A. It is absolutely vital to have the Spirit of God dwelling in you, because if you do not, you do not belong to Christ.

As we have seen, Paul divides all people into just two categories: Those who are “in the flesh” and those “in the Spirit.” There is no category for so-called “carnal” Christians, who claim that Jesus is their Savior, but not their Lord. While the process of bringing every area of life under the lordship of Christ is lifelong, every true Christian is involved in that process. If the direction of your life is not, “Jesus, You are my Lord and I submit all of myself that I am aware of to You,” then you are not a Christian in the vital sense of that word. You are in the flesh, hostile toward God, and not subject to His Word (8:7).

Being a Christian is not a matter of going to church or believing certain doctrines of the Christian faith or trying to live by certain moral standards. Of course, true Christians do all of those things, but the vital thing is that the Holy Spirit has caused you to be born again. Jesus said this very plainly to Nicodemus, a Pharisee and ruler of the Jews. Talk about going to church—this man went to the temple to pray several times a day. He never skipped a religious observance to go fishing! Talk about believing in certain doctrines—he had memorized large portions of the Hebrew Scriptures. Talk about morality—this man was scrupulous about keeping the Ten Commandments.

But Jesus’ opening words to him were (John 3:3), “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.” He went on to say (John 3:7), “Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’” Peter spoke of the same thing (1 Pet. 1:3): “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead” (see, also James 1:18; Titus 3:4-6). So when we are born again, the Holy Spirit imparts new life to us and takes up residence in us. Thus it is a matter of spiritual life or death to have the Spirit of God dwelling in you or not.

Some Pentecostal groups teach that you must receive the Holy Spirit subsequent to salvation. They base this on a misinterpretation of Acts 19:2, where Paul encounters some disciples of John the Baptist and asks, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” When they reply no, Paul explains some things, prays for them, and they receive the Holy Spirit. But it’s important to understand that Acts is a transitional book from the age of the Law, when the Spirit was only given to some and could be withdrawn (Ps. 51:11) to the age of the promised Holy Spirit, who permanently indwells all who are born again (John 7:39; 14:17; 1 Cor. 12:13). Romans 8:9 makes it clear that if you have been born again, you have the Holy Spirit dwelling in you. If you don’t have the Spirit, you do not belong to Christ.

This does not mean that we should not ask for a deeper experience of the Spirit’s presence and power. We must yield more and more of ourselves to the Spirit’s control as we become aware of areas that we have not given to Him. We are commanded to walk by means of the Spirit (Gal. 5:16) and to be filled with (or controlled by) the Spirit (Eph. 5:18). But if you have been born again and your trust is in Christ as Savior and Lord, you do not need to receive the Holy Spirit. He dwells in every believer.

Paul states it negatively (8:9b), “But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him.” Think about the opposite: If you have the Spirit, you do belong to Christ. He bought you with His blood. You are not your own; you are His slave. In 1 Corinthians 6:19-20, Paul also combines the idea of the indwelling Holy Spirit and belonging to Christ: “Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? For you have been bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body.”

I can’t help but think that the church would be very different if everyone would live daily in the reality of the truth, “I am not my own; I now belong to Christ.” My tongue is not my own to use to yell at my family when I’m upset. I must use it to glorify Christ. My eyes are not my own, to look lustfully at women. I must use my eyes to glorify Christ. My money is not my own to use as I please. I must use it to glorify Christ. My time is not my own to squander on frivolous pursuits. I need to use it to serve and glorify Christ. It’s a life-transforming principle! The mark of being a Christian is, the Spirit dwells in you and you now belong to Christ.

By the way, note how Paul interchanges terms in these verses. The Holy Spirit is called “the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus” (8:2) because He imparts new life to us in Christ. In 8:9 He is called “the Spirit of God,” indicating that He is God and that He carries out God’s purposes. He is called “the Spirit of Christ” because Christ sent Him to the church when He returned to the Father. His role is to glorify Christ (John 16:14). When He was on the earth, Jesus lived in the power of the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:1). He is also called “the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead” (8:11) to emphasize that if He dwells in us, God will through the Spirit resurrect our bodies.

Also, Paul moves easily from the Spirit dwelling in us to Christ dwelling in us. Douglas Moo (The Epistle to the Romans [Eerdmans], p. 491) explains, “What this means is not that Christ and the Spirit are equated or interchangeable, but that Christ and the Spirit are so closely related in communicating to believers the benefits of salvation that Paul can move from one to the other almost unconsciously.” Thomas Schreiner points out (Romans [Baker], p. 414), “Texts like these provided the raw materials from which the church later hammered out the doctrine of the Trinity.”

Thus it is absolutely vital to have the Spirit of God dwelling in you, because if you do not, you do not belong to Christ. But how can you know whether or not the Spirit indwells you? Is it a warm feeling inside of you or a tingling sensation? A woman once told me that she knew that the Spirit was in our church because when she came in the building her hands tingled. I wanted to suggest that she get a check-up with a neurologist!

B. There are distinguishing marks by which you can tell if the Spirit dwells in you.

After speaking to Nicodemus about the new birth, Jesus drew an analogy between the effects of the wind and the effects of the Holy Spirit. We can’t see the wind, but we can see its effects. When a piece of paper blows by, you do not assume that it is flying on its own like a bird. You assume that the wind is blowing it. So it is with the Spirit. You can’t see the Spirit, but you can see His effects.

In Romans 8, Paul shows a number of things that the Spirit does. He sets you free from the law of sin and of death (8:2). He gives new life and peace with God (8:6). The Spirit will raise our mortal bodies (8:11); He enables us to kill our sin (8:13); testifies to us that we are God’s children (8:16); and, helps us to pray (8:26). And, by way of implied contrast (8:7-8), the Spirit reconciles us to God and enables us to submit to His Word and to please Him.

I can’t comment much and this list is not comprehensive, but here is one negative and nine positive marks by which you can tell if the Spirit dwells in you:

(1). Speaking in tongues is not a sign that the Spirit dwells in you.

I must point this out because some Pentecostal denominations claim that speaking in tongues is the sign that you have the Holy Spirit. But this is contrary to Paul’s statement that all do not have the gift of tongues (1 Cor. 12:30). It’s debatable whether or not the gift of tongues is valid for today. But if it is valid, it must be translatable language, not babble. You cannot interpret or translate babble. It’s just nonsense syllables. Language has definable structure and vocabulary. The biblical gift of tongues is the miraculous ability to speak in a language that you have not learned so that a speaker of that language could understand you. But most of what is called tongues today is just nonsense syllables. Non-Christians have experienced the same phenomena, obviously without the power of the Holy Spirit. Positively,

(2). If the Spirit dwells in you, you have experienced the new birth.

You may not remember the exact time or place, but you know that the Spirit of God has changed your heart from being a God-hater to being a God-lover. He changed you from trusting in your own good works to trusting in Christ alone.

(3). If the Spirit dwells in you, you are drawn to Jesus Christ and you desire to know and honor Him (John 16:14-15; Eph. 3:16-17).
(4). If the Spirit dwells in you, you have been flooded with God’s love so that you have hope in Him (Rom. 5:5; 15:13).
(5). If the Spirit dwells in you, you regard Scripture as His Word of truth and you are growing to understand it.

Jesus calls Him “the Spirit of truth” (John 14:17; 15:26). He inspired the writers of Scripture (2 Pet. 1:21; 2 Tim. 3:16). He helps us to understand the many riches that God gives us through the written Word (1 Cor. 2:10-16).

(6). If the Spirit dwells in you, His fruit is growing in your life and the deeds of the flesh are diminishing.

Fruit takes time, but it should be evident that you are growing in love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control (Gal. 5:22-23).

(7). If the Spirit dwells in you, you will have a growing hatred of sin and love of holiness.

He is the Holy Spirit. He works to make us holy (set apart from this evil world), beginning on the thought level (1 Cor. 6:11, 19; 2 Cor. 3:18; Rom. 14:17; 1 Thess. 4:7-8).

(8). If the Spirit dwells in you, you will be growing in praise, joy, and thankfulness toward God (Luke 1:67ff; 2:26-32; 10:21; Acts 13:52; Eph. 5:18-20; Phil. 3:3).
(9). If the Spirit dwells in you, you will be growing in prayer (Rom. 8:26; Eph. 6:18; Jude 20).
(10). If the Spirit dwells in you, you will tell others about Christ.

Acts 1:8: “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses….” The Book of Acts is the story of the early church bearing witness of Jesus and the resurrection through the Spirit’s power.

So the point of verse 9 is, if you belong to Christ, you have the Holy Spirit indwelling you. But, if He is the Spirit of life (8:2), then why do believers die?

2. We who are in the Spirit are still subject to physical death, even though the Spirit has given us life (8:10).

Romans 8:10: “And if Christ is in you, though the body is dead because of sin, yet the spirit is alive because of righteousness.” By “body,” Paul means the physical body. “Dead because of sin” means that our bodies are still under the curse of death as a result of the fall (5:12; 6:23). We all die physically because Adam sinned. Death remains as the penalty on the human race until Christ’s work is consummated (Rom. 8:23; 1 Cor. 15:26).

Commentators and translators are divided over whether “spirit” refers to the human spirit (NASB) or to the Holy Spirit (ESV, NIV, NKJV). (The original Greek did not use capital letters.) It’s difficult to decide, as there are good arguments for both. If it refers to the human spirit, the sense is, your spirit is alive because you are righteous in Christ. This seems to complement the contrast with the dead human body. But the word Paul uses is not “alive,” but “life.” This fits better with the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of life (8:2). The sense then would be, as Thomas Schreiner explains (p. 415), “The presence of the Spirit demonstrates that believers will not be saddled with their weak and corruptible bodies forever. The Spirit is a life-giving Spirit and will overcome death through the resurrection of the body.” The reason that the Spirit is life to us is that we are righteous in Christ through justification.

3. We who are in the Spirit have the promise that He who raised Jesus from the dead will also resurrect our mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in us (8:11).

The instant we die physically, our spirit goes to be with the Lord (2 Cor. 5:6-8; Luke 23:43), while our bodies decompose. But the instant Jesus returns, God will give us new resurrection bodies, which will be suited for the new heavens and earth, in which righteousness dwells (2 Pet. 3:13; 1 Cor. 15:12-57).

Jesus is the prototype. His resurrection body is a physical body, but it is not subject to disease or death. The God who raised Jesus from the dead (Eph. 1:19-20) will also raise our bodies from the grave at the moment that Jesus returns (1 Cor. 15:50-57). Whether a person was burned at the stake, died at sea and was eaten by sharks, was blown to bits by an explosion, or decomposed in a grave, God will resurrect those bodies in a recognizable but new, indestructible body. And so we shall always be with the Lord.


In 1986, I was preaching through 1 Corinthians and I came to 15:19: “If we have hoped in Christ in this life only, we are of all men most to be pitied.” That verse jarred me. I asked myself, “Is that true of me? Can I say that if there is no heaven, you should feel sorry for the stupid way that I’m living my life?” I live in America and enjoy a very comfortable lifestyle. I have a wonderful wife. At that time, my children were still at home and a great source of joy for me. Now they’ve given me the joy of ten grandchildren. But that verse caused me to put my focus more on heaven.

Without Christ, life is grim and futile. As the bumper sticker says, “Life is tough and then you die.” Even if you make it to 100, so what? But if you belong to Christ, no matter when you die you have the certain hope that the God who raised Jesus from the dead will raise you through His Spirit who dwells in you.

Near the end of his life, D. L. Moody said, “Soon you will read in the newspaper that I am dead. Don’t believe it for a moment. I will be more alive than ever before” (cited by Randy Alcorn, Heaven [Tyndale], p. 31). And so I can’t urge you strongly enough to make sure you can answer “yes” to the question, “Do you belong to Christ?”

Application Questions

  1. Why is it important to affirm that every Christian has the indwelling Holy Spirit? Why is it also important to affirm that every Christian should seek to experience more of the Spirit’s power?
  2. How would you respond (biblically) to a person who said that if you have not spoken in tongues, you do not have the Holy Spirit?
  3. How (practically) can we develop a greater desire for heaven?
  4. Which marks of the Spirit are most evident in your life? Which need more attention?

Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2011, All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation

Related Topics: Assurance, Spiritual Life

Lesson 46: Kill Your Sin! (Romans 8:12-13)

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You’ve probably seen the bumper sticker that says, “Kill your TV!” That may be wise advice, but the apostle Paul gives us even wiser counsel in our text: Kill your sin! It’s a concept that we don’t hear much about any more. But it used to be a widely understood approach to sanctification. The Puritans called it “the mortification of sin.” In our times, to be mortified means to be embarrassed, but the word really means to be killed. The Puritans all knew that we are engaged in mortal combat with an enemy that lurks within: the flesh (or the old man, or indwelling sin). Either you kill it every day or it will kill you.

Back in the 1980’s I was at Campus Crusade’s Arrowhead Springs headquarters, when I ran into my former church history professor, Dr. John Hannah. I asked him, “What’s the best book that you’ve read on the spiritual life?” Without hesitation he replied, “John Owen’s, Temptation and Sin.” Since Dr. Hannah is both a godly man and widely read, I thought, “I need to read that book.”

It is the first half of volume 6 in Owen’s Works [Banner of Truth]. He writes over 300 pages on just about every imaginable aspect of what it means to mortify indwelling sin. I also discovered that Owen, who lived in the 1600’s, wrote in what J. I. Packer calls “lumbering Latinized idiom” (A Quest for Godliness [Crossway Books], p. 16). In other words, he’s not very easy to follow! But, like mining for gold, the reward is worth the effort.

Thankfully, there are some easier to read versions of Owen’s great work. One is, Sin & Temptation, abridged and edited by James M. Houston [Multnomah Press, 1983]. A shorter one is, What Every Christian Needs to Know, prepared by A. Swanson [Grace Publications, 1998]. Also, Kelly Kapic and Justin Taylor have come out with a recent edition [Crossway, 2006]. Philip Graham Ryken, the president of Wheaton College, endorses it by saying, “John Owen is a spiritual surgeon with the rare skill to cut away the cancer of sin and bring gospel healing to the sinner’s soul. Apart from the Bible, I have found his writings to be the best books ever written to help me stop sinning the same old sins.” I can only scratch the surface on this topic today. If you want to go deeper, get Owen and dig in.

Paul here explains further and applies what he wrote in 8:6, “For the mind set on the flesh is death, but the mind set on the Spirit is life and peace.” The death in 8:13, like that of 8:6, is not physical death, which we all must face, but spiritual death, eternal separation from God. In other words, Paul is saying,

Kill your sin or it will kill you!

He is saying here what he says in Galatians 6:8, “For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life.” There are only two ways to live, with only two outcomes: To live according to the flesh ends in eternal death; to live according to the Spirit ends with eternal life. Charles Simeon (Expository Outlines of the Whole Bible [Zondervan], 15:269) put it, “Either sin must be our enemy, or God will.” So this is serious business!

To understand and apply these verses, consider three points:

1. To kill your sin, remember your obligation, not to the flesh, but to the Lord (8:12).

Romans 8:12: “So then, brethren, we are under obligation, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh—” Paul breaks off in mid-sentence, leaving us to supply the implied second half, that we are under obligation to the Lord. He bought us with His blood, so that now we belong to Him (3:24, 25; 8:9). His Spirit now dwells in us. It follows, “So then, brethren, we are under obligation ….”

Paul expresses the negative, “not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.” The flesh is our old nature or old man that we are born with by virtue of our being “in Adam” (5:12-21). To live “according to the flesh” means to live under the domination of the flesh, according to its desires, which are self-centered, opposed to God, and not subject to His Word (8:7). Those who live habitually according to the flesh (or “in the flesh”) are not truly born again.

But the fact that Paul addresses this obligation to believers (“brethren”) means that we still have the flesh dwelling in us, trying to gain dominance over us. Everett Harrison (Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. by Frank Gaebelein [Zondervan], 10:92) says, “It is tremendously important to grasp the import of v. 12, because it teaches beyond all question that the believer still has the sinful nature within himself, despite having been crucified with Christ. The flesh has not been eradicated.” Bishop Moule put it (The Epistle to the Romans [Christian Literature Crusade], p. 221), “Say what some men will, we are never for an hour here below exempt from elements and conditions of evil residing not merely around us but within us.”

Some teach, based on Romans 6:6, that the old nature or the flesh was eradicated because it was crucified with Christ. In my estimation, they are greatly minimizing the danger of the monster that dwells within the hearts of even the godliest saints. It’s never beneficial to minimize a great danger! If an enemy is threatening to kill you and you ignore it, he will succeed! If you live under the dominance of this enemy, you will die. But Paul says that we have no obligation or debt to the flesh. What good did it ever do us? What favors has it done? None! We owe it nothing.

But by implication, we owe God everything! He loved us while we were yet sinners (5:8). He sent His own Son to bear the awful penalty of our sin, so that we no longer fear condemnation (8:1). We now belong to Him and we owe it all to His grace, not to anything that we have done. So to kill your sin, remember your obligation, not to the flesh, but to the Lord.

2. To kill your sin, understand the horrific consequence if you do not kill it—it will kill you (8:13a)!

Romans 8:13a: “for if you are living according to the flesh, you must die….” Or, as the ESV puts it, “you will die.” The literal Greek is, “you are about to die.” While the expression is equivalent to a future tense, it implies that there is still time to repent and avert the horrific consequence. Paul is saying two things:

A. A life of unchecked sin leads to eternal death.

Death is a strong word, in stark contrast to the life promised to those who set their minds on the things of the Spirit and who by the Spirit put to death the deeds of the body (8:6, 13). Note that Paul did not say, “If you don’t kill your sins, you’ll lose some rewards in heaven.” He wants us to view this as mortal combat: Either you kill your sin or your sin will kill you, not just with an early death, but with eternal death!

Paul says the same thing in Colossians 3. After stating that we have died with Christ and been raised up in Him, he draws a conclusion (Col. 3:5-8, NASB marginal reading): “Therefore, put to death the members which are upon the earth to immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed, which amounts to idolatry. For it is because of these things that the wrath of God will come upon the sons of disobedience, and in them you also once walked, when you were living in them. But now you also, put them all aside: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and abusive speech from your mouth.”

In these warnings, Paul is following Jesus, who in the context of warning about mental lust said (Matt. 5:29-30), “If your right eye makes you stumble, tear it out and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. If your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.” (See also, Matthew 18:8-9.) Jesus does not mean literally to tear out your eye or cut off your hand. That wouldn’t solve the root problem. But He is warning that if we do not get radical in killing our sin, we will spend eternity in hell!

Maybe you’re thinking, “If Christians are saved by grace, not by works, and are eternally secure, how can Jesus and Paul both say that if we don’t kill our sin, we’ll end up in hell?”

The New Testament has frequent warnings to those who profess to know Christ, but show no evidence of it. Perhaps the most frightening is Jesus’ warning (Matt. 7:21-23), “Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter. Many will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?’ And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness.’” Those who truly know Christ live in obedience to Him, which means that they kill their sin. False believers may serve in ministry, but they do not kill their sin.

John Piper (“How to Kill Sin,” Pt. 1, on explains, “Putting to death the deeds of the body by the Spirit – the daily practice of killing sin in your life – is the result of being justified and the evidence that you are justified by faith alone apart from works of the law.” He adds, “If you are not at odds with sin, you are not at home with Jesus, not because being at odds with sin makes you at home with Jesus, but because being at home with Jesus makes you at odds with sin.”

James Boice (Romans: The Reign of Grace [Baker], 2:826) puts it bluntly, “Paul is saying that if you live like a non-Christian, dominated by your sinful nature rather than living according to the Holy Spirit, you will perish like a non-Christian—because you are a non-Christian.” A life of unchecked sin leads to eternal death.

B. Sin is not neutral and it definitely is not nice.

Sin always destroys lives, both for time and eternity. It always dangles the promise of happiness, fulfillment, and satisfaction before the victim, but it is only bait to lure him into the trap, which leads to eternal death. Burn Paul’s words into your brain, “If you are living according to the flesh, you will die”!

But Satan tries to get us to minimize the serious nature of our sin, so that we excuse it as no big deal, tolerate it as normal, or even re-package it as a good thing. I’ve heard Christians say things like, “I’ve lived with this angry, nagging wife for years. It’s impossible to please her. But now I’ve met a wonderful woman at work who treats me right. Don’t I deserve a little happiness after what I’ve had to endure?” And so he justifies his adultery and divorce.

Or, as I said, some Christians argue that as believers we’re never to view ourselves as sinners, but only as saints who occasionally sin. They camp on verses like Romans 6:6, which says that our old man was crucified with Christ so that our body of sin might be done away with. They insist that they are dead to sin, so they don’t fight against it. But that is to minimize the deadly enemy.

Some years ago, the French aristocrat Baron Richard d’Arcy kept a two-year-old lion in his home as a pet. One night in June, 1977, the Baron tried to make his pet go into the bathroom, where it usually spent the night. But the lion refused to go, leaped on its master, and in minutes, had clawed him to death.

Indwelling sin is like that lion. It may be nice at first, but at some point it turns on you and the result is never pretty. Kill your sin or it will kill you! But, how do we do it?

3. To kill your sin, put it to death by the Spirit and you will live (8:13b).

Romans 8:13b, “but if by the Spirit you are putting to death the deeds of the body, you will live.” This is a daily process that will not end until you are with Jesus. As Christ’s words about plucking out your eye or cutting off your hand imply, it’s not painless. But we’ve got to keep at it as long as we live in this body of sin. John Owen (The Works of John Owen: Temptation and Sin [Banner of Truth], 6:11) put it, “When sin lets us alone we may let sin alone.”

But what does Paul mean when he says, “But if by the Spirit you are putting to death the deeds of the body…”? Let’s take it phrase by phrase. First, “by the Spirit” means to rely on the Holy Spirit, or to trust in His power. The Holy Spirit is not a tool that we use, but a Person whom we trust. There is a mystery in that we are responsible to trust and obey and yet it is the Spirit who gives us the power to trust and obey.

Paul puts it together in Philippians 2:12-13, “So then, my beloved, just as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your salvation with fear and trembling; for it is God who is at work in you, both to will and to work for His good pleasure.” (See, also Rom. 15:18; 1 Cor. 15:10.) We are not passive, but neither do we obey by sheer will power or determination. Matthew Henry (Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible [Revell], 6:418) says, “We cannot do it without the Spirit working it in us, and the Spirit will not do it without our doing our endeavor.” Ironically, one of the fruits of the Spirit is self-control. When we rely on the Spirit, He gives us the power to control ourselves, which includes killing our sin.

By “putting to death,” Paul means cutting off sin before it goes anywhere. We must take whatever radical action is necessary to separate ourselves from sin. He explained how this works in chapter 6, where he said that when we believed in Christ, we were baptized into His death (6:2, 3). We died with Him when He died to sin. That’s our new position, but we have to act on it. Thus, Paul exhorts (6:11), “Even so consider yourselves to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus.” In other words, be what you are.

Why does Paul say “deeds of the body,” not “of the flesh”? Some commentators insist that the difference is significant, while others say that it is mainly a variation of style. Paul has used “body” to refer to the “body of sin” (6:6), “the mortal body” where sin should not reign (6:12), and the “body of this death” (7:24). He also refers to “the members of your body,” which we are not to present to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but rather to God as instruments of righteousness (6:13).

So if there is a difference here, he is focusing on the body as the instrument through which the sinful deeds of the flesh are expressed. Until Jesus returns, we live in a body that is still prone toward sin. Sin is sin even on the thought level, before it ever displays itself through the body (Mark 7:20-23). But if we kill it on the thought level, it will not become a deed of the body. Sins that are expressed through the body are always worse than sins of the mind, because they damage others and bring dishonor to God. Thus we must put to death the deeds of the body by cutting them off in the mind before they are expressed openly.


To make this as practical as I can, let me give seven steps to kill your sin. I could come up with more, but I hope that these help. I’m assuming that you have experienced the new birth, so that the Spirit of God now dwells in you (8:9).

(1). Purpose to be godly and discipline yourself for that purpose.

Paul writes (1 Tim. 4:7), “Discipline yourself for the purpose of godliness.” You must decide, “My aim is to become a man or woman of God, so that my life glorifies the God who saved me.” In light of that purpose, make plans not to sin. Usually, we fall into patterns of living that set us up for sinning. Study yourself and work out a plan to cut off any opportunity for sin. If you’re easily tempted to pornography, set up safeguards and accountability to keep you away from the temptation. If you’re tempted to drunkenness or drugs, stay away from people or places where you could fall. Discipline implies going against your immediate feelings and impulses for a higher goal. Just as an athlete who wants to win avoids certain foods even though they taste good and works out when he doesn’t feel like it, so a Christian who purposes to be godly disciplines himself for that goal.

(2). Kill your sin at its root and it will not bear its deadly fruit.

You can knock the fruit off the tree, but if you don’t want it to grow, you’ve got to cut the tree down at the roots (Owen, p. 30). Sin begins on the heart or thought level. If you cut it off there, it will not go any farther. No one commits adultery without first thinking about it. So when lust, greed, selfishness, or pride pop into your mind, cut the thought off right there. Don’t entertain it.

(3). Cry out to God for deliverance and take whatever action you must to flee temptation.

This is the mysterious balance that I mentioned: You trust God, but you also take action. God says (Ps. 50:15), “Call upon Me in the day of trouble; I shall rescue you, and you will honor Me.” But the Spirit also inspired Paul to write (1 Cor. 6:18), “Flee immorality.” “Flee youthful lusts” (2 Tim. 2:22). Pray and flee!

(4). Set your mind on the things of the Spirit, not on the things of the flesh (Rom. 8:5; Col. 3:1-4).

The “things of the Spirit” refers to the many wonderful truths and promises of God revealed to us in His Word (1 Cor. 2:9-13).

(5). Spend time daily in the Word of God.

As has often been said, “Either sin will keep you from the Word or the Word will keep you from sin” (Ps. 119:9, 11). Jesus defeated Satan by quoting the Word (Matt. 4:1-11). Meditate on and memorize the Word, because you won’t always have a Bible and concordance handy when temptation hits.

(6). Keep the cross in view at all times to deepen your love for Christ, your hatred of sin, and your desire to glorify God.

The motive for killing sin is that the Son of God loved me and gave Himself up for me (Gal. 2:20), thus I want to honor and glorify Him. The motive for killing sin should not primarily be to rid yourself of a frustrating problem that is disrupting your life: “My anger or my drinking is causing problems in my marriage, so I want to kill these sins.” Rather, it should be, “My anger or my drinking is dishonoring to God, who gave His Son for me, so I want to kill these sins.”

(7). Walk each day in dependence on the Holy Spirit.

“But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh” (Gal. 5:16). A walk is a step by step process that takes you toward a goal. If you fall, get up and keep walking.

You’ve probably heard about or seen the movie about the young man who was hiking in Utah when a boulder fell and pinned his arm between it and the canyon wall. He was trapped like that for an agonizing week. He finally realized that he must cut off his arm or he would die there. So he did that gruesome deed and he is alive today.

You’ve got to do that with your sin. If you don’t kill it, it will kill you. The indwelling Holy Spirit will give you the power to kill your sin as you walk in dependence on Him.

Application Questions

  1. If killing sin is an evidence of eternal life and since we can never kill it all, how can we know if we’re saved?
  2. Where is the biblical balance between viewing ourselves as sinners versus saints? How do we maintain the proper tension?
  3. Someone may argue that the steps for killing sin are legalistic. How would you answer?
  4. What other steps for killing sin can you find in the Bible? Which have been the most helpful for you in the battle?

Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2011, All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation

Related Topics: Hamartiology (Sin), Soteriology (Salvation)

Lesson 47: Signs of True Assurance (Romans 8:14-16)

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Assurance of salvation is a problem in two opposite ways. Some think that they are saved when in reality they are not. When it is too late to repent, they will hear the shocking words, “I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness” (Matt. 7:23). They thought that they had saving faith, but they were mistaken. So they have false assurance.

Others are truly saved, but they wrestle with doubts about their salvation. Their uncertainty causes them a lot of anxiety and grief. They’re like insecure children who live in an unloving home with a mean father who threatens to disown them. They miss out on the joy of experiencing the Heavenly Father’s love. They are unable to come to God with the assurance that He will welcome them into His loving arms. They need true assurance.

Romans 8 is all about assurance of salvation. If you are walking in the flesh but think that you are saved, this chapter will jar you into examining your heart. Only those who walk according to the Spirit can have true assurance that they belong to Christ. One ministry of the Holy Spirit is to assure us that we are His children.

In the New Testament, assurance rests on three pillars. First, have you abandoned all trust in your own good works so that you’re trusting in Christ alone for right standing before God? If you answer yes, then the question arises, “How do you know that your faith is genuine saving faith?”

That leads to the second pillar: If your faith is genuine, then you possess new life in Christ and that new life always manifests itself in changed thinking and behavior. There will be evidence in your life that God has changed your heart. You love God and desire to love Him more. You want to please Him by a life of obedience to His Word. You hunger to feed on His Word. You’re growing in godly character and behavior, as summed up by the fruit of the Spirit.

The third pillar is the inner witness of the Holy Spirit, who testifies that we are children of God (8:16). Although some would dispute any subjective element in this, it seems to me that this is a subjective, experiential matter. But, as I will explain, it is based on the objective promises of the gospel as revealed in God’s Word. In our text, Paul is giving us the signs of true assurance:

If the Spirit is leading us to kill our sin and confirming to us the promises of the gospel, then we can be assured that we are children of God.

Note two main things:

1. If the Spirit is leading us to kill our sin, then we can be assured that we are children of God (8:14).

Romans 8:14: “For all who are being led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God.” It is important to note the first word of that sentence: “For.” Paul is explaining verse 13 and showing how it applies to the matter of assurance. In the context, he is not talking about how the Spirit may lead you to go to one college or another or to one career or another. Rather, Paul is saying that if the Holy Spirit is leading you to put to death the sinful deeds of the body (8:13), it is evidence that you are a child of God.

No one who is living according to the flesh kills his sin on the heart level. Some legalists or ascetics may control their sin outwardly, so that they can look good to others (Gal. 6:12-13). But they are filled with pride about their performance. They don’t kill their sin to glorify God, but to glorify self. But here Paul is saying that if the Spirit is leading you to kill your sin on the thought or heart level out of a desire to please and glorify the God who saved you, that is evidence that you are His child. To be led by the Spirit of God means to have the whole direction of your life determined by the Spirit, so that His fruit is growing in your life (Gal. 5:18-23).

Note that the verb is passive: “led by the Spirit of God.” As Thomas Schreiner (Romans [Baker], p. 422) explains, this “suggests that the Spirit is the primary agent in Christian obedience, that it is his work in believers that accounts for their obedience. Although this does not exclude the need for believers to follow the Spirit, it emphasizes that any human obedience is the result of the Spirit’s work.” John Murray (The Epistle to the Romans [Eerdmans], p. 295) expresses the balance: “The activity of the believer is the evidence of the Spirit’s activity and the activity of the Spirit is the cause of the believer’s activity.” This is the mystery that we saw in verse 13, where by the Spirit we kill our sin. God gives the power but we must take action to obey.

So Paul’s point in 8:14 is that if the Spirit of God is leading us to kill our sin, then we can be assured that we are “sons of God.” Some commentators see significance in the fact that Paul changes from “sons” (8:14, 15) to “children” (8:16, 17), but I agree with the majority who say that there is no significant difference. But it is significant that this is the first time in Romans that Paul mentions this wonderful truth, that we are children of God. We have been born into God’s family through the Spirit who imparts new life to us (8:2, 6, 10). And, we have been adopted into God’s family as His chosen heirs (8:15, 17).

Charles Hodge (Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans [Eerdmans], p. 265) points out three implications of being “sons” of God: (1) There is similarity of disposition, character, or nature. After commanding us to love our enemies, Jesus explains (Matt. 5:45), “so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven.” Sons reflect the character of their father because they share his nature. (2) “Sons” are the objects of special affection (Rom. 9:26; 2 Cor. 6:18). I love all children, but I have a special love for my own children. God has a special love for His chosen children (John 13:1; 14:21). (3) “Sons” have a title to some peculiar dignity or advantage. They are heirs of the riches of their father (Rom. 8:17). They have special access to his presence that others lack. If the President is greeting a crowd, the Secret Service will prevent unknown children from breaking through the barrier and running up to the President. But his own children can be right at his side.

We could probably come up with many more privileges that are ours because we are God’s children. Paul’s first point is that if we are killing our sin on a daily basis, that didn’t come from us. It is an indication that the Spirit is leading and governing our lives. John Piper puts it (“The Spirit-Led Are the Sons of God,” on, “When you fight sin by trusting in Christ as superior to what sin offers, you are being led by the Spirit.” And that is a sign that we are sons and daughters of God.

2. If the Spirit is confirming the promises of the gospel to us, then we can be assured that we are children of God (8:15-16).

Paul goes on to explain some of the implications of 8:14. First (8:15), he shows that the gospel has given us the Spirit of adoption as God’s sons so that we are on intimate, childlike terms with the Father. Then (8:16) he shows how the Spirit confirms the gospel promises to us through His inner witness. He follows (8:17a) by showing the implication, that if we are God’s children, then we are heirs of God and fellow-heirs with Christ. Then in 8:17b he responds to an anticipated objection: If we are God’s beloved children, then why does He allow us to suffer? This theme runs like a thread through the rest of the chapter. I originally planned to cover 8:17 in this message, but it will have to wait until next time.

A. The Spirit confirms the gospel promise that through adoption we become children of God (8:15).

Romans 8:15: “For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading to fear again, but you have received a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out, ‘Abba! Father!’”

There is a difficult interpretive matter in this verse that we need to tackle before we apply it: How should we understand the two “spirits”? Some (such as the NASB) take both to refer to the human spirit in the sense of an inner attitude or disposition. But in light of the context, where the Holy Spirit is prominent and the parallel in Galatians 4:6, which clearly refers to the Holy Spirit, most understand the second reference in Romans 8:15 to refer to the Holy Spirit as the Spirit of adoption. The Spirit brings us into this relationship as adopted sons of God.

But what about the first “spirit”? It could refer to the human spirit of unbelievers, in the sense that people are in slavery to sin and in fear of God’s judgment. But not all unbelievers fear God’s judgment. Or it could refer to the general spirit of those who were under the Law, which was a yoke of bondage that brought condemnation and fear of judgment (Acts 15:10; Gal. 4:7, 21-31).

But many argue that it is unlikely that Paul uses “spirit” to refer to both the human spirit and the Holy Spirit in the same verse. If it refers to the Holy Spirit, it may refer to way that He worked during the era of the Law (similar to the second view above). Others apply it more specifically to the work of the Spirit when He uses the Law to bring conviction of sin just prior to conversion (Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Romans: The Sons of God [Zondervan]. Pp. 197-205). And still others contend that Paul is saying, negatively, that the Spirit we receive at salvation is not a Spirit of bondage, but a Spirit of adoption. Because of Galatians 4, I think that Paul is referring to the human spirit of bondage and fear that the Law brought (Heb. 12:18-24). By way of contrast, the Holy Spirit now transforms us from slaves to sons through adoption.

There are two ways that the New Testament speaks about our becoming sons of God: through the new birth and through adoption. Adoption is relatively rare, occurring only three other times with reference to Christians (Rom. 8:23; [9:4, the Jews]; Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5). The last reference attributes our adoption to God’s predestining us “according to the kind intention of His will.” Like justification, adoption refers to a legal transaction that results in a change of status. Leon Morris (The Epistle to the Romans [Apollos/Eerdmans], p. 315) says, “It signifies being granted the full rights and privileges of sonship in a family to which one does not belong by nature.”

William Barclay (The Letter to the Romans [Westminster Press], rev. ed., p. 106) explains the consequences of adoption in Roman society, from which Paul borrowed this concept:

(i) The adopted person lost all rights in his old family and gained all the rights of a legitimate son in his new family. In the most binding legal way, he got a new father. (ii) It followed that he became heir to his new father’s estate. Even if other sons were afterwards born, it did not affect his rights. He was inalienably co-heir with them. (iii) In law, the old life of the adopted person was completely wiped out; for instance, all debts were cancelled. He was regarded as a new person entering into a new life with which the past had nothing to do. (iv) In the eyes of the law he was absolutely the son of his new father.

When the Holy Spirit enables us to believe in Christ and to understand our new standing as adopted sons of God, all of these privileges apply to us and result in a great change in us. We have a new legal status before God, but also we have a new relationship with God as Father. Paul says that the result of our adoption is that by the Spirit we cry out, “Abba! Father!” “Cry out” is an emotional word, used about 40 times in the Psalms (LXX) for crying out to God in urgent prayer (e.g., Ps. 3:4; 18:6). God’s adopted children often cry out to Him as their Father when they are in need.

“Abba! Father!” combines the Aramaic and the Greek words for Father. Jesus addressed the Father in this way in Mark 14:36 as He prayed in the Garden just prior to His arrest. He taught His followers to pray to God as “Our Father who is in heaven” (Matt. 6:9). When Paul applies “Abba! Father!” to us as God’s adopted children, it means that we can draw near to God in our distress or time of need with the same sense of intimacy and assurance of being heard that Jesus had!

James Boice (Romans: The Reign of Grace [Baker], 2:841) points out that in the Old Testament, father was used of God only 14 times and never in a personal sense. In Jesus’ time, God’s name was so reverenced that the Jews would not even pronounce it. They would substitute “Lord” instead of “Yahweh” when they came to it in the Scriptures. But Jesus always addressed God as Father, except for when He cried out on the cross as He bore our sins (Mark 15:34), “My God, My God, why have You forsaken me?” And, astoundingly, He taught us to pray, “Our Father.”

Some have picked up on Abba by addressing God in prayer as “Daddy,” since it was the word that little children used in Aramaic to address their daddies. I confess that I’m a bit uncomfortable with that because Jesus adds that we should acknowledge that our Father is in heaven and that His name is to be hallowed, or set apart as holy. In other words, while Father or Abba connotes intimacy and dependency, we must also remember as we draw near that He is the sovereign of the universe and that His name is holy. So we should come to Him as a little child does to his father, knowing that He loves us and that He delights to meet our needs. But we also must come before Him reverently.

J. I. Packer has a wonderful chapter in Knowing God [IVP], pp. 181-208), “Sons of God,” on the subject of our adoption as children of the Father. He writes (p. 182),

You sum up the whole of New Testament teaching in a single phrase, if you speak of it as a revelation of the Fatherhood of the holy Creator. In the same way, you sum up the whole of New Testament religion if you describe it as the knowledge of God as one’s holy Father. If you want to judge how well a person understands Christianity, find out how much he makes of the thought of being God’s child, and having God as his Father. If this is not the thought that prompts and controls his worship and prayers and his whole outlook on life, it means that he does not understand Christianity very well at all. For everything that Christ taught, everything that makes the New Testament new, and better than the Old, everything that is distinctively Christian as opposed to merely Jewish, is summed up in the knowledge of the Fatherhood of God. “Father” is the Christian name for God.

So the Spirit assures us by confirming the promises of the gospel to us, teaching us through the Word that we are God’s adopted children and that, as such, we can cry out to Him in any need as our loving Father, knowing that He cares for us.

B. The Spirit confirms the gospel promises to us through His inner witness (8:16).

Romans 8:16: “The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God.” There is some debate here as to the meaning of the verb. Strictly interpreted, it means “to testify or bear witness with.” Thus, there would be two witnesses, our spirit and the Holy Spirit. Many reputable commentators understand it in this way, but I confess that I do not understand how my spirit bears witness to me apart from the Spirit’s bearing witness.

But the verb can also mean “to bear witness to.” C. E. B. Cranfield (A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans [T. & T. Clark], p. 403, italics his) asks a pertinent question, “But what standing has our spirit in this matter? Of itself it surely has no right at all to testify to our being sons of God.” And so I understand this to mean that the Holy Spirit confirms to our spirit the promises of the gospel. It is an immediate and direct inner sense that the gospel is true and that it is true in my life.

If you believe personally in the truth of the gospel, where did that faith come from? It didn’t originate in you. “The natural man does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised” (1 Cor. 2:14). “There is none who understands, there is none who seeks for God” (Rom. 3:11). To understand and believe in the gospel requires a supernatural work of God’s Spirit in your heart. When you say, both at the point of conversion and many times in the years afterward, “Yes, I do believe in Jesus Christ as my Savior and Lord,” that is the inner witness of the Spirit to your spirit that you are God’s child.

When you’re feeling guilty and condemned because of your sins and you read, “Therefore there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus” (Rom. 8:1) and something inside of you exclaims, “Thank God!” where does that inner sense of joy come from? It is the Holy Spirit testifying to your spirit that you are a child of God.

Or, maybe you’re feeling all alone and wondering if anyone cares for you or is concerned about your problems and you read that you can cast all your cares on God, because He cares for you (1 Pet. 5:7). As you read that promise, your spirit is buoyed up with renewed hope in the Lord. Where did that hope come from? It is the Spirit of God testifying to your spirit that you are God’s child.

On one occasion many years ago in California I was going through the most difficult time of my then 14 years of ministry. An associate was spreading half-truths (or, half-lies) about me, causing a lot of problems in the ministry there. Many were criticizing my preaching. I was very discouraged. One night as I was about to get into bed, out of nowhere, the reference, Acts 18:9-10 popped into my head. I had not been reading in Acts recently. There was no human explanation for why that reference came to mind.

I grabbed a Bible that was on the nightstand and opened to Acts 18 and read how Paul was afraid during his ministry in Corinth. The Lord appeared to him in a vision and said, “Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking and do not be silent; for I am with you, and no man will attack you in order to harm you, for I have many people in this city.” It was the Lord’s word to me, to go on preaching the truth and not be concerned about my critics. It was the Spirit’s witness to my spirit that I am a child of God.


Are you a child of God? Are you sure that you’re a child of God? How can anyone be sure? First, have you abandoned all trust in your own good works and trusted in Christ alone to save you from God’s judgment? That is the main source of assurance. But, how can you know if your faith is genuine? Is the Holy Spirit governing your life so that you fight against and kill your sin every day? Is the Holy Spirit confirming to you the wonderful truth that God has adopted you into His family? Part of that confirmation is that you often find yourself crying out to the Father for help and grace in your time of need. And the Spirit repeatedly confirms to you the many promises that God gives to His children. You can sing (author, Carolina Sandell-Berg),

More secure is no one ever
Than the loved ones of the Savior
Not yon star on high abiding
Nor the bird in home nest hiding.

Application Questions

  1. Should professing Christians who are continuing in a life of sin be assured of their salvation? Why/why not?
  2. Are some by personality or upbringing more prone to insecurity and doubt than others are? What can they do to overcome this and gain assurance of salvation?
  3. How important is assurance of salvation? How does the presence of lack of assurance affect one’s walk with God?
  4. Is there a danger in focusing on feelings of assurance or on the subjective inner witness of the Spirit? Where should we focus? Where is the balance?

Copyright, Steven J. Cole, 2011, All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture Quotations are from the New American Standard Bible, Updated Edition © The Lockman Foundation

Related Topics: Assurance, Hamartiology (Sin), Pneumatology (The Holy Spirit)

The Bible Study Cheat Sheet: The Into Thy Word Bible Study Method

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The Main Goal Of Bible Study: Don’t Just Interpret It, But Apply It To Your Life!!!

Step I: “Knowing The Knowable:” Bringing Our Mind To Be Right With God!

Attitude Is Crucial!!! (Gal. 2:20)

         Remember to always: begin and end your study in prayer and in the meantime be in prayer.

         Direct your will and seize the opportunity!!! Be consistent!!!

         Be open to the Holy Spirit

Step II: “How:” The Method Of Getting Into God’s Word

Look at the whole book at least three times in an easy to read translation. Then read each chapter you are studying in a good translation at least three times. Then read the verses, verse by verse in order.

Step III: “Observe It:” Ask What Does It Say?! Before You Ask What Does It Mean And How To Apply It To Your Life!

         Give the Book the “Looks:” Purpose; Repeated Phrases; The Point; Who is involved; The time & sequence of events, “once, then, now, will be, etc.” Look for persons, places, ideas; Logical Connectives, i.e. Therefore, But, Since, So, Thus, Because, For, That, etc. What is actually being said?

         Verbs are crucial! Check out Nouns in “Bible Dictionaries.”

         Consider repeated words & phrases.

         Compare passage/verse to similar verses i.e. “Scripture interprets scripture.” Use a “Concordance.”

         Notice what is being taught

         Notice the promises

         Notice carefully the underlining principle(s) & implications

         What about the life, work, teaching, presence of Jesus Christ?

         Look out for types of “literary style;” history, philosophy, drama, poetry, wisdom and law.

         Look at different translations

Step III (B): “Observe It:” Ask What Does It Mean?

Let God have His way with you! Ask our Lord to open you before Him, to allow yourself to go beyond your culture, education and experience! Then the meaning will come alive!

         We must know our weaknesses and limitations because of sin!

         We must be aware of our nature and the nature of Scripture and the Divine Authors intent.

         Be focused on Christ not ourselves.

         Be aware of the context!!!!! The “historical” and “literary” settings?” What is going on?

         What is the point and train of thought?

         Analyze by gathering facts and all the information available to you.

         Paraphrase the passage yourself.

         What is supported?

         What are the conclusions?

Make an emotional identification into the text.

Things To Ask And To Apply:

         Ask what is actually being said?

         Try reading aloud!

         Consider nothing insignificant!

         Have a mentor to ask questions.

         Look for stuff to carry out in your life.

         Write down your questions

         What are the implications & promises to be applied to transformed us?

         What about the life, work, teaching, and presence of Jesus Christ?

         How can I model His Character?

         What is our duty?

         What is God’s character?

         Make a commitment to the meaning.

         Try to write the verse or entire passage in your own words!

         Accept what It says: This is God’s Word!

Step IV: “Questions:” Ask And Learn!!!

The Six Big Q’s We Must Always Ask!

         Who: are the people? Who did it? Who can do it? Who is it talking about?

         What: is it saying? What is happening? What is it talking about? What did they do?

         Where: are they going? Where did it happen? Where will it take place?

         When: did it happen? When will it happen? When can it happen?

         How: did it happen? How can it happen? How was something done?

         Why: did he say that? Why did he do that? Why did they go there?

Ask These Additional Questions:

         Are there any commands?

         Are there any contrasts?

         Are there things repeated?

         Is there cause and effect?

         Is there a problem and solution?

         Are there any promises?

         Are there any connections to other parts of the Bible?

         Notice the setting!

Step V: “Know It”!!!

Start Looking For The Answers

         What does something mean and why is it there?

         Be sure your information is correct!!!

         Use good commentaries, Study Bibles, and Bible dictionaries.

Digging Personally:

         How are you encouraged & strengthened?

         Where have you fallen short, and how can you improve?

         What do you now intend to do with the information given to you?

         We must have the confidence that the Bible is truth! This is knowing It!

         We must allow God’s Word to break our will and desires over to His!

         What did God say to you today?

         Is there a sin in your life that needs to be confessed and repented?

         Are you appreciating it?

         Are you receiving and practicing the great benefits to others around you?

         Are you a changed person as a result of receiving the Word?

Step VI: “Application!!!” (Gal 5:21-26)

         Application comes out of a Changed life. And leads to a life transformed!

         What must I do to make God’s Word real in me? What is my response?

         When will it end up in my day planner?

         Mediate over the passage

Ask Yourself These Five Questions:

         What illustration can I use to remember?

         How does the truth apply to my life?

         What is my personal prayer regarding these truths?

         What changes/improvements could I make in light of the truth?

         How should I carry out these changes?

         Pray to ask God how to implement His truth to you. Tell Others. Accountability.

Step VII: Make Use Of The Book Chart

         Write down what God is saying to you and what you have discovered and learned. By doing this, it will allow you to apply it to your life better!

“You Can Do It!”

Keep this guide “tucked” in your Bible for reference and guidance.

From: “Into Thy Word” C 2000 R.J. Krejcir

Related Topics: Basics for Christians, Bible Study Methods

How to Have Family Devotions

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In an age of fractured families and hectic schedules, Christian families need to be deeply rooted in Christ. Church and Sunday school are essential. But equally important, Christianity must be lived in the home; Christ must be the center of our lives.

There is not magic formula for building a Christian home. However, Christian families through the ages have found joy, strength, and guidance through taking time daily to pray and read together from God’s Word.

How to Begin

The first step toward effective family devotions is setting aside regular time. Many families have devotions after breakfast or supper. These times naturally bring the family together and can lead conveniently into a devotional time. Other families find just before bed time works well. But whatever time you choose, be sure that the whole family can be together on a regular basis. Consistency is important because it shows that time with God is a high priority.

What to Include

Devotions can include many activities, but it is important to include at least these three:

1.      Reading from God’s Word

2.      Discussion and Teaching

3.      Prayer

Reading from God’s Word

The Bible is an exciting book! It is filled with true stories of God’s heroes, with down-to-earth advice, with spiritual insight, and with the plan of salvation. It is the primary way by which God communicates to us today. It is essential, therefore, that we feed upon God’s Word regularly.

There are many ways to approach daily Bible reading with your family. Here are a few:

Read a chapter or a portion each day. This is a simple plan used by many families. You can read consecutively through a book, taking a passage each day. Older children can take turns reading too. Then, each person can share what most impressed them about the passage. This can help each person see how God’s Word applies to him personally.

Bible reading plans. A similar approach is to follow a program designed to guide your family through the Bible in one or more years. (Lumina has a number of personalized reading plans) One advantage of this is that your family will be exposed to the whole Bible in a systematic way.

Devotional Guides. A variety of excellent devotional guides can be found

Family Bible Study Programs. Families with older children may want to try studying the Bible in depth together. Each family member can read and reflect on the daily portion beforehand. After re-reading the passage together, discussion can follow. Many good Bible study books and articles can be found on

Younger Children. Children under six or seven probably won’t be able to read the Bible themselves. But they can still learn much from Bible reading. Even the youngest child begins to see that God’s Word in important. Explaining the passage in simple language, avoiding abstract ideas, will help keep the interest of younger children. And many a parent has been amazed by the insights their little ones come up with!

Childhood is also an excellent time to memorize Bible verses, when minds are quick and eager to learn. And it is an excellent time to begin sharing the basic truths that are the foundation of salvation.

Discussion and Teaching

Discussion and teaching about the Bible passage for the day is an integral part of Bible reading as mentioned already. A few additional suggestions may be helpful:

First, try to keep the discussion clear and concise. Often basic questions will help your family understand the passage: “What happened?” “What is being taught?” “How does this apply to your life?”

Second, it is important to maintain a good balance between leadership and participation. The whole family should be encouraged to participate actively and naturally. But the one leading family devotions should correct any erroneous observations, leading in a loving way towards the truth.

Third, it is important to be sensitive to the family’s special needs. Some questions may seem “off the subject” but are good indicators of issues the children are facing. We can help them discover needs and circumstance.

With positive, prayerful leadership, a time of discussion and teaching can provide an opportunity to grow together in the Lord.


God’s communications comes to us through His Word, but is a one way conversation unless we lift up our hearts to him in prayer. Our loving heavenly Father wants us to talk to Him. He delights in our praise, thanks and petitions, just like any loving Father does. Thus the family prayer time should include:

Worship and Praise - When we think of God’s goodness and greatness, our hearts should well up in worship and praise - for the beauty of His creation, for the gift of life, for a loving family, for the fellowship of Christians and above all for salvation through Christ’s atoning death. There is no end to the list. Even the youngest child can add his own worship and praise. Perhaps each person could share at least one thing to praise God for each day.

Confession - As we lift up our hearts to the Lord, we should also recognize our own unworthiness and sinfulness. God has forgiven our sins once and for all. But in order to walk in fellowship with Him (and with others) we need to confess that we continue to fall short of God’s perfect standard. As we confess in prayer, we are drawn closer to God and to each other, growing in grace and in the knowledge of God’s forgiveness.

In making confession part of our prayer time, it may be helpful for the leader to suggest:” Let’s remember in prayer those things that we need to confess to the Lord and each other, asking God’s forgiveness both for things we have done and left undone.

Personal Request and Intercession - Like a loving Father, God desires to know our deepest concerns just as much as to receive our praise. We can open our hearts to Him, knowing that He hears and answers our prayers, and that He will work all things together for good (Romans 8:28). And as we share needs with each others, we will be drawn closer together as a family.

Many families find it helpful to keep a prayer list or notebook. This might include special needs of the family, of neighbors, of missionaries, or government leaders. It can also provide a record of answers to prayers. Whatever the answer we know that God hears and responds according to his will.

Some families may wish to include other things such as singing hymns or chorus, or acting out a Bible story, or doing a craft. These can be meaningful; but there is no need to begin with something elaborate. The important thing is to daily read and discuss God’s Word and prayer together.

It is often said that “the family that prayers together, stays together” and the statistics show this is true. But this is not all. As we seek God daily, we renew our relationships with each other and with God. He talks with us; and we talk with Him. He receives our praise, confession and petitions; and we know the joy of His presence.

If you have not already, won’t you make family devotions part of your home, so that as a family you may “grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To Him be the glory both now and forever. Amen” (2nd Peter 3:18)

Related Topics: Basics for Christians, Bible Literacy, Parent Resources, Christian Home, Fathers, Mothers

12 Methods for Bible Study

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Quick Links:

Method One - The Devotional Method of Bible Study
Method Two - The Chapter Summary Method of Bible
Method Three - The Character Quality Method of Bible
Method Four - The Thematic Method of Bible Study
Method Five - The Biographical Method of Bible Study
Method Six - The Topical Method of Bible Study
Method Seven - The Word Study Method of Bible Study
Method Eight - The Book Background Method of Bible Study
Method Nine - The Book Survey Method of Bible Study
Method Ten - The Chapter Analysis Method of Bible Study
Method Eleven - The Book Synthesis Method of Bible Study
Method Twelve - The Verse by Verse Method of Bible Study


Method 1 - The Devotional Method of Bible Study

In the Devotional Method of Bible study a passage of the Bible, large or small, is read and meditated on until the Holy Spirit guides you to an application of the passage into you life in a way that is personal, practical, possible, and measurable. It is the simplest and least costly in terms of time of all the Bible study methods in this outline. The goal is to take the Bible seriously and to do what it says to do.

1.1 - Tools

1.1 .1 - Bible

1.2 - Hints

1.2.1 - This method can be used as part of your quiet times with God

1.2.2 - Requires little investment of time and can be done as you travel or wait for life to catch up to you

1.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Pray for understanding and guidance as you apply the passage into your life.

Step 2 - Meditate on the verse(s) you have chosen for your study

Step 3 - Write out the application you will make from the passage into your life.

Step 4 - Memorize a verse from the passage that summarizes what you have learned.

Step 5 - Assess your application in the weeks that follow for success or failure.


Method 2 - The Chapter Summary Method of Bible

In the Chapter Summary Method of Bible study we attempt to gain an understanding of the contents of any given chapter of the Bible by reading it in its entirety several times (at least five), asking a series of questions relating to the content of the chapter, and ending with a general summary of the chapter. Note that the chapter divisions currently in our Bible are not in the original manuscripts but were added later (about 1,200 AD) by Bishop Stephen Langton in order to make the various parts of the Bible more accessible to the general reader. Although usually well done, at some points the chapter divisions interrupt the natural flow of the text. There are 1,189 chapters in the Protestant Bible so there is a wealth of material to study.

2.1 -Tools

2.1.1 - Bible

2.1.2 - Cross references

2.2 - Hints

2.2.1 - Read the chapter from a Bible without notes in order to encourage fresh insights rather than reaffirming those already found.

2.2.2 - Read the chapter without stopping in order to get a feel for the flow of the chapter.

2.2.3 - Read the chapter in various translations noting important differences discovered.

2.2.4 - Read the chapter aloud but quietly to yourself as an aid to concentration.

2.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Caption - Give the chapter a short but descriptive heading. Headings that are short and/or convey a vivid image of the chapter are especially beneficial.

Step 2 - Contents - Make a list or outline of the major point of the chapter.

Step 3 - Chief People - Make a list of the major individuals in the chapter, some reference to the surrounding chapters may be necessary.

Step 4 - Central Verse - Select a verse that is significant in the chapter or which you find is important during this study.

Step 5 - Crucial Word(s) - Make a list of the key word(s) of the chapter.

Step 6 - Challenges - List any difficulties you may have with the chapter. What don't you understand? Are there areas of your life that need changing but cannot be changed?

Step 7 - Cross References - Use your cross references to find other passages in the Bible that help you to understand this chapter.

- You should evaluate cross references in steps: -Internal Cross References - Look for cross references within the book you are studying. - External Cross References - Look for cross references within other books by the same author. - Compare with cross references within the same Testament (Old or New) - Compare with cross references within the Bible as a whole.

- There are also several types of cross reference, three are listed below (see your cross reference resource for more details): - Pure Cross Reference – Says almost exactly the same thing as the verse you are studying. - Illustrative Cross Reference – Illustrates what the verse you are studying is saying. - Contrasting Cross Reference – Says the opposite of what the verse you are studying is saying.

Step 8 - Christ Revealed - As the Bible as a whole is the revelation of Jesus Christ (the Old Testament points to Him, the Gospels give the details of His earthly life, and Acts and the Letters show His activity in the world) it should be possible to find His presence in all areas of the Bible. Find out what you can discover of the nature, ministry, or person of Christ from this chapter.

Step 9 - Central Lesson(s) - List the major lessons taught in the chapter that you have learned at this time (next time you study this chapter entirely new insights may become evident).

Step 10 - Conclusion - Here you will begin to apply what you have learned. Two questions that are important to ask during any application of the Bible are: - How do these insights apply to me personally? - What am I going to do about them?


Method Three - The Character Quality Method of Bible

In the Character Quality Method of Bible study we begin to use tools other than the Bible itself in order to discover what the Bible has to say of specific personal characteristics. A major emphasis of this study method is on personal application of the lessons you will be learning into your own life. The main goal of this method of Bible study is to learn God’s view of personal characteristics.

3.1 - Tools

3.1.1 - Bible

3.1.2 - English dictionary

3.1 .3 - Bible dictionary

3.1.4 - Lexicon

3.1.5 - Cross references

3.1.6 - Exhaustive concordance

3.1.7 - Topical Bible or topical listings

3.2 - Hints

3.2.1 - Select a character quality that is of interest to you or that you wish to develop or have victory over in your own life.

3.2.2 - This study may take some time, be sure to allocate enough time to complete the study adequately.

3.3 - Method

Step 1 - Select the character quality you wish to study, look it up in an English dictionary and make note of the definition

Step 2 - Name and define the opposite quality, again using the English dictionary

Step 3 - Do a simple word study of the character quality first using the Bible dictionary to define the quality from a Biblical perspective. Use the concordance to find other verses containing the same word(s), remembering that often many different English words can be used to translate the same Hebrew or Greek original and vice versa. Then use the lexicon determine the usage by the author(s) of the word(s) defining this quality.

Step 4 - Find some cross references using either the verse listings within your Bible or a dedicated book of cross references such as "The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge." The concordance and topical Bible (such as "Nave’s Topical Bible") will also be of benefit in this step.

Step 5 - Do a brief biographical study of at least one person who exhibits the character quality you are studying. Describe in brief the quality and the Bible references to it in this person’s life. Use the following questions to help you along: - What shows this quality in this person’s life? - How did this quality affect this person’s life? - Did this quality help or hinder this person’s growth to maturity, spiritual or otherwise? How? - What are the results of this quality in this person’s life?

Step 6 - Memorize at least one verse from your study that seems to stand out and which will help you as you apply the lessons you are learning into your own life.

Step 7 - Select a situation or a relationship in which to work on this character quality. Remember that we wish to minimize the negative qualities in our lives and emphasize or enhance the positive qualities. Jonah’s stubbornness helps us to see our own in light of its impact on our ability to do the will of God in our lives, whereas Moses’ humility before God in spite of his being able to meet God face to face can shed new light on how we are to treat special characteristics of our own lives.

Step 8 - Think of practical methods by which you may apply the positive aspects of your study into your life. If you are studying the quality of encouragement you might wish to go out of your way to encourage Christian behaviour in you fellow believers.

Step 9 - Make note of progress as you apply these lessons into your life. This will allow you to evaluate your development in the area you have studied.


Method Four - The Thematic Method of Bible Study

In the thematic method of Bible study you will approach a theme within the Bible and perform a basic study of it. It is shorter than the Topical Method of Bible study, which comes later in these notes, and is much less exhaustive in its scope. In a topical study you would examine each possible verse that relates to your topic of study, including each sub-them; in a thematic study you will study only those verses that apply directly to a single theme

4.1 - Tools

4.1.1 - Study Bible

4.1.2 - Exhaustive concordance

4.1.3 - Topical Bible or cross references

4.2 - Hints

4.2.1 - Stay narrowly focused on your theme since each associated idea can lead to hundreds of additional cross references causing your simple thematic study to grow quickly into a study requiring a great deal more time and effort than you have allocated.

4.2.2 - Keep your list of questions short as some themes may have one or two hundred references associated with them which, if you have too many questions, would cause you to tire of your study even before it is complete

4.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Choose a theme to study, for your first thematic study you may wish to choose a theme that is relatively simple

Step 2 - Make a list of all the verses you intend to study using the tools described above and select from this list the verses that are most applicable, or important, to your theme

Step 3 - Decide on, and make a list of, the questions you will ask of each verse. If you have written more than five you may wish to choose from this list as five questions is generally more than sufficient for the study

Step 4 - Ask these questions of each verse in your list of step two. You may not be able to obtain an answer for each question in each verse, some verses may only answer one or two of your questions but this does not mean that your verses have been improperly chosen

Step 5 - Draw some conclusions from your study. This would include collating the notes you have made and summarizing the details of the study

Step 6 - Write out a personal application and remember to evaluate your progress.


Method Five - The Biographical Method of Bible Study

5.1 - Tools

5.1.1 - Bible

5.1.2 - Exhaustive and/or biographical concordance

5.1.3 - Topical Bible

5.1.4 - Bible dictionary or encyclopedia

5.2 - Hints

5.2.1 - Remember that the person will often be referred to by means other than his/her proper name in many passages

5.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Choose an individual from the Bible for your study. See the list below for a selection of persons from the Bible.

Step 2 - List all references concerning that person. A concordance will help if the person is referred to in the Bible by their proper name, but you may also wish to look for ambiguous references to the person (i.e. Pharaoh’s wife, or: the son of Zebedee).

Step 3 - Note your first impression of the person after your first reading of the passages

Step 4 - Make a chronological outline of the person's life after your second reading

Step 5 - Obtain some insights into the person after your third reading

Step 6 - Identify some character qualities after your fourth reading

Step 7 - Show how some other Bible truths are illustrated in this person's life

Step 8 - Summarize the main lesson(s) you have learned

Step 9 - Write out a personal application

Step 10 - Make your study transferable

Step 11 - Note someone with whom you will share the results of this study and commit yourself to doing this.

A Partial List of Biblical People

The three following lists include some of the major men of the Bible, the minor but important men of the Bible, and the prominent women of the Bible.

Major Men of the Bible

Major Men of the Bible

1. Abraham
2. Daniel
3. David
4. Elijah
5. Elisha
6. Ezekiel

7. Ezra
8. Isaiah
9. Isaac
10. Jacob
11. Jeremiah
12. Jesus

13. John – apostle
14. Joseph – OT
15. Joshua
16. Moses
17. Nehemiah
18. Paul

19. Peter
20. Pharaoh
21. Samson
22. Samuel
23. Saul – OT
24. Solomon

Minor but Important Men of the Bible

Minor but Important Men of the Bible

1. Aaron
2. Abel
3. Abimelech
4. Abner
5. Absalom
6. Achan
7. Adam
8. Ahab
9. Ahithophel
10. Amos
11. Ananias
12. Andrew
13. Apollos
14. Apostles – any
15. Aquila
16. Asa
17. Balaam
18. Barnabas

19. Barzillai
20. Caiaphas
21. Caleb
22. Eli
23. Esau
24. Gehazi
25. Gideon
26. Habakkuk
27. Haggai
28. Haman
29. Herod
30. Hezekiah
31. Hosea
32. Jabez
33. James
34. Jehoshaphat
35. Jeroboam
36. Joab

37. Job
38. John the Baptist
39. Jonah
40. Jonathan
41. Judas Iscariot
42. Judges – any
43. Kings – any
44. Laban
45. Lot
46. Luke
47. Mark
48. Matthew
49. Melchizedek
50. Mephibosheth
51. Mordecai
52. Naaman
53. Nathan
54. Noah

55. Philemon
56. Philip
57. Pontius Pilate
58. Prophets – any
59. Rehoboam
60. Shamgar
61. Silas
62. Stephen
63. Timothy
64. Titus
65. Tychicus
66. Uzziah
67. Zechariah
68. Zedekiah
69. Zephaniah
70. Zerubbabel

Prominent Women of the Bible

Prominent Women of the Bible

1. Abigail
2. Abishag
3. Anna
4. Bathsheba
5. Deborah
6. Delilah
7. Dinah
8. Dorcas
9. Elizabeth
10. Esther

11. Eunice
12. Eve
13. Hagar
14. Hannah
15. Jezebel
16. Jochebed
17. Leah
18. Lydia
19. Martha
20. Mary – Jesus’ mother

21. Mary Magdalene
22. Mary of Bethany
23. Michal
24. Miriam
25. Naaman’s maid
26. Naomi
27. Priscilla
28. Queen of Sheba
29. Rachel
30. Rahab

31. Rebecca
32. Ruth
33. Sapphira
34. Sarah
35. The Shunammite
36. Vashti
37. Zipporah

General Questions for a Biographical Study

Here is a list of seventy questions you can use in constructing a biographical study. You shouldn’t try to use every question listed here in a single study. Depending on the depth of your study and the time you have, select the questions you would like to have answered. The questions are categorized into seven major divisions for easier use. As you think of other questions, add them to this list.


  1. Who wrote what we know about this person?
  2. What did people say about him/her?
  3. What did his enemies say about him/her?
  4. What did his/her family (wife/husband, children, brothers, sisters, parents) say about him/her?
  5. What did God say about him/her?
  6. Why do you think God allowed this person to be mentioned in the Bible?

Tests of Character

  1. What were his/her aims and motives?
  2. What was he/she like in his home?
  3. How did he/she respond to failure? Did he/she get discouraged easily?
  4. How did he/she respond to adversity? Did he/she handle criticism well?
  5. How did he/she respond to success? Did he/she get proud when praised?
  6. How did he/she respond to the trivial and mundane things in life? Was he/she faithful in the little things?
  7. How quickly did he/she praise God for the good/bad things that happened to him/her?
  8. How quickly did he/she obey God when told to do something?


  1. What can you discover about his/her family and ancestry?
  2. What does his/her name mean? Why was he/she given that name? Was it ever changed?
  3. What was his/her home life like? How was he/she raised? Where was he/she raised?
  4. What were the characteristics of his/her parents? Did they influence him/her?
  5. Was there anything special about his/her birth?
  6. Where did he/she live? What was his/her everyday life like?
  7. Was he/she exposed to other cultures? Did they affect him/her in any way?
  8. What was the condition of his/her country -- politically and spiritually -- during his/her lifetime?
  9. What kind of training did he/she have? Did he/she have any schooling?
  10. What was his/her occupation?
  11. How long did he/she live? Where did he/she die? How did he/she die?

Significant Events

  1. Was there any great crisis in his/her life? How did he/she handle it?
  2. What are the great accomplishments for which he/she is remembered?
  3. Did he/she experience a divine ‘call?’ How did he/she respond to it?
  4. What crucial decisions did he/she have to make? How did they affect him/her? Others?
  5. Did any recurring problem keep coming up in his/her life?
  6. Where did he/she succeed? Where did he/she fail? Why?
  7. How did the environment and circumstances affect him/her?
  8. What part did he/she play in the history of God’s plan?
  9. Did he/she believe in the sovereignty of God (God’s control over all events)?


  1. How did he/she get along with other people? Was he/she a loner? Was he/she a team person?
  2. How did he/she treat other people? Did he/she use them of serve them?
  3. What was his/her wife/husband like? How did she/he influence him/her/her?
  4. What were his/her children like? How did they influence him/her?
  5. Who were his/her close companions? What were they like? How did they influence him/her?
  6. Who were his/her enemies? What were they like? How did they influence him/her?
  7. What influence did he/she have on others? On his nation? On other nations?
  8. Did he/she take care of his family? How did his/her children turn out?
  9. Did his/her friends and family help or hinder him/her in serving the Lord?
  10. Did he/she train anyone to take his place? Did he/she leave a "Timothy" (disciple) behind?


  1. What type of person was he/she? What made him/her the way he/she was?
  2. Was his/her temperament choleric, melancholic, sanguine, or phlegmatic?
  3. What were the outstanding strengths in his/her character? What traits did he/she have?
  4. Did his/her life show any development of character as time passed? Was there growth and progression there?
  5. What were his/her particular faults and weaknesses?
  6. What were his/her particular sins? What steps led to those sins?
  7. In what area was his/her greatest battle: lust of the flesh, lust of the eyes, or pride of life, ...etc.?
  8. What were the results of his/her sins and weaknesses?
  9. Did he/she ever get the victory over his particular sins and weaknesses?
  10. What qualities made him/her a success or failure?
A List of Positive Character Qualities to Find

A List of Positive Character Qualities to Find

A Servant
Characterized by the Beatitudes

Flexibleness Forgiveness
Good Stewardship

Man of Faith
Moderateness Modesty
Obedience Observer

Sense of Humor Sensitivity

A List of Negative Character Qualities to Find

A List of Negative Character Qualities to Find

A Busybody
A Cop-out
A Doubter
A Drunkard
A Liar
A Sluggard
A Worrier
Angry Without Cause
Ashamed of Christ
Coarse Complaining

Doctrinally Off
Fears Men
Forgets God
Friend of the World

Independent Spirit
Loves Men's Praise
Lusts for Power

Rejoices in Evil


Method Six - The Topical Method of Bible Study

Previously you encountered the Thematic Method of Bible study in which you studied a narrow theme of the Bible in simple detail asking prepared questions of verses from a chosen list. With the topical study you will study a topic of the Bible, which may contain several themes, and you will not be asking prepared questions, instead you will be recording all insights you find from your study. The topical method will usually take longer than the thematic so you will want to assure yourself that sufficient time is available to at least make a significant start on the study.

6.1 - Tools

6.1.1 - Bible

6.1.2 - Exhaustive concordance and/or cross references

6.1.3 - Topical Bible

6.2 - Hints (taken from Dr. R. A. Torrey)

6.2.1 - Be systematic by listing all the concepts related to your topic, being as comprehensive as possible and study each idea individually and in systematic and logical order.

6.2.2 - Be thorough by as much as possible making a study of every verse that relates to the topic.

6.2.3 - Be exact, trying to get the exact meaning for each verse you are studying. Remember not to remove the verses from their context but use the context to help you in your study.

6.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Compile a list of words related to the topic you will study

Step 2 - Collect all references relating to each word

Step 3 - Consider each reference individually

Step 4 - Compare and group the references

Step 5 - Condense the results of your study into a brief outline

Step 6 - Conclude your study


Method Seven - The Word Study Method of Bible Study

7.1 - Tools

7.1.1 - Bible and several alternate translations

7.1. 2 - Exhaustive concordance

7.1. 3 - Bible dictionary or encyclopedia

7.1. 4 - Set of word studies

7.1. 5 - English dictionary

7.2 - Hints

7.2.1 - Remember that often a single word in the original language may be replaced by many different words, or even phrases, when translated into English.

7.2.2 - An exhaustive concordance such as Strong's or Young's are especially valuable for this study since they associate each discrete original word to its English translation.

7.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Choose the word you will study

Step 2 - Find its English definition in the English dictionary

Step 3 - Compare treatments of the word in the various translations

Step 4 - Note the definition of the original word (Hebrew, Greek, or Aramaic)

Step 5 - Discover just where the word is used in the Bible - How often does it occur? - In which books is it found? - In which book is it used most? - Where does the word first appear? - Where does it first appear in the book you are studying? - Which writers used the word?

Step 6 - Find the origin and root meaning of the word, how the word was used by the secular culture of the day

Step 7 - Determine how the word was used in the Bible and how it would have been understood in the culture to which the Bible was originally addressed

Step 8 - Write an application

A Suggested List of Key Words for the Word Study Method of Bible Study

A Suggested List of Key Words for the Word Study Method of Bible Study


Laying on of Hands




Method Eight - The Book Background Method of Bible Study

8.1 - Tools

8.1.1 - Bible dictionary and/or bible encyclopedia

8.1.2 -Bible handbook

8.1.3 - Bible atlas

8.1.4 -Various tools that allow you to experience in your time the environment of the Biblical cultures

8.2 - Steps

Step 1 - Choose the subject or book of the Bible

Step 2 - List your reference tools so that at the end of the study you can see which were of the greatest help in your study.

Step 3 - Discover what you are able of the following: - Who is the writer of the book - What is the date of the book -Where was the book written - For whom was the book written - Why was the book written - How does the book fit into the Bible overall ;in addition, what light can be shed on the study when the book is evaluated in the following contexts:

- Geographical setting

- Historical events, prior, occurring, or expected

- Culture of the day

- Political situation

- Anticipation of coming events or personage(s)

Step 4 - Summarize your research

Step 5 - Write out your personal application


Method Nine - The Book Survey Method of Bible Study

The Book Survey Method of Bible study is the first of three methods of Bible study that, together, give you an extremely comprehensive view of each book of the Bible. These three will require the greatest effort on your part but will ultimately yield the best results when used properly. Each of the three emphasizes a different aspect of one overall process of study which are:

Survey - Method 9 - Book Survey Method - in which you will obtain a detailed overview of a particular book of the Bible

Analysis - Method 10 - Chapter Analysis Method -in which you will study everything in each chapter in great detail

Synthesis - Method 11 - Book Synthesis Method -in which you will take what you learned in the previous two study stages and put it all back together, drawing conclusions as you go and gaining an appreciation of the whole of the book.

The basic goal of the Book Survey Method of Bible study is to gain a detailed understanding as to why the book was written, its context, its theme, its structure, and its content.

9.1 - Tools

9.1.1 - Bible and several additional modern translations

9.1.2 - Bible dictionary and/or Bible encyclopedia

9.1.3 - Bible handbook, such as Unger's or Halley's

9.1.4 - Old and New Testament surveys

9.1.5 - Cultural contextualization tools

9.2 - Hints

9.2.1 - If you have already done a Book Background Bible study on the book you may wish to refer to it for background information useful to you in this study

9.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Read the book following the suggestions below: - Read through the book in one sitting. After Psalms Isaiah is the Bible's largest book and the average reader can read through it in a few hours. Reading the book in this manner gives you a good overview of its contents. For the larger books you may wish to divide it into two more manageable sections which you can then read with a break between. - Read through the book in a recent translation so that the language usage is current and will not distract from the contents of the book. - Read through the book as though the verse and chapter divisions are non-existent so as to get the flow of the book and the relationship of its ideas to one an other. - Read through the book several times, you will be surprised at what you notice in a second or third reading that you missed originally. - Read through the book without referring to any external notes of any kind, it is important to concentrate upon the text of the book itself without using any interpretive device. - Read through the book with prayer, asking God to speak to you through this study and open your eyes to the lesson(s) he/she wants you to learn. - Read through the book with pen or pencil in hand and begin to take notes and make observations on what you are reading on the second or third time through.

Step 2 - Make notes on what you read, this step actually begins toward the end of step one. Write down your impressions of the book and important details that you discover. Use the following list to guide you: - Is the book written in one of the following genres: Historic, poetic, prophetic, law, biographic, correspondence, narrative, etc. See the section earlier on types of literature in the Bible. - Note your first impressions as you read the book. What do you think was the purpose of the author? - What words does the author use frequently? What words does the author consider important or significant? - Is there a key verse to the book or a key statement? - What is the literary style of the author? How does the style of writing relate to the message of the book? - Does the author reveal his emotions? How would the readers have responded to this emotion? How do you respond to this emotion? - Make note of what you believe to be the main theme(s) of the book. Is there a major thrust to the book? - How is the book structured? Remember that our chapters and verses (and often our paragraphs) were all added centuries after the original authors completed their work. Around what aspects of reality (people, geography, events, time, etc.) is the book centered? - How do people fit into the book? Are there central characters and if so what part(s) do they play in the book?

Step 3 - Do a background study of the book. In this step you will essentially be following the outline given in the Book Background Method of Bible study.

Step 4 - Make a horizontal chart of the book's contents. A horizontal chart is a pictorial representation of the book on one or two sheets of paper and which allows you to visually grasp the general details of the book. Follow these steps to make a horizontal chart: - On a single sheet of paper, or at the most two, make as many vertical columns as there are chapters in the book you are studying. - Re-read the book and note the major divisions, usually similar to the chapter divisions though not always, and make headings relating to these divisions in as few words as possible. - Read through the book again, yes this will be the fifth time you read the book, and think of a short title for each chapter and record them just below the divisions of the previous step, above each of the columns. Some characteristics of good titles are that they are:

- short, usually one to four words

- picturesque, helping you visualize the chapter contents

- from the text if possible

- unique and not used as chapter titles of earlier studies

- able to show where in the book the chapter falls - Read through the book again and create a series of titles for the paragraphs

Step 5 - Make a preliminary outline of the book from all that you have done before. You are concentrating on the major points of the book as later you will be using the Book Synthesis Method in which you will make a detailed outline of the book. Some helpful points: - Make an preliminary outline of the book, concentrating on the major points. - Have your outline organized in sequence of descending importance. List major points first followed by the minor points. - Use paragraphs will help with the outline as they are generally grouped around major ideas. - Compare your outline to those done by others to see where they differ and where they are similar.

Step 6 - Write out a personal application and remember to return periodically to this step so that you can evaluate your progress.


Method Ten - The Chapter Analysis Method of Bible Study

The Chapter Analysis Method of Bible study picks up where the Book Summary Method of Bible study leaves off. You now have a reasonable grasp of the overall picture of the book, what it means, why it was written, etc. and you are now able to begin to examine the individual items making up the book. The best way of subdividing a book of the Bible is to use the chapter divisions, since these are generally accurate, and to study each chapter in detail. You will examine each paragraph, sentence, and word in a detailed and systematic manner.

The Chapter Analysis Method of Bible study is the second of three methods of Bible study that, together, give you an extremely comprehensive view of each book of the Bible. These three will require the greatest effort on your part but will ultimately yield the best results when used properly. Each of the three emphasizes a different aspect of one overall process of study which are:

Survey - Method 9 - Book Survey Method -in which you will obtain a detailed overview of a particular book of the Bible

Analysis - Method 10 - Chapter Analysis Method - in which you will study everything in each chapter in great detail

Synthesis - Method 11 - Book Synthesis Method -in which you will take what you learned in the previous two study stages and put it all back together, drawing conclusions as you go and gaining an appreciation of the whole of the book.

10.1 - Tools

10.1.1 - Bible and several additional modern translations

10.1.2 - Bible dictionary and/or Bible encyclopedia

10.1.3 - Bible handbook, such as Unger's or Halley's

10.1.4 - Old and New Testament surveys

10.1.5 - Cultural contextualization tools

10.2 - Steps

Step 1 - Create a chapter summary. First read the chapter several times over, making some general observations on the chapter as a whole. Once you have completed this process describe the content of the chapter, summarizing it in one of the following ways:

10.2.1 - Paraphrase the chapter, rephrasing it in your own words in such a way that you could read it to an other person in a way that they would understand.

10.2.2 - Outline the chapter, following the internal paragraph divisions of the chapter. Give each paragraph a heading and place the subpoints of the paragraph beneath.

10.2.3 - Rewrite the chapter leaving out all modifying clauses and phrases. You would write out the chapter using just the subjects, verbs, and objects.

Step 2 - Note your observations and insights. Look at every detail of the chapter, examining each sentence and word, and writing down everything you see. Refer to the section on the OICA approach to Bible study involving observation for some assistance in this step. On the following page you will also find a list of things to look for in a Bible passage.

Step 3 - Ask detailed questions of the chapter. Write upon the form each question you ask even if you cannot find an answer for it now. The time may come when you do find an answer to the question in an other study and be able then to place it here as well. Be sure to note any difficulties you have with the passage so that you can research them in the future. Refer to the list below to help you find answers to your questions: - Observe the context of the passage, refer to step two of the Book Survey Method of Bible study for assistance here. - Define the words and phrases used so that you have the correct meaning of the structural components of the passage. - The structure and grammar of a passage is of benefit to help you to understand the flow of ideas and concepts within the passage so that you can see them in relation to each other. - Use other translations to see if their use of English is more understandable. - Try to view the passage against its background (historic, cultural, geographic, economic, social, current events, etc.). Use your Bible dictionary or encyclopedia to obtain this information. - See what other passages in the Bible say about the concepts covered within this chapter. This is actually done more thoroughly in step four. - If all other means have failed refer to a commentary and compare your interpretation of the passage with that of the commentator.

Step 4 - Correlate your chapter with other Bible passages. See step seven of the Chapter Summary Method of Bible study for help on using cross references.

Step 5 - Make a list of some possible applications. You will not be attempting to apply all that you write here, you are making a list for future reference and from which, in step seven, you will choose one application to work into your life.

Step 6 - Formulate and make note of some conclusions. After reviewing the first five steps of this study write down your conclusions on the chapter. You may discover additional information during this step which you should also note.

Step 7 - Write out one application from the list you compiled in step five. Be sure that it is practical and that it is applicable to your life. Remember to return to your written application in the near future so that you can evaluate your progress.

What to Look for in a Chapter Analysis Study

Listed here in brief form are 30 items to look for in your observation part of the Chapter Analysis Method of Bible study:

  1. Ask the six vital observation questions: What? Who? Where? When? Why? How?
  2. Look for key words.
  3. Look for repeated words and phrases.
  4. Look for questions being asked.
  5. Look for answers being given.
  6. Look for commands.
  7. Look for warnings.
  8. Look for comparisons - things that are alike.
  9. Look for contrasts - things that are different.
  10. Look for illustrations.
  11. Look for causes and effects and reasons for doing things.
  12. Look for promises and their conditions for fulfillment.
  13. Look for progression from the general to the specific.
  14. Look for progression from the specific to the general.
  15. Look for steps of progression in a narrative or biography.
  16. Look for lists of things.
  17. Look for results.
  18. Look for advice, admonitions, and attitudes.
  19. Look for the tone of the passage - emotional atmosphere.
  20. Look for connectives, articles, and prepositions.
  21. Look for explanations.
  22. Look for Old Testament quotes in the New Testament.
  23. Look for the literary form.
  24. Look for paradoxes.
  25. Look for emphasis through the use of space - proportion.
  26. Look for planned exaggerations or hyperboles.
  27. Look at the grammatical construction of each sentence.
  28. Look for the use of the current events of the times.
  29. Look for the force of the verbs.
  30. Look for anything unusual or unexpected.

The above are just a few of the things you can look for in your observation step in you Bible study. Don't let this long list discourage you. You shouldn't try to do each one of the suggested items. It will take time for you to get into the habit of seeing more and more things in the text. The more you practice observing, the more alert you will become. So remember: look, search, observe, then write your findings down!


Method Eleven - The Book Synthesis Method of Bible Study

In the Book Synthesis Method of Bible study we will summarize and condense the lessons learned previously. The word synthesis indicates the putting together of the discrete items that together compose a whole; thus in the Book Synthesis Method of Bible study we will put back together the details we extracted from the book through our previous two studies.

The Book Synthesis Method of Bible study is the last of three methods of Bible study that, together, give you an extremely comprehensive view of each book of the Bible. These three will require the greatest effort on your part but will ultimately yield the best results when used properly. Each of the three emphasizes a different aspect of one overall process of study which are:

Survey - Method 9 - Book Survey Method -in which you will obtain a detailed overview of a particular book of the Bible

Analysis - Method 10 - Chapter Analysis Method - in which you will study everything in each chapter in great detail

Synthesis - Method 11 - Book Synthesis Method -in which you will take what you learned in the previous two study stages and put it all back together, drawing conclusions as you go and gaining an appreciation of the whole of the book.

11.1 - Tools

11.1.1 - Bible and several additional modern translations

11.1.2 - Bible dictionary and/or Bible encyclopedia

11.1.3 - Bible handbook, such as Unger's or Halley's

11.1.4 - Old and New Testament surveys

11.1.5 - Cultural contextualization tools

11.2 - Hints

11.2.1 - Have the results of both your Book Survey Method and your Chapter Analysis Method available and complete, you will need to refer to them frequently during this study.

11.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Reread the book several times in the same manner as you did in the Book Survey method

Step 2 - Write out a detailed, final, outline using the preliminary outline from your Book Survey and the passage summaries from your Chapter Analysis. These, when coupled with your current readings, will allow you to put this outline in its final form.

Step 3 - Write down a descriptive book title using the same methods by which you gave titles to each section in your Chapter Analysis. The title should be original and define the contents of the book in as few words as possible.

Step 4 - Make a summary of your insights. You will here summarize the major and minor themes as well as the conclusions of the book as you discovered them in the previous two studies. Avoid commentaries for the moment as you are attempting to arrive at your own understanding of the Bible. Feel free to add new ideas you have discovered during the readings in step one.

Step 5 - Write out a personal application. Review all applications listed in your Book Survey and Chapter Analysis studies, noting any which you have not yet completed and making definite plans to complete them in the near future if not immediately. If all are complete select other potential applications and make plans to implement these in your life as soon as possible.

Step 6 - Share the results of your study with other. The Christian faith is unique in that each of us is individually saved through Christ Jesus, yet our carrying out of that faith is best done in a community of believers. Time and again we as Christians are referred to in the New Testament as the Body of Christ and we are encouraged to build each other up in the faith:

Ephesians 4:11-16 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ: That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive; But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ: From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love.

One of the ways in which the building up other Christians takes place is to share with them what you have learned of God, be it through Bible studies such as this or illuminations from the Holy Spirit.


Method Twelve - The Verse by Verse Method of Bible Study

In the Verse by Verse Method of Bible study you will select a passage of the Bible and examine it in great detail, asking questions of it, finding cross references to it, and paraphrasing each verse within it. The Verse by Verse Bible study concludes with your obtaining a practical, personal application for each verse in the study.

12.1 - Tools

12.1.1 - Bible

12.1.2 - Cross references

12.1.3 - Exhaustive concordance

12.1.4 - Bible dictionary and/or encyclopedia

12.1.5 - Word studies

12.2 - Hints

12.2.1 - If you are short on time you can do this study without the reference tools above, except for the Bible of course.

12.3 - Steps

Step 1 - Write out each verse of the passage in your own words, striving for accuracy and not referring to other paraphrases except by way of example. You are attempting to put the passage into your own words, not into the words of another person.

Step 2 - List any questions you have on any verse in your study, note any answers you are able to find, and record any observations you have made on that verse. Do this for each verse in the study. It may be helpful for you to indicate questions, answers, and observations with the letters Q, A, or O so that each will be easier to find upon returning to the study at other times.

Step 3 - Find some cross references for each verse, trying for at least one for each verse, and indicate if the reference is for a specific word, phrase, or concept within that verse.

Step 4 - For each verse note any insights you have found in your study.

Step 5 - Write a brief personal application for each verse or, failing that, make note of some devotional thought to which you may return in a Devotional Bible study and build upon it.

Related Topics: Bible Study Methods