Overview Chapter 9 Israel’s Past, selected, chosen by God to reveal God’s person and plan to the world. Chapter 10 Israel’s present, rejection of Messiah that results in God setting aside His people, the Jews. Chapter 11 Israel’s future, one day all Israel will be saved, restored, reunited in the people of God. Paul’s audience=Roman church =Jews and Gentiles, he speaks to both.
I. Past: Israel Sovereignly chosen Romans 9
A. Children of Privilege Romans 9:1-5
B. Children of Promise Romans 9:6-13
C. Children of Mercy Romans 9:14-18
D. God’s Sovereignty Romans 9:19-33
1. Who are we to argue with God?
2. What did the Prophets say?
3. Why has God turned to Gentiles?
II. Present: Israel Willfully Rejected Romans 10
A. Reasons for their Rejection Romans 10:1-13
B. Remedy for their Rejection Romans 10:14-17
C. Results of their Rejection Romans 10:18-21
III. Future: Israel Miraculously Saved Romans 11
A. Partial Rejection Romans 11:1-10
B. Purposeful Rejection Romans 11:11-24
C. Promised Restoration Romans 11:25-36
Paul initially persecuted the Christians, they were his enemy, the he was converted, Jews considered him traitor and he became their enemy- he preached Jesus as Messiah, accused him of turning his back on the religion of his birth, questioned his sincerity. This may be why he says READ Romans 9:1-3. Isn’t His burden for them convicting? It is for me. Have you been continuing to think of that person you love that isn’t yet a believer? Lesson we learn from Paul, even though we may not have the opening to speak to them, we can keep praying and we can keep loving them. Israel’s advantages Romans 9:4, 5. 1. Israelites=named the people of God. 2. Adopted as sons of God. 3. Glory of God= shekinah glory=visible manifestation of God, a bright cloud that followed Israel in the wilderness, later filled the Temple. 4. Covenants= Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David. 5. Law given thru Moses. 6. Temple services=worship. 7. Promises=that still fill the pages of the OT Promises to a nation, that one day there will be a Kingdom centered in Jerusalem ruled by the Lord Himself to which all nations will go to worship. 8. Patriarchs - giant figures in Jewish history=Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David “the fathers” of the faith. 9. Messiah came from Israel by human history.
BUT in spite of these blessings, being children of privilege, Israel failed. When Messiah came Israel rejected Him, crucified Him. They, just like we sometimes do, when confronted with new truth “chose a misguided notion of self-preservation over self-examination and correction.”
Some of you Jews are wondering-Does Israel’s failure mean God’s Word has failed?
Word failed= “ship going off course” Answer is No! Romans 9:6 - God is faithful to His purposes, His promises even when we are not.
Reason why God’s Word has not failed is Romans 9:6b, 8. Paul’s point is that being a physical descendant of Abraham, Issac, Jacob does not automatically make one a recipient of God’s promises - only those who are spiritual descendants. God sees 2 groups: those who are physical, biological descendants and those who are physical, biological and spiritual because they have the FAITH of their forefathers. This is the same argument we saw back in Romans 2:28= 2 groups: circumcised outwardly and those who has received a circumcision of the heart. The promises were made to the later. Paul gives 2 OT examples to illustrate that there has always been election, God’s choosing within the nation.
1. Abraham had 2 sons. Ishmael born first, but he was son of the handmaid. Issac born second, son of the promise, mother was Sarah, Abraham’s wife.
2. Isaac had 2 sons Romans 9:11 God chose Jacob. Challenging to understand Romans 9:13. Near-Eastern rhetoric. Paul quotes Malachi=later prophets who is rebuking Israel for their negligence in worshipping God. Opens up w/Malachi telling them that God loves them, how have you loved me? God responds “I chose you, loved Jacob, hated Esau” Comparison, contrast between the kind of feelings for the sons, not based on merit, but on God’s choosing. Only one of the twins could inherit the family line through which Messiah would come=God chose Jacob over Esau to receive the Promises.
Certainly some of you are asking “Isn’t God being unfair in His choices?” Romans 9:14
Right here I would like Paul to explain the doctrine of election, he has his chance. I kinda understand that Isaac should be the chosen one, son of wife, promise. But will you explain why Jacob was chosen over Esau? We know the rest of the story, Esau despised his birthright and Jacob valued it. But is that the reason? Paul is silent and doesn’t say.
Instead when you ask READ Romans 9:14, he says simply “no” and basically says What’s at issue is not a question of fairness or justice (God by His nature cannot be unfair) but God’s freedom to choose based solely on His own will=Sovereignty of God. What God does is determined by who God is: He is Merciful as Powerful 2 OT illustrations of God’s sovereign decision: remember He is not under obligation to give anyone mercy=all have sinned, but He chooses to have compassion on some= what he told Moses. Pharaoh=ask did he hardened his heart or did God harden his heart? Study the text carefully we have to say yes to both parts, but here in this context Paul is arguing that God can harden just as well as God can have mercy= his Sovereign choice READ Romans 9:18.
OK Paul, if God is totally in charge, He’s sovereign, chooses some, overlooks others, how can I be blamed for lack of faith? Maybe I can’t help it if I don’t believe? It’s God’s fault not mine right? This attempt to blame God for everything that goes wrong is as old as the Garden of Eden. Adam said, it’s not my fault God, the woman You gave me made me eat of the fruit. Blame God game. Paul answers the question with asking 3 questions of his own.
Romans 9:20-24 God chooses our parents, genetic structure, time/place of our birth, born w/some pre-determined facts about us. Then he like a potter shapes our lives with the clay of our hearts. Just like the clay can’t complain how it’s shaped, Paul says God has the same authority over our lives, even us Romans 9:24. Ok you want to talk about God’s sovereignty?
a. Gentiles-Hosea (Romans 9:25, 26) God had foretold He would turn away from Jews/call Gentiles.
b. Remnant-Isaiah (27-29) God also foretold that He knew only a remnant of Israel would be saved. Believing Remnant of Jews and the believing Gentiles=”my people”.
(Romans 9:30-33) Gentiles believed, accepted Jesus as Messiah, Jews stumbled over believing in Him, they rejected him.
If we stop here, then we would just conclude, God chooses and we are robots, He makes all the choices and we have no free will - that’s not true. God is completely Sovereign but we have responsibility of choice too. Move to the tension of these 2 truths: God’s sovereignty and man’s free will. Paul will build an argument in Chapter 10 for their accountability.
Paul affirms again his love for them.
1. They were sincere, but sincerely wrong about Jesus Romans 10:2. Their zeal for God was great but w/o knowledge, they did not know the “righteousness that comes from God.”
2. They were proud and self-righteous Romans 10:3 established their own righteousness, proud of their own good works, would not admit a need for a Savior.
3. They misunderstood their own law Romans 10:4-13.
Everything about the Jewish faith pointed to a coming Messiah: the sacrifices, priesthood, temple services, religious festivals, covenants. Law showed them they were sinners, needed a Savior, instead of letting the Law lead them to Messiah, they held on to the Law to make them righteous. Paul contrasts 2 ways to right relationship with God again uses OT to explain his points. Leviticus 18:5 - If you want to live by the law, you must obey it, all of it. Yet, no one ever has, we’ve all broken the commandments, we’ve all sinned. But there’s another way. READ Romans 10:6 again he quotes Moses: righteousness by faith, by quoting Moses here he not difficult or complicated, its available, accessible, near, you don’t have to perform difficult works, in fact READ Romans 10:9, 10. Salvation by faith, trust and belief that Jesus is Lord. READ Romans 10:11-13.
Application: We have been talking about the gospel and salvation since Romans 1. I know that most of you here have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ, settled, for most of you and I are either living in Chapter 7 or 8 depending on how faithfully we’re dealing with our sin nature. But I wonder if someone here is still uncertain about their relationship w/God? This is a clear as it gets for how one is saved. Confess and believe Jesus. Only you know your heart- but if you have not received God’s free gift, today is the day to make that certain. You may want to talk to your leader or me or a good friend in your group. Scriptures say ‘today is the day of salvation’
Only way anyone can be saved is Romans 10:13. Reverse logic: Romans 10:14, 15. Before they call they must believe, in order to believe, must hear for its hearing the Word that creates faith Romans 10:17. Emphasis is on the oral communication of the gospel. Today we have many opportunities to tell others about Christ: internet, books, media, never lose sight of the personal one-on-one face-to-face contact. READ Romans 10:14 how can they hear unless someone preaches to them. Definition of preacher is anyone who is willing to tell others about Jesus, God expects us all to be preachers Acts 1:8 “you shall receive power when the HS comes, be my witnesses…” Paul quotes Isaiah - Witnesses have beautiful feet. Who was it in your life that had beautiful feet and brought to you the gospel in such a way that brought you to faith? A parent, a friend, a pastor? Have you thanked them? What about you? Do you have beautiful feet? Are you willing to share Jesus with others? How will they hear if you don’t tell them?
Truth: Remedy for rejection is hearing and believing
Romans 10:16 = not all who heard believed
Some of you are asking “Maybe the Jews never heard the gospel?” Romans 10:18 yes they have
OK, but if they heard, maybe it’s that they didn’t understand? No. This has been their attitude since the time of Moses, the Jews have refused to accept the plain revelation of God. Paul quotes Moses and Isaiah, concerning Israel READ Romans 10:21.
Most of you are thinking of family members, friends, Jewish heritage, asking “Is God going to get tired of holding out His hand, will His patience with Israel wear out? Is there any future for the nation? Paul answers those questions in Chapter 11. Learning the truths in this chapter changed my life, changed the way I think about world events, changed the way I think about Jewish friends, when I went to Israel, I thought about how one day I would return there with Jesus.
Paul asks what you’ve been thinking Romans 11:1. Did God reject his people? No Paul says look at me, I’m a Jew that has embraced Jesus. If God had permanently cast off the entire nation, no Jew could be saved. Yet, Paul had been called by God, converted by faith to Christianity (Acts 9) Paul shares the story of Elijah=concludes God has always had a remnant among the Jews, same is today. 100 Messianic churches in Jerusalem today. Existence today of Jews who have received Jesus as Messiah is evidence God has a plan for His people.
Three purposes God planned to accomplish thru the “transgression of the Jews”:
1. Salvation would come to Gentiles Romans 11:11b. Study Paul’s missionary journeys in Acts, you see a pattern: Paul would go to the synagogues, Jews first, preach Christ, a few believed, but more often he was kicked out, after their rejection, turned to the Gentiles who believed, started churches.
2. Gentile faith would move the Jews to jealousy Romans 11:11b.
3. One day Israel’s fullness will bring greater riches to the entire world Romans 11:12
Paul turns and says Romans 11:13 I’m talking especially to you Gentiles, understand this
1. Baking (Romans 11:16) - Jewish farmer raised a grain crop, he would bring the first shoot to the priest as offering. Similar when baking use the grain, first piece of dough was given as offering. If part is holy, all is holy. “When a representative piece is consecrated to God, the whole belongs to him, so when the first converts believe, the conversion of the rest can be expected to follow” STOTT
2. Gardening (Romans 11:16-17) - Allegory of the Olive Tree. Tree= people of God, whose root is the patriarchs. The branches broken off = unbelieving Jews who have been temporarily discarded, grafted in branches = believing Gentiles. You Gentiles, don’t become prideful, arrogant or prejudiced against the Jews, always be God’s chosen people. READ Romans 11:28, 29
When we study the last 200 years, we see Sad, shameful, contrary to biblical teachings points in Church history where we have been anti-semitic, that prejudice has been open, militant and promoted by the church. Shame on us. There is no room in the church of JC for Gentile pride or any feelings of superiority to the Jewish people. No room for crude anti-semitic jokes, no room for exclusive anti-semitic memberships. No room in the Christian life for any feelings other than love, concern for the salvation of Israel. Paul makes this very clear, sad to say, most who call themselves Christians haven’t read chapter 11.
READ Romans 11:25-27 Mystery. Partial hardening = key word “fullness of the Gentiles, last Gentile is saved, church age ends. Then God will turn again to the Jew and “All Israel will be saved” All Israel will accept Jesus. When will this happen, when will the fullness of the Gentiles actually happen? No date on the calendar. Zechariah 9-14 sound very much like this time, Second coming of Christ. It’s all God’s Plan, His purposes, His calling, His gifts His mercy, and God does not change.
Benediction (Romans 11:33-36) - Paul is overwhelmed and stops to praise and worship God. Pray.