1tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

2tn Grk “written on the inside and the outside” (an idiom for having writing on both sides).

3tn L&N 6.55 states, “From the immediate context of Re 5:1 it is not possible to determine whether the scroll in question had seven seals on the outside or whether the scroll was sealed at seven different points. However, since according to chapter six of Revelation the seals were broken one after another, it would appear as though the scroll had been sealed at seven different places as it had been rolled up.”

4tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

5tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of no one being found worthy to open the scroll.

6tn Grk “much.”

7tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

8tn Grk “says” (a historical present).

9tn The present imperative with μή (mh) is used here to command cessation of an action in progress (ExSyn 724 lists this verse as an example).

10tn Or “has been victorious”; traditionally, “has overcome.”

11tn The infinitive has been translated as an infinitive of result here.

12tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

13tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

14tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.” The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. This phrase does not imply that the Lamb “appeared to have been killed” but in reality was not, because the wider context of the NT shows that in fact the Lamb, i.e., Jesus, was killed. See 13:3 for the only other occurrence of this phrase in the NT.

15tn Grk “killed, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”

16sn The relative pronoun which is masculine, referring back to the eyes rather than to the horns.

17tc There is good ms evidence for the inclusion of “seven” (ἑπτά, Jepta; 24 א 2053 2351 ¤K). There is equally good ms support for the omission of the term (A 1006 1611 ¤A pc). It may have been accidentally added due to its repeated presence in the immediately preceding phrases, or it may have been intentionally added to maintain the symmetry of the phrases or more likely to harmonize the phrase with 1:4; 3:1; 4:5. Or it may have been accidentally deleted by way of homoioteleuton (τὰ ἑπτά, ta Jepta). A decision is difficult in this instance. NA27 also does not find the problem easy to solve, placing the word in brackets to indicate doubts as to its authenticity.

18sn See the note on the phrase the seven spirits of God in Rev 4:5.

19tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

20tn The words “the scroll” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

21tn Grk “fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

22tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

23sn This interpretive comment by the author forms a parenthesis in the narrative.

24tn The redundant participle λέγοντες (legontes) has not been translated here.

25tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

26tn The preposition ἐν (en) is taken to indicate price here, like the Hebrew preposition ב (bet) does at times. BDAG 329 s.v. ἐν 5.b states, “The ἐν which takes the place of the gen. of price is also instrumental ἠγόρασας ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου Rv 5:9 (cp. 1 Ch 21:24 ἀγοράζω ἐν ἀργυρίῳ).”

27tc The Greek text as it stands above (i.e., the reading τῷ θεῷ [tw qew] alone) is found in codex A. א 2050 2344 ¤ sy add the term “us” (ἡμᾶς, Jhmas), either before or after τῷ θεῷ, as an attempt to clarify the object of “purchased” (ἠγόρασας, hgorasa"). A few mss (1 vgms) delete the reference to God altogether and simply replace it with “us” (ἡμᾶς). This too is an attempt to remove ambiguity in the phrase and provide an object for “purchased.” The shorter reading, supported by the best witness for Revelation, best accounts for the other readings.

28tn The word “persons” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

29tn Grk “and language,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

30tn The verb ἐποίησας (epoihsas) is understood to mean “appointed” here. For an example of this use, see Mark 3:14.

31tc The vast majority of witnesses have αὐτούς (autous, “them”) here, while the Textus Receptus reads ἡμᾶς (Jhmas, “us”) with insignificant support (pc gig vgcl sa Prim Bea). There is no question that the original text read αὐτούς here.

32tn The reference to “kingdom and priests” may be a hendiadys: “priestly kingdom.”

33tn The words “to serve” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the word “priests.”

34tc The textual problem here between the present tense βασιλεύουσιν (basileuousin, “they are reigning”; so A 1006 1611 ¤K pc) and the future βασιλεύσουσιν (basileusousin, “they will reign”; so א 1854 2053 ¤A pc lat co) is a difficult one. Both readings have excellent support. On the one hand, the present tense seems to be the harder reading in this context. On the other hand, codex A elsewhere mistakes the future for the present (20:6). Further, the lunar sigma in uncial script could have been overlooked by some scribes, resulting in the present tense. All things considered, there is a slight preference for the future.

35tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

36tn Grk “elders, and the number of them was.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

37tn Or “myriads of myriads.” Although μυριάς (murias) literally means “10,000,” the point of the combination here may simply be to indicate an incalculably huge number. See L&N 60.9.

38tn The words “all of whom” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to indicate the resumption of the phrase “the voice of many angels” at the beginning of the verse.

39tn Grk “saying.”

40tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

41tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

42tn Grk “saying.”

43tn Or “dominion.”

44tn Grk “fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”