1tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

2sn Sunmoonstars. This imagery is frequently identified with the nation Israel because of Joseph’s dream in Gen 37.

3tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

4tn Grk “and being tortured,” though βασανίζω (basanizw) in this context refers to birth pangs. BDAG 168 s.v. 2.b states, “Of birth-pangs (Anth. Pal. 9, 311 βάσανος has this mng.) Rv 12:2.” The καί (kai) has not been translated.

5tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

6tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.

sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.

7tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate that this remark is virtually parenthetical.

8tn Grk “its”; the referent (the dragon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

9tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

10tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the anticipated birth.

11tn On this term BDAG 135 s.v. ἄρσην states: “male…The neut. ἄρσεν Rv 12:5, difft. vs. 13, comes fr. Is 66:7 and is in apposition to υἱόν. On the juxtaposition s. FBoll, ZNW 15, 1914, 253; BOlsson, Glotta 23, ’34, 112.”

12tn Grk “shepherd.”

13tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

14tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.”

sn An allusion to Ps 2:9 (see also Rev 2:27; 19:15).

15tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

16tn Grk “and the woman,” which would be somewhat redundant in English.

17tn Or “desert.”

18tn Grk “where she has there a place prepared by God.”

19tn Grk “so they can take care of her.”

20tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

21sn The archangel Michael had a special role in protecting the nation of Israel in the OT (Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; see also Jude 9).

22tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the implied contrast.

23tn The words “to prevail” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

24tn Grk “found.”

25tn Grk “for them”; the referent (the dragon and his angels, v. 7) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

26tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the war in heaven.

27tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

28tn Or “the right of his Messiah to rule.” See L&N 37.35.

29tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

30tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelfoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited). The translation “fellow believer” would normally apply (L&N 11.23), but since the speaker(s) are not specified in this context, it is not clear if such a translation would be appropriate here. The more generic “brothers and sisters” was chosen to emphasize the fact of a relationship without specifying its type.

31tn Or “who accuses them continually.”

32tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast.

33sn They did not love their lives. See Matt 16:25; Luke 17:33; John 12:25.

34tn The word “But” is not in the Greek text, but the contrast is clearly implied. This is a case of asyndeton (lack of a connective).

35tn Grk “and is filled,” a continuation of the previous sentence. Because English tends to use shorter sentences (especially when exclamations are involved), a new sentence was started here in the translation.

36tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” because the clause it introduces is clearly resumptive.

37tn Grk “saw.”

38tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present here.

39tn Or “desert.”

40tn The word “God” is supplied based on the previous statements made concerning “the place prepared for the woman” in 12:6.

41tc The reading “and half a time” (καὶ ἥμισυ καιροῦ, kai {hmisu kairou) is lacking in the important uncial C. Its inclusion, however, is supported by {47 א A and the rest of the ms tradition}. There is apparently no reason for the scribe of C to intentionally omit the phrase, and the fact that the word “time” (καιρὸν καὶ καιρούς, kairon kai kairou") appears twice before may indicate a scribal oversight.

sn The parallel statement in Rev 12:6 suggests that the phrase a time, times, and half a time equals 1,260 days (three and a half years of 360 days each).

42tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

43tn Grk “so that he might make her swept away.”

44tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present here.

45tn Grk “the earth helped the woman.”

46tn Grk “the earth opened its mouth” (a metaphor for the ground splitting open).

47tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the woman’s escape.

48tn Grk “her seed” (an idiom for offspring, children, or descendants).

49tn Or “who obey.”

50tn Grk “and having.”

51tn Grk “the testimony of Jesus,” which may involve a subjective genitive (“Jesus’ testimony”) or, more likely, an objective genitive (“testimony about Jesus”).

52tn Grk “he”; the referent (the dragon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

53tc Grk ἐστάθη (estaqh, “he stood”). The reading followed by the translation is attested by the better mss (47 א A C 1854 2344 2351 pc lat syh) while the majority of mss (051 ¤ vgmss syph co) have the reading ἐστάθην (estaqhn, “I stood”). Thus, the majority of mss make the narrator, rather than the dragon of 12:17, the subject of the verb. The first person reading is most likely an assimilation to the following verb in 13:1, “I saw.” The reading “I stood” was introduced either by accident or to produce a smoother flow, giving the narrator a vantage point on the sea’s edge from which to observe the beast rising out of the sea in 13:1. But almost everywhere else in the book, the phrase καὶ εἶδον (kai eidon, “and I saw”) marks a transition to a new vision, without reference to the narrator’s activity. On both external and internal grounds, it is best to adopt the third person reading, “he stood.”

54tn Or “sandy beach” (L&N 1.64).

55sn The standard critical texts of the Greek NT, NA27 and UBS4, both include this sentence as 12:18, as do the RSV and NRSV. Other modern translations like the NASB and NIV include the sentence at the beginning of 13:1; in these versions chap. 12 has only 17 verses.