1tn Or “the chief priests and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.

2tn Grk “were seeking how.”

3tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

4sn The suggestion here is that Jesus was too popular to openly arrest him. The verb were trying is imperfect. It suggests, in this context, that they were always considering the opportunities.

5tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

6tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

7sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

8sn A jar made of alabaster stone was normally used for very precious substances like perfumes. It normally had a long neck which was sealed and had to be broken off so the contents could be used.

9tn Μύρον (muron) was usually made of myrrh (from which the English word is derived) but here it is used in the sense of ointment or perfumed oil (L&N 6.205). The adjective πιστικῆς (pistikh") is difficult with regard to its exact meaning; some have taken it to derive from πίστις (pistis) and relate to the purity of the oil of nard. More probably it is something like a brand name, “pistic nard,” the exact significance of which has not been discovered.

sn Nard or spikenard is a fragrant oil from the root and spike of the nard plant of northern India. This aromatic oil, if made of something like nard, would have been extremely expensive, costing up to a year’s pay for an average laborer.

10tn The word “expensive” is not in the Greek text but has been included to suggest a connection to the lengthy phrase “costly aromatic oil from pure nard” occurring earlier in v. 3. The author of Mark shortened this long phrase to just one word in Greek when repeated here, and the phrase “expensive ointment” used in the translation is intended as an abbreviated paraphrase.

11tn Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.

12tn Grk “three hundred denarii.” One denarius was the standard day’s wage, so the value exceeded what a laborer could earn in a year (taking in to account Sabbaths and feast days when no work was done).

13tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied (as the proceeds from the sale of the perfumed oil).

14tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

15tn In the Greek text of this clause, “me” is in emphatic position (the first word in the clause). To convey some impression of the emphasis, an exclamation point is used in the translation.

16tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

17tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

18tn Grk “betray him to them”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

19sn The leaders were delighted when Judas contacted them about betraying Jesus, because it gave them the opportunity they had been looking for, and they could later claim that Jesus had been betrayed by one of his own disciples.

20sn Matt 26:15 states the amount of money they gave Judas was thirty pieces of silver (see also Matt 27:3-4; Zech 11:12-13).

21tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

22tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

23tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

24tn The words “the feast of” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

25sn Generally the feast of Unleavened Bread would refer to Nisan 15 (Friday), but the following reference to the sacrifice of the Passover lamb indicates that Nisan 14 (Thursday) was what Mark had in mind (Nisan = March 27 to April 25). The celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted eight days, beginning with the Passover meal. The celebrations were so close together that at times the names of both were used interchangeably.

26tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

27sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 14:18). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.

28sn Since women usually carried these jars, it would have been no problem for the two disciples (Luke 22:8 states that they were Peter and John) to recognize the man Jesus was referring to.

29tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the flow within the narrative.

30tn Grk “and came.”

31sn The author’s note that the disciples found things just as he had told them shows that Jesus’ word could be trusted.

32tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

33tn The prepositional phrase “to the house” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for clarity.

34tn Grk “while they were reclined at the table.”

sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

35tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

36tn Or “will hand me over”; Grk “one of you will betray me, the one who eats with me.”

37tn Grk “one who dips with me.” The phrase “his hand” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

38sn One who dips with me in the bowl. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

39tn Grk “this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”

40tc Most mss (A 1,13 ¤ lat sy) have καινῆς (kainh", “new”) before διαθήκης (diaqhkh", “covenant”), a reading that is almost surely influenced by the parallel passage in Luke 22:20. Further, the construction τὸ τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης (to th" kainh" diaqhkh"), in which the resumptive article τό (referring back to τὸ αἷμα [to |aima, “the blood”]) is immediately followed by the genitive article, is nowhere else used in Mark except for constructions involving a genitive of relationship (cf. Mark 2:14; 3:17, 18; 16:1). Thus, on both transcriptional and intrinsic grounds, this reading looks to be a later addition (which may have derived from τὸ τῆς διαθήκης of D* W 2427). The most reliable mss, along with several others (א B C Dc L Θ Ψ 565), lack καινῆς. This reading is strongly preferred.

sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

41tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

42tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

43sn After singing a hymn. The Hallel Psalms (Pss 113-118) were sung during the meal. Psalms 113 and 114 were sung just before the second cup and 115-118 were sung at the end of the meal, after the fourth, or hallel cup.

44tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

45sn A quotation from Zech 13:7.

46tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

47tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

48tn Grk “said emphatically.”

49tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

50tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

51tn Grk “and James,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

52tn The word means “Father” in Aramaic.

53sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Ps 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.

54tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

55tn Grk “because their eyes were weighed down,” an idiom for becoming extremely or excessively sleepy (L&N 23.69).

56tn Or “Sleep on, and get your rest.” This sentence can be taken either as a question or a sarcastic command.

57tc Codex D (with some support with minor variation from W Θ 13 565 2542 pc it) reads, “Enough of that! It is the end and the hour has come.” Evidently, this addition highlights Jesus’ assertion that what he had predicted about his own death was now coming true (cf. Luke 22:37). Even though the addition highlights the accuracy of Jesus’ prediction, it should not be regarded as part of the text of Mark, since it receives little support from the rest of the witnesses and because D especially is prone to expand the wording of a text.

58tn Grk “the one who betrays me.”

59tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

60tn Or “approached.” This is a different verb than the one translated “arrived” in Matt 26:47 and below in v. 45, although in this context the meanings probably overlap.

61tn Or “from the chief priests, scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.

62tn Grk “the one who betrays him.”

63sn This remark is parenthetical within the narrative and has thus been placed in parentheses.

64tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

65tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

66sn Judas’ act of betrayal when he kissed Jesus is especially sinister when it is realized that it was common in the culture of the times for a disciple to kiss his master when greeting him.

67tn Grk “put their hands on him.”

68tn See the note on the word “slave” in 10:44.

69tn Or “a revolutionary.” This term can refer to one who stirs up rebellion: BDAG 594 s.v. λῃστής 2 has “revolutionary, insurrectionist,” citing evidence from Josephus (J. W. 2.13.2-3 [2.253-254]). However, this usage generally postdates Jesus’ time. It does refer to a figure of violence. Luke uses the same term for the highwaymen who attack the traveler in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:30).

70tn Grk “and”; καί (kai) is elastic enough to be used contrastively on occasion, as here.

71tn Grk “But so that”; the verb “has happened” is implied.

72tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

73tn Grk “they”; the referent (Jesus’ disciples) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

74sn The statement he ran off naked is probably a reference to Mark himself, traditionally assumed to be the author of this Gospel. Why he was wearing only an outer garment and not the customary tunic as well is not mentioned. W. L. Lane, Mark (NICNT), 527-28, says that Mark probably mentioned this episode so as to make it clear that “all fled, leaving Jesus alone in the custody of the police.”

75tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

76tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.

77tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

78sn The guards would have been the guards of the chief priests who had accompanied Judas to arrest Jesus.

79tn Grk “Some standing up gave false testimony against him, saying.”

80tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

81tn Grk “in the middle.”

82tn Grk “questioned him and said to him.”

83tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.

84sn An allusion to Ps 110:1. This is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.

85sn The expression the right hand of the Power is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.

86sn An allusion to Dan 7:13.

87tn Grk “What do you think?”

88tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

89tn For the translation of ῥάπισμα (rJapisma), see L&N 19.4.

90tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

91tn The Greek term here is παιδίσκη (paidiskh), referring to a slave girl or slave woman.

92tn Grk “he denied it, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

93tn Grk “I do not know or understand what you are saying.” In the translation this is taken as a hendiadys (a figure of speech where two terms express a single meaning, usually for emphatic reasons).

94tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

95tc Several important witnesses (א B L W Ψ* 579 892 2427 pc) lack the words “and a rooster crowed.” The fact that such good and early Alexandrian witnesses lack these words makes this textual problem difficult to decide, especially because the words receive support from other witnesses, some of which are fairly decent (A C D Θ Ψc 067 1,13 33 [1424] ¤ lat). The omission could have been intentional on the part of some Alexandrian scribes who wished to bring this text in line with the other Gospel accounts that only mention a rooster crowing once (Matt 26:74; Luke 22:60; John 18:27). The insertion could be an attempt to make the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy in 14:30 more explicit. Internally, the words “and a rooster crowed” fit Mark’s Gospel here, not only in view of 14:30, “before a rooster crows twice,” but also in view of the mention of “a second time” in 14:71 (a reading which is much more textually secure). Nevertheless, a decision is difficult.

tn A real rooster crowing is probably in view here (rather than the Roman trumpet call known as gallicinium), in part due to the fact that Mark mentions the rooster crowing twice. See the discussion at Matt 26:74.

96tn Grk “Truly you are.”

97tn This occurrence of the word ἀλέκτωρ (alektwr, “rooster”) is anarthrous and consequently may not point back explicitly to the rooster which had crowed previously in v. 68. The reason for the anarthrous construction is most likely to indicate generically that some rooster crowed. Further, the translation of ἀλέκτωρ as an indefinite noun retains the subtlety of the Greek in only hinting at the Lord’s prediction v. 30. See also NAB, TEV, NASB.

98tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

99tn Grk “he wept deeply.”