1tn Heb “Woe [to] the destroyer.”

sn In this context “the destroyer” appears to refer collectively to the hostile nations (vv. 3-4). Assyria would probably have been primary in the minds of the prophet and his audience.

2tn Heb “and the deceitful one”; NAB, NIV “O traitor”; NRSV “you treacherous one.” In the parallel structure הוֹי (hoy, “woe [to]”) does double duty.

3tc The form in the Hebrew text appears to derive from an otherwise unattested verb נָלָה (nalah). The translation follows the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa in reading ככלתך, a Piel infinitival form from the verbal root כָּלָה (kalah), meaning “finish.”

4tn Heb “Be their arm each morning.” “Arm” is a symbol for strength. The mem suffixed to the noun has been traditionally understood as a third person suffix, but this is contrary to the context, where the people speak of themselves in the first person. The mem (מ) is probably enclitic with ellipsis of the pronoun, which can be supplied from the context. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:589, n. 1.

5tn Heb “[Be] also our deliverance in the time of distress.”

6tn Heb “at the sound of tumult the nations run away.”

7tn Heb “because of your exaltation the nations scatter.”

8tn The pronoun is plural; the statement is addressed to the nations who have stockpiled plunder from their conquests of others.

9tn Heb “and your plunder is gathered, the gathering of the locust.”

10tn Heb “like a swarm of locusts swarming on it.”

11tn Or “elevated”; NCV, NLT “is very great.”

12tn Or “for” (KJV, NASB, NIV).

13tn Heb “on high” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); CEV “in the heavens.”

14tn Heb “and he is the stability of your times.”

15tn Heb “a rich store of deliverance, wisdom, and knowledge.”

16tn Heb “the fear of the Lord, it is his treasure.”

17tn The meaning of the Hebrew word is unknown. Proposals include “heroes” (cf. KJV, ASV “valiant ones”; NASB, NIV “brave men”); “priests,” “residents [of Jerusalem].” The present translation assumes that the term is synonymous with “messengers of peace,” with which it corresponds in the parallel structure of the verse.

18tn Heb “messengers of peace,” apparently those responsible for negotiating the agreements that have been broken (see v. 8).

19tn Or “desolate” (NAB, NASB); NIV, NRSV, NLT “deserted.”

20tn Heb “the one passing by on the road ceases.”

21tn Heb “one breaks a treaty”; NAB “Covenants are broken.”

22tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “he despises cities.” The term עָרִים (’arim, “cities”) is probably a corruption of an original עֵדִים (’edim, “[legal] witnesses”), a reading that is preserved in the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa. Confusion of dalet (ד) and resh (ר) is a well-attested scribal error.

23tn Heb “he does not regard human beings.”

24tn Or “earth” (KJV); NAB “the country.”

25tn Or “mourns” (BDB 5 s.v. I אָבַל). HALOT 6-7 lists homonyms I אבל (“mourn”) and II אבל (“dry up”). They propose the second here on the basis of parallelism. See 24:4.

26tn Heb “Lebanon is ashamed.” The Hiphil is exhibitive, expressing the idea, “exhibits shame.” In this context the statement alludes to the withering of vegetation.

27sn Sharon was a fertile plain along the Mediterranean coast. See 35:2.

28tn Or “the Arabah” (NIV). See 35:1.

29sn Both of these areas were known for their trees and vegetation. See 2:13; 35:2.

30tn Heb “shake off [their leaves]” (so ASV, NRSV); NAB “are stripped bare.”

31tn Or “lift myself up” (KJV); NLT “show my power and might.”

32tn The second person verb and pronominal forms in this verse are plural. The hostile nations are the addressed, as the next verse makes clear.

33sn The hostile nations’ plans to destroy God’s people will come to nothing; their hostility will end up being self-destructive.

34tn Heb “will be a burning to lime.” See Amos 2:1.

35tn Or “trembling” (ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “shake with fear.”

36tn Or “the defiled”; TEV “The sinful people of Zion”; NLT “The sinners in Jerusalem.”

37tn The words “they say” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

38tn Or “perpetual”; or “everlasting” (KJV, ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).

39tn Heb “walks” (so NASB, NIV).

40tn Or, possibly, “justly”; NAB “who practices virtue.”

41tn Heb “[who] shakes off his hands from grabbing hold of a bribe.”

42tn Heb “[who] shuts his ear from listening to bloodshed.”

43tn Heb “[who] closes his eyes from seeing evil.”

44tn Heb “he [in the] exalted places will live.”

45tn Heb “mountain strongholds, cliffs [will be] his elevated place.”

46tn Heb “your eyes will see a king in his beauty”; NIV, NRSV “the king.”

47tn Heb “a land of distances,” i.e., an extensive land.

48tn Heb “your heart will meditate on terror.”

49tn The words “and you will ask yourselves” are supplied in the translation for clarification and stylistic reasons.

50sn The people refer to various Assyrian officials who were responsible for determining the amount of taxation or tribute Judah must pay to the Assyrian king.

51tn The Hebrew form נוֹעָז (noaz) is a Niphal participle derived from יָעַז (yaaz, an otherwise unattested verb) or from עָזָז (’azaz, “be strong,” unattested elsewhere in the Niphal). Some prefer to emend the form to לוֹעֵז (loez) which occurs in Ps 114:1 with the meaning “speak a foreign language.” See HALOT 809 s.v. עזז, 533 s.v. לעז. In this case, one might translate “people who speak a foreign language.”

52tn Heb “a people too deep of lip to hear.” The phrase “deep of lip” must be an idiom meaning “lips that speak words that are unfathomable [i.e., incomprehensible].”

53tn Heb “derision of tongue there is no understanding.” The Niphal of לָעַג (laag) occurs only here. In the Qal and Hiphil the verb means “to deride, mock.” A related noun is used in 28:11.

54tn Heb “your eyes” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

55map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

56tn Or “that does not travel”; NASB “which shall not be folded.”

57tn Heb “But there [as] a mighty one [will be] the Lord for us.”

58tn Heb “a place of rivers, streams wide of hands [i.e., on both sides].”

59tn Heb “a ship of rowing will not go into it.”

60tn Heb “and a mighty ship will not pass through it.”

61tn The words “though at this time” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The first half of the verse is addressed to Judah and contrasts the nation’s present weakness with its future prosperity. Judah is compared to a ship that is incapable of sailing.

62tn Heb “they do not fasten the base of their mast.” On כֵּן (ken, “base”) see BDB 487 s.v. III כֵּן and HALOT 483 s.v. III כֵּן.

63tn Or perhaps, “flag.”

64tn Heb “then there will be divided up loot of plunder [in] abundance.”

65sn Judah’s victory over its enemies will be so thorough there will be more than enough plunder for everyone, even slow-moving lame men who would normally get left out in the rush to gather the loot.

66tn The words “of Zion” are supplied in the translation for clarification.