1tn The groupings in the list that follows, as well as the conjunctions (vav-consecutives in Hebrew), reflect those of the Hebrew text.

2tn The name means “daughter of Shua.” Shua is identified in Gen 38:2 as a “Canaanite man.”

3tn Heb “was evil in the eyes of the Lord, so he [i.e., the Lord] killed him [i.e., Er].”

4tn Heb “his”; the referent (Judah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

5tc Many medieval Hebrew mss, some LXX mss, and Syriac read “Darda” (see 1 Kgs 4:31 ET = 1 Kgs 5:11 HT).

6tn Heb “sons.” The Hebrew text has the plural, but only one son is listed.

7tc The Hebrew text has “Achar,” which means “disaster,” but a few medieval Hebrew mss read “Achan.” See Josh 7:1.

8tn Heb “the troubler of Israel who was unfaithful with respect to the devoted [things].”

9tn Heb “sons.” The Hebrew text has the plural, but only one son is listed.

10tn The Hebrew text has “Celubai,” but see v. 18, where Caleb is described as the son of Hezron.

11tc The LXX reads “Salmon” (cf. Ruth 4:21) and is followed by some English versions (e.g., NIV, NCV, TEV, NLT).

12tn In 2 Sam 2:18 this name appears as “Abishai,” a spelling followed by many English versions here.

13tn Heb “and Caleb son of Hezron fathered [children] with Azubah, a wife, and with Jerioth.” Jerioth could be viewed as a second wife (so NLT; cf. also NASB, NIV, NRSV), but the following context mentions only “her [presumably Azubah’s] sons.” Another option, the one chosen in the translation, is that Jerioth is another name for Azubah.

14tn Heb “took for himself.”

15sn This means “later” in relation to the births of the three sons (Jerahmeel, Ram and Caleb) mentioned in v. 9.

16tn Heb “Hezron went to.”

17tn Heb “he took,” referring to taking in marriage.

18tn Or “Havvoth Jair” (NIV, NRSV). Some translations do not translate the phrase (“havvoth” = “the towns of”), but treat it as part of the place name.

19tn Heb “And after the death of Hezron in Caleb Ephrathah, and the wife of Hezron, Abijah, and she bore to him Ashhur the father of Tekoa.” Perhaps one could translate: “After Hezron died in Caleb Ephrathah, Abijah, Hezron’s wife, bore to him Ashhur, the father of Tekoa” (cf. NASB, NIV, NRSV). In this case the text suggests that Abijah was born after his father’s death. Because of the awkward syntax and the odd appearance of “Caleb Ephrathah” as a place name, some prefer to emend the text. Some alter בְּכָלֵב אֶפְרָתָה (b˙khalev efratah, “in Caleb Ephrathah”) to בָּא כָלֵב אֶפְרָתָה (bo khalev efratah, “Caleb had sexual relations with Ephrath”) and then change אֲבִיָּה (’aviyyah, “Abijah”) to אָבִיהוּ (’avihu, “his father”). This results in the following translation: “And after Hezron’s death, Caleb had sexual relations with Ephrath, his father Hezron’s wife, and she bore to him Ashhur the father of Tekoa” (cf. NAB). This would mean that Caleb’s second wife Ephrath had actually been his late father’s wife (probably Caleb’s stepmother). Perhaps the text was subsequently altered because Caleb’s actions appeared improper in light of the injunctions in Lev 18:8; 20:11; Deut 22:30; 27:20 (which probably refer, however, to a son having sexual relations with his stepmother while his father is still alive).

20tn Heb “sons.” The Hebrew text has the plural “sons” in all three instances in this verse, even though the following lists have only one name each.

21tc Heb “and the sons of Mareshah,” but this does not fit contextually. Perhaps the text originally had וּבְנוֹ מִשְׁנֶה מָרֵשָׁה (uv˙no mishneh mareshah, “and his second son, Mareshah”), with מִשְׁנֶה (“second”) later accidentally falling out by homoioteleuton (cf. the note in BHS here).

22sn See the note on the word “concubine” in 1:32.

23tn Heb “son.” The Hebrew text has the singular, but the following list contains more than one name.

24tn The Hebrew text reads “Ephrathah” here, but see v. 19, which mentions “Ephrath” as the wife of Hur.

25tn The Hebrew text has “Menuchites” here, but v. 54 has “Manachathites.”

26tn Heb “from these went forth the Zorathites and Eshtaolites.”

27tn Or perhaps “the Sopherim.” The NAB transliterates this term and treats it as a proper name.

28tn Heb “came.”

29tn Or (if בֵּית [beth] is translated as “house” rather than considered to be part of the name) “the father of the house [i.e., family] of Rechab.”