Historical Backgrounds to the Gospels and Life of Jesus

A Listing of Extra-Biblical Citations by Darrell Bock; edited and compiled by Greg Herrick, Ph.D.

Series ID: 
78
/assets/worddocs/bock_gospelbg.zip
Ad Category: 

Introduction to Gospel Backgrounds

The study of Jesus’ life in the Gospels is a fascinating and spiritually rewarding adventure. It is even more so when you have a growing understanding of the environment into which the Son of Man came, lived, ministered, died, and rose again. But more often than not we have to completely rely on the “experts” to tell us something about the background. Actually, having the experts there to help us is most often a good thing, but so is reading these ancient texts for yourself. With this in mind, it is the point of this project to provide you with the references to extra-biblical literature (indexed according to the Gospel passages) so that you can go, look up the texts, and read the material for yourself. It is our hope to someday have English translations of these texts online, here at the Biblical Studies Foundation, so that you can easily access them. For the time being, however, a list of the relevant citations will take you a long way in accessing this material for fruitful study, teaching, and preaching. Further, many of the volumes such as Josephus, Philo, the OT Apocrypha, the Septuagint, the Mishnah, and a good translation of the Dead Sea Scrolls, are fairly inexpensive reference volumes that every Bible student can own. The OT Pseudepigrapha, Gnostic sources, and Mystery Religion materials are also available in English translations at quite reasonable prices. The Midrashim, Targums, and Talmud generally cost a fair amount, but are still manageable for some folks. Perhaps the best work that surveys this material and is, therefore, necessary for proper handling of, and fruitful access to, these background sources is Craig A. Evans, Noncanonical Writings and New Testament Interpretation (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1992). This work is generally available for about $15-17 U.S.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Ad Category: 

1. Jesus’ Dates

The Dating of Jesus’ Life

    Dating in the Ancient World.

      Josephus, Ant 15.380

      Josephus, Ant 16.136

    Year of Jesus’ Birth.

      Josephus, Ant 17. 342-44; 17.354; 18.1-10.

      Josephus, Ant 15.62-87

      Josephus, Ant 15.161-73, 15.218-31, Ant 17.180-81, 88-92

    Start and Length of Ministry.

      Velleius Paterculus 2.121

      Suetonius, Tiberius 21

      1 Macc 1:20

      1 Macc 4:52

    A Complicating Factor.

      Josephus, Ant 15.421

      Josephus, War 1.401

      Josephus, Ant 15.380

    The Year of Jesus’ Death.

      Josephus, Ant 18.106; 224; War 2.180

      Josephus, Ag. Appian (Civil War 2.149),

      Plutarch (Caesar 62-67),

      Suetonius (Caesar 81.2; Augustus 100.2)

      Dio Cassius 106.3

      Philo, Leg 159-61

      Josephus, Ant 15.55-59; War 2.169-74

      Josephus, Ant 18.60-62; War 2.175-77

      Philo, Leg 299-305

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

2. Extra-Biblical Evidence for Jesus: Signs of His Presence from Outside Scripture

The Evidence from Roman or Roman Empire Sources

    Suetonius, Claudias 25.4. De Vita Caesarum

    Life of Nero 16.2

    Tacitus, Annals xv.44.

    Pliny the Younger, Epistles x.96-97.

    Julius Africanus on Thallus

    Lucian of Samasota, The Passing of Peregrinus.

Source from a Syrian Philosopher

    Mara bar Sarapion.

    Josephus, Antiquities 18.116-19

    Josephus, Antiquities 20.200,

    Josephus, Antiquities 20.200

    Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 1.1.7-8

    Eusebius, Demonstration of the Gospel 3.5.105-06

    Origen, Against Celsus 1.47

    Origen, Commentary on Matthew 10.17.

Rabbinic Sources and Evidence of Debate with the Church Fathers

    b Sanh 43a and 107b

    b ‘Abodah Zerah 27b, 16b-17a

    Tosefta, Shehitat Hullin

    ‘Abodah Zerah 16b-17a

    ‘Abodah Zerah 27b

    Justin, Dialogue 69:7

    Justin, First Apology 30

    Justin, Dialogue 108

    Origen, Contra Celsum 1:68.

    Justin’s Dialogue 69:7

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

3. Historical Backgrounds to the Gospels

The Historical Background to Judaism from the Babylonian Exile to Roman Occupation: Understanding the Complexity of Judaism in Jesus’ Time

    The Sources for Understanding Jewish History and Second Temple Judaism

      The Old Testament (LXX)

      The Apocrypha

      The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha.

      The Dead Sea Scrolls, e.g., 4Q175

      Josephus, Antiquities,

      Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Against Apion, The Life of Flavius Josephus

      Philo of Alexandria

      Midrashim.

      Midrash Rabbah,

      Mishnah.

      Talmud.

    The Historical Backdrop to Second Temple Judaism and the Life of Jesus

      Homer’s Illiad

      The Septuagint (LXX)

      The Letter of Aristeas 47-51; 307-311

      1 Maccabees 1:14-15

      2 Maccabees 4:10-17

      Sirach 50:1-21

      2 Maccabees 5:15-26

      1 Maccabees 1:25-28

      Livy, History of Rome XLV. 12

      1 Maccabees 1:41-64

      1 Maccabees 4:36-61

      2 Maccabees 10:1-8

      1 Maccabees 13:41

      1 Maccabees 14:41

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.299

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.288-298

      Josephus, Jewish Wars 1.65

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.372-73

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.401

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.430

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.4-7

      Josephus, Antiquities14.8-13

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.19-21

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.41-46

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.48-53

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.72

      Psalms of Solomon 2:1-21

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.77

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.73

      Josephus, Antiquities 14. 82-83, 101-103

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.140-55

      Psalms of Solomon 2:22-35

      Dio Cassius 42.5

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.158-184

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.281

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.301-313

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.326

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.365-366

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.366

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.369

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.377-385

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.477-491

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.8

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.491

      Josephus, Jewish Wars 1.240-241

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.55

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.62-63

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.75-76

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.161

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.189-93

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.331-341

      Josephus, Jewish Wars 1.414

      Josephus, Antiquities 16.136-41

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.267-268

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.314

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.317-318

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.342-344

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.28

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.354; 18.1-10

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.26, 35

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.55

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.57-59

      Philo, Embassy to Gaius 38 299-305

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.85-89

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

4. Social-Cultural Life

Key Elements to the Social-Cultural Background of Jesus’ Time: Appreciating the World and Life of Israel and Galilee under the Romans

    Population

      Sibylline Oracles, 3.271

      Josephus, War 2.398

      Josephus, War 7.43

      Strabo

      Josephus, Antiquities14.115

      Philo, Flaccus 7.46

      Philo, Flaccus, 6.43

      Josephus, Contra Apion, 1.197

    Geography-Agriculture-Travel

    Values, Literacy, Life Expectancy

      Wisdom 7:1-2

      Philo, Special Laws 3.169-71, 178

      Sirach 42:12-14

      m. Aboth 5.21

      m Sotah 3.4

    Family and Home

      m Kethuboth 4.4-5

      Pesahim 3.7

      Ketuboth 5.2

      Shebiith 7.4

      Halla 2.7

    Politics and Power

    Economics

      m Nedarim 6.4

      Josephus, Antiquities 16.153-155

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.203

    Religion

      1 Maccabees

      Psalms of Solomon

      1 Maccabees 1:12-15

      1 Maccabees 1:15

      1 Maccabees 1:20-21

      Jubilees 2:17-22

      Jubilees 50:6-13

      CD 10-12

      m Shabbath 7.2

      m Tohoroth

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.380, 420-421

      Josephus, Antiquities 20.219

      Ag. Apion 2.102-105

      Josephus, Jewish War 6.126

      Josephus, Jewish War 5.199

      m Middot 2.5

      m. Tamid 1.4

      Josephus, Jewish War 5.219

      Josephus, Ag. Apion 2.108

      Josephus, Antiquities 7.365

      m. Sukkah 5.6

      m Tamid 4

      Josephus, Antiquities 3.230-232

      Philo, Special Laws 1.226; 235

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.214

      Josephus, Antiquities 3.248-249

      Jubilees 49:16, 18, 20-21

      Philo, Special Laws 2.145-149

      Philo, Questions on Exodus 1.10

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.260

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.50

      m Sukkah 5.4

      Josephus, Antiquities 3.264

      m Yoma 8.1

      m. Yoma 3.8

      Sirach 50:14-21

      1 Maccabees 4:36-59

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.16.17

      Psalms of Solomon 17–18

      Testament of Reuben 6:7-8

      Testament of Judah 21:1-5

      Testament of Dan 5:10-11

      Testament of Joseph 19:5-11

      The Messianic Rule=1QSa; see esp. 2:20

      4QpIsa 8–10:23

      CD 6:11; 12:22-23; 13:20-22; 14:18-19; 19:9-11; 19:34-20:1

      1 Enoch 39–71, esp. 46:1-5; 48:2-7; 62:3-14; 63:11; 69:27–70:1; 71:17;

      4 Ezra (= 2 Esdras) 13

      1 Maccabees 14:41

      Testament of Levi 8:14-15

      Philo, Special Laws 1.11 [64-65]

      4QTest; 1QS 9:11

      Sirach 48:1-11

    Key Sects

      Josephus, Antiquities, 18.16-17.

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.164-165).

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.171

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.288-298

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.12-15

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.162-163

      Josephus, Life 2.12

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.141-142

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.648

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.78-81

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.311-313

      Philo, Good Man 76-77

      Philo, Hypothetica 11.8-9

      Philo, Every Good Man 86-87

      Philo, Hypothetica 11.10-11

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.122-125

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.20

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.128

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.18-22

      Josephus, Antiquities 14.450

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.326

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.23-25

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.7-8

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Ad Category: 

5. Critical Methodology and the Gospels

The Historical-Literary Approach to the Gospels: Understanding Critical Methods Scholars Use to Study the Gospels

    The Discussion about the Order of the Gospels and Source Criticism

      Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses III.1.1

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History III.39.14-17

      Justin, Dialogue with Trypho 106.9-10

      Clement of Alexandria, Adumbrationes in epistolas canonicas

      Tertullian, Treatise against Marcion IV.5.3

      Old Latin Prologue to Mark

      Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses III.1.1

      Tertullian, Treatise against Marcion IV.5.3

      Muratorian Canon lines 1-4

      Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses II.1.1

      Muratorian Canon line 9

      Old Latin Prologue, Recension 2

      Tertullian, Treatise against Marcion IV.2.1-5

      The Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke

      Old Latin Prologue

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History V.8.1-5; III.24-25.

      Papias, Interpretations of the Lord’s Logia

      Augustine, De Consensu Evangelistarum (The Harmony of the Gospels), I.1-4; I.3.6; I.4.7; IV.10.11)

    The Issue of Differences of Wording (Ipsissima Verba and Ipsissima Vox) and Redaction Criticism

      Gospel of the Ebionites

    Looking for the Essence of Jesus and the Three Quests for Historical Jesus

      Gospel of Thomas

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

6. Birth and Childhood

The Birth and Childhood of Jesus: The Hope of Promise (Matthew 1–2; Luke 1–2)

    1. The Prologue of Luke (Luke 1:1-4; Aland # 1; Orchard # 1; Huck-Greeven # 5)

      2 Maccabees 2:19-31

      Josephus’ Antiquities Preface 1-4,

      The Letter to Aristeas 1-8

      Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War1:21-22

    2. The Genealogy of Matthew (Matthew 1:1-17; Aland # 6; Orchard # 4; Huck-Greeven # 1)

      Josephus Vita 1

    3. The Announcement of John the Baptist’s Birth (Luke 1:5-25; Aland # 2; Orchard # 9; Huck-Greeven # 6)

      Jewish midrash on Genesis 38.14 (23c)

      m Tamid 5–7

      Origen, Contra Celsus 1.28

      Letter of Aristeas 95

    4. The Birth Announcement to Mary (Luke 1:36-38; Aland # 3; Orchard # 10; Huck-Greeven # 7)

      Psalms of Solomon 17–18

      Justin Martyr, Trypho 43, 45, 100

      Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Book III, xxi.5

      Tertullian, Against the Jews, 9

      Ascension of Isaiah 10.2

      Gospel of the Nativity of Mary 1.1

    5. Mary’s Visit to Elizabeth (Luke 1:39-56; Aland # 4; Orchard # 11; Huck-Greeven # 8)

    6. The Birth of John the Baptist and Praise for His Arrival (Aland # 5; Orchard # 12; Huck-Greeven # 9)

    7. Joseph’s Concern over Mary’s Condition and the Announcement to Him (Matthew 1:18-25; Aland # 7; Orchard # 5; Huck-Greeven # 2)

      m. Sota 1:1, 5; 5:1

      Psalms of Solomon 17–18

    8. The Birth of Jesus in Bethlehem (Luke 2:1-7; Aland # 7; Orchard # 13a; Huck-Greeven # 10a)

    9. The Adoration by the Shepherds (Luke 2:8-20; Aland # 8; Orchard # 13b; Huck-Greeven # 10b)

      1QH 4:32-33; 11:9

      The Eighteen Benedictions, Shemoneh Esreh, no. 17

    10. A Word to Obedient Parents at the Temple (Luke 2:21-38; Aland # 9; Orchard # 14; Huck-Greeven # 11a)

    11. The Visit of the Wise Men to Bethelehem (Matthew 2:1-12; Aland # 8: Orchard # 6; Huck-Greeven # 3)

    12. A Reenactment of Israel’s Journey: Jesus to Israel and Back alongside Unjust Suffering (Matthew 2:13-21; Aland # 10; Orchard # 7-8a; Huck-Greeven # 4)

    13. To Nazareth in Galilee (Matthew 2:22-23; Luke 2:39-40; Aland # 11; Orchard # 8b, 15; Huck-Greeven # 4b, 11b)

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.11.1-5.299-323

    14. Jesus at the Temple; Luke 2:41-52; Aland # 12; Orchard # 16; Huck-Greeven # 12)

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

7. Backdrop to Ministry

The Backdrop to Jesus’ Ministry: John the Baptist, Jesus’ Baptism and Temptations (Matthew 3:1–4:11; Mark 1:1-13; Luke 3:1–4:13)

    15. The Introduction to Mark (Mark 1:1; Aland # 1; Orchard # 2: Huck-Greeven # 13a)

      Proverbs 1:1 LXX

      Ecclesiastes 1:1 LXX

      Song of Songs 1:1 LXX

      Justin Martyr, Apology 1.66.

    16. John the Baptist and Scripture (Mark 1:2-6; Matthew 3:1-6; Luke 3:1-6; Aland # 13; Orchard # 17; Huck-Greeven # 13b)

      Sirach 48:10

      1QS 8:12-16; 9:17-20

      Josephus, Jewish War, 2.259-261

      Josephus, Antiquities, 18.116-119

    17. John’s Preaching of Repentance (Matthew 3:7-10; Luke 3:7-9; Aland # 14; Orchard # 18; Huck-Greeven #14)

    18. What Then Shall We Do? (Luke 3:10-14; Aland # 15; Orchard # 19; Huck-Greeven #15)

      Josephus, Antiquities 12.4.2-9 160-220

      Suetonius, Tiberius 32

      Dio Cassius, Roman History 57.10.5

      Sirach 4:1, 4, 8; 7:32; 10:23; 11:12; 34:21.

    19. The One Mightier to Come (Matthew 3:11-12; Mark 1:7-8; Luke 3:15-18; Aland # 16; Orchard # 20; Huck-Greeven # 16)

      Mekilta de Rabbi Ishmael, Nezakin 1 on Exodus 21:2

      Jubilees 9:15; 36:10;

      1 Enoch 10:6; 54:6; 90: 24-27

      2 Esdras 7:36-38; 13:4;

      Psalms of Solomon 15:4-7

      1QH 3:28-31; 1QS 2:8, 15; 4:13

    20. John’s Imprisonment (Luke 3:19-20; noted later in Matthew 14:3-4; Mark 6:17-18; Aland # 17; Orchard # 21; Huch-Greeven # 17)

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.109-115

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.116-119

      Josephus, Antiquities 16.42; 7.338, 342, 356, 374, 384; 9.236

      Josephus, War 2.139

    21. Jesus’ Baptism (Matthew 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22: Aland # 18; Orchard # 22; Huck-Greeven # 18)

      Jerome, Against Pelagius III.2.

    22. The Genealogy of Jesus (Luke 3:23-38; Aland # 19; Orchard # 23; Huck-Greeven # 19)

    23. The Temptations of Jesus (Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:10-13; Aland # 20; Orchard # 24; Huck-Greeven # 20)

      Testament of Naphtali 8:4

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

8. Early Galilean Ministry

The Initial Portrait of Jesus’ Galilean Ministry: Teaching, Healing and Controversy (Matthew 4:12–25; Mark 1:14–3:19a; Luke 4:14–6:16)

    24. Jesus’ Preaching in Galilee (Matthew 4:12-17; Mark 1:14-15; Luke 4:14-15; Aland # 30, 32; Orchard # 36, 39, Huck-Greeven # 21)

    25. Jesus Preaches in Nazareth (Luke 4:16-30; Aland # 33; Orchard # 38; Huck-Greeven # 22; Matthew 13:53-58 and Mark 6:1-6a place this incident later)

    26. The Call of the Disciples (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Aland # 34; Orchard # 40; Huck-Greeven # 23)

      1QH 5.7-8 (= col. XIII)

    27. Teaching in the Synagogue at Capernaum (Mark 1:21-22; Luke 4:31-32; Aland # 35; Orchard # 41; Huck-Greeven # 24a)

      Josephus, Jewish War 3.516-519

    28. The Healing of the Demoniac in the Synagogue (Mark 1:23-28; Luke 4:33-37; Aland # 36; Orchard # 42; Huck-Greeven # 24b)

      Psalm 105 LXX

      Sirach 45:6

      Judges 16:17 [mss B, LXX]

      1QapGenesis 20:28-29

    29. Healing of Peter’s Mother-In-Law (Mark 1:29-31; Luke 4:38-39; Matthew 8:14-15, in a later context where he has chosen to first discuss Jesus’ miraculous activity; Aland # 37; Orchard # 43; Huck-Greeven # 25)

    30. The Sick Healed in the Evening (Mark 1:32-34; Luke 4:40-41; Matthew 8:16-17, in a later context where he introduces Jesus’ activity; Aland # 38; Orchard # 44; Huck-Greeven # 26)

    31. Jesus Leaves Capernaum (Mark 1:35-38; Luke 4:42-43; Aland # 39; Orchard # 45; Huck-Greeven # 27)

    32. Summary: Jesus’ Tour of Galilee (Matthew 4:23; Mark 1:39; Luke 4:44; Aland # 40; Orchard # 46; Huck-Greeven # 28)

      Strabo 16:21

      Dio Cassius 37:16:7

    33. Jesus’ Miracle Leads to a Discipleship Call (Luke 5:1-11; Aland # 41; Orchard # 47; Huck-Greeven # 29)

    34. The Cleansing of the Leper (Mark 1:40-45; Luke 5:12-16; Matthew 8:1-4- initiates his later, initial summary of Jesus’ activity; Aland # 42; Orchard # 48; Huck-Greeven # 57)

    35. The Healing of the Paralytic (Mark 2:1-12; Luke 5:17-26; Matthew 9:1-8- in later summary section; Aland # 43; Orchard # 51; Huck-Greeven # 64)

      4Q 242 (The Prayer of Nabonidus)

    36. The Calling of Levi/Matthew (Mark 2:13-17; Luke 5:27-32; Matthew 9:9-13- in a later summary section; Aland # 44; Orchard # 52; Huck-Greeven # 65)

      Sirach 35:1-7

      The Prayer of Azariah 16–17

      Diogenes Laertius 6.1.6

    37. The Question about Fasting (Mark 2:18-22; Luke 5:33-39; Matthew 9:14-17- in a later setting; Aland # 45; Orchard # 53; Huck-Greeven # 66)

      Didache 8:1

    38. The Dispute over the Disciples’ Plucking Grain on the Sabbath (Mark 2:23-28; Luke 6:1-5; Matthew 12:1-8- in a later section where controversy is highlighted; Aland # 46; Orchard # 54; Huck-Greeven # 81)

      m. Shabbat 7.2

    39. Synagogue Sabbath Healing: The Man with the Withered Hand (Mark 3:1-6; Luke 6:6-11; Matthew 12:9-14- in the later controversy section; Aland # 47; Orchard # 55; Huck-Greeven # 82)

      Testament of Simeon 2:12-13

      Yoma 8.6

      Shabbat 22.6; 16.22

      Edduyot 2.5

      Shabbat 14.4; 12.2

      CD 11.13-14

    40. Summary: Jesus Heals by the Sea (Mark 3:7-12; Luke 6:17-19- in reverse order with the choosing of the Twelve from Mark; Matthew 4:24-25 and 12:15-16; Aland # 48; Orchard #57; Huck-Greeven # 84a)

    41. The Choosing of the Twelve (Mark 3:13-19a; Luke 6:12-16; Matthew 10:1-4- in a later section where mission is the topic; Aland # 49; Orchard #58; Huck-Greeven # 85)

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

9. Jesus’ Teaching on Relating to Others

Jesus’ Teaching on Relating to God and Others: The Sermon on the Mount and The Sermon on the Plain (Matthew 5:1–7:29; Luke 6:20-49)

    42. The Occasion of the Sermon (Matthew 5:1-2; Luke 6:20a; Aland # 50b; Orchard # 58a, 59a; Huck-Greeven # 30)

    43. The Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-12; Luke 6:20-26-with beatitudes and woes; Aland # 51; Orchard # 59; Huck-Greeven # 31)

      11QMelchizedek 2.4, 6, 9, 13, 17, 20

      Targum Pseudo-Jonathan to Numbers 25:12

      Midrash Ekhah on Lamentations 3.5

    44. The Salt of the Earth (Matthew 5:13; conceptual: Mark 9:49-50; Luke 14:34-35; Aland # 52; Orchard # 61; Huck-Greeven # 32a)

    45. The Light of the World (Matthew 5:14-16; conceptual: Mark 4:21; Luke 8:16; Aland # 53; Orchard # 62; Huck-Greeven # 32b)

      Sirach 50:6-7

      Testament of Abraham 7B

      1 Enoch 48:4

      Sirach 17:19

    46. On the Law and the Prophets (Matthew 5:17-20; conceptual: Luke 16:17; Aland # 54; Orchard # 63; Huck-Greeven # 33)

      1 Maccabees 4:46

    47. On Murder and Wrath (Matthew 5:21-26; conceptual: Luke 12:57-59; Aland # 55; Orchard # 64-65; Huck-Greeven # 34)

    48. On Adultery (Matthew 5:27-30; conceptual: Mark 9:43, 45, 47; Aland # 56a; Orchard # 66; Huck-Greeven # 35)

      Sirach 9:8; 41:20-21

      1QS 1:6

      CD 2:16

    49. On Divorce (Matthew 5:31-32; conceptual: Luke 16:18; Aland # 56b; Orchard # 67; Huck-Greeven # 36)

      m Gittim 9.10

      Josephus, Ant 4. 253

      Josephus, Vita 426

      m Yebamot 2.8

      m Sotah 5.1

    50. On Oaths (Matthew 5:33-37; Aland # 57; Orchard # 68; Huck-Greeven # 37)

      Josephus, War 2.135-142

      1QS 5.8

      Philo, Every Good Man Is Free 84

    51. On Retaliation (Matthew 5:38-42; Luke 6:29-30; Aland # 58; Orchard # 69; Huck-Greeven # 38)

      Sirach 40:28-30

    52. On Loving One’s Enemies (Matthew 5:43-48; Luke 6:27-28, 32-36; Aland # 59; Orchard # 71; Huck-Greeven # 39)

      Testament of Benjamin 4:2

    53. On Giving Alms (Matthew 6:1-4; Aland # 60; Orchard # 72; Huck-Greeven # 40)

      Epistle of Aristeas 168

      Sirach 29:8

      Tobit 4:7, 16; 12:8; 14:10

      Testament of Job 9:7-8

      m Aboth 5:13; 6:6, 18

    54. On Prayer (Matthew 6:5-6; Aland # 61; Orchard # 73a; Huck-Greeven # 41)

    55. The Disciples’ Prayer (Matthew 6:7-15; conceptual, Luke 11:1-4; Aland # 62; Orchard # 73b-75; Huck-Greeven # 42)

      Sirach 5:2; 7:14

      Eighteen Benedictions

    56. On Fasting (Matthew 6:16-18; Aland # 63; Orchard # 76; Huck-Greeven # 43)

      m Yoma 8.1

    57. Treasures in Heaven (Matthew 6:19-21; Luke 12:33-34; Aland # 64; Orchard # 77; Huck-Greeven # 44)

      Sirach 29:10-11

      Tobit 4:9

      Psalms of Solomon 9:5

      2 Baruch 24:1

    58. The Sound Eye (Matthew 6:22-23; Luke 11:34-36; Aland # 65; Orchard # 78; Huck-Greeven # 45)

      Testament of Job 18:3

    59. On Serving Two Masters (Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13; Aland # 66; Orchard # 79; Huck-Greeven #46)

      CD 4.17; 6:15

      1 Enoch 92–105

    60. Do Not Worry (Matthew 6:25-34; Luke 12:22-32; Aland # 67; Orchard # 80; Huck-Greeven # 47)

    61. On Judging (Matthew 7:1-5; Luke 6:37-42; conceptually: Mark 4:24-25; Aland # 68; Orchard # 81; Huck-Greeven # 48)

      Sirach 28:2-4

      m Aboth 2.5

    62. On Profaning the Holy (Matthew 7:6; Aland # 69; Orchard # 82; Huck-Greeven # 49)

    63. On Asking God (Matthew 7:7-11; Luke 11:9-13; Aland # 70; Orchard # 83; Huck-Greeven # 50)

      Wisdom 6:12

    64. The Golden Rule (Matthew 7:12; Luke 6:31; Aland # 71; Orchard # 84; Huck-Greeven # 51)

      The Epistle to Aristeas 207

      Sirach 31:15

      Testament of Naphtali 1:6

    65. The Two Ways (Matthew 7:13-14; Luke 13:23-24; Aland # 72; Orchard # 85; Huck-Greeven # 52)

      The Testament of Asher 1:3-5

      2 Enoch 30:15

      Aboth 2.9

      1QS 3:14–4:26

      Sirach 21:10

    66. Fruit and False Prophets (Matthew 7:15-20; Aland # 73; Orchard # 86a; Huck-Greeven # 53)

      Sirach 27:6

    67. Calling Out Lord, Lord and “I Never Knew You” (Matthew 7:21-23; Luke 6:46; conceptually: Luke 13:25-27; Aland # 74; Orchard # 86b-87; Huck-Greeven # 54)

    68. Houses Built on Rock and Sand (Matthew 7:24-27; Luke 6:47-49; Aland # 75; Orchard # 88; Huck-Greeven # 55)

      Aboth of Rabbi Nathan 24

    69. The Reaction to the Sermon (Matthew 7:28-29; conceptually: Mark 1:22; Aland # 76; Orchard # 89; Huck-Greeven # 89a)

    70. The Lucan Version (Luke 6:20-49; Aland # 77-83; Huck-Greeven # 86-91)

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

10. More Galilean Ministry

More Galilean Ministry: Miracles, Mission to the Outcasts, and Discipleship in the Face of Opposition. (Matthew 8:1–12:50; Luke 7:1–8:3; Mark 3:19b-35)

    71. The Healing of the Leper (Matthew 8:1-4; Mark 1:40-45; Luke 5:12-16; see unit 34 above; Aland # *84; Orchard # 89b-90; Huck-Greeven # 57)
    72. The Healing of the Centurion (Matthew 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10; Aland # 85; Orchard # 91; Huck-Greeven # 58)

      1 Maccabees 13:17

      1 Enoch 70:4

      m Pesahim 8.8

      m Oholot 18.7

    73. The Healing of the Widow of Nain’s Son (Luke 7:11-17; Aland # 86; Orchard # 92; Huck-Greeven # 93)

      m Berakot 3.1

      m Shabbat 23.4-5

      m Sanhedrin 6.5

      Sirach 34:30

    74. The Healing of Peter’s Mother-in-Law (Matthew 8:14-15; Mark 1:29-31; Luke 4:38-39; see above unit 29; Aland # 87; Orchard # 109; Huck-Greeven # 59)
    75. The Sick Healed at Evening (Matthew 8:16-17; Mark 1:32-34; Luke 4:40-41; see above unit 30; Aland # 88; Orchard # 110; Huck-Greeven # 60)

      Tobit 6:7-8; 17-18

      Josephus, Antiquities 8.45-49

    76. Warning On Following Jesus (Matthew 8:18-22; Luke 9:57-62- later context; Aland # 89; Orchard # 111; Huck-Greeven # 61)

      Epistle of Aristeas 228

      Josephus, Against Apion 2.206

      Tobit 4:3-4; 6:14-15

    77. Stilling of the Storm (Matthew 8:23-27; Mark 4:35-41 and Luke 8:22-25 in a later context; Aland # 90; Orchard # 112; Huck-Greeven # 62)
    78. The Gadarene/Gerasene Demoniac[s] (Matthew 8:28-34; Mark 5:1-20- in a later context; Luke 8:26-39- in a later context; Aland # 91; Orchard # 113; Huck-Greeven # 63)

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.155

      m Nazir 3.5; 7.3

      Papyri Graecae Magicae 101.1-3

    79. The Healing of the Paralytic (Matthew 9:1-8; Mark 2:1-12-in an earlier context; Luke 5:17-26-in an earlier context; see unit 35 above; Aland # 92; Orchard # 114; Huck-Greeven # 64)
    80. The Call of Matthew [Levi] (Matthew 9:9-13; Mark 2:13-17- in an earlier context; Luke 5:27-32- in an earlier context; see unit 36 above; Aland # 93; Orchard # 115; Huck-Greeven #65)
    81. A Question about Fasting (Matthew 9:14-17; Mark 2:18-22- in an earlier context; Luke 5:33-39- in an earlier context; see unit 37 above; Aland # 94; Orchard # 116; Huck-Greeven # 66)
    82. Jairus’ Daughter and the Woman with the Hemorrhage (Matthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:21-43- in a later context; Luke 8:40-56- in a later context; Aland # 95; Orchard # 117; Huck-Greeven # 67)

      m Tohorot 5.8

      m Zabim, esp. 5.6

      m Ketubot 4.4

    83. Two Blind Men Healed (Matthew 9:27-31; similar miracle is noted in a later context in Matthew 20:29-34; Mark 10:46-52; Luke 18:35-43; Aland # 96; Orchard # 118; Huck-Greeven # 68)

      Josephus, Antiquities 8.44-45

    84. The Dumb Demoniac (Matthew 9:32-34; similar miracle is noted in a later context, Matthew 12:22-24; Mark 3;22; Luke 11:14-15; Aland # 97; Orchard # 119; Huck-Greeven # 69).
    85. Summary (Matthew 9:35-38; conceptually similar, Mark 6:6b; 6:34; Luke 8:1; 10:2; Aland # 98; Orchard # 121; Huck-Greeven # 70a)
    86. The Commissioning of the Twelve and the Mission Instruction (Matthew 10:1-16; Mark 3:13-19b; Luke 6:12-16; conceptually, Mark 6:7-11; Luke 9:1-5; 10:3; see above unit 41; Aland # 99; Orchard # 122-125a; Huck-Greeven # 70b)
    87. The Fate of the Disciples (Matthew 10:17-25; conceptually, Mark 13:9-13; Luke 12:11-12; 6:40; 21:12-19; Aland # 100; Orchard # 125; Huck-Greeven # 71)

      m Makkot 3.10-12

    88. Know Who to Confess and Fear (Matthew 10:26-33; Luke 12:2-9 in a later context; Aland # 101; Orchard # 126; Huck-Greeven # 72)
    89. Divisions within Households (Matthew 10:34-36; Luke 12:51-53- in a later context; Aland # 102; Orchard # 127a; Huck-Greeven # 73)

      m. Sotah 9.15

      Jubilees 23:16, 19

      1 Enoch 56:7

    90. Taking Up the Cross and Finding Life (Matthew 10:37-39; Luke 14:25-27; 17:33- in later, distinct contexts; Aland # 103; Orchard # 127b; Huck-Greeven # 74)

      Josephus, Against Apion 2.206

    91. Reward for Reception (Matthew 10:40-42; conceptually, Mark 9:41; Luke 10:16; John 13:20; Aland # 104; Orchard # 128; Huck-Greeven # 75a)
    92. Transition to Ministry (Matthew 11:1; Aland # 105; Orchard # 129; Huck-Greeven # 75b)
    93. Jesus Answers John the Baptist (Matthew 11:2-6; Luke 7:18-23; Aland # 106; Orchard # 130; Huck-Greeven # 76)
    94. Jesus’ Witness about John (Matthew 11:7-19; Luke 7:24-35; Aland # 107; Orchard # 131; Huck-Greeven # 77)
    95. Woes for Galilean Cities (Matthew 11:20-24; Luke 10:12-15- in a context of the disciples’ mission; Aland # 108; Orchard # 132; Huck-Greeven # 78)
    96. Jesus’ Thanksgiving to the Father (Matthew 11:25-27; Luke 10:21-22- in a context of the disciples’ mission; Aland # 109; Orchard # 133; Huck-Greeven # 79)
    97. Come to Me (Matthew 11:28-30; Aland # 110; Orchard # 134; Huck-Greeven # 80)

      Sirach 40:1

      Sirach 51:26

      Sirach 24:19-20

    98. Plucking Grain on the Sabbath (Matthew 12:1-8; Mark 2:23-28- in an earlier context; Luke 6:1-5- in an earlier context; see unit 38 above; Aland # 111; Orchard # 135; Huck-Greeven # 81)
    99. Healing the Withered Hand on the Sabbath (Matthew 12:9-14; Mark 3:1-6- in an earlier context; Luke 6:6-11- in an earlier context; see above unit 39; Aland # 112; Orchard # 136a; Huck-Greeven # 82)
    100. Summary: Jesus Heals the Multitudes by the Sea (Matthew 12:15-21; Mark 3:7-12; Luke 6:17-19; see unit 40 above; Aland # 113; Orchard #136b-137; Huck-Greeven # 84)

      Targum of Isaiah 42.1

    101. The Sinful Woman Anoints Jesus at the Pharisee’s Table (Luke 7:36-50; similar but distinct event: Matthew 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; John 12:1-8; Aland # 114; Orchard # 95; Huck-Greeven # 96)

      Josephus, Antiquities 3.205; 19.358

    102. The Ministering Women (Luke 8:1-3; Aland # 115; Orchard # 96; Huck-Greeven # 97)

      t Berakot 7.18

      Josephus, Antiquities, 17.41-44

    103. Family Seeks to Protect Jesus (Mark 3:19b-21; Aland # 116; Orchard # 97; Huck-Greeven # 98)
    104. The Cast Out by Beelzebul Charge (Matthew 12:22-30; Mark 3:22-27; Luke 11:14-15, 17-23- in a later context; Aland # 117; Orchard # 138a; Huck-Greeven # 99a)

      Testament of Solomon 2:8–3:6 and 6:1-11

      t. Pischa 2.15

    105. The Sin against the Holy Spirit (Matthew 12:31-37; Mark 3:28-30; Luke 12:10- in a later context; conceptual: Matthew 7:16-20; Luke 6:43-45; Aland # 118; Orchard # 138b-139; Huck-Greeven # 99b)
    106. The Sign of Jonah (Matthew 12:38-42; Mark 8:11-12- in a later context; Luke 11:16, 29-32; conceptually, Matthew 16:1-2a, 4; Aland # 119; Orchard # 140; Huck-Greeven # 100)

      Josephus, Antiquities 8.165-175

    107. The Return of the Evil Spirit (Matthew 12:43-45; Luke 11:24-26; Aland # 120; Orchard # 141; Huck-Greeven # 101)
    108. Jesus’ True Family (Matthew 12:46-50; Mark 3:31-35; Luke 8:19-21- in a later context; Aland # 121; Orchard # 142; Huck-Greeven # 102)
Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

11. From Kingdom Teaching to Confession

From Kingdom Teaching to Confession: How the Disciples Began to Understand Jesus (Matthew 13:1–16:12; Mark 4:1–8:26; Luke 8:4–9:17)

    109. The Parable of the Sower (Matthew 13:1-9; Mark 4:1-9; Luke 8:4-8; Aland # 122; Orchard #3 143-144; Huck-Greeven # 103)

    110. Why Parables (Matthew 13:10-15; Mark 4:10-12; Luke 8:9-10; Aland # 123a; Orchard # 145; Huck-Greeven # 104)

    111. The Blessing of Seeing These Things (Matthew 13:16-17; Luke 10:23-24- in a later context; Aland # 123b; Orchard # 146; Huck-Greeven # 105)

    112. Interpretation of the Parable of the Sower (Matthew 13:18-23; Mark 4:13-20; Luke 8:11-15; Aland # 124; Orchard # 147; Huck-Greeven # 106)

      2 Maccabees 15:12

    113. Revelation as Light to be Heeded (Mark 4:21-25; Luke 8:16-18; Aland # 125; Orchard # 104; Huck-Greeven # 107)

    114. The Parable of the Seed Growing Secretly (Mark 4:26-29; Aland # 126; Orchard # 105; Huck-Greeven # 108)

    115. The Parable of Wheat and Darnel Together (Matthew 13:24-30; Aland # 127; Orchard # 148; Huck-Greeven # 109)

    116. The Parable of the Mustard Seed (Matthew 13:31-32; Mark 4:30-32; Luke 13:18-19- in a later context; Aland # 128; Orchard # 149; Huck-Greeven # 110)

      m Niddah 5.2

      m Tohorot 8.8

      m Kilayim 3.2

      m Kilayim 2.9

    117. The Parable of the Leaven (Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:20-21- in a later context; Aland # 129; Orchard # 150; Huck-Greeven # 111)

    118. Summary on Parabolic Teaching (Matthew 13:34-35; Mark 4:33-34; Aland # 130; Orchard # 151; Huck-Greeven # 112)

    119. Interpretation of the Parable of the Wheat and Darnel (Matthew 13:36-43; Aland # 131; Orchard # 152; Huck-Greeven # 113)

      Wisdom 3:7-8

      4 Ezra 7:97

      2 Baruch 70:2

    120. The Parables of the Hidden Treasure and the Pearl (Matthew 13:44-46; Aland # 132; Orchard # 153-154; Huck-Greeven # 114)

      m Baba Bathra 4.8-9

    121. The Parable of the Net (Matthew 13:47-50; Aland # 133; Orchard # 155; Huck-Greeven # 115)

    122. Kingdom Scribes and Treasures Old and New (Matthew 13:51-52; Aland 134; Orchard # 156; Huck-Greeven # 116)

    123. Jesus’ True Kindred (Luke 8:19-21; Matthew 12:46-50- in an earlier context; Mark 3:31-35- in an earlier context, see unit 108 above; Aland # 135; Orchard # 108; Huck-Greeven # 117)

    124. The Stilling of the Storm (Mark 4:35-41; Luke 8:22-25; Matthew 8:23-27- in an earlier context, see 77 above; Aland # 136; Orchard # 112; Huck-Greeven # 118)

    125. The Gerasene Demoniac (Mark 5:1-20; Luke 8:26-39; Matthew 8:28-34- in an earlier context; see unit 78 above; Aland # 137; Orchard # 113; Huck-Greeven # 119)

    126. Jairus’ Daughter and the Woman with the Hemorrhage (Mark 5:21-43; Luke 8:40-56; Matthew 9:18-26- in an earlier context, see unit 82 above; Aland # 138; Orchard # 117; Huck-Greeven # 120)

    127. Jesus is Rejected at Nazareth (Matthew 13:53-58; Mark 6:1-6a; Luke 4:16-30- in an earlier context, see unit 25 above; Aland # 139; Orchard # 157; Huck-Greeven # 121)

    128. The Commissioning of the Twelve (Mark 6:6-b-13; Luke 9:1-6; Matthew 9:35; 10:1, 7-11, 14- in an earlier context, see units 85-86 above; Aland # 142; Orchard # 121, 122, 124; Huck-Greeven # 122)

    129. Opinions about Jesus (Matthew 14:1-2; Mark 6:14-16; Luke 9:7-9; Aland # 143; Orchard # 158; Huck-Greeven # 123)

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.598-600

    130. The Death of John the Baptist (Matthew 14:3-12; Mark 6:17-29; conceptual, Luke 3:19-20; Aland # 144; Orchard # 159; Huck-Greeven # 124)

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.109-125

      m Nedarim 3.1; 9.4

    131. The Return of the Apostles (Mark 6:30-31; Luke 9:10a; Aland # 145; Orchard # 160; Huck-Greeven # 125a)

    132. The Five Thousand Are Fed (Matthew 14:13-21; Mark 6:32-44; Luke 9:10b-17; John 6:1-14; Aland # 146; Orchard # 161; Huck-Greeven # 125)

    133. The Walking on the Water (Matthew 14:22-33; Mark 6:45-52; John 6:16-21; Aland # 147; Orchard # 162; Huck-Greeven # 126)

    134. Summary about Healings at Gennesaret (Matthew 14:34-36; Mark 6:53-56: Aland # 148; Orchard # 163; Huck-Greeven # 127)

    135. Disputes over Traditions of the Elders and Defiling (Matthew 15:1-20; Mark 7:1-23; Aland # 150; Orchard # 167; Huck-Greeven # 128)

      m Yadayim 1.1–2.4

      m Tohoroth

      Sirach 3:7-8; 12-15

      Josephus, Against Apion 2.206

      m Nedarim 1.2-4; 3.2; 9.7

      Jubilees 1:16; 7:34; 21:24

      1 Enoch 10:16; 84:6; 93:2

      1QS 8.5; 11.8

      CD 1.7

    136. The Syrophoenician Woman (Matthew 15:21-28; Mark 7:24-30; Aland # 151; Orchard # 168; Huck-Greeven # 129)

    137. Jesus Heals Many Others/Deaf Mute (Matthew 15:29-31 [Many]; Mark 7:31-37 [Mute]; Aland # 152; Orchard # 169; Huck-Greeven # 130)

    138. The Feeding of the Four Thousand (Matthew 15:32-39; Mark 8:1-10; Aland # 153; Orchard # 170; Huck-Greeven # 131)

    139. The Pharisees Seek a Sign (Matthew 16:1-4; Mark 8:11-13; conceptual, Matthew 12:38-39; Luke 11:16; 12:54-56; 11:29; Aland # 154; Orchard # 171; Huck-Greeven # 132)

    140. The Leaven of the Pharisees (Matthew 16:5-12; Mark 8:14-21; conceptual, Luke 12:1; Aland # 155; Orchard # 172; Huck-Greeven # 133)

    141. A Blind Man Is Healed at Bethsaida (Mark 8:22-26; Aland # 156; Orchard # 173; Huck-Greeven # 134)

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Ad Category: 

12. Confession and Prediction

Confession and Prediction: The New Reality, Part One (Matthew 16:13–18:35, Mark 8:27–9:50 and Luke 9:18–50)

    142. Peter’s Confession (Matthew 16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-21; Aland # 158; Orchard # 174; Huck-Greeven # 135)
    143. Jesus Foretells His Passion (Matthew 16:21-23; Mark 8:31-33; Luke 9:22; Aland # 159; Orchard # 175-176; Huck-Greeven # 136)
    144. If Any Person Would Follow Me (Matthew 16:24-28; Mark 8:34–9:1; Luke 9:23-27; Aland # 160; Orchard # 177; Huck-Greeven # 137)
    145. The Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1-9; Mark 9:2-10; Luke 9:28-36; Aland # 161; Orchard # 178; Huck-Greeven # 138)

      2 Baruch 51:3, 5, 10, 12

      1 Enoch 38:4; 62:15-16; 104:2

      Sirach 48:10

      2 Maccabees 2:8

    146. About Elijah (Matthew 17:10-13; Mark 9:11-13; Aland # 162; Orchard # 179; Huck-Greeven # 139)

      Sirach 48:10

    147. Jesus Heals a Demon Possessed Boy (Matthew 17:14-21; Mark 9:14-29; Luke 9:37-43a; Aland # 163; Orchard # 180; Huck-Greeven # 140)

      b Berakot 63b

    148. Jesus Predicts His Suffering Again (Matthew 17:22-23; Mark 9:30-32; Luke 9:43b-45; Aland # 164; Orchard # 181; Huck-Greeven # 141)
    149. Payment of the Temple Tax (Matthew 17:24-27; Aland # 165; Orchard # 182; Huck-Greeven # 142)

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.312-313

      Josephus, Jewish War 7.216-218

    150. On Greatness (Matthew 18:1-5; Mark 9:33-37; Luke 9:46-48; Aland # 166; Orchard # 183; Huck-Greeven # 143)
    151. The Outside Exorcist (Mark 9:38-41; Luke 9:49-50; conceptual, Matthew 10:42; Aland # 167; Orchard # 184; Huck-Greeven # 144)
    152. Warnings on Temptations (Matthew 18:6-9; Mark 9:42-50; conceptual, Luke 17:1-2; 14:34-35; Aland # 168; Orchard # 185; Huck-Greeven # 145)
    153. The Parable of the Lost Sheep (Matthew 18:10-14; conceptual, Luk e 15:3-7; Aland # 169; Orchard # 187; Huck-Greeven # 147)
    154. On Reproving One’s Brother (Matthew 18:15-18; conceptual, Luke 17:3; Aland # 170; Orchard # 188; Huck-Greeven # 148a)
    155. Two or Three Gather in My Name (Matthew 18:19-20; Aland # 171; Orchard # 189; Huck-Greeven # 148b)
    156. On Reconciliation (Matthew 18:21-22; conceptually, Luke 17:4; Aland # 172; Orchard # 190; Huck-Greeven # 149)

      Aboth Rabbi Nathan 40A

      b. Yoma 86b, 87a

    157. The Parable of the Unforgiving Servant (Matthew 18:23-35; Aland # 173; Orchard # 191; Huck-Greeven # 150)

      Conclusion

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

13. Toward Jerusalem: The New Reality

Toward Jerusalem: The New Reality, Part Two (Luke 9:51–18:14)

    158. To Jerusalem (Luke 9:51; Aland # 174; Orchard # 192; Huck-Greeven # 151a)

    159. Jesus Is Rejected by Samaritans (Luke 9:52-56; Aland # 175; Orchard # 202; Huck-Greeven # 151b)

    160. On Following Jesus (Luke 9:57-62; Matthew 8:18-22; see unit 76 above; Aland # 176; Orchard # 203; Huck-Greeven # 152)

      Works and Days 442-443

    161. Commissioning the Seventy-Two (Luke 10:1-16; conceptual, Matthew 9:37-38, 10:7-16; 11:20-24; 10:40; Mark 6:8-11; see units 86 and 95 above Aland # 177-179; Orchard # 204-205; Huck-Greeven # 153)

    162. The Return of the Seventy-Two (Luke 10:17-20; Aland # 180; Orchard # 206; Huck-Greeven # 154)

      1 Enoch 55:4

      Jubilees 23:29

      Testament of Simeon 6:6

      Testament of Judah 25:3

      Testament of Moses 10:3

      Testament of Solomon 20:16-17

      Sirach 21:2; 39:30

      1 Enoch 47:3; 104:1; 108:7

      Jubilees 5:13-14; 23:32; 30:19-23

      1QM 12.2

    163. Jesus’ Thanksgiving to the Father and the Blessed Disciples (Luke 10:21-24; conceptual, Matthew 11:25-27; 13:16-17; see units 96 and 111 above; Aland # 181; Orchard # 207-208; Huck-Greeven # 155-156)

    164. The Lawyer’s Question and the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37; conceptual, Matthew 22:34-40; Mark 12:28-34; Aland # 182-183; Orchard # 209-210; Huck-Greeven # 157-158)

      Sipra 200

      b. Shabbat 31a

      m Berakoth 1.1-2

      Testament of Benjamin 3.3

    165. Mary and Martha (Luke 10:38-42; Aland # 184; Orchard # 211; Huck-Greeven # 159)

    166. Teaching the Disciples’ Prayer (Luke 11:1-4; conceptual, Matthew 6:9-13; see unit 55 above; Aland # 185; Orchard # 212; Huck-Greeven # 160)

    167. The Parable of the Friend with Gall at Midnight (Luke 11:5-8; Aland # 186; Orchard # 213; Huck-Greeven # 161)

    168. Encouragement to Pray (Luke 11:9-13; conceptual, Matthew 7:7-11; see unit 63 above; Aland # 187; Orchard # 214; Huck-Greeven # 162)

    169. The Beelzebul Controversy (Luke 11:14-23; Matthew 12:22-30; Mark 3:22-27; see unit 104 above; Aland # 188; Orchard # 215; Huck-Greeven # 163)

    170. The Return of the Evil Spirit (Luke 11:24-26; Matthew 12:43-45; see unit 107 above; Aland # 189; Orchard # 216; Huck-Greeven # 164)

    171. True Blessedness (Luke 11:27-28; Aland # 190; Orchard # 217; Huck-Greeven # 165)

    172. The Sign of Jonah (Luke 11:29-32; Matthew 12:38-42; Mark 8:11-12; see unit 106 above; Aland # 191; Orchard # 218; Huck-Greeven # 166)

    173. On Light (Luke 11:33; conceptual, Matthew 5:15; Mark 4:21; Luke 8:16-18; see units 45 and 113 above; Aland # 192; Orchard # 219; Huck-Greeven # 167a)

    174. The Sound Eye and the Lit Body (Luke 11:34-36; Matthew 6:22-23-earlier context; see unit 58 above; Aland # 193; Orchard # 220; Huck-Greeven # 167b)

    175. Rebuke of the Pharsiees and Lawyers (Luke 11:37-54; conceptual, Matthew 23:25-26, 6-7, 27-28, 4, 29-32, 34-36, 13; 15:1-9; Mark 7:1-9; Aland # 194; Orchard # 221; Huck-Greeven # 168)

      m Yadaim 1–2

      t Demai 2.11-12

      t Berakot 5.26)

      m Demai 2.1

      m Maaser Sheni

      y Berakot 4b

      Testament of Moses 7.4

    176. The Leaven of the Pharisees (Luke 12:1; Matthew 16:5-6-earlier context; Mark 8:14-15-earlier context; see unit 140 above; Aland # 195; Orchard # 222; Huck-Greeven # 169a)

    177. Exhortation to Fearless Confession (Luke 12:2-9; conceptual- Matthew 10:26-33; see unit 88 above; Aland # 196; Orchard # 223; Huck-Greeven # 169b)

    178. The Sin Against the Holy Spirit (Luke 12:10; conceptual- Matthew 12:31-32; Mark 3:28-30; see unit 105 above; Aland # 197; Orchard # 224; Huck-Greeven # 169c)

    179. The Assistance of the Holy Spirit (Luke 12:11-12; conceptual- Matthew 10:19-20; Mark 13:11; Luke 21:14-15; see unit 87 above; Aland # 198; Orchard # 225; Huck-Greeven # 169d)

    180. Warning against Greed (Luke 12:13-15; Aland # 199; Orchard # 226; Huck-Greeven # 170a)

    181. The Parable of the Rich Fool (Luke 12:16-21; Aland # 200; Orchard # 227; Huck-Greeven # 170b)

    182. Do Not Be Anxious (Luke 12:22-32; Matthew 6:25-34; see unit 60 above; Aland # 201; Orchard # 228; Huck-Greeven # 171a)

    183. Treasures in Heaven (Luke 12:33-34; Matthew 6:19-21; see unit 57 above; Aland # 202; Orchard # 229; Huck-Greeven # 171b)

    184. Faithfulness in the Midst of Watchfulness (Luke 12:35-48; conceptual, Matthew 24:42-51; Mark 13:33-37; Aland # 203; Orchard # 229-232; Huck-Greeven # 172-173)

      Tobit 11:18

    185. Mission: To Bring Division (Luke 12:49-53; conceptual, Matthew 10:34-36; Mark 10:38; see unit 89 above; Aland # 204; Orchard # 233; Huck-Greeven # 174a)

      Jubilees 23:16, 19

      m Sotah 9.15

      4 Ezra 6:24

    186. Interpreting the Times (Luke 12:54-56; conceptual, Matthew 16:2-3; see unit 139 above; Aland # 205; Orchard # 234; Huck-Greeven # 174b)

    187. Agreement with One’s Accuser (Luke 12:57-59; conceptual, Matthew 5:25-26; see unit 47 above; Aland # 206; Orchard # 235; Huck-Greeven # 175)

    188. A Question about Sin and the Parable of the Unfruitful Fig Tree in the Vineyard (Luke 13:1-9; Aland # 207; Orchard # 236-237; Huck-Greeven # 176)

    189. Sabbath Healing of a Crippled Woman (Luke 13:10-17; Aland # 208; Orchard # 238; Huck-Greeven # 177)

      1QapGen 20.17, 21-29

      m Shabbat 5; 15.2

      m Erubin 2.1-4

    190. Parable of the Mustard Seed (Luke 13:18-19; Matthew 13:31-32 and Mark 4:30-32- in an earlier context; see unit 116 above; Aland # 209; Orchard # 239; Huck-Greeven # 178a)

    191. Parable of the Leaven (Luke 13:20-21; Matthew 13:33- in an earlier context; see unit 117 above; Aland # 210; Orchard # 240; Huck-Greeven # 178b)

    192. Exclusion from the Kingdom (Luke 13:22-30; conceptual- Matthew 7:13-14, 22-23; 8:11-12; 19:30; Aland # 211; Orchard # 241; Huck-Greeven # 179)

      1QSa 2.11-22

      1 Enoch 62:14

      2 Enoch 45.2

      2 Baruch 29:4

      m Abot 3.17

    193. A Warning to Herod (Luke 13:31-33; Aland # 212; Orchard # 242; Huck-Greeven # 180)

    194. Lament over Jerusalem (Luke 13:34-35; conceptual- Matthew 23:37-39; Aland # 213; Orchard # 243; Huck-Greeven # 181)

      2 Baruch 41:3-4

    195. The Healing of the Man with Dropsy (Luke 14:1-6; Aland # 214; Orchard # 244; Huck-Greeven # 182)

      CD 11.13-17

    196. Teaching on Humility (Luke 14:7-14; Aland # 215; Orchard #245-246; Huck-Greeven # 183)

      2 Maccabees 7:9

    197. The Parable of the Great Supper (Luke 14:15-24; Matthew 22:1-14- in a later context; Aland # 216; Orchard # 247; Huck-Greeven # 184)

      Philo, On the Creation 25 78

    198. Conditions of Discipleship (Luke 14:25-33; conceptual, Matthew 10:37-38; see unit 90 above; Aland # 217; Orchard # 248-249; Huck-Greeven # 185a)

    199. The Parable of Salt (Luke 14:34-35; conceptual, Matthew 5:13; Mark 9:49-50; see units 44, 152 above; Aland # 218; Orchard # 250; Huck-Greeven # 185b)

    200. The Parable of the Lost Sheep (Luke 15:1-7; conceptual, Matthew 18:12-14; see unit 153 above; Aland # 219; Orchard # 251; Huck-Greeven # 186a)

      t Baba Qama 6.20

    201. The Parable of the Lost Coin (Luke 15:8-10; Aland # 220; Orchard # 252; Huck-Greeven # 186b)

    202. The Parable of the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32; Aland # 221; Orchard # 253; Huck-Greeven # 187)

      Sirach 33:20

    203. The Parable of the Unjust Steward (Luke 16:1-9; Aland # 222; Orchard # 254a; Huck-Greeven # 188a)

    204. On Faithfulness In What Is Least (Luke 16:10-12; Aland # 223; Orchard # 254b; Huck-Greeven # 188b)

    205. On Serving Two Masters (Luke 16:13; conceptual, Matthew 6:24; Aland # 224; Orchard # 255; Huck-Greeven # 188c)

    206. The Pharisees Reproved (Luke 16:14-15; Aland # 225; Orchard # 256; Huck-Greeven # 189)

      1 Enoch 102:9-10

      Testament of Moses 7:3

      t Menahot 13.22

    207. On Jesus’ Kingdom Preaching and Ethical Standards (Luke 16:16-18; conceptual, Matthew 11:12-13; 5:18, 32; see units 94, 46, 49 above; Aland # 226-227; Orchard # 257-259; Huck-Greeven # 190)

    208. The Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31; Aland # 228; Orchard # 260; Huck-Greeven # 191)

      4 Ezra 7:85, 93

      2 Baruch 51:5-6

      2 Maccabees 6:23

      1 Enoch 22; 39; 102:4-5

      Psalms of Solomon 14:6, 9-10; 15:10

      b Besa 32b

    209. Warnings Against Offenses (Luke 17:1-3a; conceptual, Matthew 18:6-7; Mark 9:42; see unit 152 above; Aland # 229; Orchard # 261; Huck-Greeven # 192-193a)

    210. On Forgiveness (Luke 17:3b-4; conceptual, Matthew 18:15; see unit 154 above; Aland # 230; Orchard # 262; Huck-Greeven # 193)

      Testament of Gad 6:3-4

    211. On Faith (Luke 17:5-6; conceptual, Matthew 17:19-21; Mark 9:28-29; see unit 147 above; Aland # 231; Orchard # 263; Huck-Greeven # 194)

    212. The Parable of the Dutiful Servant (Luke 17:7-10; Aland # 232; Orchard # 264; Huck-Greeven # 195)

    213. The Cleansing of the Ten Lepers (Luke 17:11-19; Aland # 233; Orchard # 265; Huck-Greeven # 196)

    214. The Kingdom In the Midst (Luke 17:20-21; Aland # 234; Orchard # 266; Huck-Greeven #197)

      Psalms of Solomon 17–18

      1 Enoch 91, 93

      2 Baruch 53–74

    215. The Days of the Son of Man (Luke 17:22-37; conceptual, Matthew 24: 23, 26-27, 37-39, 17-18, 40-41, 28; Mark 13:19-23, 14-16; Aland # 235; Orchard # 267; Huck-Greeven # 198)

      2 Baruch 53:8-9).

    216. The Parable of the Unjust Judge (Luke 18:1-8; Aland # 236; Orchard # 268; Huck-Greeven # 199)

    217. The Pharisee and the Publican (Luke 18:9-14; Aland # 237; Orchard #269; Huck-Greeven # 200)

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

14. Toward Jerusalem: Ministry in Judea and Final Lessons

Toward Jerusalem: Ministry in Judea and Final Lessons (Matthew 19:1–21:9; Mark 10:1–11:10; Luke 18:15–19:44)

    218. To Judea (Matthew 19:1-2; Mark 10:1; Aland # 251; Orchard # 192; Huck-Greeven # 201a)

    219. On Divorce and Kingdom Eunuchs (Matthew 19:3-12; Mark 10:2-12; conceptual, Luke 16:18; Aland # 252; Orchard # 274-275; Huck-Greeven # 201b)

    220. Jesus Blesses the Children (Matthew 19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15-17; Aland # 253; Orchard # 276; Huck-Greeven # 202)

    221. The Rich Young Man (Matthew 19:16-22; Mark 10:17-22; Luke 18:18-23; Aland # 254; Orchard # 277; Huck-Greeven # 203a)

      1QS 4.7

      CD 3.20

      4Q181 1.4

      2 Maccabees 7:9

      4 Maccabees 15:3

      1 Enoch 37.4; 40.9; 58.3

      Psalms of Solomon 3.12

    222. Commenting on the Rich Man Incident-On the Riches and the Rewards of Response (Matthew 19:23-30; Mark 10:23-31; Luke 18:24-30; Aland # 255; Orchard # 278; Huck-Greeven # 203b)

    223. The Parable of the Laborers in the Vineyard (Matthew 20:1-16; Aland # 256; Orchard # 278; Huck-Greeven # 204)

    224. Another Prediction of the Passion (Matthew 20:17-19; Mark 10:32-34; Luke 18:31-34; Aland # 262; Orchard # 280; Huck-Greeven # 205)

    225. The Request for Precedence by the Sons of Zebedee (Matthew 20:20-28; Mark 10:35-45; conceptual, Luke 22:24-27; Aland # 263; Orchard # 281; Huck-Greeven # 206)

      Martyrdom of Isaiah 5:13

    226. Healing of the Blind at Jericho (Matthew 20:29-34; Mark 10:46-52; Luke 18:35-43; Aland # 264; Orchard # 282; Huck-Greeven # 207)

    227. Zacchaeus (Luke 19:1-10; Aland # 265; Orchard # 283; Huck-Greeven # 208)

    228. The Parable of the Pounds (Luke 19:11-27; conceptually in a later context, Matthew 25:14-30, more briefly, Mark 13:34; Aland # 266; Orchard # 284; Huck-Greeven # 209)

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.188, 222, 317

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.80, 93

    229. Entry into Jerusalem (Matthew 21:1-9; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:28-40: John 12:12-19; Aland # 269; Orchard # 288; Huck-Greeven # 210a)

      Josephus, Antiquities 9.111

      m Sukkah 3.1, 8-9, 12

      m Sukkah 3.9, 11; 4.5, 8

    230. Jesus Weeps for Jerusalem (Luke 19:41-44; Aland # 270; Orchard # 289; Huck-Greeven # 210b-211b)

      1QpHab 9.5-7

      Josephus, Jewish War, 5.466, 508; 7.1-4, 375-377

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

15. The Passion Week

The Passion Week: Controversy, Prediction of Judgment and Return, Trial, Death, and Resurrection (Matthew 21:10–28:20; Mark 11:11–16:8; Luke 19:45–24:53)

    231. The Cleansing of the Temple and the Cursing of the Fig Tree (Mark 11:11-17; Matthew 21:10-19; Luke 19:45-46; conceptual, John 2:13-17; Aland # 271-273; Orchard # 291-293; Huck-Greeven # 212-214a)

      m Sheqalim 3.1

      Berakot 9.5

      Josephus, Antiquities 12.145; 15.417

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.85-87

      Josephus, Jewish War 6.283-285

      Tobit 14:5

      2 Maccabees 2:7

      1 Enoch 24–25; 89–90

      Jubilees 1:15-17

      1QM 2.5-6; 7.10

      4QpPsa

      11QTemplea 29.8-10

      1Qp Hab 9.4-5

      CD 5.6-7

      2 Samuel 5:8 LXX

      m Hagiga 1.1

    232. The Leadership Decides Against Jesus (Mark 11:18-19; Luke 19:47-48; Aland # 274; Orchard # 294; Huck-Greeven # 214b)

    233. The Explanation of the Fig Tree (Matthew 21:20-22; Mark 11:20-26; Aland # 275; Orchard # 295; Huck-Greeven # 215)

    234. By Whose Authority? (Matthew 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:1-8; Aland # 276; Orchard # 296; Huck-Greeven # 216)

    235. The Parable of the Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-32; Aland # 277; Orchard # 297; Huck-Greeven # 217)

    236. The Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen (Matthew 21:33-46; Mark 12:1-12; Luke 20:9-19; Aland # 278; Orchard # 298; Huck-Greeven # 218)

      Esther Rabbah 7.10

    237. The Parable of the Great Supper (Matthew 22:1-14; conceptual, Luke 14:15-24, see unit 197 above; Aland # 279; Orchard # 299; Huck-Greeven # 219)

      Sirach 13:9-10

      Ruth Rabbah, proem 7

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.450-456

      Josephus, Antiquities 9.264-266

    238. On Paying Tribute to Caesar (Matthew 22:15-22; Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:20-26; Aland # 280; Orchard # 300; Huck-Greeven # 220)

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.1.1

    239. Question about Resurrection (Matthew 22:23-33; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-40; Aland # 281; Orchard # 301; Huck-Greeven # 221)

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.16

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.164-165

      m Yebamot

      Josephus, Antiquities 4.254-256

      1 Enoch 15:6-7; 51:4; 104:4-6

      Testament of Abraham 4, 6a

      1QH 3.21-23

      1 Enoch 6–9

      1 Enoch 39:5; 102:2-4

      2 Baruch 51:10-11

    240. The Great Commandment (Matthew 22:34-40; Mark 12:28-34; conceptually, Luke 10:25-28; Aland # 282; Orchard # 302; Huck-Greeven # 222)

      Genesis Rabbah 24.7

      m Hagigah 1.8

      Mekilta 6

    241. The Question about David’s Son (Matthew 22:41-46; Mark 12:35-37a; Luke 20:41-44; Aland # 283; Orchard # 303; Huck-Greeven # 223)

      Psalms of Solomon 17:21-25

      4Qflor 1.11-13

      Justin Martyr, 1 Apology 45

    242. Woe to the Scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23:1-36; Mark 12:37b-40; Luke 20:45-47; conceptually in earlier contexts, Luke 11:46, 52; 6:39; 11:42, 39-41, 44, 47-48, 49-51, 43; see unit 175 above; Aland # 284; Orchard # 304; Huck-Greeven # 224)

      t Sanhedrin 7.8; 8.1

      1QS 2.19-23

      Moed Qatan 2.17

      m Sota 3.4

      Aboth of Rabbi Nathan 37A; 45

      m Demai 2.1

      m Ma’aerot 4.5

      m ‘Uqsin 3.6

      m Sebi’it 9.1

      Aboth of Rabbi Nathan 41A

      m Berakot 8.2

      Pseudo-Philo 16:2

      Jubilees I 4:3

      1 Enoch 22:6-7

    243. Jesus’ Lament over Jerusalem (Matthew 23:37-39; conceptually, Luke 13:34-35; see unit 194 above; Aland # 285; Orchard # 305; Huck-Greeven # 225)

      1 Enoch 39:7

      2 Baruch 41:4

    244. The Widow’s Mite (Mark 12:41-44; Luke 21:1-4; Aland # 286; Orchard # 306; Huck-Greeven # 226)

    245. Prediction of the Temple’s Destruction (Matthew 24:1-2; Mark 13:1-2; Luke 21:5-6; Aland # 287; Orchard # 307; Huck-Greeven # 227a)

      Testament of Levi 15:1

      Testament of Moses 6:8-9

      1QpHab 9.6-7

      Josephus, Jewish War 6.301

      Jubilees 23:11-32

      Josephus, Jewish War 5.184-227

      Tacitus, History 5.8

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.380-425

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.401

    246. Signs before the End (Matthew 24:3-8; Mark 13: 3-8; Luke 21:7-11; Aland # 288; Orchard # 308; Huck-Greeven # 227b-228)

    247. Persecutions (Matthew 24:9-14; Mark 13:9-13; Luke 21:12-19; Aland # 289; Orchard # 309; Huck-Greeven # 229)

      1 Enoch 62:4

      2 Esdras 4:42

      Targum Psalms 18:14

    248. The Desolation (Matthew 24:15-22; Mark 13:14-20; Luke 21:20-24; Aland # 290; Orchard # 310; Huck-Greeven # 230)

      1 Maccabees 1:54; 4:38; 6:7

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.5.3

    249. False Christs and False Prophets (Matthew 24:23-28; Mark 13:21-23; conceptually, Luke 17:23-24 in an earlier context, see unit 215 above; Aland # 291; Orchard # 311; Huck-Greeven # 231)

    250. The Coming of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:29-31; Mark 13:24-27; Luke 21:25-28; Aland # 292; Orchard # 312; Huck-Greeven # 232)

      1 Enoch 80

      Testament of Moses 10.5

      2 Baruch 70; 72:2

      1 Enoch 37–71

      4 Ezra 14

      b Sanhedrin 38b, 98a

      Psalms of Solomon 8:28; 11:2-5; 17:26

      4 Ezra 13:39-40

      4 Baruch 3:11

    251. The Parable of the Fig Tree (Matthew 24:32-36; Mark 13:28-32; Luke 21:29-33; Aland # 293; Orchard # 313; Huck-Greeven # 233-234)

    252. Take Heed and Watch (Mark 13:33-37; Luke 21:34-36; conceptually Luke 12:40; see unit 184 above; Aland # 294-295; Orchard # 320; Huck-Greeven # 236, 242a)

    253. Be Ready for the Day Comes Suddenly (Matthew 24:37-44; conceptually, Luke 17:26-36; 12:39-40; see units 215 and 184 above; Aland # 296; Orchard # 314-315; Huck-Greeven # 235-237)

    254. The Parable of the Good and Wicked Servant (Matthew 24:45-51; conceptually, Luke 12:41-46, see unit 184 above; Aland # 297; Orchard # 316; Huck-Greeven # 238)

    255. The Parable of the Ten Virgins (Matthew 25:1-13; Aland # 298; Orchard # 317; Huck-Greeven # 239)

      Aboth of Rabbi Nathan 4a; 8; 22b

      t Berakot 2:10

    256. The Parable of the Talents (Matthew 25:14-30; conceptually, Luke 19:11-27, see unit 228 above; Aland # 299; Orchard # 318; Huck-Greeven # 240)

      m Baba Mesi’a 3.11

    257. The Sheep and Goats (Matthew 25:31-46; Aland # 300; Orchard # 319; Huck-Greeven # 241)

      1 Enoch 9:4; 60:2 with 1 Enoch 49–54

      Testament of Abraham 13A; 11B

      Sirach 18:13

      1 Enoch 89:18

      Pseudo-Philo 28.5

    258. The Ministry of Jesus in Jerusalem (Luke 21:37-38; Aland # 301; Orchard # 321; Huck-Greeven # 242b)

    259. The Hope to Get Jesus (Matthew 26:1-5; Mark 14:1-2; Luke 22:1-2; Aland # 305; Orchard # 325; Huck-Greeven # 243)

      Josephus, Antiquities 3.249; 14.21; 17.213

    260. The Anointing at Bethany (Matthew 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; John 12:1-8; Aland # 306; Orchard # 326; Huck-Greeven # 244)

    261. Judas’ Betrayal (Matthew 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6; Aland # 307; Orchard # 327;Huck-Greeven # 245)

    262. Preparation for the Passover (Matthew 26:17-20; Mark 14:12-17; Luke 22:7-14; Aland # 308; Orchard # 328; Huck-Greeven # 246-247a)

    263. Jesus Foretells His Betrayal (Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:18-21; in a slightly later context- Luke 22:21-23; John 13: 21-30; Aland # 310; Orchard # 330; Huck-Greeven # 247b)

    264. The Last Supper (Matthew 26:26-29; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22-15-20; Aland # 311; Orchard # 329, 331; Huck-Greeven # 248)

    265. Jesus Foretells His Betrayal (Luke 22:21-23; in a slightly earlier context- Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:18-21; see unit 263 above; Aland # 312; Orchard # 333; Huck-Greeven # 249

    266. The New Way of Greatness (Luke 22:24-30; conceptually in an earlier context, Matthew 20:24-28; 19:28; Mark 10:41-45; see units 225 and 222 above; Aland # 313; Orchard # 334; Huck-Greeven # 250)

    267. Peter’s Denial Predicted (Matthew 26:30-35; Mark 14:26-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:36-38; Aland # 315; Orchard # 336; Huck-Greeven # 251, 253)

      t Ketubot 5.5

    268. The Two Swords (Luke 22:35-38; Aland # 316; Orchard # 337; Huck-Greeven # 252)

    269. Gethsemene (Matthew 26:36-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:39-46; Aland # 330; Orchard # 345; Huck-Greeven # 254)

      Dialogue with Trypho 103.8

    270. Jesus Arrested (Matthew 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12; Aland # 331; Orchard # 346; Huck-Greeven # 255)

    271. Jesus Examined before the Council and Peter’s Denials (Matthew 26:57-75; Mark 14:53-72; Luke 22:54-71; John 18:13-28; Aland # 332-333; Orchard # 347-355a; Huck-Greeven # 256)

      Josephus, Antiquities 20.197-203

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.117

      Benediction 14, Shemoneh Esreh

      Psalms of Solomon 17:30

      1 Enoch 77:2

      m Berakot 7.3

      Sifre Deuteronomy 306

      1 Enoch 37–71

      Exagoge to Ezekiel 68-85

      1 Maccabees 2:14

      b Sanhedrin 60a

      Temple Scroll 64:7-9

    272. Jesus Delivered to Pilate (Matthew 27:1-2; Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1; Aland # 334; Orchard # 355b; Huck-Greeven # 257a)

    273. The Death of Judas (Matthew 27:3-10; Aland # 335; Orchard # 356; Huck-Greeven # 258)

    274. The Examination before Pilate (Matthew 27:11-14; Mark 15:2-5; Luke 23:2-5; John 18:29-38; Aland # 336; Orchard # 357; Huck-Greeven # 259)

      Josephus, Josephus, Jewish War 2.169-177

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.55-59

      Philo, Embassy to Gaius 301-302

    275. The Examination before Herod (Luke 23:6-12; Aland # 337; Orchard # 358; Huck-Greeven # 260)

    276. Pilate Declares Jesus Innocent (Luke 23:13-16; Aland # 338; Orchard # 359; Huck-Greeven # 261a)

    277. Jesus or Barabbas? (Matthew 27:15-23; Mark 15:6-14; Luke 23:17-23; John 18:39-40; Aland # 339; Orchard # 360; Huck-Greeven # 261b)

      Josephus, Antiquities, 20.208-210, 215.

    278. Pilate Delivers Jesus to be Crucified (Matthew 27:24-26; Mark 15:15; Luke 23:24-25; Aland # 341; Orchard # 362; Huck-Greeven # 261c)

      Suetonius, Domition 11

      Jewish War 2.306-308; 6.302-304.

      Philo Flaccus 10 75

    279. Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers (Matthew 27:27-31a; Mark 15:16-20a; in a slightly earlier context-John 19:2-3; Aland # 342; Orchard # 363; Huck-Greeven # 262)

      Philo, Flaccus 6 36–39

      Dio Cassius, History 15.20-21

      Plutarch, Pompey 24

    280. The Road to Golgotha (Matthew 27:31b-32; Mark 15:20b-21; Luke 23:26-32; John 1917a; Aland # 343; Orchard # 364; Huck-Greeven # 263)

    281. Crucifixion (Matthew 27:33-37; Mark 15:22-26; Luke 23:33-34; John 19:17b-27; Aland # 344; Orchard # 365a; Huck-Greeven # 264a)

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.282

      Josephus, Antiquities 15.373, 409; 16.291, 311

    282. Jesus Is Mocked During the Crucifixion (Matthew 27:38-43; Mark 15:27-32a; Luke 23:35-38; Aland # 345; Orchard # 365b-366; Huck-Greeven # 264b)

    283. The Two Thieves (Matthew 27:44; Mark 15:32b; Luke 23:39-43; Aland # 346; Orchard # 367; Huck-Greeven # 264c)

    284. The Death of Jesus (Matthew 27:45-54; Mark 15:33-39; Luke 23:44-48; John 19:28-30; Aland # 347; Orchard # 368-370a; Huck-Greeven # 265a)

    285. Witnesses of the Crucifixion (Matthew 27:55-56; Mark 15:40-41; Luke 23:49; Aland # 348; Orchard # 370b; Huck-Greeven # 265b)

    286. Jesus’ Burial (Matthew 27:57-61; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:38-42; Aland # 350; Orchard # 372-373a; Huck-Greeven # 266, 268a)

    287. The Guard at the Tomb (Matthew 27:62-66; Aland # 351; Orchard # 374; Huck-Greeven # 267)

    288. The Women Come to the Tomb (Matthew 28:1-8; Mark 16:1-8; Luke 24:1-12; John 20:1-13; Aland # 252; Orchard # 375b-376; Huck-Greeven # 268b)

    289. Jesus Appears to the Women (Matthew 28:9-10; John 20:14-18; Aland # 353; Orchard # 377, 389; Huck-Greeven # 269)

    291. The Emmaus Road Appearance (Luke 24:13-35; Aland # 355; Orchard # 380; Huck-Greeven # 272)

      1 Maccabees 3:40, 57; 4:3

      Josephus, Jewish War 7.217

      m Sukkah 4.5

    292. Jesus Appears to His Disciples and Later to Thomas (Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-29; Aland # 356-257; Orchard # 381a, 390-391; Huck-Greeven # 273a)

    293. The Great Commission from Galilee (Matthew 28:16-20: Aland # 364; Orchard # 379; Huck-Greeven # 271)

    294. Jesus’ Last Words and Ascension (Luke 24:44-53; Aland # 365; Orchard # 381b-382; Huck-Greeven # 273b-274)

      Prologue to Sirach 8-10

      4QMMT 10

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

16. Introducing Jesus in John’s Gospel

Introducing Jesus in John’s Gospel: The Word Incarnate and the First Witnesses: John the Baptist and The Disciples (John 1)

    J 1 The Prologue: Word Became Flesh (John 1:1-18; Aland # 1)

      Sirach 1:1, 15:1-10; 24:1-3, 8-10, 23

      Wisdom 7:22, 25-29; 9:1-2, 9; 18:15

      Genesis Rabbah 1.2

      Pesahim 54a

      Targum Onkelos on Exod 3:12; on Exod 19:17

      Pesahim 54a

    J 2 The Witness of John the Baptist (John 1:19-34; Aland # 13, 16, 18)

      1 Enoch 90:31; 89:52

      Sirach 48:10

      b Ketuboth 96a

      Testament of Joseph 19:8-9

      Testament of Benjamin 3

      1 Enoch 90:9-12, 38

    J 3 The First Disciples: Andrew, an Unnamed Disciple, Simon Peter, Philip and Nathaniel (John 1:35-51; Aland # 21)

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Passage: 
Ad Category: 

17. The Book of Signs

John’s Book of Signs: Before the Hour (John 2-12)

    J 4 Sign 1 — The Water to Wine at a Wedding in Cana (John 2:1-12; Aland # 22-23)

      2 Baruch 29:5

      1 Enoch 10:19

      Tobit 11:19

      m Betsah 2:3

    J 5 The Cleansing of the Temple and an Allusion to Resurrection, the Great Sign (John 2:13-25; Aland # 24-26)

      b Shebuoth 36a

      b Sanhedrin 38b

      m Bekhorot 8:7

      Shekalim 7:2

      Benediction 14 of the Shemoneh Esreh

      4Qflor

      Mekilta on Exodus 16:32 [Tractate Vayassa’ 6 lines 60-64]

    J 6 What Do the Signs Show? Jesus and Nicodemus (John 3:1-21)

      1QS 6:6-8

      Jubilees 1:23-25

      1QS 4:19-21

    J 7 Jesus and John the Baptist- The Bridegroom, the Christ, The One from Above Must Increase (John 3:22-36; Aland # 28-29)

      1 Maccabees 9:39

      Midrash Rabbah on Leviticus 15:2

    J 8 Jesus and the Samaritan Woman- Worship in Spirit and Truth (John 4:1-42; Aland # 30-31)

      Josephus, Antiquities 20.118

      Josephus, War 2.232; Life 269).

      m. Niddah 4.1

      Pirke Aboth 1.5

      m Sotah 3.4

      Shebiith 8.10

      Judg 14:6, 19; 15:14 LXX

      1 Kgdms 10:2, 10 LXX (= 1 Sam 10:6, 10)

      Isa 35:6 LXX

    J 9 A Second Galilean Sign: The Healing of a Royal Official’s Son (John 4:43-54; Aland # 32, 85)

      Josephus, War 1.45

      Josephus, Life 72, 400-01

    J 10 A Controversial Sabbath Healing in Jerusalem (John 5:1-18; Aland # 140-141a)

      m Shabbat 7.2

      m Shabbat 10.5

      Legum Allegoriae I 5-6

      Exodus Rabbah 30.6

    J 11 The Discourse Defending the Sabbath Healing- “The Son Does Nothing of His Own Accord” (John 5:19-47; Aland #141b)

      b Taanith 2b

      Shemoneh Esreh, blessing no. 2

      Sirach 48:1

      b Shabbat 116b

      Pirke Aboth 2.7

      Baruch 4:1-2

    J 12 The Feeding of the Five Thousand (John 6:1-15; Aland # 146)

      Josephus, Jewish War 3.57; 4.456

      Gen 37:30 LXX

      2 Kngs 4:12, 14, 25 LXX= 2 Kings 4 Eng

      Tobit 6

      Philo, De Specialibus Legibus 3.57

      1 Enoch 62:14

    J 13 Jesus Walks on the Water (John 6:16-21; Aland # 147)

      Midrash Mekilta on Exodus describing nation as it passes through Red Sea

    J 14 The Bread of Life Come Down from Above Discourse (John 6:22-59; Aland # 148-49)

      2 Baruch 29:8

      Sibylline Oracles 3.49

      Rabbah 1.9

      Sirach 24:21

    J 15 Reaction to the Discourse: The Offense and the Confession (John 6:60-71; Aland #157-58)

      Aboth 6.7

      Midrash Mekilta on Exod 15:26

    J 16 Jesus Goes from Galilee to Jerusalem (John 7:1-13; Aland # 238-39)

      Josephus, Antiquities 8.100

      m Ma’as 3.7

      m Bikk 1.6, 10

      m Shek 3.1; 6.3

    J 17 Jesus Teaches in the Temple to Mixed Reaction (John 7:14-52; Aland # 240-41)

      m Shab 18.3

      m Shab 19.1-2

      m Ned 3.11

      1 Enoch 48:6

      2 Baruch 29:3

      4 Ezra 7:28; 13:51-52

      Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 8.7

      m Sukk 4.9

      Exodus Rabbah 21.3

      b Sukk 27b

    [18 The Woman Caught in Adultery (John 7:53—8:11; Aland # 242)]

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.16

      Apostolic Constitutions 2.24 (= Syriac Didascalia 7)

      b B. Mes 91a

      Susanna 36-40

      m Sanhedrin 7.4

    J 18 The Dispute Deepens as Jesus Claims To Be The Light of the World, the Truth and Abraham’s Superior (John 8:12-59; Aland # 243-47)

      m Shekalim 2.1; 6.1, 5

      m Sukkah 5.1-4

      Wisdom 18:3-4

      1QS 2:3; 3:7, 20-21

      m Pirke Aboth 4.8

      Josephus, War 7.323

      b Sanh 128a

      Genesis Rabbah 44 (28a)

      Mekilta Exodus on 20:18 (78b)

    J 19 Healing of the Man Born Blind- Jesus, the Light of the World (John 9:1-41; Aland # 248)

      b Sanh 55a

      Ruth Rabbah 6.4

      m Shab 7.2; 24.3

      m Shab 14.4

      m Sanhedrin 10.1

      b Abodah Zarah 28b

      m Ta’an 3.8

      m Ned 1.1

      m ‘Eduy 5.6

      m Midd 2.2

    J 20 Jesus, the Good Shepherd with a New Flock (John 10:1-21; Aland # 249-250)

      m B Mes 7.9

    J 21 Jesus Declares His Unity with the Farther at the Feast of Dedication (John 10:22-42; Aland # 257-58)

      1 Macc 4:52-59

    J 22 Jesus Shows His Power over Life: the Raising of Lazarus and the Jewish Reaction (John 11:1-54; Aland # 259-260)

      Levitucus Rabbah 18.1

      Ecclesiastes Rabbah 12.6

      m Yebamot 16.3

      m Ketuboth 4.4

      m Bikk 2.2

      2 Macc 5:19

      Josephus, Jewish War 2.166

      Josephus, Antiquities 11.327

      Josephus, Antiquities 13.299

      b Sota 12b

      b Baba Bathra 199b

      Midrash Ps 90 4

      Josephus, Jewish War 4.551

    J 23 The Anointing at Bethany and Opposition Near Passover Time (John 11:55-12:11; Aland # 261, 267-68)

      Josephus, Jewish War 1.229

      Ecclesiasticus Rabbah 7.1.1

    J 24 Jesus Enters Jerusalem at Passover (John 12:12-19; Aland # 269)

      1 Maccabees 13:51

      1 Macc 13:51

      2 Macc 10:7

    J 25 The Son of Man To Be Lifted Up Issues an Explanation and a Warning (John 12:12-50; Aland # 302-304)

      1 Enoch 49:1; 62:14

      Psalms of Solomon 17–18

      4 Ezra 7:28-29

      Targum to Isaiah 6:1, 4

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Passage: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: 

18. The Book of Glory

The Book of Glory: The Farewell Discourse and the Johannine Passion Account––The Hour Has Come (John 13–21)

    J 26 Jesus Washes the Disciples’ Feet (John 13:1-20; Aland # 309)

      Mekilta 1 on Exod 21,2 [82a]

      p Peah 1, 15c, 14

    J 27 Jesus Foretells His Betrayal (John 13:21-30; Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:18-21; Luke 22:21-23; Aland # 310)

      m Pesahim 4.5

      m Shabbat 23.1

      m Pesahim 9.11

      Josephus, Ant 18.29-30

    J 28 The “Farewell” Discourse Begins with a New Commandment and a Prediction of Peter’s Denial (John 13:31-38; Aland # 314-15)

      Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs

    J 29 Jesus, the One Who Shows the Father (John 14:1-14; Aland # 317)

    J 30 The Promised Spirit, Love, and Obedience (John 14:15-26; Aland # 318)

      Pirke Aboth 4.11

      Leviticus Rabbah 6.1 on Lev 5.1

    J 31 Peace, I Go to the Father (John 14:27-31; Aland # 319)

      Psalm 16:14 LXX

      Midrash Rabbah 78.1 on Gen 32:27

    J 32 Jesus the True Vine––Abide in Me (John 15:1-8; Aland # 320)

    J 33 Union––Love, Obedience, and Abiding (John 15:9-17; Aland # 321)

    J 34 The Hatred of the World (John 15:18-25; Aland # 322)

      Psalms of Solomon 7:1

    J 35 The Paraclete as Witness (John 15:26-27; Aland # 323)

    J 36 On Persecutions (John 16:1-4; Aland # 324)

      Didache 16:5

      Hermas, Vis 4.1.3

      Mand 8.10

      Numbers Rabbah 21.3 [191a] on Numbers 25:13

      m Sanhedrin 9.6

    J 37 The Paraclete who Convicts and Guides (John 16:5-15; Aland # 325)

    J 38 In a Little While––Sorrow to Joy (John 16:16-22; Aland # 326)

      Isa 66:14 LXX

    J 39 Then You Will Ask in My Name (John 16:23-28; Aland # 327)

      Jer 31:32 or 38:33 LXX

    J 40 Tribulation to Come, But Also an Overcoming of the World (John 16:29-33; Aland # 328)

    J 41 Jesus’ Prayer that the Disciples Consecrated and Be One, Like the Father is with the Son (John 17:1-26; Aland # 329)

      Jubilees 22:7-23

    J 42 Jesus’ Arrest in the Garden (John 18:1-12; Aland # 330-31)

    J 43 Jesus Before Annas and Peter’s Denials (John 18:13-28; Aland # 332-34)

      m Oholoth 18.7, 9

    J 44 The Trial Before Pilate, The Choice, and the Presentation of Jesus for Execution (John 18:29–19:16; Aland # 336, 339-41)

      Philo, Leg. Ad Gaius 302

      Eighteen Benedictions #11

      m Rosh Hashanah 1.2

    J 45 Jesus’ Crucifixion and Death (John 19:17-30; Aland # 343-44, 347-48)

      Plutarch, The Divine Vengeance 554 A/B

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6.44

      Josephus, Jewish War 7.203

      Cicero, In Verrum 2.165

      m Sanh 6.3

      Josephus, Ant 3.161

    J 46 Jesus Is Pierced in the Side and Buried (John 19:31-42; Aland # 349-50)

      Philo, In Flaccum 10.83

      M Sanh 11.4

      Josephus, Jewish War 4.317

      Josephus, Antiquities 5.44

      m Sanh 6.5

      Josephus, Antiquities 17.199

      TalBab, Ebel Rabbathi or Semahoth 8.6

      m Sanh 23.5

    J 47 Resurrection Scenes at the Tomb (John 20:1-18; Aland # 352-53)

      m Rosh ha-Shanah 1.8

      1 Enoch 87:2

      2 Macc 3:26

    J 48 Later Appearances to the Gathered Disciples (John 20:19-29; Aland # 356-57)

      Suetonius, Domitian 13

    J 49 The Purpose of John’s Gospel (John 20:30-31; Aland # 366)

    J 50 A Johannine Postlogue: At the Sea of Tiberius in Discussion with Peter and a Final Note (John 21:1-25; Aland # 367)

      Barnabas 12.4

      Justin, Apology 35

      Irenaeus, Demonstration of Apostolic Teaching, 79.

      Philo, De posteritate Caini 43.144

      Sopherim 16.8

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Passage: 
Ad Category: 

19. Overview of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John

Overview of the Gospels

    Matthew

      Irenaeus, Against the Heresies 3.1.1

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.8

      Josephus, Antiquities 20.197-203

    Mark

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.15

      Irenaeus, Against the Heresies 3.1.1-2

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6.14

      Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 106

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 2.15.2

      John Chysostom, Homilies of Matthew 1.3

    Luke

      Justin Martyr, Dialogues with Trypho 103.19

      Irenaeus, Against the Heresies 3.1.1 and 3.14.1

      Tertullian, Against Marcion 4.2.2 and 4.5.3

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.4.7

      1, 2 Clement

    John

      Anti-Marcionite Prologue to John

      Muratorian Canon

      Ireneaus, Epistle to Florinus

      Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.20.6

      Irenaeus, Against the Heresies 3.1.2

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Ad Category: 

20. Major Themes of Jesus' Life

Major Themes in the Evangelists’ Portrait of Jesus’ Theology: The Kingdom and the Uniquely Authoritative One in Act and Word

    1. The Event of Submitting to Baptism- Identifying with John the Baptist’s Message and Being Identified by the Divine Voice

      Josephus, Antiquities 18.116-119

      1QS 8.14; 9.19-20

    2. The Event of the Temptation- Showing The Opponent and the Qualification of the One Sent as Son

    3. Teaching: The Kingdom of God as God’s Dynamic Rule and Vindication of the Righteous Both Now and Yet to Come

      1 Enoch 9:4-5; 12:3; 25; 27:3; 81:3

      Assumption of Moses 7–10

      Psalms of Solomon 17–18

      2 Baruch 36-40

      1QS 3–4

      Sib Or 3:796-808

      2 Bar 70:2-8

      4 Ezra 6:24; 9:1-12; 13:29-31

      1QM 12:9; 19:1-2

      2 Macc 1:24-29

      Psalms of Solomon 17–18

      1 Enoch 37–71

      4 Ezra 7:28-29; 12:32-34; 13:26

      Eighteen Benedictions

      Sirach 23:1, 4 LXX

      3 Macc 6:3, 8

      Wis 14:3

    4. Titles, Teaching, and Actions: Who Is Jesus?

    Titles

      Josephus, Antiquities 8.45-46

    Teaching and Actions

      4QPrNab 1.4 (= 4Q 242)

      b Ned 41a

      CD 11:13-14

      m Shab 18.3

      B Sanh 43a

      T. Dan 5:3

      T Isaachar 5:2; 7:6

      Philo, Spec Leg 2.63

      b Shab 31a

      1 Enoch 90:28-30, 4

      Benediction 14

    5. The Community of the New Era: The Calling of Those who Respond

    6. The Vindication to Come: Warning to Israel, Inclusion of Gentiles, and The Return of the Son of Man to Judge the World.

      1 Enoch 10:4; 103:8

      Jubilees 7:29

      Ps Sol 14:9; 15:10

    7. The Final Week: A Dispute over Authority Leads to the Cross , Resurrection, and Seating with Authority to God’s Right Hand

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 
Biblical Topics: 
Ad Category: