An Argument Of The Book Of JudeRelated Media
Jude, The Brother Of James, Writes To Believers Secure In Their Relationship With God To Earnestly Contend For The Faith By Strengthening Themselves And Reaching Out To Those Who Are Being Influenced By False Teachers In Their Midst Who Stand In Line With OT Patterns And Will Receive Similar Judgment
I. Introduction: Jude writes as a servant of Christ and the brother of James to believers who are in a secure relationship with God praying that they might be filled to capacity with mercy, peace and love 1-2
A. Address: Jude writes as a servant of Christ and the brother of James to believers who are in a secure relationship with God through God’s calling, the Father’s love, and Jesus’ preservation for His future coming 1
1. Jude writes as a servant of Jesus Christ, and the brother of James (of Jerusalem)1 1a
2. Jude writes to believers who are in a secure relationship with God through God’s calling, the Father’s love, and Jesus’ preservation for His future coming 1b
a. Past: Jude writes to believers who are called (by God)
b. Present: Jude writes to believers who are loved in their relationship with God the Father
c. Future: Jude writes to believers who are kept (preserved) for their future relationship with Jesus Christ
II. Exhortations to Defend Against False Teachers: Jude urges his dear readers to defend the faith against false teachers in their midst who show themselves to stand in line with all of the ungodly who are not only deserving of judgment, but will receive it when the Lord returns 3-23
A. The Appeal: Although Jude was intending to write to his dear readers about their common salvation, he felt that it was necessary to write in order to encourage them to earnestly continue the struggle for the faith which they received 3
1. Jude was intending to write to his dear readers about their common4 salvation 3a
2. Instead of writing about their common salvation, Jude felt that it was necessary to write in order to encourage ( παρακαλῶν ) his readers to earnestly continue the struggle ( ἐπαγωνίζεσθαι ) for the faith of the gospel which was once for all delivered5 to the people of God 3b
B. Present Reason Stated: The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because certain people who were foretold to be evil, who shamelessly use God’s grace as a license to sin, and who deny Christ have secretly slipped in among them 4
1. The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because certain people have secretly slipped in among them6 4a
2. The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because those who have crept in are those who were long ago identified7 for condemnation 4b
3. The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because those who have crept in are shameless ( ἀσεβεῖς ) persons who use God’s grace as a license to do evil8 4c
4. The reason Jude desires for his readers to contend for the faith is because those who have crept in deny believers’ only Master and Lord--Jesus Christ9 4d
C. Historical-Eschatological Reason Stated--They are Ungodly and Will Be Judged: Jude urges his readers to contend against false teachers because they show themselves to stand in line with all of the ungodly who are not only deserving of judgment, but will receive it when the Lord returns to execute it upon them 5-19
1. Historical--Old Testament Types and Interpretation: Through the typology of OT types Jude urges believers to contend against false teachers because they walk in the pattern of OT sinners and influence others in the patters of OT false teachers making them deserving of judgment 5-13
a. Three OT Types10 and Interpretation: Jude urges believers to contend against false teachers because they walk in the pattern of OT sinners who were judged for their unbelief, prideful arrogance, and gross immorality thereby showing themselves to be more like animals than spiritual men and thus deserving of similar judgment 5-10
1) Three OT Types--Israel, Angels, Sodom:11 Jude desires to remind his readers of that which they once knew, namely that certain judgment has come upon those who do not believe, who are pridefully, and who enter into gross immorality 5-7
a) Reminder: Jude desires to remind his readers of that which they once knew12 about the certain judgment for such evil people as the false teachers 5a
c) Angels: The content of what Jude wants to remind his readers of is that ( ο῞τι ) the Lord has kept15 angels who left their proper realm16 in eternal bonds under darkness for the coming judgment17 6
d) Sodom and Gomorrah: The content of what Jude wants to remind his readers of is that (ο῞τι) the Lord punished Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them as an example18 for those like the false teachers who indulge in gross immorality 7
2) Interpretation/Application from the OT Types of Judgment: Jude affirms that the false teachers follow in the pattern of those in the OT who were judged for evil because they do not understand the heavenly world, but are guided under the auspices of revelation by their natural instincts becoming more like animals and thus deserving of judgment 8-10
a) Jude affirms that like those who were typologically judged in the OT for their evil, these false teachers, under the pretense of revelation (dreaming), defile the flesh, reject authority19, and blaspheme against (angelic) majesties (glories--δόξας)20 8
b) False Teachers and Angels: By contrasting the behavior of the archangel Michael toward the devil, and the that of the false teachers, Jude affirms that the latter do not understand the heavenly world, but follow natural instincts showing themselves to be more like animals than spiritual men, and thus following in the OT pattern for destruction 9-10
(1) Slandering Angels Developed: Jude develops by contrast the last of the three participle through a description of how even Michael the archangel did not dare to revile against the devil over Moses' body, but appealed to the Lord as Judge21 9
(2) These Men: By contrast with Michael the archangel, Jude affirms that these false teachers do not understand the heavenly world (since they do not understand angels to be the messengers of God), but follow their sexual appetites and prove themselves to be more like animals than spiritual men thereby leading to their destruction as with their OT types 10
b. Three More OT Types22 and Interpretation: Jude urges believers to contend against false teachers because they walk in the pattern of OT false teachers who do not love but consume, who teach that sin does not matter, who mislead through empty teaching, and who corrupt those under their influence making themselves worthy of judgment 11-13
1) Three OT Types--Cain, Balaam, Korah: Jude urges believers to contend against false teachers because they walk in the pattern of false teachers from the OT who do not love (Cain), teach that sin does not matter (Balaam), and incite insubordination in the church against God’s design (Korah) 11
a) Oracle of Woe:23 Jude pronounces an oracle Woe upon the false teachers 11:a
b) Cain: The reason Jude pronounces a woe upon the false teachers is because they have gone in the way of Cain24 11b
2) Interpretation/Application From The OT Types of Judgment: Through several metaphors Jude applies the destructive fate of the OT false teachers to the present false teachers who threaten the safety of the church, feed themselves, deceive, corrupt, and misguide resulting in their destruction 12-13
a) Hidden Reefs: Jude warns that as the church celebrates their central worship of fellowship-meals (along with the Eucharist--the “love feast”), they run the risk of becoming shipwrecked if they come too close to the false teachers among them because they have no fear of God and care for themselves29 (Cain?) 12a
b) Four Metaphors from Nature:30 The imagery of clouds, trees, waves, and stars Jude warns his readers that the false teachers are deceptive, corrupting, and misguiding resulting in their certain judgment 12b-13
(1) Clouds and Trees: Jude warns his readers that the false teachers are like clouds without water and autumn trees without fruit in that they appear to be valuable (in their teaching?), but they are of no benefit to the church and will thus be judged just as the fruitless tree is uprooted (Balaam?) 12b
(2) Waves: Jude warns his readers that the false teachers are like the turbulent sea which throws up its debris on the shore31 in that the teachers have a harmful, corrupting effect upon those who come under their influence (Balaam?) 13a
(3) Stars: Jude warns his readers that the false teachers are like "stars" which go astray32 from their ordained courses33 and thus mislead men, who look to them for guidance, away from God's design resulting in judgment (Korah?)
2. Eschatological--Prophecy and Interpretation: Through the prophecy of Enoch and the warnings given by the apostles, Jude identifies the false teachers as those who are ungodly and will be judged by the Lord at His return 14-19
a. The Prophecy of Enoch and Interpretation: Jude affirms through the prophecy of Enoch that the Lord will come with an eschatological judgment upon all those who do evil and speak heard-hearted words against the Lord as the present false teachers do through their grumbling which finds fault, their turning to follow their own desires, and their arrogant affirming of their own authority so as to gain favor from others whose sins they overlook 14-16
1) The Prophecy of Enoch: Jude affirms through a citation of 1 Enoch 1:9 that the Lord is coming with His angels for an eschatological judgment upon false teachers for their ungodly works and words toward Him 14-15
b) Quotation: Jude quotes 1 Enoch 1:9 affirming that the Lord will come with his angels for a future judgment against the ungodly for their evil works and words against Him 14b-15
(1) The Lord will come at a future time with his many angels36 14b
(2) The Lord will come to execute judgment upon all the ungodly for their works and hard-hearted words spoken against him 15
2) Application/Interpretation From the Prophecy of Enoch:37 Jude takes up the sense of “hard-hearted” words which the false teachers express against God to demonstrate that his opponents due such things by grumbling against the authority of God’s will and then following their own desires, and by affirming their own moral authority in a way which shows favoritism to those from whom they wish to gain favor 16
a) The false teachers express “heard-hearted words” against the Lord as they grumble (γογγυσταί) and are discontented like the nation Israel against the authority of God’s will38 16a,b
b) The false teachers express “hard-heartedness” against the Lord following their own desires rather than God’s design 16c
c) The false teachers express “hard-hearted words” against the Lord through speaking arrogantly against the Lord (as they affirm their own moral authority)39 16d
d) The false teachers express “hard-hearted words” against the Lord by showing partiality (in their teaching) in order to gain favor from certain persons40 16e
b. The Prophecy of the Apostles and Interpretation: In accordance with the apostolic teaching that scoffers would arise in the last time who would follow their own desires for ungodliness Jude identifies his opponents as such because they cause factions in the body but are those who live purely on a natural realm being devoid of the Spirit 17-19
1) The Prophecy of the Apostles: Jude urges his dear readers to remember the sayings of the apostles who warned that in the last time there would be scoffers who will follow after their own desires for ungodliness 17-18
b) Warning: The apostolic warning was that in the last time there will be scoffers who will follow after their own desires for ungodliness44 18
2) Application/Interpretation from the Prophecy of the Apostles: In accordance with the apostles warning Jude identifies the scoffers as being those who create factions within the body over their “spiritual teaching,” but who live from a natural perspective because they do not have the Spirit of God 19
a) Jude identifies the scoffers whom the apostles warned of as being those who create divisions or schisms within the body45 19a
b) Jude identifies the scoffers whom the apostles warned of as being those who are natural46 (in their orientation) and do not possess the Spirit 19b-c
III. The Appeal Again:47 Jude urges his readers again to contend for the faith by strengthening themselves against the influence of the false teachers and by reaching out to those who are being influenced by their contaminating instruction 20-23
A. Strengthen Yourselves:48 Jude urges his readers to strengthen themselves against the false teachers by building themselves up, praying in the Holy Spirit, keeping their love for God, and orienting their lives toward Jesus’ return for them 19-21
2. Jude urges his readers to pray in the Holy Spirit51 19b
3. Jude urges his readers to keep themselves in their love for God52 20a
B. Help Others: Jude urges his readers to help those in the Body by saving those who will respond to their rebuke from the judgment which would otherwise come upon them, and mercifully reaching to those who reject their rebuke, all the wile hating their sin 22-23
1. Jude urges his readers to have mercy on some who are doubting 22
2. Jude urges his readers to save church members among them as though you were snatching them out of the fire of destruction55 23a
IV. Benediction: Jude prays for his readers that God would preserve them from spiritual disaster and bring them to their future destiny which He intends for them, whereupon he dedicates his readers to their great God 24-25
A. Prayer:58 Jude prays that God would preserve his readers for the spiritual disaster which is before them (“keep you from stumbling”),59 and that He would bring them to the future destiny that He intends for them (“make you to stand in the presence of His glory blameless with great joy)60 24
B. Doxology: Jude dedicates his readers to their great God who is their Saviour through Jesus Christ their Lord, and to whom belongs glory majesty, dominion and authority before all time, now and forever--Amen 25
1 This is Jude the brother of James who leads the church in Jerusalem, and the half brother of John. Support for this identification may be found in this writer’s introduction to the book.
2 The term is πληθυνθείη.
3 Mercy, grace, and peace are important qualities which are needed for people facing the attacks and deception of false teachers.
4 This may have been common to Jude and his readers, and also thus, common to Jew and Gentile. Jude will not address this topic, but the defense of this topic against false teachers.
5 This would have been accomplished through apostolic teaching.
6 For similar NT warnings see Mark 13:22; Matthew 7:15; Acts 20:29-30; 1 Timothy 4:1ff; 2 Timothy 3:1ff; 2 Peter 2:2-3.
7 The term, προγεγραμμένοι, more literally means, “foretold in writing.” While this may refer to Peter’s having already marked them down for this judgment (if Jude is dependent upon 2 Peter 2:3), it may also be an illusion to the book of 1 Enoch as in verses 14-15, or Jude may simply have in view the OT and extra-canonical concepts of judgment which will come upon evil men.
8 This is an issue that Paul was constantly concerned about (Galatians 5; Romans 6).
9 Perhaps this denial is not only through proclamations against Christ (2 Pet. 2:1), but through their life-styles too (cf. Titus 1:16).
It is possible that “Master” ( δεσπότην ) is a reference to the Father (see Green, Jude, p. 162; 1 John 2:22).
10 These three types identify the false teachers as sinners in general.
11 These historical events are typological of future eschatological judgment (Israel, Angels, Sodom).
12 It is difficult to translate εἰδότας ὑμᾶς πάντα. Perhaps the best is, “(though once) you knew all things.”
While the discussion about Egypt and Sodom could be assumed from a knowledge of Biblical history, Jude’s reference to the judgment of angels could not come through this realm. Therefore Green may be correct when he states, “he appears to refer to some apostolic tradition denouncing false teachers in which they, like the recipients of 2 Peter, had been instructed. Such tracts may even have been called hypomnemata, ‘reminders’” (Jude, p. 163).
13 This example may be moved out of chronological order with the following two in order to emphasize that this can occur with God’s people who become apostate.
14 See Numbers 14:2f; 32:10-13; cf. 11:4-34; 26:63-65.
The order here of “first” ( α῞παξ ) and “second” ( δεύτερον ) strongly suggests that these people whom the Lord judged were among those who were redeemed from Israel. Therefore, the suggestion is that the false teachers were also once orthodox Christians who then went willfully astray into similar heresy as Israel with unbelief that led to idolatry and immorality (cf. 1 Cor. 10:1-11; Heb. 3:12-19; 4:6,11; Green, Jude, p. 164; Bauckham, Jude, pp. 49-50).
15 Green notes well the lex talionis (the law that the punishment fits the crime) when he writes, “Jude reinforces his lesson with a touch of savage irony. The evil angels had been too arrogant to keep their position--so God kept them in punishment” (Jude, p. 166; See also Bauckham, Jude, p. 53; the Greek is τηρήσαντας...τετήρηκεν).
16 It is difficult to specifically identify Jude’s reference in this statement. It may be alluding to one of the following, or to all of the following:
(1) The original fall of angels form their exalted positions (cf. Deut. 32:8; Isa. 15:12; 24:21ff; Rev. 12:3-4,9)
(2) Allusions to 1 Enoch 6--19; esp. 10:5,6,15,16; 12:4; 16:1; 22:4,10,11; 97:5; 103:8
(3) An historical reference to the demonized despots in Genesis 6:1-4 (cf. 1 Enoch 7; 9:8; 10:11; 12:4).
These were all expressions of pride and arrogance.
17 This judgment is spoken of in 1 Enoch
18 This judgment was the most graphic in the OT, and its reverberations can be felt throughout the Scriptures (cf. Dt. 29:23; 32:32; Isa. 1:9; 3:9; 13:19; Jer. 23:14; 49:18; 50:40; Lam. 4:6; Ezk. 16:46ff; Hos. 11:8; Amos 4:11; Zeph. 2:9; Matt. 10:15; 11:24; 25:41; Mk. 6:11; Lk. 10:12; 17:29; 2 Pet. 2:6; Rev. 11:8; 20:10; See also 1 Enoch 67:4ff).
19 This may have an ultimate sense of Jesus Christ (Green, Jude, p. 168).
20 These final three participles are tied to the OT events which preceded them. Bauckham writes, “Like the Watchers [angels] and the Sodomites, the false teachers indulge in sexual immorality. Like all three types, they reject the Lord’s authority by repudiating his commandments, and like the Sodomites [Gen. 19:5] they insult the angels. The last accusation probably means that they justify their transgression of the Law by denigrating the angels as its authors and guardians. Thus all three sins are aspects of their antinomianism” (Jude, p. 64; cf. Green, Jude, p. 169, n. 1).
21 See Bauckham for a thorough discussion of the extra-Biblical material surrounding this allusion (Jude, pp. 65-76).
22 Whereas the first three OT types identified the false teachers as sinners in general (5-7), these types identify them as false teachers (Bauckham, Jude, 79).
23 This is a prophetic pronouncement of judgment on sinners (see Bauckham, Jude, pp. 77-79).
24 Cain was not only the first murderer, but by nature of his position in history (Gen. 4:1-17), his sin became archetypal for others who would follow in rebellion after him (4:19-24; See Bauckham for extra-biblical sources which also support this pattern [Jude, pp. 77-78], but these are not needed since Genesis itself unfolds the pattern from Cain; the extra-biblical material is confirming). Therefore, Cain is typologically speaking a false teacher. The similar instruction of the false teachers is that they care nothing for their brothers, only for themselves!
25 The term for “error” is πλάνη having the sense of erroneously misleading Israel. This will be picked up upon by Jude in verse 13 as he describes the “misleading stars” (cf. Green, Jude, p. 172, n. 2; Bauckham, pp. 79, 90).
26 See Numbers 22-24. Although Bauckham argues that Jude’s point depends on extra-biblical literature [Jude, pp. 81-84], Balaam can be seen to be swayed by money in the Mosaic account of Numbers 22:21-35!
Also it was Balaam’s error that led the nations Israel into immorality and idolatry at Baal-peor (cf. Numbers 31:16 with 25:1-6). Green suggests, “Not doubt he told the Israelites, whom he had three times found himself unable to curse, that they were so firmly ensconced in the favour of the Almighty that nothing could affect their standing with Him. They could sin with impunity. Thus he led them into the error of fornication and denial of Yahweh’s sovereign claims through submission to other, inferior deities” (Jude, p. 172).
27 Of the three examples, judgment is not mentioned until Korah since as Bauckham writes, “it is the spectacular fate of Korah which illustrates most effectively the doom which awaits Jude’s opponents” (Jude, p. 91).
28 Korah, a great-grandson of Levi and younger contemporary of Moses led a revolt against the divinely established authority of Moses and Aaron as leaders in the church (Numbers 16). This kind of insubordination was known in the early church (cf. Titus 1:10-11; 3:10-11; 1 Tim. 1:20; 2 Tim. 3:1-9; 2 Jn. 9-10).
29 More literally they “shepherd themselves” with the idea of feeding themselves (cf. Ezk. 34:8).
30 As Bauckham writes, “The four metaphors which follow are drawn from nature, one from each region of the universe (air, earth, water, heavens) and each an example of nature failing to follow the laws ordained for her” (Jude, p. 92).
31 See Isaiah 57:20.
32 The term for “wandering”, πλανῆται, is a verbal tie to the three OT types above. The false teachers are like “misleading stars” just as Balaam mislead Israel (see verse 11 and πλάνῃ ).
33 Planets, comets, and meteors did this in the old astrological myths and were considered to represent “men who strayed from God and abandoned his laws” (see Bauckham, Jude, p. 89-90,92).
34 This is inclusive of Adam: (1) Adam (2) Seth, (3) Enosh, (4) Kenan, (5) Mahalalel, (6) Jared, (7) Enoch [Genesis 5:1-24].
The seventh generation emphasizes special status giving authority to his prophecy.
35 Jude introduces what he is about to say with a formal introduction for a citation (cf. Acts 2:16). He is going to refer to 1 Enoch 1:10 and apply this to the false teachers of his day ( τούτοις).
1 Enoch 1:9 reads, “Behold, he will arrive with ten million of the holy ones in order to execute judgment upon all. He will destroy the wicked ones and censure all flesh on account of everything that they have done, that which the sinners and the wicked ones committed against him” (James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:14-15).
Jude seems to be using this “extra-canonical” work, but is not regarding all of it as Scripture (much as Paul did in Acts 17:28). For a further discussion of what is occurring hermeneutically see the introduction to this book.
See Bauckham for a discussion of the nature of the Jude quotation (Jude, pp. 94-96).
36 Even in the NT this is descriptive of the return of the Lord in judgment (Matt. 25:31; 2 Thess. 1:7; cf. Dan. 7:13; Rev. 19:11-16).
37 Jude will emphasize the “hard-hearted words” which the false teachers speak against God in his application of the verse from 1 Enoch 1:9.
38 Bauckham insightfully writes, “Jude means that the false teachers, like Israel in the wilderness, dispute the authority of God (or Christ). Instead of accepting his will for them, they resist it and complain about it (cf. Num 14:2-3). Jude is again thinking of their antinomianism. No doubt the false teachers said that no good came of keeping the commandments of the Law and regarded them as a burdensome restriction of human freedom” (Jude, p. 98). See also Jude 5,11.
39 See also Daniel 7:8,20; 11:36, and Revelation 13:5.
40 They may have been showing partiality in their specific teaching so as to pervert the Law for the sake of a bribe, or to overlook sin for the sake of someone with whom he finds favor (see Malachi 2:9; Micah 3:11). As Bauckham says, “The same teaching in which they utter ‘big words’ against God is intended to please their patrons because it offers them freedom from moral restraint” (Jude, p. 100).
41 This term is picked up from verse 3 (ἀγαπητοί).
42 This term, μνήσθατε, is reminiscent of verse 5 where Jude urges his readers to remember (῾Υπομνῆσαι). As Bauckham says, “This formal transition indicates the transition from OT types and prophecies (vv 5-16) to an apostolic prophecy (vv 17-19) [Jude, p. 102].
43 The term is τῶν ῥημάτων. This may have reference either to a document which the Apostles wrote and is now only contained in 2 Peter 3:3 and Jude, or to instruction which was included in early apostolic teaching (as in Acts 20) and which is only summarized here.
44 The term for “ungodliness” ( ἀσεβειῶν) is the verbal clue which ties this apostolic warning with the former prophecy from 1 Enoch (see Jude 15 where ἀσεβεῖς is employed twice).
45 Bauckham writes, “Jude cannot mean that they have gone into complete schism, but that they gather their own faction within the church, like Korah (see on v 11). The tendency of their teaching is divisive because it creates an élisist group who regard themselves as those who truly posses the Spirit (see below) [Jude, p. 105].
46 Or “fleshly” ( ψυχικοί ) as in 1 Corinthians 2:14 (see also 1 Cor. 15:44).
47 After explaining the nature of the false teachers, Jude picks up once again his exhortation presented in verse three, “contend earnestly for the faith.” This unit is the climax of his letter as he develops that exhortation. Bauckham develops many of the verbal links between these verse and verse 1-3 (Jude, p. 111).
48 Jude strings together two participles, an imperative, and a participle in these two verses (ἐποικοδομοῦντες, προσευχόμενοι, τρήσατε, προσδεχόμενοι). This mixture of imperatives and participles together in paraenetic sections of the NT suggests that the imperatives should have an imperatival sense. Bauckham suggests that, “they reflect a usage found in rabbinic Hebrew where the participle can be used in rules and codes of conduct, though not in direct commands” (Jude, p. 112).
The last three exhortations emphasize the Trinity (Spirit, Father, Son), and the first, second, and last exhortations emphasize “faith, love and hope”.
49 Whereas the false teachers were destroying and tearing down the church, Jude urges his readers to build themselves up (see 1 Cor. 3:9-15; 2 Cor. 6:16; Eph. 2:19-22; 1 Pet. 2:5, etc).
50 This is the gospel spoken of in verse 3 above. This is “your” ( ὑμῶν ) faith as opposed to that of the false teachers.
51 This is in contrast to the false teachers who are “devoid of the Spirit” (v. 19).
52 I am interpreting the genative ( ἀγάπῃ θεοῦ ) as objective rather than subjective since this is in a paraenetic section (see also John 15:9-10 where this is done through obeying God’s commands; cf. 1 Jn. 4:16 with Jude 1).
53 Or orient their entire lives towards that future day.
54 “Mercy” ( ε῎λεος) probably describes the eschatological hope of ultimate salvation which believers will mercifully receive (Matt. 5:7; 2 Tim. 1:18). Unlike the false teachers, believers will mercifully receive life at the Lord’s return.
55 This is probably an illusion to Zechariah 3:1-5 (cf. Jude 9; also Amos 4:11). Jude is urging his readers exhort those in the church who are being influenced by the false teachers, and may be indulging in immorality to stop this (cf. Matt. 18:15-17; Luke 17:3; 1 Cor. 5; Gal. 6:1; 2 Thess. 3:5; 1 Tim. 5:20; Titus 3:10; Jas. 5:19-20)
56 Perhaps they will repent.
57 The image is again probably from Zechariah 3:3-4. The garment was the one worn closest to the skin which could be contaminated by body waists (human excrement). Just as cloths may be soiled by the body, so are people by the false teachers. While maintaining mercy on these people, Jude’s readers are to continue to hate sin and all that is associated with it.
58 As Bauckham correctly writes, “Having in the previous section stressed his readers’ responsibilities, Jude now assures them of the divine support and protection without which all their efforts will be fruitless” (Jude, p. 124).
59 See Psalms 38:16; 56:13; 66:9; 73:2; 91:12; 94; 116:8; 121:3.
60 See 1 Thessalonians 3:13; Colossians 1:22; Ephesians 1:4; 5:27 which similar sacrificial metaphors are expressed to describe the presentation of Christians as sacrificial victims without blemish (cf. Lev. 1:3; 3:1; Heb. 9:14; 1 Pet. 1:19).
Related Topics: Introductions, Arguments, Outlines