The passage in Proverbs is quoted in Hebrews chapter 12, so I think I would begin my study there, which should encompass the entire book of Hebrews. I have written a number of messages on the subject of suffering, and I’ll give you the URL addresses for these, if you care to look at any or all of them.
We’re working on the completion of a series on the subject of suffering, which we hope to have available soon. I’m sure that you will find other studies on the BSF Website that will be of help. Hope this gives you some encouragement,